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Plasma, Volume 6, Issue 2 (June 2023) – 11 articles

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17 pages, 6617 KiB  
Article
Tailoring Black TiO2 Thin Films: Insights from Hollow Cathode Hydrogen Plasma Treatment Duration
by Armstrong Godoy-Junior, André Pereira, Barbara Damasceno, Isabela Horta, Marcilene Gomes, Douglas Leite, Walter Miyakawa, Maurício Baldan, Marcos Massi, Rodrigo Pessoa and Argemiro da Silva Sobrinho
Plasma 2023, 6(2), 362-378; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma6020025 - 01 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1331
Abstract
In this study, we report the use of a radiofrequency plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (RF-CVD) system with a hollow cathode geometry to hydrogenate anatase TiO2 thin films. The goal was to create black TiO2 films with improved light absorption capabilities. The [...] Read more.
In this study, we report the use of a radiofrequency plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (RF-CVD) system with a hollow cathode geometry to hydrogenate anatase TiO2 thin films. The goal was to create black TiO2 films with improved light absorption capabilities. The initial TiO2 was developed through magnetron sputtering, and this study specifically investigated the impact of hollow cathode hydrogen plasma (HCHP) treatment duration on the crucial characteristics of the resulting black TiO2 films. The HCHP treatment effectively created in-bandgap states in the TiO2 structure, leading to enhanced light absorption and improved conductivity. Morphological analysis showed a 24% surface area increase after 15 min of treatment. Wettability and surface energy results displayed nonlinear behavior, highlighting the influence of morphology on hydrophilicity improvement. The anatase TiO2 phase remained consistent, as confirmed by diffractograms. Raman analysis revealed structural alterations and induced lattice defects. Treated samples exhibited outstanding photodegradation performance, removing over 45% of methylene blue dye compared to ~25% by the pristine TiO2 film. The study emphasized the significant impact of 15-min hydrogenation on the HCHP treatment. The research provided valuable insights into the role of hydrogenation time using the HCHP treatment route on anatase TiO2 thin films and demonstrated the potential of the produced black TiO2 thin films for photocatalytic applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Plasma Sciences 2023)
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17 pages, 1824 KiB  
Article
A Mechanism for Large-Amplitude Parallel Electrostatic Waves Observed at the Magnetopause
by Gurbax Singh Lakhina, Satyavir Singh, Thekkeyil Sreeraj, Selvaraj Devanandhan and Rajith Rubia
Plasma 2023, 6(2), 345-361; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma6020024 - 01 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1543
Abstract
Large-amplitude electrostatic waves propagating parallel to the background magnetic field have been observed at the Earth’s magnetopause by the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft. These waves are observed in the region where there is an intermixing of magnetosheath and magnetospheric plasmas. The plasma in [...] Read more.
Large-amplitude electrostatic waves propagating parallel to the background magnetic field have been observed at the Earth’s magnetopause by the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft. These waves are observed in the region where there is an intermixing of magnetosheath and magnetospheric plasmas. The plasma in the intermixing region is modeled as a five-component plasma consisting of three types of electrons, namely, two counterstreaming hot electron beams and cold electrons, and two types of ions, namely, cold background protons and a hot proton beam. Sagdeev pseudo-potential technique is used to study the parallel propagating nonlinear electrostatic solitary structures. The model predicts four types of modes, namely, slow ion-acoustic mode, fast ion-acoustic mode, slow electron-acoustic mode and fast electron-acoustic modes. Except the fast ion-acoustic mode, all other modes support solitons. Whereas slow ion-acoustic solitons have positive potentials, both slow and fast electron-acoustic solitons have negative potentials. For the case of 4% cold electron density, the slow ion-acoustic solitons have electric field ∼(40–120) mV m1. The fast Fourier transforms (FFT) of slow ion-acoustic solitons produce broadband frequency spectra having peaks between ∼100 Hz to 1000 Hz. These theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the observations. The slow and fast electron-acoustic solitons could be relevant in explaining the low-intensity high (>1 kHz) frequency waves which are also observed at the same time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Plasma Sciences 2023)
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11 pages, 520 KiB  
Article
What Machine Learning Can and Cannot Do for Inertial Confinement Fusion
by Baolian Cheng and Paul A. Bradley
Plasma 2023, 6(2), 334-344; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma6020023 - 01 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1618
Abstract
Machine learning methodologies have played remarkable roles in solving complex systems with large data, well-defined input–output pairs, and clearly definable goals and metrics. The methodologies are effective in image analysis, classification, and systems without long chains of logic. Recently, machine-learning methodologies have been [...] Read more.
