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Advances in Respiratory Medicine is published by MDPI from Volume 90 Issue 4 (2022). Previous articles were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence, and they are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Via Medica.

Adv. Respir. Med., Volume 87, Issue 1 (March 2019) – 10 articles , Pages 1-67

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292 KiB  
Case Report
Measles Pneumonitis
by Pinelopi Schoini, Theodoros Karampitsakos, Maria Avdikou, Aggeliki Athanasopoulou, Georgios Tsoukalas and Argyrios Tzouvelekis
Adv. Respir. Med. 2019, 87(1), 63-67; https://doi.org/10.5603/ARM.a2019.0010 - 4 Mar 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 978
Abstract
Measles is an acute febrile illness, potentially fatal and highly contagious, which is transmitted through the respiratory mode. Fever combined with one of the following: cough, coryza, conjunctivitis are the first manifestations of the disease. Koplik’s spots may also appear on the buccal [...] Read more.
Measles is an acute febrile illness, potentially fatal and highly contagious, which is transmitted through the respiratory mode. Fever combined with one of the following: cough, coryza, conjunctivitis are the first manifestations of the disease. Koplik’s spots may also appear on the buccal mucosa providing an opportunity to set the diagnosis even before the emergence of rash. Rash typically appears 3–4 days after the onset of fever, initially on the face and behind the ears, and its appearance is associated with the peak of the symptoms. Measles affects multiple systems, including the respiratory system, with pneumonia being one of the most lethal complications. Management involves best supportive care, correction of dehydration and nutritional deficiencies, treatment of secondary bacterial infections and provision of vitamin A. Importantly, given that measles present with lifelong immunity following infection or vaccination, prevention through measles vaccination has a cardinal role for measles’ elimination. Indeed, public education and vaccination led to an estimated 79% decrease in global measles deaths from 2000 to 2015. Nonetheless, the last two years have seen a measles outbreak in several countries, partially due to the anti-vaccination movement. This article aims to present two cases of measles in our hospital and highlight the pressing need for vaccination in order to eradicate a potentially fatal disease. Full article
397 KiB  
Case Report
Giant Hiatal Hernias
by Jan Lesinski, Tadeusz M. Zielonka, Olga Wajtryt, Krystyna Peplinska and Aleksandra Kaszynska
Adv. Respir. Med. 2019, 87(1), 54-62; https://doi.org/10.5603/ARM.a2019.0009 - 4 Mar 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 507
Abstract
Dyspnoea is most often caused by disorders of the respiratory and/or cardiovascular systems. Much less often it is brought about by the displacement of abdominal organs into the thoracic cage. Hiatal hernias may give rise to diagnostic difficulties, as both clinical and radiological [...] Read more.
Dyspnoea is most often caused by disorders of the respiratory and/or cardiovascular systems. Much less often it is brought about by the displacement of abdominal organs into the thoracic cage. Hiatal hernias may give rise to diagnostic difficulties, as both clinical and radiological symptoms suggest different disorders. Computed tomography is the method of choice when making a diagnosis. We have presented a series of 7 cases of giant hiatal hernias, each with a varying course of the disease, clinical symptoms, radiological features and prognoses. In two of the cases, the hernias were of a post-traumatic nature. Four cases of large diaphragmatic hernias were found in elderly patients (over 90 years old). An advanced age and numerous coexisting chronic diseases disqualified most of the patients from surgical treatment despite the hernias’ large sizes. In only one case was fundoplication performed with a good end result. Two patients died, and an extensive hernia was the cause of one of the deaths. Upper gastrointestinal symptoms were present only in a few of the patients. An early diagnosis of giant hiatal hernia is crucial for the patients to undergo prompt corrective surgeries. Full article
268 KiB  
Case Report
Adult Onset Still Disease Associated with Endogenous Lipoid Pneumonia
by Ramin Sami, Mohammadali Zohal and Forozan Mohammadi
Adv. Respir. Med. 2019, 87(1), 50-53; https://doi.org/10.5603/ARM.a2019.0008 - 4 Mar 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 394
Abstract
Cholesterol pneumonia or endogenous lipid pneumonia (ELP) is a rare disease that can occur in the context of a systemic disease or following a bronchial obstruction. It is characterized by a wide range of diverse symptoms and various disease course. The present report [...] Read more.
