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Ceramics, Volume 6, Issue 4 (December 2023) – 30 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This study highlights the effect of rare-earth ion doping on the magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of the ferrimagnetic garnet compound Gd1-xRExFe5O12 (RE = Nd, Sm, Dy, and Y). The rare-earth ion substitution resulted in site-to-site bond lengths and bond angle alterations, thereby influencing the magnetic exchange interaction among site ions. The variation in maximum magnetic entropy change (−∆SMmax) was enhanced via Dy3+ and Sm3+ substitution but decreased with Nd3+ and Y3+ substitution. A first-principal density function theory (DFT) technique was used to shed light on the observed magnetic behavior of the substituted compound. The study shows that the magnetic moments of the doped rare-earth ions play a vital role in tuning the magnetocaloric properties of the garnet compound. View this paper
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13 pages, 5233 KiB  
Article
Effects of Composition Variations on Mechanochemically Synthesized Lithium Metazirconate-Based Ceramics and Their Resistance to External Influences
Ceramics 2023, 6(4), 2394-2406; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6040147 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 942
Abstract
The study examines the influence of variations in the compositions of components for the production of lithium-containing ceramics based on lithium metazirconate obtained by the method of mechanochemical grinding and subsequent thermal sintering. For component variation, two compositions were used, consisting of zirconium [...] Read more.
The study examines the influence of variations in the compositions of components for the production of lithium-containing ceramics based on lithium metazirconate obtained by the method of mechanochemical grinding and subsequent thermal sintering. For component variation, two compositions were used, consisting of zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) and two distinct types of lithium-containing materials: lithium perchlorate (LiClO4·3H2O) and lithium carbonate (Li2CO3). Adjusting the concentration of these components allowed for the production of two-phase ceramics with varying levels of impurity phases. Using X-ray phase analysis methods, it was determined that the use of LiClO4·3H2O results in the formation of a monoclinic phase, Li2ZrO3, with impurity inclusions in the orthorhombic phase, LiO2. On the other hand, when Li2CO3 is used, the resulting ceramics comprise a mixture of two phases, Li2ZrO3 and Li6Zr2O7. During the studies, it was established that the formation of impurity inclusions in the composition of ceramics leads to an increase in the stability of strength properties with varying mechanical test conditions, as well as stabilization of thermophysical parameters and a decrease in thermal expansion during long-term high-temperature tests. It has been established that in the case of two-phase ceramics Li2ZrO3/Li6Zr2O7 in which the dominance of the Li6Zr2O7 phase is observed during high-temperature mechanical tests, a more pronounced decrease in resistance to cracking is observed, due to thermal expansion of the crystal lattice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical Behavior and Reliability of Engineering Ceramics)
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8 pages, 2232 KiB  
Communication
Oxygen-Bonding State and Oxygen-Reduction Reaction Mechanism of Pr0.7Ca0.3Mn1−xCoxO3−d (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3)
Ceramics 2023, 6(4), 2386-2393; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6040146 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 883
Abstract
We investigated the effects of Co doping on Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3−d in the perspective of an oxygen-bonding state change. In all compositions, Pr0.7Ca0.3Mn1−xCoxO3−d (PCMCx, x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3) showed [...] Read more.
We investigated the effects of Co doping on Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3−d in the perspective of an oxygen-bonding state change. In all compositions, Pr0.7Ca0.3Mn1−xCoxO3−d (PCMCx, x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3) showed an orthorhombic structure, and the lattice gradually contracted with increasing Co content. The doped Co was mostly present as 2+ and 3+, which decreased the average oxidation value of the B site and created oxygen vacancies for charge compensation. However, as the Co content increased, the proportion of Co3+ increased, and the content of oxygen vacancies gradually decreased. In addition, the ratio of adsorbed oxygen in PCMC0.1 was the highest, and the B-O covalency was enhanced. Accordingly, the electrochemical reaction of oxygen with the cathode material in PCMC0.1 could occur most easily, showing the smallest polarization resistance among the Co-doped Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3−d. We can confirm the formation of oxygen vacancies via Co doping and the effect of B-O covalency on the oxygen-reduction reaction of Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3−d. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Electronic Ceramics)
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19 pages, 4618 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Effects of Refuse-Derived Fuel (RDF) Incorporation on the Extrusion and Drying Behavior of Brick Mixtures
Ceramics 2023, 6(4), 2367-2385; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6040145 - 14 Dec 2023
Viewed by 997
Abstract
This study explores the potential benefits of incorporating Recycled Demolition Waste (RDF) as an additive in ceramic mass for the brick industry, with a focus on applications such as thermoblocks. The research underscores the significance of sustainable waste management practices and environmental conservation [...] Read more.
This study explores the potential benefits of incorporating Recycled Demolition Waste (RDF) as an additive in ceramic mass for the brick industry, with a focus on applications such as thermoblocks. The research underscores the significance of sustainable waste management practices and environmental conservation by diverting waste from landfills. RDF, exhibiting combustion properties above 550 °C, emerges as a valuable candidate for enhancing clay-based materials, particularly in the brick production process where firing temperatures exceed 850 °C. Conducted in two phases, the research initially concentrated on RDF preparation, RDF integration with clay materials, and its influence on extrusion and drying phases. Employing innovative techniques involving brick and tile industry machinery coupled with sand incorporation yielded promising results. The grounding of RDF particles to less than 1 mm not only facilitated the mixing process but also ensured stable grinding temperatures within the hammer mill, reducing operational costs. During extrusion, challenges associated with unprocessed RDF material were addressed by utilizing ground RDF, leading to a more efficient and cost-effective process with enhanced plasticity and reduced water requirements. Practical implications for brick plant operations were identified, promoting resource and energy savings. Drying behavior analysis revealed the positive impact of RDF integration, showcasing reduced sensitivity, decreased drying linear shrinkage, and improved density properties. RDF’s role as an inert additive resulted in a 5% reduction in density, enhancing porosity and thermal insulation properties, particularly in thermoblock applications. In the brick industry, where durability, thermal performance, and cost-efficiency are paramount, this study emphasizes the potential benefits of incorporating RDF into clay-based materials. While further research is needed to address the firing procedure of RDF as a brick mass additive, the initial findings underscore the promise of this approach for sustainable and environmentally responsible brick production. This study contributes to the literature by shedding light on the advantages and challenges of integrating RDF into clay-based products, supporting sustainability and waste reduction in construction and manufacturing. The findings provide valuable insights into the performance and feasibility of these mixtures, offering crucial information for industries striving to adopt eco-conscious production methods. This article not only outlines the applied methodology and experimental setup but also presents results related to the behavior of RDF-inclusive clay block mixtures in the production environment. Anticipated to exert considerable influence on future practices and policies, this research contributes to the growing body of knowledge concerning eco-friendly and sustainable manufacturing processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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15 pages, 4240 KiB  
Article
Optimizing the Fly Ash/Activator Ratio for a Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer through a Study of Microstructure, Thermal Stability, and Electrical Properties
Ceramics 2023, 6(4), 2352-2366; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6040144 - 12 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1138
Abstract
Fly ash (FA)-based geopolymer was prepared using sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate (in 2.5ratio) as an alkali activator liquid (AL). The condition of FA/AL was optimized for achieving 1.00, 1.25, 1.5, and 1.75 ratios by varying the alkali concentrations, which are referred to [...] Read more.