Machine learning methodologies have played remarkable roles in solving complex systems with large data, well-defined input–output pairs, and clearly definable goals and metrics. The methodologies are effective in image analysis, classification, and systems without long chains of logic. Recently, machine-learning methodologies have been widely applied to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules and the design optimization of OMEGA (Omega Laser Facility) capsule implosion and NIF (National Ignition Facility) ignition capsules, leading to significant progress. As machine learning is being increasingly applied, concerns arise regarding its capabilities and limitations in the context of ICF. ICF is a complicated physical system that relies on physics knowledge and human judgment to guide machine learning. Additionally, the experimental database for ICF ignition is not large enough to provide credible training data. Most researchers in the field of ICF use simulations, or a mix of simulations and experimental results, instead of real data to train machine learning models and related tools. They then use the trained learning model to predict future events. This methodology can be successful, subject to a careful choice of data and simulations. However, because of the extreme sensitivity of the neutron yield to the input implosion parameters, physics-guided machine learning for ICF is extremely important and necessary, especially when the database is small, the uncertain-domain knowledge is large, and the physical capabilities of the learning models are still being developed. In this work, we identify problems in ICF that are suitable for machine learning and circumstances where machine learning is less likely to be successful. This study investigates the applications of machine learning and highlights fundamental research challenges and directions associated with machine learning in ICF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Plasma Sciences 2023)
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12 pages, 4194 KiB  
Article
Plasma Treatment of Polystyrene Films—Effect on Wettability and Surface Interactions with Au Nanoparticles
by Mohammad Islam, Zineb Matouk, Nadir Ouldhamadouche, Jean-Jacques Pireaux and Amine Achour
Plasma 2023, 6(2), 322-333; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma6020022 - 29 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1680
Abstract
Polystyrene (PS)/Gold (Au) is used for a wide range of applications, including composite nanofibers, catalysis, organic memory devices, and biosensing. In this work, PS films were deposited on silicon substrates via a spin coating technique followed by treatment with argon (Ar) plasma admixed [...] Read more.
Polystyrene (PS)/Gold (Au) is used for a wide range of applications, including composite nanofibers, catalysis, organic memory devices, and biosensing. In this work, PS films were deposited on silicon substrates via a spin coating technique followed by treatment with argon (Ar) plasma admixed with ammonia (NH3), oxygen (O2), or tetrafluoroethane (C2H2F4). X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis revealed modified surface chemistry for Ar/O2, Ar/NH3, or Ar/C2H2F4 plasma treatment through the incorporation of oxygen, nitrogen, or fluorine groups, respectively. Size-controlled magnetron sputter deposition of Au nanoparticles (NP) onto these plasma-treated PS films was investigated via XPS and AFM techniques. The interaction of the Au NPs, as probed from the XPS and AFM measurements, is discussed by referring to changes in surface chemistry and morphology of the PS after plasma treatment. The results demonstrate the effect of surface chemistry on the interaction of Au NPs with polymer support having different surface functionalities. The XPS results show that significant oxygen surface incorporation resulted from oxygen-containing species in the plasma itself. The surface concentration of O increased from 0.4% for the pristine PS to 4.5 at%, 35.4 at%, and 45.6 at% for the Ar/C2H4F4, Ar/NH3, and Ar/O2, respectively. The water contact angle (WCA) values were noticed to decrease from 98° for the untreated PS to 95°, 37°, and 15° for Ar/C2H2F4, Ar/NH3, and Ar/O2 plasma-modified PS samples, respectively. AFM results demonstrate that surface treatment was also accompanied by surface morphology change. Small Au islands are well dispersed and cover the surface, thus forming a homogeneous, isotropic structure. The reported results are important for exploiting Au NPs use in catalysis and sensing applications. Full article
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14 pages, 12225 KiB  
Article
EUV/VUV Spectroscopy for the Study of Carbon Impurity Transport in Hydrogen and Deuterium Plasmas in the Edge Stochastic Magnetic Field Layer of Large Helical Device
by Tetsutarou Oishi, Shigeru Morita, Masahiro Kobayashi, Gakushi Kawamura, Yasuko Kawamoto, Tomoko Kawate, Suguru Masuzaki, Chihiro Suzuki and Motoshi Goto
Plasma 2023, 6(2), 308-321; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma6020021 - 12 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1202
Abstract
The ergodic layer in the Large Helical Device (LHD) consists of stochastic magnetic fields exhibiting a three-dimensional structure that is intrinsically formed by helical coils. Spectroscopic diagnostics was employed in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) wavelength ranges to investigate emission [...] Read more.