Cholesterol pneumonia or endogenous lipid pneumonia (ELP) is a rare disease that can occur in the context of a systemic disease or following a bronchial obstruction. It is characterized by a wide range of diverse symptoms and various disease course. The present report introduces a young woman diagnosed with adult onset still disease three years ago, who has been referred with macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). She underwent biopsy due to dyspnea and a crazy paving pattern in HRCT of the lungs, leading to the diagnosis of lipoid pneumonia based on the interstitial lymphocytic inflammation and cholesterol granulomas. So far, there has been no report indicating MAS associated with cholesterol pneumonia. This is the second Case Reporting ELP in the adult onset still disease. Full article
203 KiB  
Case Report
Noninfectious Causes of Diffuse Pulmonary Infiltrations in Chronic Renal Failure: Metastatic Pulmonary Calsification
by Saltuk Bugra Kaya, Seyda Deger, Suleyman Savas Hacievliyagil and Zeynep Ayfer Aytemur
Adv. Respir. Med. 2019, 87(1), 46-49; https://doi.org/10.5603/ARM.a2019.0007 - 4 Mar 2019
Viewed by 402
Abstract
Metastatic pulmonary calsification (MPC) is a metabolic lung disease characterized by the deposition of calcium in pulmonary parenchyma. It may occur due to many bening or malign pathologies. Especially it is most commonly seen in patients with end stage chronic renal failure received [...] Read more.
Metastatic pulmonary calsification (MPC) is a metabolic lung disease characterized by the deposition of calcium in pulmonary parenchyma. It may occur due to many bening or malign pathologies. Especially it is most commonly seen in patients with end stage chronic renal failure received renal replacement treatment. The case we report here involved a history of renal transplantation about 22 months ago. His thorax computed tomography had demonstrated bilateral disseminated infiltrations with ground- glass densities predominantly in the upper lobes and it was seen partially preserved subpleural areas and basal zones. The histopathological results in transbronchial lung biopsy indicated metastatic pulmonary calsification. We wanted to discuss patient with the accompaniment of literature. Full article
242 KiB  
Review
Noninvasive Ventilation: Education and Training. A Narrative Analysis and an International Consensus Document
by Habib Mohammad Reazaul Karim, Karen E. A. Burns, Laura D. Ciobanu, Mohamad El-Khatib, Antonello Nicolini, Nicola Vargas, Thierry Hernández-Gilsoul, Szymon Skoczyński, Vito Antonio Falcone, Jean-Michel Arnal, John Bach, Luca Salvatore De Santo, Alberto Lucchini, Joerg Steier, Andrea Purro, Angelo Petroianni, Catherine S. Sassoon, Stefano Bambi, Margarida Aguiar, Ayman O. Soubani, Corinne Taniguchi, Corrado Mollica, David A. Berlin, Edoardo Piervincenzi, Fabrizio Rao, Ferini-Strambi Luigi, Rodolfo Ferrari, Giancarlo Garuti, Gerhard Laier-Groeneveld, Giuseppe Fiorentino, Kwok M. Ho, Jaber Saud Alqahtani, Manuel Luján, Onnen Moerer, Onofrio Resta, Paola Pierucci, Peter Papadakos, Stephan Steiner, Sven Stieglitz, Yalim Dikmen, Jun Duan, Pradipta Bhakta, Alejandro Ubeda Iglesias, Nadia Corcione, Vânia Caldeira, Zuhal Karakurt, Gabriele Valli, Eumorfia Kondili, Maria Pia Ruggieri, Margarida Simões Raposo, Fabrizio Bottino, Rafael Soler-González, Mohan Gurjar, José Luis Sandoval-Gutierrez, Behrouz Jafari, Marta Arroyo-Cozar, Ana Roca Noval, Nadia Corcione, Igor Barjaktarevic, Irena Sarc, Bushra Mina, Zbigniew Szkulmowski, Corinne Taniguchi and Antonio M. Esquinasadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Adv. Respir. Med. 2019, 87(1), 36-45; https://doi.org/10.5603/ARM.a2019.0006 - 4 Mar 2019
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 1738
Abstract
Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is an increasingly used method of respiratory support. The use of NIV is expanding over the time and if properly applied, it can save patients’ lives and improve long-term prognosis. However, both knowledge and skills of its proper use as [...] Read more.
Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is an increasingly used method of respiratory support. The use of NIV is expanding over the time and if properly applied, it can save patients’ lives and improve long-term prognosis. However, both knowledge and skills of its proper use as life support are paramount. This systematic review aimed to assess the importance of NIV education and training. Literature search was conducted (MEDLINE: 1990 to June, 2018) to identify randomized controlled studies and systematic reviews with the results analyzed by a team of experts across the world through e-mail based communications. Clinical trials examining the impact of education and training in NIV as the primary objective was not found. A few studies with indirect evidence, a simulation-based training study, and narrative reviews were identified. Currently organized training in NIV is implemented only in a few developed countries. Due to a lack of high-grade experimental evidence, an international consensus on NIV education and training based on opinions from 64 experts across the twenty-one different countries of the world was formulated. Education and training have the potential to increase knowledge and skills of the clinical staff who deliver medical care using NIV. There is a genuine need to develop structured, organized NIV education and training programs, especially for the developing countries. Full article
317 KiB  
Review
Application of the Forced Oscillation Technique in Diagnosing and Monitoring of Asthma in Preschool Children
by Liwia Starczewska-Dymek, Andrzej Bożek and Tomasz Dymek
Adv. Respir. Med. 2019, 87(1), 26-35; https://doi.org/10.5603/ARM.a2019.0005 - 4 Mar 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 785
Abstract
The measurement of lung function in preschool children for the diagnosis of asthma is not routinely used. The need to perform forced expiratory manoeuvres requires active cooperation and thus limits the use of spirometry in this age group. The forced oscillation technique (FOT) [...] Read more.