Fly ash (FA)-based geopolymer was prepared using sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate (in 2.5ratio) as an alkali activator liquid (AL). The condition of FA/AL was optimized for achieving 1.00, 1.25, 1.5, and 1.75 ratios by varying the alkali concentrations, which are referred to as GP1, GP2, GP3, and GP4, respectively. The influence of slight variations in the FA/AL ratio on microstructure, morphology, functional groups, and composition was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). FESEM detected a homogeneous fused matrix of fly ash and alkali activator solution up to 1.5 ratios; GP3 showed a dense morphology. FTIR confirmed that the formation of aluminosilicate gel induced a shift in the T–O (T = Si or Al) asymmetric stretching band, nearing a lower frequency. XRD showed an amorphous structure with phases, including quartz, mullite, hematite, and sodalite. The thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TGA–DTA) indicated that the geopolymer samples were thermally stable. The electrical study concluded that the geopolymer possessed insulating properties. Full article
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19 pages, 52581 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Porous Ceramic Structures Based on Hydroxyapatite and Wollastonite with Potential Applications in the Field of Tissue Engineering
Ceramics 2023, 6(4), 2333-2351; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6040143 - 08 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1074
Abstract
Bioceramics are the most promising materials used for hard tissue reconstruction. In this study, wollastonite/hydroxyapatite (HAp/WS)-type composite ceramic structures were synthesized with the aim of reaching a material with improved properties for use in bone tissue regeneration. The scaffolds were synthesized using a [...] Read more.
Bioceramics are the most promising materials used for hard tissue reconstruction. In this study, wollastonite/hydroxyapatite (HAp/WS)-type composite ceramic structures were synthesized with the aim of reaching a material with improved properties for use in bone tissue regeneration. The scaffolds were synthesized using a foam replica method, starting from ceramic powders with different mass ratios. These were subsequently studied and compared to identify the ideal mass ratio in terms bioactive character, appropriate mechanical properties, but also microstructural influence. The results indicate that all of the samples showed a highly porous microstructure with interconnected pores and high mineralization after 21 days of immersion in SBF. The porous structures with 90% and 70% mass contents of hydroxyapatite presented a well-defined structure and the highest values of mechanical compressive strength. Biocompatibility evaluation showed that osteoblast-like cells are able to penetrate the inner volume of the structures, exhibiting a biocompatible behavior in terms of morphological features and viability following 7 days of incubation. All results show that the porous composite ceramics with 90% and 70% mass contents of hydroxyapatite are promising materials for bone tissue regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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13 pages, 5438 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Structure and Durability of Refractory Castables Impregnated with Sodium Silicate Glass
Ceramics 2023, 6(4), 2320-2332; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6040142 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1397
Abstract
This study examines the impact of the impregnation of fireclay-based conventional (CC) and medium-cement castables (MCCs) with liquid sodium silicate glass under vacuum conditions. The goal is to assess how this treatment affects the physical and mechanical properties and durability (alkali and thermal [...] Read more.
This study examines the impact of the impregnation of fireclay-based conventional (CC) and medium-cement castables (MCCs) with liquid sodium silicate glass under vacuum conditions. The goal is to assess how this treatment affects the physical and mechanical properties and durability (alkali and thermal shock resistance) of these castables used in biomass combustion boilers, where they are exposed to temperatures up to 1100 °C. The research work employs standard test methods to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties. Additionally, advanced techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and specific tests for alkali resistance and thermal shock resistance are used. The research findings suggest that impregnation with sodium silicate glass under vacuum significantly enhances the alkali resistance of both CC and MCCs. This improvement is primarily due to the reduction in porosity and the increase in density. SEM images reveal that the impregnated samples are coated with a glassy layer and the pores are partially filled with sodium silicate. Tests for alkali resistance demonstrate the formation of a protective glassy layer (with a thickness of 0.9–1.5 mm) on the castable surfaces, thereby reducing the further penetration of alkali into deeper layers of the samples. However, it is important to mention that the impregnated refractory castables have reduced resistance to thermal shock cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Manufacturing Processes of Silicate Materials)
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13 pages, 2368 KiB  
Article
Fabrication and Characterization of Narrow-Wavelength Phosphors of Tb-Doped Yttrium-Silicon-Aluminum Oxynitride Using Spray Pyrolysis
Ceramics 2023, 6(4), 2307-2319; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6040141 - 03 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1299
Abstract
Selective emission of green light phosphor powder Y4SiAlO8N as the host material and Tb3+ as the activator was successfully achieved using spray pyrolysis (SP). Samples synthesized with various calcination temperatures and precursor concentrations indicated that the most suitable [...] Read more.
Selective emission of green light phosphor powder Y4SiAlO8N as the host material and Tb3+ as the activator was successfully achieved using spray pyrolysis (SP). Samples synthesized with various calcination temperatures and precursor concentrations indicated that the most suitable parameter for the synthesized powder is the calcination of 0.05 M Y3.92SiAlO8N:0.08Tb3+ at a temperature of 1600 °C. The effect of the selected parameters was substantiated by the high purity of the Y3.92SiAlO8N:0.08Tb3+ phase, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The Scherrer equation was used to calculate grain size. In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) confirmed the presence of micron-sized particles, which matched well with the theoretical chemical composition. The specific surface area of the phosphor powder was determined using the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller method. Finally, fluorescence spectrometry was used to determine the luminescence properties. The correlation between the crystallinity of the phosphor powder and narrowing emission is also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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12 pages, 1107 KiB  
Article
Features of Structures and Ionic Conductivity of Na3Fe2(PO4)3 Polycrystals Obtained by Solid Phase and Melt Methods
Ceramics 2023, 6(4), 2295-2306; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6040140 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1076
Abstract
This article investigates the structures and conductive properties of polycrystals of Na3Fe2(PO4)3 obtained by solid-state and melt synthesis methods using concentrated optical radiation. It has been established that in the melt synthesis method, the material is [...] Read more.
