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Adv. Respir. Med., Volume 91, Issue 6 (December 2023) – 8 articles

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9 pages, 962 KiB  
Article
The Baveno Classification as a Predictor of CPAP Titration Pressure in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome
Adv. Respir. Med. 2023, 91(6), 571-579; https://doi.org/10.3390/arm91060042 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 653
Abstract
Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a clinical condition characterised by repeated periods of partial or full obstruction of airflow throughout sleep, with impairment of the quality of life and increased mortality with socioeconomic impacts. CPAP therapy is a simple and effective [...] Read more.
Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a clinical condition characterised by repeated periods of partial or full obstruction of airflow throughout sleep, with impairment of the quality of life and increased mortality with socioeconomic impacts. CPAP therapy is a simple and effective treatment option for OSAS patients. To overcome the clinical and prognostic limitations of AHI—as a sole index of OSAS—the Baveno classification was recently set out and introduced into clinical practice. This study aims to analyse the effect of the Baveno classification on the optimum CPAP titration pressure. Methods: A retrospective analysis of the records of sleep studies in two centres between 2018 and 2021 was carried out. Patients diagnosed with OSAS and recruited for CPAP titration were included. Based on the Baveno classification, the patients were categorised into four groups (A, B, C, and D). Results: Consequently, 700 patients were analysed and 427 patients were included. A significant positive correlation was detected between the CPAP optimum titration pressure and OSAS severity, neck circumference, the oxygen desaturation index (ODI), mean oxygen saturation, the AHI, the BMI, and cumulative sleep time when the SpO2 was <90% (T90) on the other side (p: <0.0001). A non-significant correlation was seen between the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), symptom severity, end organ impact, and Baveno classification of the CPAP optimum titration pressure (p: 0.8, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.7, respectively). Conclusions: The Baveno classification is not useful in the prediction of CPAP optimum titration pressure. However, the ODI and neck circumference were significant independent predictors of a higher CPAP titration pressure. Full article
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11 pages, 825 KiB  
Article
Risk Factors Contributing to Reinfection by SARS-CoV-2: A Systematic Review
Adv. Respir. Med. 2023, 91(6), 560-570; https://doi.org/10.3390/arm91060041 - 06 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1089
Abstract
This article aims to systematize the evidence regarding risk factors associated with COVID-19 reinfection. We conducted a systematic review of all the scientific publications available until August 2022. To ensure the inclusion of the most recent and relevant information, we searched the PubMed [...] Read more.
This article aims to systematize the evidence regarding risk factors associated with COVID-19 reinfection. We conducted a systematic review of all the scientific publications available until August 2022. To ensure the inclusion of the most recent and relevant information, we searched the PubMed and Scopus databases. Thirty studies were reviewed, with a significant proportion being analytical observational case-control and cohort studies. Upon qualitative analysis of the available evidence, it appears that the probability of reinfection is higher for individuals who are not fully immunized when exposed to a new variant, females, those with pre-existing chronic diseases, individuals aged over 60, and those who have previously experienced severe symptoms of the disease or are immunocompromised. In conclusion, further analytical observational case-control studies are necessary to gain a better understanding of the risk factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) reinfection. Full article
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14 pages, 1117 KiB  
Article
Correlation between Cardiovascular Autonomic and Pulmonary Ventilation Functions in Myasthenia Gravis Patients
Adv. Respir. Med. 2023, 91(6), 546-559; https://doi.org/10.3390/arm91060040 - 01 Dec 2023
Viewed by 715
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between pulmonary function and cardiac autonomic function parameters in clinically stable myasthenia gravis (MG) patients. A total of 22 MG patients and 22 healthy controls (HCs) were evaluated. Pulmonary function test parameters, heart rate variability (HRV), [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between pulmonary function and cardiac autonomic function parameters in clinically stable myasthenia gravis (MG) patients. A total of 22 MG patients and 22 healthy controls (HCs) were evaluated. Pulmonary function test parameters, heart rate variability (HRV), baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), and cardiovascular autonomic function test parameters (the Valsalva ratio, expiration/inspiration (E/I) ratio) were assessed. Compared with the HCs, the patients demonstrated a similar diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO); a lower forced vital capacity (FVC%pred); a lower forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1%pred); lower BRS and HRV, including high-frequency and total power spectral density; and a higher percentage of abnormal cardiovagal function test results (p < 0.05). A lower BRS in the patient group was associated with worse clinical disease outcomes and reduced pulmonary function (DLCO%pred, R = 0.59; TLC%pred, R = 0.48). Age, forced vital capacity, and total lung capacity predicted the E/I ratio (R2 values ranging from 0.48 to 0.49). Our study demonstrated a significant relationship between a reduced pulmonary ventilation function and respiratory mechanics with cardiovascular autonomic parameters, including the E/I ratio, BRS, and HRV measures at rest, as shown in the MG group. Future studies should focus on the interplay between respiratory and autonomic function testing, as well as pulmonary rehabilitation, to mitigate cardiovascular risk in these patients. Full article
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14 pages, 1474 KiB  
Article
Investigating Forkhead Box O Transcription Factor 1 Gene’s Relation to Immunoglobulin E in House Dust Mite-Allergic Asthma Patients
Adv. Respir. Med. 2023, 91(6), 532-545; https://doi.org/10.3390/arm91060039 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 778
Abstract
House dust mite (HDM)-allergic asthma is an abnormal immune response to extrinsic aeroallergens found in human vicinities. Studying the role of the associated immunity biomarkers and their interplay helps in discovering novel therapeutic strategies that can be used in adjunct with effective long-term [...] Read more.