The measurement of lung function in preschool children for the diagnosis of asthma is not routinely used. The need to perform forced expiratory manoeuvres requires active cooperation and thus limits the use of spirometry in this age group. The forced oscillation technique (FOT) is a simple and noninvasive method of assessing the mechanical properties of the respiratory system during tidal breathing. It is used in young patients and requires minimal cooperation. It provides an objective assessment of the respiratory system in a group of patients in whom we have not yet had appropriate diagnostic tools. In recent years, due to the availability of new technical solutions, FOT has been increasingly used and has a chance to become a method used routinely in diagnosing and monitoring treatment in preschool children. This article presents the possibility of the clinical application of FOT in diagnosing and monitoring of early childhood asthma. Full article
202 KiB  
Article
Is It Possible to Predict Whether BAL Salvage Is Going to Be Diagnostic?
by Szymon Skoczyński, Ewelina Tobiczyk, Łukasz Minarowski, Marta Świerczyńska, Robert Mróz and Adam Barczyk
Adv. Respir. Med. 2019, 87(1), 20-25; https://doi.org/10.5603/ARM.a2019.0004 - 4 Mar 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 421
Abstract
Introduction: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is used in the diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases. BAL is diagnostic when ≥60% of the instilled volume is recovered. There are no reliable markers useful to predict whether BAL volume is going to be diagnostic. Our goal was [...] Read more.
Introduction: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is used in the diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases. BAL is diagnostic when ≥60% of the instilled volume is recovered. There are no reliable markers useful to predict whether BAL volume is going to be diagnostic. Our goal was to search for pulmonary function markers which could anticipate whether the recovered volume of instilled fluid would be ≥60% of administered volume. Material and methods: BAL volumes and quality were analyzed in the context of disease, medical condition and lung function test results of the subjects hospitalized at the Pulmonology Ward from January 2015 to October 2016. The patients’ average age was 61 (29–89). Results: Among 80 procedures, diagnostic BAL (≥60%) has been obtained in 58 cases. The analysis of the group of patients with an interstitial lung disease confirmed that there is a correlation between decreasing BAL recovered volume and an increase of RV[%pred] (r = –0.34) and RV/TLC[%pred] (r = –0.41); p < 0.05. There was no significant correlation with DLCO. RV/TLC[%pred] was the parameter with the highest predictive value for an anticipated correct BAL recovery. The curve analysis of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) showed a diagnostic accuracy (AUC 0.73, 95% CI 0.61–0.86). Conclusions: Pulmonary hyperinflation may have a predictive role in anticipating a proper recovery of the BAL fluid volume. Full article
213 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Quality of Life after Surgical Removal of Lung Cancer
by Ewa Szeliga, Ewelina Czenczek-Lewandowska, Aldona Kontek, Andżelina Wolan-Nieroda, Agnieszka Guzik and Katarzyna Walicka-Cupryś
Adv. Respir. Med. 2019, 87(1), 14-19; https://doi.org/10.5603/ARM.a2019.0003 - 4 Mar 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 521
Abstract
Introduction: Morbidity and mortality attributed to lung cancer remain at high levels, especially where men are concerned. The surgery for lung cancer involves removing neoplastic lesions in order to save the largest possible part of the healthy lung. Of importance is also pre- [...] Read more.