This article investigates the structures and conductive properties of polycrystals of Na3Fe2(PO4)3 obtained by solid-state and melt synthesis methods using concentrated optical radiation. It has been established that in the melt synthesis method, the material is synthesized under significantly non-equilibrium thermodynamic conditions, leading to the creation of deformations in the sample, which contribute to the enhancement of ionic conductivity. Additionally, the synthesis duration is reduced by half. Through a comparative assessment of the structural parameters and conductive properties of these materials, it is demonstrated that polycrystals obtained by the melt method exhibit better texture and higher ionic conductivity. The occurrence of deformations during the synthesis of α-Na3Fe2(PO4)3 under high temperature-gradient conditions indicates the elasticity of the crystalline framework {[Fe2(PO4)]3−}3∞. It is concluded that the non-equilibrium thermodynamic conditions of α-Na3Fe2(PO4)3 synthesis promote the formation of deformations in the crystalline structure of polycrystals, leading to a partial increase in symmetry and ionic conductivity. Full article
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13 pages, 3303 KiB  
Article
Hydroxyapatite-Resin Composites Produced by Vat Photopolymerization and Post-Processing via In Situ Hydrolysis of Alpha Tricalcium Phosphate
Ceramics 2023, 6(4), 2282-2294; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6040139 - 24 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1414
Abstract
Vat photopolymerization is an additive manufacturing technique that utilizes photosensitive resins to fabricate 3D polymeric objects with high precision. However, these objects often lack mechanical strength. This study investigated the strengthening of a resin based on epoxidized soybean oil acrylate, specifically designed for [...] Read more.
Vat photopolymerization is an additive manufacturing technique that utilizes photosensitive resins to fabricate 3D polymeric objects with high precision. However, these objects often lack mechanical strength. This study investigated the strengthening of a resin based on epoxidized soybean oil acrylate, specifically designed for vat photopolymerization, by the in situ formation of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals. First, a stable alpha tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP)-resin feedstock mixture was developed (~30 vol.% α-TCP), which proved suitable for fabricating monoliths as well as complex triply periodic minimal surface (gyroid, diamond, and Schwarz) porous structures through vat photopolymerization. The results demonstrated that the incorporation of α-TCP particles led to a significant mechanical improvement of the resin. Second, post-printing hydrothermal treatments were utilized to transform the α-TCP particles into hydroxyapatite crystals within the resin. It was observed that the space between hydroxyapatite crystals within the composites was occupied by the cured resin, resulting in a more compact, stronger, and mechanically more reliable material than the porous hydroxyapatite produced by the hydrolysis of α-TCP mixed with water. Moreover, water absorption during the hydrothermal treatments caused the plasticization of the cured resin. As a consequence, the hydroxyapatite-resin composites displayed slightly lower mechanical properties compared to the as-printed α-TCP-resin composite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Research on Calcium Phosphates Based Ceramics)
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13 pages, 2818 KiB  
Article
Inorganic Green Pigments Based on LaSr2AlO5
Ceramics 2023, 6(4), 2269-2281; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6040138 - 22 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1172
Abstract
La1.03Sr1.97Al0.97M0.03O5 (M = Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu) samples were synthesized using a citrate sol–gel method to develop a novel environmentally friendly inorganic green pigment. Among them, the Co-doped sample exhibited a vivid [...] Read more.
La1.03Sr1.97Al0.97M0.03O5 (M = Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu) samples were synthesized using a citrate sol–gel method to develop a novel environmentally friendly inorganic green pigment. Among them, the Co-doped sample exhibited a vivid yellow, but not green. Then, (La0.94Ca0.06)Sr2(Al0.97Mn0.03)O5 was synthesized and characterized with respect to the crystal structure, optical properties, and color. The sample was obtained in a single-phase form and the lattice volume was smaller than that of the (La0.94Ca0.06)Sr2AlO5 sample, indicating that Mn ions in the lattice of the sample were pentavalent. The sample exhibited optical absorption at a wavelength below 400 nm and around 650 nm. These absorptions were attributed to the ligand, the metal charge transfer (LMCT), and d-d transitions of Mn5+. Because the green light corresponding to 500 to 560 nm was reflected strongly, the synthesized sample exhibited a bright green color. (La0.94Ca0.06)Sr2(Al0.97Mn0.03)O5 showed high brightness (L* = 50.1) and greenness (a* = −20.8), and these values were as high as those of the conventional green pigments such as chromium oxide and cobalt green. Therefore, the (La0.94Ca0.06)Sr2(Al0.97Mn0.03)O5 pigment is a potential candidate for a novel environmentally friendly inorganic green pigment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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13 pages, 7705 KiB  
Article
Effect of Ferrule Design on Stress Distribution of Maxillary Incisor Rehabilitated with Ceramic Crown and PEEK Post–Core Material: A 3D Finite Element Analysis
Ceramics 2023, 6(4), 2256-2268; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6040137 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1305
Abstract
Endodontic-treated teeth with massive degrees of coronal tissue loss usually require rehabilitation with post-retained unitary crowns. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of ferrule design on the stress distribution of maxillary incisors rehabilitated with zirconia crowns using finite element analysis. Six three-dimensional [...] Read more.