House dust mite (HDM)-allergic asthma is an abnormal immune response to extrinsic aeroallergens found in human vicinities. Studying the role of the associated immunity biomarkers and their interplay helps in discovering novel therapeutic strategies that can be used in adjunct with effective long-term immunotherapy. This study investigates the total serum IgE, FoxO1, and Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) gene expressions in HDM-allergic asthma patients. We enrolled 40 patients for each of the following three groups: an HV group of healthy volunteers and HDM/AA and HDM/SCIT groups of HDM-allergic asthma patients who did not and who did receive immunotherapy before recruitment in this study, respectively. The results elucidated that total IgE was strikingly elevated in the HDM/AA group and showed little decline in the HDM/SCIT group. Both FoxO1 and SIRT1 gene expressions showed the highest levels in the HDM/SCIT group. There was a negative correlation between total IgE and both FoxO1 and SIRT1 in the HDM/AA group while there was a positive correlation with SIRT1 in the HDM/SCIT group. In conclusion, the interplay of the three immunity biomarkers related to HDM-allergic asthma after the course of immunotherapy treatment suggests further, broader studies on the feasibility of their role as immunity biomarkers in the control and remission of HDM-allergic asthma. Full article
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16 pages, 1527 KiB  
Review
E-Cigarettes and Associated Health Risks: An Update on Cancer Potential
Adv. Respir. Med. 2023, 91(6), 516-531; https://doi.org/10.3390/arm91060038 - 14 Nov 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1587
Abstract
The potential cancer risk associated with electronic-cigarette (e-cigarette) use is ongoing and remains a subject of debate. E-Cigarettes work by heating a liquid that usually contains nicotine, flavorings, and other chemicals. When the liquid is heated, users inhale an aerosol into their lungs. [...] Read more.
The potential cancer risk associated with electronic-cigarette (e-cigarette) use is ongoing and remains a subject of debate. E-Cigarettes work by heating a liquid that usually contains nicotine, flavorings, and other chemicals. When the liquid is heated, users inhale an aerosol into their lungs. While e-cigarettes are generally considered less harmful than traditional tobacco products, they still contain potentially harmful chemicals, which can damage DNA and lead to cancer. Several studies have investigated the potential cancer risk associated with e-cigarette use, while other studies have suggested that e-cigarette aerosol may contain carcinogenic chemicals that could increase the risk of lung and bladder cancer in humans. However, these studies are limited in their scope and do not provide conclusive evidence. Overall, the long-term cancer risk associated with e-cigarette use remains uncertain, more research is needed to fully understand the potential risks and benefits of e-cigarettes. However, this review will allow the investigator to get more recent updates about e-cigarettes. Full article
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12 pages, 659 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Comprehensive Rehabilitation on the Exercise Capacity of Patients after COVID-19
Adv. Respir. Med. 2023, 91(6), 504-515; https://doi.org/10.3390/arm91060037 - 14 Nov 2023
Viewed by 673
Abstract
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a complex disease that affects multiple body systems, including the respiratory, cardiovascular, neurological, and muscular systems. It is estimated that approximately half of the patients after the treatment for COVID-19 experience persistent symptoms that lead to a decreased [...] Read more.