Introduction: Morbidity and mortality attributed to lung cancer remain at high levels, especially where men are concerned. The surgery for lung cancer involves removing neoplastic lesions in order to save the largest possible part of the healthy lung. Of importance is also pre- and post-surgical rehabilitation. The aim of this thesis is to gauge the quality of life of the patients who have had their lung cancer surgically removed. Material and methods: The study was conducted on 72 patients (52 men and 20 women) after surgical removal of lung cancer. The subjects were examined prior to, a week after and six months following surgery. The investigation employed the standardised questionnaires to assess the quality of life, i.e., EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-LC13, as well as the visual analogue pain scale (VAS). Statistical analyses were performed using the Anova Friedman test and Dunna test, and p-value calculated in multiple comparisons with significance level assumed at p < 0.05. Results: During six months after the operation, the quality of life deteriorated in relation to the one before operation as evidenced by the functioning scale at the level of p < 0.001. Overall symptom scale, as well as symptomatic scale and the VAS scale showed that some symptoms increased significantly in the early period after surgery p < 0.001, then with the passage of time, the patients felt improvement, however, some of them, e.g. pain sensations can persist till six months after surgery. Conclusions: Surgical removal of lung cancer is associated with a significant deterioration of the quality of life in the early period after surgery and can persist till six months later. Full article
211 KiB  
Article
Endothelial Dysfunction in Children with Clinically Stable and Exacerbated Asthma
by Nataliia Makieieva, Dmytro Butov, Yuliia Vasylchenko, Maryna Biriukova, Kateryna Serhiienko and Oleksandr Morozov
Adv. Respir. Med. 2019, 87(1), 7-13; https://doi.org/10.5603/ARM.a2019.0002 - 4 Mar 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 614
Abstract
Introduction: In children with asthma, endothelial dysfunction signs are observed, and their extent depends on the severity of the disease. These changes are also present in remission. High level of soluble Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) expression causes active adhesion of inflammatory cells [...] Read more.
Introduction: In children with asthma, endothelial dysfunction signs are observed, and their extent depends on the severity of the disease. These changes are also present in remission. High level of soluble Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) expression causes active adhesion of inflammatory cells and can indicate direct endothelium participation in development and supporting of chronic inflammation. Bronchial asthma (BA) is characterised by airways chronic inflammation. A special role in this inflammatory process formation is played by development of endothelial dysfunction. The aim of the study was to evaluate endothelial state in children with clinically stable and exacerbated asthma. Material and methods: 91 children with persistent asthma were examined. Among them there were 40 patients with mild persistent (group I), 34 subjects with moderate persistent (group II) and 17 individuals with severe persistent (group III) asthma. 20 healthy children were selected as controls. The serum levels of sVCAM-1 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The ultrasound assessment of endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery (FMD%) has been made. Ultrasonography has been used for investigation of the intima-media thickness (I-M) complex. Data analysis was performed with the Statsoft Statistica Version 8 (Tulsa, OK). Results: The serum levels of sVCAM-1 were significantly increased in the patients with asthma exacerbation (p < 0.001) and remission (p < 0.001), compared with the controls. The index of FMD% was significantly diminished in the patients of I, II, III group with exacerbation (p < 0.001) and stayed lower in the subjects with asthma in remission (p < 0.001), compared with the controls. The thickness of I-M complex was significantly increased in the patients of I, II, III group, compared with the controls (p < 0.001). The endothelium parameter levels: sVCAM-1 (H = 56.11, p = 0.0001), FMD% (H = 43.20, p = 0.0000), the thickness of I-M complex (H = 49.37, p = 0.0000) depend on the severity of the disease. Correlations between the endothelium and pulmonary function parameters were proved (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Endothelial dysfunction in children with asthma was determined. Dependence of severity of the disease on functional state of the vascular endothelium was proved. Full article
169 KiB  
Article
The Association between Microcytic Anemia and Spirometric Parameters
by Zahra Imanizade and Hossein Danesh
Adv. Respir. Med. 2019, 87(1), 1-6; https://doi.org/10.5603/ARM.a2019.0001 - 4 Mar 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 344
Abstract
Introduction: Microcytic anemia is a type of anemia with smaller than normal red blood cells. Iron deficiency anemia and thalassemia are some of the major causes. The aim of the study was to compare the pulmonary function of the subjects with microcytic anemia [...] Read more.
Introduction: Microcytic anemia is a type of anemia with smaller than normal red blood cells. Iron deficiency anemia and thalassemia are some of the major causes. The aim of the study was to compare the pulmonary function of the subjects with microcytic anemia to the respective results of the normal population. Material and methods: This was a cross-sectional study in Bandar Abbas, Iran, conducted on the patients attending yearly occupational health checkups. Complete blood cell count and a standard spirogram were attained from each consenting participant and occupational histories of exposure to dust, fumes, solvents, and noxious gases were obtained. Results: At last, 2199 subjects were included in the analysis, of which 335 cases had microcytic anemia. There was a significant association between having microcytic anemia and forced vital capacity (FVC) reduction, and to a lesser degree, the reduction of forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1). These parameters were also significantly increased together with the rise of mean corpuscular volume (MCV) in the sample population. Conclusions: It can be concluded that having microcytic anemia may reduce some spirometric parameters. Even though these changes are small, adjusting for the reduced values can help prevent an overestimation of lung disorders, mostly in borderline cases. Full article
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