Endodontic-treated teeth with massive degrees of coronal tissue loss usually require rehabilitation with post-retained unitary crowns. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of ferrule design on the stress distribution of maxillary incisors rehabilitated with zirconia crowns using finite element analysis. Six three-dimensional models were generated according to the presence and location of ferrule (No Ferrule, Buccal Ferrule, Lingual Ferrule, Buccolingual Ferrule, and Full Ferrule). The post–core materials tested were Nickel–chromium (NiCr) and Polyetheretherketone (PEEK). A static load of 100 N at a 45-degree angle on the Lingual surface, in a region 2 mm below the incisive ridge, was applied. Von Mises stresses and contour plots of all of the models were collected and analyzed. A lower and more uniform stress distribution was observed in the Full Ferrule model compared with the remaining models. A reduction of 72% in the von Mises peak stresses was observed in the root when comparing the Full Ferrule and No Ferrule models, both with PEEK post–core material. In conclusion, the presence of an incomplete ferrule is beneficial to the stress distribution in restored post-retained crowns. The use of PEEK for post–core structures reduces the stress concentration on the posts, reducing the predisposition to irreparable root fracture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramic Materials in Oral Applications)
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13 pages, 6209 KiB  
Article
Coextrusion of Clay-Based Composites: Using a Multi-Material Approach to Achieve Gradient Porosity in 3D-Printed Ceramics
Ceramics 2023, 6(4), 2243-2255; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6040136 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1293
Abstract
3D printing of ceramics has started gaining traction in architecture over the past decades. However, many existing paste-based extrusion techniques have not yet been adapted or made feasible in ceramics. A notable example is coextrusion, a common approach to extruding multiple materials simultaneously [...] Read more.
3D printing of ceramics has started gaining traction in architecture over the past decades. However, many existing paste-based extrusion techniques have not yet been adapted or made feasible in ceramics. A notable example is coextrusion, a common approach to extruding multiple materials simultaneously when 3D-printing thermoplastics or concrete. In this study, coextrusion was utilized to enable multi-material 3D printing of ceramic elements, aiming to achieve functionally graded porosities at an architectural scale. The research presented in this paper was carried out in two consecutive phases: (1) The development of hardware components, such as distinct material mixtures and a dual extruder setup including a custom nozzle, along with software environments suitable for printing gradient materials. (2) Material experiments including material testing and the production of exemplary prototypes. Among the various potential applications discussed, the developed coextrusion method for clay-based composites was utilized to fabricate ceramic objects with varying material properties. This was achieved by introducing a combustible as a variable additive while printing, resulting in a gradient porosity in the object after firing. The research’s originality can be summarized as the development of clay-based material mixtures encompassing porosity agents for 3D printing, along with comprehensive material-specific printing parameter settings for various compositions, which collectively enable the successful creation of functionally graded architectural building elements. These studies are expected to broaden the scope of 3D-printed clay in architecture, as it allows for performance optimization in terms of structural performance, insulation, humidity regulation, water absorption and acoustics. Full article
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30 pages, 8746 KiB  
Article
High-Lead Glazed Ceramic Production in Western Iberia (Gharb al-Andalus) between the 10th and Mid-13th Centuries: An Approach from the City of Évora (Portugal)
Ceramics 2023, 6(4), 2213-2242; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6040135 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1663
Abstract
In the present study an archaeometry programme has been developed on a limited number of coarse wares, monochrome, and bichrome glazed ceramics retrieved in the cities of Évora, Mértola, and Silves, located in Western Iberia, Portugal (Gharb al-Andalus during the Islamic period). [...] Read more.
In the present study an archaeometry programme has been developed on a limited number of coarse wares, monochrome, and bichrome glazed ceramics retrieved in the cities of Évora, Mértola, and Silves, located in Western Iberia, Portugal (Gharb al-Andalus during the Islamic period). The goals were to shed light on glazed ceramics provenance, technology, trading, and on the glaze technology applied. For this purpose, a multi-analytical approach was employed to characterize ceramic pastes and glazes using optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and a Scanning Electron Microscope coupled to an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (SEM-EDS). Results evidenced that over the Islamic rule, coarse wares were locally produced at Évora. On the contrary, monochrome and bichrome glazed ceramics were imported from the city of Silves, Mértola, and from unidentified workshops, probably located in southern Iberia. The analysis of decorations evidenced that despite the provenance of the samples, the glaze technology applied was rather uniform over time, depicting a widespread technological transfer in the al-Andalus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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35 pages, 107018 KiB  
Article
Non-Invasive On-Site XRF and Raman Classification and Dating of Ancient Ceramics: Application to 18th and 19th Century Meissen Porcelain (Saxony) and Comparison with Chinese Porcelain
Ceramics 2023, 6(4), 2178-2212; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6040134 - 12 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1556
Abstract
The authentication and dating of rare ceramics is generally carried out using subjective criteria, mainly based on visual interpretation. However, the scientific study and evaluation of the materials used could contribute objectively. The analytical data relating to the major and minor elements of [...] Read more.
The authentication and dating of rare ceramics is generally carried out using subjective criteria, mainly based on visual interpretation. However, the scientific study and evaluation of the materials used could contribute objectively. The analytical data relating to the major and minor elements of the coloring agents of the decoration or the base marks, and the characteristics of the raw materials (related to geology and ore processing), can be obtained on the conservation site non-invasively using a pXRF instrument and the phases formed may be identified using Raman microspectroscopy. This approach is applied to 28 objects assigned to the production of the Meissen Factory, from the collection of the Musée National de Céramique, Cité de la Céramique, Sèvres. They have polychromic or blue-and-white decorations and are supposed to have been produced in the 18th and 19th centuries. Some have a production date that has been perfectly established, others may have been produced using an earlier mold, or even have been decorated on an unknown date different from that of the firing of the biscuit. The combination of several classification criteria concerning the type of glaze, previously identified in the study of French and Chinese 17th and 18th centuries productions, i.e., the elements associated with cobalt present in the mark or the blue decoration and the relative levels of impurities of the glaze matrix, both characteristic of the raw materials and giving a strong XRF signal, leads to the identification of groups of homogeneous objects (respectively, counting seven, three, two and two objects for which at least four out of five criteria are identical); the other objects present too many differences to be considered as having been produced with the same raw materials. The first group brings together almost all the objects with a reliable pedigree made before ~1750, but includes two objects with decoration types closer to those of the 1800s. The comparison of the pXRF signals confirms the possibility of identifying the use of European ingredients for the production of painted enamels in the Qing dynasty. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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16 pages, 3143 KiB  
Article
Biomechanical Behavior of Lithium-Disilicate-Modified Endocrown Restorations: A Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis
Ceramics 2023, 6(4), 2162-2177; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6040133 - 11 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1220
Abstract
This study aimed to assess the biomechanical behavior of endocrown-restored mandibular molars according to “margin design” and “coverage extent” using finite element analysis (FEA). Six 3D solid models were fabricated, namely, those with complete occlusal coverage: A (butt joint), B (anatomic margin); partial [...] Read more.