The ergodic layer in the Large Helical Device (LHD) consists of stochastic magnetic fields exhibiting a three-dimensional structure that is intrinsically formed by helical coils. Spectroscopic diagnostics was employed in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) wavelength ranges to investigate emission lines of carbon impurities in both hydrogen (H) and deuterium (D) plasmas, aiming to elucidate the impact of distinct bulk ions on impurity generation and transport in the edge plasmas of the LHD. The emission intensity of carbon CIII, CIV, CV, and CVI lines is significantly higher in the D plasma compared to the H plasma, indicating a greater sputtering rate of carbon materials in the D plasma, resulting in a higher quantity of carbon impurities originating from the divertor plates. A Doppler profile measurement of the second order of CIV line emission (1548.20 × 2 Å) was attempted using a 3 m normal-incidence VUV spectrometer in the edge plasma at a horizontally elongated plasma position. The flow velocity reaches its maximum value close to the outermost region of the ergodic layer, and the observed flow direction aligns with the friction force in the parallel momentum balance. The flow velocity increases with the electron density in H plasmas, suggesting that the friction force becomes more dominant in the force balance at higher density regimes. This leads to an increase in the impurity flow, which can contribute to the impurity screening. In contrast, the flow velocity in the D plasma is smaller than that in the H plasma. The difference in flow values between D and H plasmas, when the friction force term dominates in the momentum balance, could be attributed to the mass dependence of the thermal velocity of the bulk ions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Plasma Sciences 2023)
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31 pages, 7359 KiB  
Review
Fundamentals and Applications of Nonthermal Plasma Fluid Flows: A Review
by Masaaki Okubo
Plasma 2023, 6(2), 277-307; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma6020020 - 10 May 2023
Viewed by 1866
Abstract
A review is presented to integrate fluid engineering, heat transfer engineering, and plasma engineering treated in the fields of mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, and electrical engineering. A basic equation system for plasma heat transfer fluids is introduced, and its characteristics are explained. In [...] Read more.
A review is presented to integrate fluid engineering, heat transfer engineering, and plasma engineering treated in the fields of mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, and electrical engineering. A basic equation system for plasma heat transfer fluids is introduced, and its characteristics are explained. In such reviews, generally, the gap between fundamentals and application is large. Therefore, the author attempts to explain the contents from the standpoint of application. The derivation of formulas and basic equations are presented with examples of application to plasmas. Furthermore, the heat transfer mechanisms of equilibrium and nonequilibrium plasmas are explained with reference to the basic equation system and concrete examples of analyses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Plasma Sciences)
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27 pages, 6355 KiB  
Article
From Repeatability to Self-Organization of Guided Streamers Propagating in a Jet of Cold Plasma
by Henri Decauchy and Thierry Dufour
Plasma 2023, 6(2), 250-276; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma6020019 - 05 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1894
Abstract
In this work, a jet of cold plasma is generated in a device supplied in helium and powered with a high-voltage nanopulse power supply, hence generating guided streamers. We focus on the interaction between these guided streamers and two targets placed in a [...] Read more.