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a complex disease that affects multiple body systems, including the respiratory, cardiovascular, neurological, and muscular systems. It is estimated that approximately half of the patients after the treatment for COVID-19 experience persistent symptoms that lead to a decreased physical capacity. Scientific recommendations suggest that cardiovascular and respiratory rehabilitation programs should be implemented in patients who have completed treatment for COVID-19. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of comprehensive rehabilitation on the exercise capacity of patients after COVID-19 treatment. The study included 146 patients after the treatment for COVID-19 who were eligible for therapeutic rehabilitation. The exercise capacity was assessed using the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). The results showed that patients who underwent rehabilitation had an average increase of 23.83% in their 6MWT score compared to the baseline. A comprehensive rehabilitation program including breathing exercises, aerobic training, and strength and endurance exercises is an effective intervention that can improve the physical capacity of patients after COVID-19 treatment. Full article
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18 pages, 4035 KiB  
Article
In Silico Design of a New Epitope-Based Vaccine against Grass Group 1 Allergens
Adv. Respir. Med. 2023, 91(6), 486-503; https://doi.org/10.3390/arm91060036 - 08 Nov 2023
Viewed by 756
Abstract
Allergic diseases are a global public health problem that affects up to 30% of the population in industrialized societies. More than 40% of allergic patients suffer from grass pollen allergy. Grass pollen allergens of group 1 and group 5 are the major allergens, [...] Read more.
Allergic diseases are a global public health problem that affects up to 30% of the population in industrialized societies. More than 40% of allergic patients suffer from grass pollen allergy. Grass pollen allergens of group 1 and group 5 are the major allergens, since they induce allergic reactions in patients at high rates. In this study, we used immunoinformatic approaches to design an effective epitope-based vaccine against the grass group 1 allergens. After the alignment of all known pollen T-cell and B-cell epitopes from pollen allergens available in the public databases, the epitope GTKSEVEDVIPEGWKADTSY was identified as the most suitable for further analyses. The target sequence was subjected to immunoinformatics analyses to predict antigenic T-cell and B-cell epitopes. Population coverage analysis was performed for CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell epitopes. The selected T-cell epitopes (VEDVIPEGW and TKSEVEDVIPEGWKA) covered 78.87% and 98.20% of the global population and 84.57% and 99.86% of the population of Europe. Selected CD8+, CD4+ T-cell and B-cell epitopes have been validated by molecular docking analysis. CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell epitopes showed a very strong binding affinity to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I (MHC I) molecules and MHC class II (MHC II) molecules with global energy scores of −72.1 kcal/mol and −89.59 kcal/mol, respectively. The human IgE-Fc (PDB ID 4J4P) showed a lower affinity with B-cell epitope (ΔG = −34.4 kcal/mol), while the Phl p 2-specific human IgE Fab (PDB ID 2VXQ) had the lowest binding with the B-cell epitope (ΔG = −29.9 kcal/mol). Our immunoinformatics results demonstrated that the peptide GTKSEVEDVIPEGWKADTSY could stimulate the immune system and we performed ex vivo tests showed that the investigated epitope activates T cells isolated from patients with grass pollen allergy, but it is not recognized by IgE antibodies specific for grass pollen allergens. This confirms the importance of such studies to establish universal epitopes to serve as a basis for developing an effective vaccine against a particular group of allergens. Further in vivo studies are needed to validate the effectiveness of such a vaccine against grass pollen allergens. Full article
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22 pages, 3538 KiB  
Article
Molecular Docking and ADME-TOX Profiling of Moringa oleifera Constituents against SARS-CoV-2
Adv. Respir. Med. 2023, 91(6), 464-485; https://doi.org/10.3390/arm91060035 - 27 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1077
Abstract
The SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2019) etiological agent, which has a high contagiousness and is to blame for the outbreak of acute viral pneumonia, is the cause of the respiratory disease COVID-19. The use of natural products grew as an alternative [...] Read more.
The SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2019) etiological agent, which has a high contagiousness and is to blame for the outbreak of acute viral pneumonia, is the cause of the respiratory disease COVID-19. The use of natural products grew as an alternative treatment for various diseases due to the abundance of organic molecules with pharmacological properties. Many pharmaceutical studies have focused on investigating compounds with therapeutic potential. Therefore, this study aimed to identify potential antiviral compounds from a popular medicinal plant called Moringa oleifera Lam. against the spike, Mpro, ACE2, and RBD targets of SARS-CoV-2. For this, we use molecular docking to identify the molecules with the greatest affinity for the targets through the orientation of the ligand with the receptor in complex. For the best results, ADME-TOX predictions were performed to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties of the compounds using the online tool pkCSM. The results demonstrate that among the 61 molecules of M. oleifera, 22 molecules showed promising inhibition results, where the compound ellagic acid showed significant molecular affinity (−9.3 kcal.mol−1) in interaction with the spike protein. These results highlight the relevance of investigating natural compounds from M. oleifera as potential antivirals against SARS-CoV-2; however, additional studies are needed to confirm the antiviral activity of the compounds. Full article
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