This study aimed to assess the biomechanical behavior of endocrown-restored mandibular molars according to “margin design” and “coverage extent” using finite element analysis (FEA). Six 3D solid models were fabricated, namely, those with complete occlusal coverage: A (butt joint), B (anatomic margin); partial coverage (two mesial cusps): C (butt joint), D (anatomic margin); and partial coverage with mesial class II cavity: E (butt joint), F (anatomic margin). All models received lithium disilicate endocrowns (2.0 mm thickness and 4.0 mm central retainer cavity depth). A 300 N vertical load was applied to the occlusal surface, while a 250 N oblique load was applied at 45° to the lingual inclined planes of the buccal cusps. The maximum von Mises stress (VMS) distribution patterns were calculated for the endocrown, tooth structure, and cement layer. The VMS on the prepared teeth and cement layer showed subtle differences between the tested models under vertical loads. The anatomic margin (partial and complete coverage) exhibited a more homogeneous stress distribution and offered a more adhesive area of the tooth structure. Under oblique loading, the anatomic margin (complete and partial), except Model D, exhibited the lowest VMS in the cement layer. An anatomically based endocrown could be a promising alternative to the butt joint design, providing better-devised endocrown restorations, which could potentially yield a more benign stress dissipation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramic Materials in Oral Applications)
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14 pages, 9585 KiB  
Article
Preparation and Characterization of Freeze-Dried β-Tricalcium Phosphate/Barium Titanate/Collagen Composite Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering in Orthopedic Applications
Ceramics 2023, 6(4), 2148-2161; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6040132 - 11 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1219
Abstract
The freeze-drying method creates a scaffold with a composite mesoporous structure with many advantages. However, everyday materials such as β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) have been used as an orthopedic implant for canine tribal bone defects for decades, for instance, for grafting material of even [...] Read more.
The freeze-drying method creates a scaffold with a composite mesoporous structure with many advantages. However, everyday materials such as β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) have been used as an orthopedic implant for canine tribal bone defects for decades, for instance, for grafting material of even shapes to form an implant for our teeth. However, this material is still not entirely expected to be the best implant due to its high biodegradability. Besides that, using the piezoelectric effect on the bone can lead to more efficiency in cell growth and a faster healing time for patients. Based on this phenomenon, a scaffold composite with a piezoelectric material such as barium titanate (BaTiO3/BT) has been tested. Based on the BT/β-TCP ratio, the scaffold composite of BT and β-TCP produces a porous structure with porosity ranging from 30.25 ± 11.28 to 15.25 ± 11.28 μm. The BT/β-TCP ratio influences the samples’ pore type, which affects each sample’s mechanical properties. In our result, the scaffold of 45.0 wt% BT/45.0 wt% β-TCP/10.0 wt% collagen has achieved a significant value of 0.5 MPa for maximum stress with a sufficient pore size of 25.32 ± 8.05 μm. Finally, we performed a viability test to see the sample’s piezoelectric effect, which showed that the piezoelectric effect does increase bone healing time when tested by growing MC3T3-E1 cells on the samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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14 pages, 3195 KiB  
Article
Ceramic Filters for the Efficient Removal of Azo Dyes and Pathogens in Water
Ceramics 2023, 6(4), 2134-2147; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6040131 - 09 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1328
Abstract
Overcoming the scarcity of safe and sustainable drinking water, particularly in low-income countries, is one of the key challenges of the 21st century. In these countries, the cost of centralized water treatment facilities is prohibitive. This work examines the application of low-cost ceramic [...] Read more.
Overcoming the scarcity of safe and sustainable drinking water, particularly in low-income countries, is one of the key challenges of the 21st century. In these countries, the cost of centralized water treatment facilities is prohibitive. This work examines the application of low-cost ceramic filters as point-of-use (POU) devices for the removal of methylene blue, o-toluidine blue, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus typhi from contaminated water. The ceramic filters had typical kaolinite functional groups, making them suitable for the removal of dyes and pathogens. Surface charge measurements indicated strongly anionic filters, while thermal properties confirmed the carbonization of the biowaste additive leaving behind a porous kaolinite structure which subsequently dehydroxylated into meta kaolinite. In addition, morphological data showed heterogeneous filter surfaces. Increased biomass content improved the permeability, water adsorption, flow rate, and apparent porosity of the filter. The ceramic filter removed methylene blue (42.99–59.74%), o-toluidine (79.95–92.71%), Staphylococcus aureus (98–100%), and Staphylococcus typhi (75–100%). Overall, the study demonstrated the effectiveness of POU ceramic filters in removing organic pollutants in contaminated water while serving as disinfectants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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0 pages, 4520 KiB  
Review
Bioinspired Mechanical Materials—Development of High-Toughness Ceramics through Complexation of Calcium Phosphate and Organic Polymers
Ceramics 2023, 6(4), 2117-2133; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6040130 - 30 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1376
Abstract
Inspired by the process of bone formation in living organisms, many studies have been conducted to develop organic–inorganic composite materials by preparing calcium phosphate crystals within solutions or dispersions of polymers with appropriate functional groups. Bones are composite materials consisting of organic polymers [...] Read more.
Inspired by the process of bone formation in living organisms, many studies have been conducted to develop organic–inorganic composite materials by preparing calcium phosphate crystals within solutions or dispersions of polymers with appropriate functional groups. Bones are composite materials consisting of organic polymers (mainly type I collagen), carbonated apatite, and water, with volume fractions of 35–45%, 35–45%, and 15–25%, respectively. Carbonated apatite in bone contributes to rigidity, while organic polymers and water contribute to toughness. The inorganic crystal, carbonated apatite, is a plate-shaped crystal with dimensions of 50 nm × 25 nm × 1–4 nm, generating a significant organic–inorganic interface, due to its nanoscale size. This interface is believed to absorb externally applied forces to dissipate mechanical energy to thermal energy. Creating such nanometer-scale structures using top-down approaches is challenging, making bottom-up methods, such as the coprecipitation of polymer and inorganic crystals, more suitable. In this account, efforts to develop eco-friendly mechanical materials using biomass, such as cellulose and starch, based on the bottom-up approach to bone-like composites are described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Research on Calcium Phosphates Based Ceramics)
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19 pages, 9392 KiB  
Article
Electron-Beam Processing of Aluminum-Containing Ceramics in the Forevacuum Pressure Range
Ceramics 2023, 6(4), 2098-2116; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6040129 - 23 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1202
Abstract
Aluminum–ceramic materials based on Al2O3 and AlN are widely used in the electronics industry and, according to a number of electrophysical and technical and economic parameters, are among the most suitable for the production of electrical and radio engineering products. [...] Read more.