In this work, a jet of cold plasma is generated in a device supplied in helium and powered with a high-voltage nanopulse power supply, hence generating guided streamers. We focus on the interaction between these guided streamers and two targets placed in a series: a metal mesh target (MM) at floating potential followed by a metal plate target (MP) grounded by a 1500 Ω resistor. We demonstrate that such an experimental setup allows to shift from a physics of streamer repeatability to a physics of streamer self-organization, i.e., from the repetition of guided streamers that exhibit fixed spatiotemporal constants to the emergence of self-organized guided streamers, each of which is generated on the rising edge of a high-voltage pulse. Up to five positive guided streamers can be self-organized one after the other, all distinct in space and time. While self-organization occurs in the capillary and up to the MM target, we also demonstrate the existence of transient emissive phenomena in the inter-target region, especially a filamentary discharge whose generation is directly correlated with complexity order Ω. The mechanisms of the self-organized guided streamers are deciphered by correlating their optical and electrical properties measured by fast ICCD camera and current-voltage probes, respectively. For the sake of clarity, special attention is paid to the case where three self-organized guided streamers (α, β and γ) propagate at vα = 75.7 km·s–1, vβ = 66.5 km·s–1 and vγ = 58.2 km·s–1), before being accelerated in the vicinity of the MM target. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Plasma Sciences 2023)
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15 pages, 6388 KiB  
Article
Anodization Time Effect on Silver Particles Deposition on Anodic Oxide Coating over Al Produced by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation
by Francisco Trivinho-Strixino, Adriana O. Delgado-Silva, Janaina S. Santos, Andressa Rodrigues, Giovanni P. Mambrini and Mariana S. Sikora
Plasma 2023, 6(2), 235-249; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma6020018 - 23 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1159
Abstract
In this study, 6061 Al alloy was galvanostatically anodized under the Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) condition. A factorial design of 22 was carried out using two variables (anodization time and presence of silver in the electrolyte) on two levels, i.e., 20 and [...] Read more.
In this study, 6061 Al alloy was galvanostatically anodized under the Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) condition. A factorial design of 22 was carried out using two variables (anodization time and presence of silver in the electrolyte) on two levels, i.e., 20 and 60 min of anodization and the absence/presence of silver ions in the electrolyte. The Al anodization was performed in sodium silicate electrolyte, applying a constant current density of 20 mA cm2. The oxide characterization was performed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), surface roughness analysis (RMS), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), Rutherford Backscattered Spectroscopy (RBS), and Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction (GIXRD). The SEM micrographs revealed an irregular porous structure with cracks on the oxide surface composed of a thin crystalline layer of γ-Al2O3 over the Al substrate. From EDS and RBS analysis, it was possible to identify the elements Al, O, Si, Ag, and Na, demonstrating that a shorter anodization time (20 min) led to a significant amount of silver deposits on the outer layer of the oxide coating, mainly deposited in the surroundings of the pores. Conversely, the silver content on the PEO film anodized for 60 min was meager. These results demonstrated that the anodization time was the critical control variable for the amount of silver deposited over the oxide film. The shorter the anodizing time, the higher the silver content on the PEO coating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Plasma Sciences)
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10 pages, 3201 KiB  
Article
Combinatorial Synthesis of AlTiN Thin Films
by Ferrine Gianne G. Reyes, Jason P. Licerio, Aian B. Ontoria and Magdaleno R. Vasquez, Jr.
Plasma 2023, 6(2), 225-234; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma6020017 - 03 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1380
Abstract
Nitrides of aluminum (Al) and titanium (Ti) mixtures have long been studied and used as commercial coatings because of their high hardness and high oxidation resistance due to the formation of an alumina layer on the coating surface. To fully understand the contribution [...] Read more.