Aluminum–ceramic materials based on Al2O3 and AlN are widely used in the electronics industry and, according to a number of electrophysical and technical and economic parameters, are among the most suitable for the production of electrical and radio engineering products. In this study, it is shown that the treatment of ceramics based on Al2O3 with an electron beam with a power of 200–1100 W and a current of 10–50 mA leads to heating of the ceramic surface to a temperature of 1700 °C. When heated to a temperature of 1500 °C and kept at this temperature for no more than 10 s, an increase in the roughness of the ceramic surface is observed by more than an order of magnitude. At the same time, for ceramic substrates based on aluminum nitride, an increase in the temperature of electron beam treatment from 1300 to 1700 °C leads to an increase in thermal conductivity from 1.5 to 2 times. The edge angle of water wetting of the AlN surface can vary from 20 to 100 degrees depending on the processing temperature, which allows one to control the transition of the material from a hydrophilic to a hydrophobic state. At the same time, electron beam exposure to Al2O3 does not change the wettability of this material so much. Electron beam processing in the forevacuum pressure region allows controlled changes in the electrophysical properties of ceramic materials based on Al2O3 and AlN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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12 pages, 3695 KiB  
Article
One-Step Microwave Synthesis of New Hybrid Phosphor (CSSC) for White Light-Emitting Diodes
Ceramics 2023, 6(4), 2086-2097; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6040128 - 19 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1116
Abstract
The possibility of synthesizing a new hybrid phosphor CSSC (mixture of 0.5 CaSrSiO4:Eu2+: 0.29 Ca6Sr4Si6O21Cl2:Eu2+: 0.21 Ca10Si6O21Cl2:Eu2+) [...] Read more.
The possibility of synthesizing a new hybrid phosphor CSSC (mixture of 0.5 CaSrSiO4:Eu2+: 0.29 Ca6Sr4Si6O21Cl2:Eu2+: 0.21 Ca10Si6O21Cl2:Eu2+) using a one-step microwave synthesis method is demonstrated. The concentrations of europium and calcium in the synthesized phosphors were optimized at 1 and 10 mol. %, respectively, to achieve maximum brightness and color rendering index. The optimal conditions for the synthesis of phosphors in a microwave furnace were determined as 750 °C for 10 min. The resulting phosphor exhibited a wide luminescence spectrum that covered the entire visible region, resulting in a high color rendering index and a warm white luminescence when used as a light source. It is shown that the sol–gel method for preparing the charge mixture for the new phosphor allows for a 35% higher luminescence brightness compared to the solid-phase method, due to a more uniform distribution of the activator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composite Nanopowders: Synthesis and Applications)
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16 pages, 2462 KiB  
Article
The Effect of the Addition of Aluminum Nitride to the Composition of NiAl2O4 Ceramics on Hydrogenation Processes and the Increase in Resistance to Swelling and Degradation
Ceramics 2023, 6(4), 2070-2085; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6040127 - 19 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1117
Abstract
This work examines the effects of the formation of impurity inclusions in the structure of NiAl2O4 ceramics when aluminum nitride is added to them and the occurrence of a reinforcement effect that prevents hydrogenation processes and the subsequent destruction of [...] Read more.
This work examines the effects of the formation of impurity inclusions in the structure of NiAl2O4 ceramics when aluminum nitride is added to them and the occurrence of a reinforcement effect that prevents hydrogenation processes and the subsequent destruction of conductive and thermophysical characteristics. The appeal of ceramics possessing a spinel crystal structure lies in their potential use as ceramic fuel cells for both hydrogen generation and storage. Simultaneously, addressing the challenges related to ceramic degradation during hydrogenation, a critical aspect of hydrogen production, can enhance the efficiency of these ceramics while lowering electricity production costs. The selection of aluminum nitride as an additive for ceramic modification is based on its remarkable resistance to structural damage accumulation, its potential to enhance resistance to high-temperature degradation, and its ability to bolster strength properties. Moreover, an examination of the alterations in the strength characteristics of the examined samples subjected to hydrogenation reveals that the stability of two-phase ceramics is enhanced by more than three to five times compared to the initial ceramics (those without the addition of AlN). Additionally, it was noted that the most significant alterations in both structure and strength become apparent at irradiation fluences exceeding 1014 proton/cm2, where atomic displacements in the damaged ceramic layer reach over 5 dpa. During the evaluation of thermophysical properties, it was discerned that ceramics featuring an impurity phase in their composition exhibit the highest stability. These ceramics demonstrated a reduction in the thermal conductivity coefficient of less than 1% at the peak irradiation fluence. Full article
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17 pages, 3884 KiB  
Article
Size-Independent Flexure Test Technique for the Mechanical Properties of Geocomposites Reinforced by Unidirectional Fibers
Ceramics 2023, 6(4), 2053-2069; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6040126 - 17 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1015
Abstract
In assessing the bending attributes for geopolymer composites augmented with uni-directional fibers, methodologies aligned with the established American and European standards yield quantifiable values for flexural strength, denoted as σm*, and its corresponding elasticity modulus, E*. Notably, these values exhibit [...] Read more.