Nitrides of aluminum (Al) and titanium (Ti) mixtures have long been studied and used as commercial coatings because of their high hardness and high oxidation resistance due to the formation of an alumina layer on the coating surface. To fully understand the contribution of Al and Ti to the properties of the film, a combinatorial deposition approach was employed using half-disk targets. Film growth was carried out using a magnetron sputtering system powered by a 13.56 MHz radio frequency power supply with varying argon (Ar) and nitrogen (N2) gas ratios. Depending on the location of the substrate relative to the target, atomic percent gradients of 0.60–0.70 Al and 0.30–0.40 Ti across the substrate surface were obtained from energy dispersive X-ray spectral analysis. X-ray diffraction peaks at 43.59°, 74.71° (face-centered cubic), and 50.60° (wurtzite) confirmed the presence of aluminum titanium nitride (AlTiN) mixtures, with an increasing amount of wurtzite phase at higher Al concentrations. For all samples, cauliflower-like nanograins were obtained and samples of the 80:20 Ar:N2 gas pressure ratio showed the smallest grain size among the three gas ratio combinations. The 80:20 Ar:N2 films revealed a relatively high hardness compared to the other gas ratios. All thin films exhibited good adhesion to 304 stainless steel substrates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Plasma Sciences)
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13 pages, 23963 KiB  
Article
Characteristics of Double-Layer, Large-Flow Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Source for Toluene Decomposition
by Mao Xu, Yohei Fukuyama, Kazuki Nakai, Zhizhi Liu, Yuki Sumiya and Akitoshi Okino
Plasma 2023, 6(2), 212-224; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma6020016 - 03 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1958
Abstract
The direct decomposition of toluene-containing humidified air at large flow rates was studied in two types of reactors with dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) features in ambient conditions. A scalable large-flow DBD reactor (single-layer reactor) was designed to verify the feasibility of large-flow plasma [...] Read more.
The direct decomposition of toluene-containing humidified air at large flow rates was studied in two types of reactors with dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) features in ambient conditions. A scalable large-flow DBD reactor (single-layer reactor) was designed to verify the feasibility of large-flow plasma generation and evaluate its decomposition characteristics with toluene-containing humidified air, which have not been investigated. In addition, another large-flow DBD reactor with a multilayer structure (two-layer reactor) was developed as an upscale version of the single-layer reactor, and the scalability and superiority of the features of the multilayer structure were validated by comparing the decomposition characteristics of the two reactors. Consequently, the large-flow DBD reactor showed similar decomposition characteristics to those of the small-flow DBD reactor regarding applied voltage, flow velocity, flow rate, and discharge length, thus justifying the feasibility of large-flow plasma generation. Additionally, the two-layer reactor is more effective than the single-layer reactor, suggesting multilayer configuration is a viable scheme for further upscaled DBD systems. A high decomposition rate of 59.5% was achieved at the considerably large flow rate of 110 L/min. The results provide fundamental data and present guidelines for the implementation of the DBD plasma-based system as a solution for volatile organic compound abatement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Plasma Sciences 2023)
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14 pages, 7428 KiB  
Article
Geometrical Analysis of the Stagnation Zone in Laterally Colliding Plasmas: Effects of Plasma Plume Separation and Ablating Target Material
by Haider M. Al-Juboori and Tom McCormack
Plasma 2023, 6(2), 198-211; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma6020015 - 30 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1256
Abstract
The influence of an ablating target’s atomic mass on the development and growth of the interaction zone in laterally colliding plasmas has been investigated. As diagnostic tools, fast imaging and optical emission techniques were used to evaluate the characteristics of the seed plasma [...] Read more.
The influence of an ablating target’s atomic mass on the development and growth of the interaction zone in laterally colliding plasmas has been investigated. As diagnostic tools, fast imaging and optical emission techniques were used to evaluate the characteristics of the seed plasma as well as the interaction zone created by different target materials (i.e., aluminum and silicon). The current findings show that the dynamical, spectral, and geometrical properties of the generated interaction zone are affected by the features of the ablated species and the geographical separation of the interacting plumes. The interaction of aluminum plume species results in a sharper, more intense, and more directed stagnation zone than that reported for silicon targets using a 450 nm filter. Furthermore, the investigation of the interaction area emission from both regions for aluminum (Al) and silicon (Si) plasma explains the variation in plasma properties in the stagnation zone. As a part of this work’s description, a comparative study of the dynamics and characteristics of the homogenous interaction region produced by colliding plasma plumes by laser ablation of flat Al and Si targets has been presented, which can provide deep insight into the characterization of colliding laser-produced plasma expansion and related physical and technical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Plasma Sciences)
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