In assessing the bending attributes for geopolymer composites augmented with uni-directional fibers, methodologies aligned with the established American and European standards yield quantifiable values for flexural strength, denoted as σm*, and its corresponding elasticity modulus, E*. Notably, these values exhibit a pronounced dependency on the size of the testing parameters. Specifically, within a judicious range of support span L relative to specimen height H, spanning a ratio of 10 to 40, these metrics can vary by a factor between 2 and 4. By conducting evaluations across an extensive array of H/L ratios and adhering to the protocols set for comparable composites with a plastic matrix, it becomes feasible to determine the definitive flexural elastic modulus E and shear modulus G, both of which can be viewed as size-neutral material traits. A parallel methodology can be employed to deduce size-agnostic values for flexural strength, σm. The established linear relationship between the inverse practical value E* (1/E*) and the squared ratio (H/L)2 is acknowledged. However, a congruent 1/σm* relationship has been recently corroborated experimentally, aligning primarily with Tarnopolsky’s theoretical propositions. The parameter T, defined as the inverse gradient of 1/σm* about (H/L)2, is integral to these findings. Furthermore, the significance of the loading displacement rate is underscored, necessitating a tailored consideration for different scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Production Processes and Applications of Geopolymers)
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17 pages, 6325 KiB  
Article
The Feature Resolution and Dimensional Control in Freeform Solidification of Alumina Systems by Stereolithography
Ceramics 2023, 6(4), 2036-2052; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6040125 - 17 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1026
Abstract
Controlling the feature resolution and dimension of printed products using stereolithography requires a comprehensive understanding of compositional and printing variables. Balancing these variables adds more complexity to manufacturing near net shape products. In this study, the compositional variables examined include particle size and [...] Read more.
Controlling the feature resolution and dimension of printed products using stereolithography requires a comprehensive understanding of compositional and printing variables. Balancing these variables adds more complexity to manufacturing near net shape products. In this study, the compositional variables examined include particle size and solid content using two resins, and printing variables include layer thickness and energy dose. Choosing the energy dose for curing depends on compositional variables and consequently affects the degree of scattering. The results shows that light scattering determines the changes in the feature resolution and lateral dimensions. The layer thickness only affects the feature resolution and not the lateral dimensions. The vertical dimension does not significantly change with the chosen variables. In this study, fine-tuning the variables is shown to produce parts with high precision and resolution. Both compositional and printing variables play a key role in achieving near net shape products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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18 pages, 11760 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Extrusion Control in Spot Deposition Modeling for Porous 3D Clay Structures
Ceramics 2023, 6(4), 2018-2035; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6040124 - 06 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1382
Abstract
The dynamic state of the viscous clay in Liquid Deposition Modeling (LDM) often leads to discrepancies between the digital model and the resulting physical object. This emergent behavior can be harnessed to produce complex physical structures that would not be possible with other [...] Read more.
The dynamic state of the viscous clay in Liquid Deposition Modeling (LDM) often leads to discrepancies between the digital model and the resulting physical object. This emergent behavior can be harnessed to produce complex physical structures that would not be possible with other methods. This study takes advantage of the viscous state and tensile strength of the extruded clay strand to explore the impact of dynamic extrusion and deformations through travel paths in LDM to manufacture complex porous physical structures. The effects of these parameters are discussed in two case studies: (1) regular and semi-random Spot Deposition surfaces with either open or thickened regions, and (2) porous 3D lattice structures created through the controlled bending of vertical extrusions. The achieved higher geometrical complexity of objects through the algorithmically programmed alternations in the sequence and rate of material deposition allows for a wide range of buildup approaches that expand the production spectrum of sustainable small- and large-scale elements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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10 pages, 2624 KiB  
Article
Chemical Compositions of Chinese Glazed Tiles from an Imperial Mausoleum of the Liao Dynasty
Ceramics 2023, 6(4), 2008-2017; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6040123 - 05 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1048
Abstract
Glazed tiles are characteristic architectural ceramics traditionally used in ancient Chinese royal buildings. Studies on their chemical compositions have provided valuable information regarding their compositional classifications and the provenances of their raw materials. Existing studies have mainly focused on the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368 [...] Read more.
Glazed tiles are characteristic architectural ceramics traditionally used in ancient Chinese royal buildings. Studies on their chemical compositions have provided valuable information regarding their compositional classifications and the provenances of their raw materials. Existing studies have mainly focused on the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368 AD) or later. Research on earlier ages is limited because of a lack of samples. In this study, we used an energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer to analyze the chemical compositions of 18 glazed tiles unearthed from an imperial mausoleum (the Xinli site) from the Liao dynasty (969–982 AD). The glazes of the tiles had a SiO2–Al2O3–PbO ternary oxidic system and the bodies of the tiles had a SiO2–Al2O3 binary oxidic system. Certain compositional differences were observed among the samples with different types of decorations. Compared with samples from the Yuan dynasty and later periods, the Xinli samples had higher SiO2 and Al2O3 contents and lower PbO and CuO contents in the tile glazes. The tile bodies of the Xinli samples had compositions similar to those of tile bodies from the Qing dynasty (1616–1912 AD). We speculated that the Xinli samples with different decorations came from different kiln sites. Full article
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17 pages, 5190 KiB  
Article
Frequency Characteristics of High Strain Rate Compressions of Cf-MWCNTs/SiC Composites
Ceramics 2023, 6(4), 1991-2007; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6040122 - 05 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1088
Abstract
The incorporation of ductile reinforcements into ceramics helps restrain crack deflection, which can enhance ceramics’ toughness and overcome the matrix’s brittleness. In this paper, we produced a ceramic composite reinforced by carbon fibers coated by multi-wall carbon nanotubes (shortened by Cf-MWCNT/SiC [...] Read more.
The incorporation of ductile reinforcements into ceramics helps restrain crack deflection, which can enhance ceramics’ toughness and overcome the matrix’s brittleness. In this paper, we produced a ceramic composite reinforced by carbon fibers coated by multi-wall carbon nanotubes (shortened by Cf-MWCNT/SiC composites) for enhanced impact resistance at a high strain rate that commonly occurs in composite materials used in astronautics, marine, and other engineering fields. The fabrication process involves growing multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on a carbon fiber woven fabric (Cf) to create the fibril/fabric hybrid reinforcement. It is then impregnated by polymer solution (precursor of the ceramics), forming composites after the pyrolysis process, known as the liquid polymer infiltration and pyrolysis (PIP) technique. To assess the impact resistance of the Cf-MWCNT/SiC under high-strain rate compressions, the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) technique is employed. Since the failure behavior of the Cf-MWCNT/SiC composites in the absence of the ductile phase is not well understood, the study employs the Hilbert–Huang transform (HHT) to analyze the stress–time curves obtained from the SHPB experiments. By applying the HHT, we obtained the frequency–time spectrum and the marginal Hilbert spectrum of the stress signals. These analyses reveal the frequency characteristics of the Cf-MWCNT/SiC composite and provide insights into the relationship between transformed signal frequency and fracture behavior. By understanding the dynamic fracture behavior and frequency response of the Cf-MWCNT/SiC, it becomes possible to enhance its impact resistance and tailor its performance for specific protective requirements. Therefore, the findings of this study can guide the future design and optimization of Cf-MWCNT/SiC structures for various protective applications, such as body armor, civil structures, and protections for vehicles and aircraft. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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14 pages, 4142 KiB  
Article
Microstructure, Mechanical and Thermal Properties of ZTA/Al2TiO5 Ceramic Composites
Ceramics 2023, 6(4), 1977-1990; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6040121 - 04 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1375
Abstract
Zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA)/Al2TiO5 composites were prepared via a sol–gel route. The prepared samples were uniaxially pressed and pressurelessly sintered at 1650–1700 °C for 1 h. The microstructure, densification, and X-ray diffraction patterns of the sintered ZTA/Al2TiO5 composites [...] Read more.
Zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA)/Al2TiO5 composites were prepared via a sol–gel route. The prepared samples were uniaxially pressed and pressurelessly sintered at 1650–1700 °C for 1 h. The microstructure, densification, and X-ray diffraction patterns of the sintered ZTA/Al2TiO5 composites were investigated, and their mechanical properties, thermal coefficient, and shock resistance were characterized. The addition of Al2TiO5 hindered the grain growth of the alumina particles and enhanced the relative density, Vickers hardness, and bending strength of the composites compared with pure ZTA samples. The fracture toughness was improved by 19% upon the addition of 40 wt% Al2TiO5. Moreover, increasing the Al2TiO5 content resulted in an improvement in the thermal shock resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composite Nanopowders: Synthesis and Applications)
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40 pages, 15195 KiB  
Article
Rare-Earth Doped Gd3−xRExFe5O12 (RE = Y, Nd, Sm, and Dy) Garnet: Structural, Magnetic, Magnetocaloric, and DFT Study
Ceramics 2023, 6(4), 1937-1976; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6040120 - 22 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1781
Abstract
The study reports the influence of rare-earth ion doping on the structural, magnetic, and magnetocaloric properties of ferrimagnetic Gd3−xRExFe5O12 (RE = Y, Nd, Sm, and Dy, x = 0.0, 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75) garnet compound [...] Read more.
The study reports the influence of rare-earth ion doping on the structural, magnetic, and magnetocaloric properties of ferrimagnetic Gd3−xRExFe5O12 (RE = Y, Nd, Sm, and Dy, x = 0.0, 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75) garnet compound prepared via facile autocombustion method followed by annealing in air. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) data analysis confirmed the presence of a single-phase garnet. The compound’s lattice parameters and cell volume varied according to differences in ionic radii of the doped rare-earth ions. The RE3+ substitution changed the site-to-site bond lengths and bond angles, affecting the magnetic interaction between site ions. Magnetization measurements for all RE3+-doped samples demonstrated paramagnetic behavior at room temperature and soft-ferrimagnetic behavior at 5 K. The isothermal magnetic entropy changes (−ΔSM) were derived from the magnetic isotherm curves, M vs. T, in a field up to 3 T in the Gd3−xRExFe5O12 sample. The maximum magnetic entropy change (SMmax) increased with Dy3+ and Sm3+substitution and decreased for Nd3+ and Y3+ substitution with x content. The Dy3+-doped Gd2.25Dy0.75Fe5O12 sample showed SMmax~2.03 Jkg−1K−1, which is ~7% higher than that of Gd3Fe5O12 (1.91 Jkg−1K−1). A first-principal density function theory (DFT) technique was used to shed light on observed properties. The study shows that the magnetic moments of the doped rare-earths ions play a vital role in tuning the magnetocaloric properties of the garnet compound. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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11 pages, 2630 KiB  
Article
Characterization and Heat Transfer Assessment of CuO-Based Nanofluid Prepared through a Green Synthesis Process
Ceramics 2023, 6(4), 1926-1936; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6040119 - 22 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1239
Abstract
The manufacturing of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles has been accomplished utilizing a green technique that relies on biologically reliable mechanisms. Aqueous solutions of copper nitrate and Ixora Coccinea leaf extract are used in an environmentally safe process for creating CuO nanoparticles. The characterization [...] Read more.
The manufacturing of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles has been accomplished utilizing a green technique that relies on biologically reliable mechanisms. Aqueous solutions of copper nitrate and Ixora Coccinea leaf extract are used in an environmentally safe process for creating CuO nanoparticles. The characterization of the synthesized CuO nanoparticles involves the utilization of techniques such as X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetricanalysis (TGA). CuO nanoparticles are confirmed by XRD and FTIR peak results. When the particles are measured, they range between 93.75 nm and 98.16 nm, respectively. The produced CuO nanoparticles are used to prepare the nanofluid. While conventional water exhibits a 3 °C temperature difference, nanofluid achieves a considerable temperature differenceof 7 °C. As a result, it is clear that the nanofluid performs better at dispersing heat into the environment. The experiment’s overall findings support the possibility of ecologically friendly, green-synthesized CuO nanoparticle-induced nanofluid as an effective heattransfer fluid that can be applied to heattransfer systems. Full article
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13 pages, 17693 KiB  
Article
Dielectric Properties of Compacts Sintered after High-Pressure Forming of Lithium Fluoride
Ceramics 2023, 6(4), 1913-1925; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6040118 - 22 Sep 2023
Viewed by 806
Abstract
High-pressure forming at 300 MPa and room temperature was applied before the sintering of a lithium fluoride (LiF) powder. The as-fired samples were tested as dielectrics and showed very interesting characteristics. The best sample, sintered at 750 °C for 8 h, had a [...] Read more.
High-pressure forming at 300 MPa and room temperature was applied before the sintering of a lithium fluoride (LiF) powder. The as-fired samples were tested as dielectrics and showed very interesting characteristics. The best sample, sintered at 750 °C for 8 h, had a relative permittivity of 12.1 and a loss tangent of 0.0006, both of them frequency-independent and temperature-independent up to at least 150 °C, and moreover, the volume DC resistivity was 27.4 × 1012 Ωm at room temperature. These parameters are comparable with oxide ceramics, processed at temperatures over 1300 °C, as for example, aluminum dioxide (Al2O3) or Y3Al5O12 (YAG). LiF material is advantageous because of its very low sintering temperature, which is only about one-half of typical oxide ceramic dielectrics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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