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J. Compos. Sci., Volume 7, Issue 6 (June 2023) – 53 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The proliferation of plastic waste in the environment has attracted significant attention. In the life cycle of polymers, either chemical or physical changes will occur due to varying environmental factors. This process leads to changes that result in functional deterioration. In addition to the ongoing innovations to enhance the sustainability of the polymer industry, consumers are focused on their sustainability potential. Due to the present demand for sustainable polymers, bio-based polymers have been identified as a solution. To optimize the functional use of bio-based polymers and retention of their bio-degradation capability, this study focuses on PLA, PCL, PHA and PA bio-based polymers due to their potential in technological applications. This review covers their processing and degradation pathways. Future trends and conclusions are also provided. View this paper
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14 pages, 4519 KiB  
Article
Experimental Investigation on Bio-Machining of Nickel, Titanium and Nitinol (Shape Memory Alloys) Using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans Microorganisms
by Mani Pradeep, Shangumavel Rajesh, Marimuthu Uthayakumar, Chandrasekar Mathalai Sundaram, Kinga Korniejenko, Krzysztof Miernik and Mohd Shukry Abdul Majid
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(6), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7060262 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 929
Abstract
Micromachining plays a vital role in the manufacturing industry in producing microcomponents with high sensitivity and fine dimensional tolerances for implant materials in medical applications. Micro-machining can be carried out through various machining processes like physical, chemical and biological processes, although the use [...] Read more.
Micromachining plays a vital role in the manufacturing industry in producing microcomponents with high sensitivity and fine dimensional tolerances for implant materials in medical applications. Micro-machining can be carried out through various machining processes like physical, chemical and biological processes, although the use of biological machining is limited. In biological machining, microorganisms are used as a source of energy to machine the components, and machining with microorganism brings a lot of advantages in the machining process like the production of components with lower energy resources, low cost, no heat-affected zone and fine dimensional tolerances, which makes it suitable for machining implant materials. In other machining process like conventional and unconventional machining processes, the heat-affected zone, dimensional tolerances and environmental-related problems are the major issues, as these processes generate more heat while machining. This damages the material, which will not be able to be used for certain applications, and this issue can be overcome by bio-machining. In this present work, nickel, titanium and nitinol are manufactured using the powder metallurgy technique. They are manufactured as a 10 mm diameter and 5 mm thick pellet. The fabricated nickel, titanium and nitinol shape memory alloys are machined with Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans microorganisms to obtain a better material removal rate and surface roughness and to check the bio-machining performance by considering various parameters such as shaking speed, temperature, pH and percentage of ferric content for the future scope of biomedical applications. Considering these parameters, microorganisms play a vital role in the temperature, shaking speed and time of the bio-machining process, and it was observed that a better material removal rate and surface roughness are achieved at a temperature of 30 °C, shaking speed of 140 rpm and machining time of 72 h. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Composites)
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13 pages, 3410 KiB  
Article
Reversibility of Swelling, pH Sensitivity, Electroconductivity, and Mechanical Properties of Composites Based on Polyacrylic Acid Hydrogels and Conducting Polymers
by Galina Elyashevich, Elena Rosova, Zoolsho Zoolshoev, Natalia Saprykina and Ivan Kuryndin
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(6), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7060261 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1389
Abstract
Composites based on polyacrylic acid gels as matrices and conducting polymers (polyaniline and polypyrrole) as functional components have been obtained. It has been shown that the dependence of the equilibrium degree of swelling on the pH medium for the matrices demonstrates its pronounced [...] Read more.
Composites based on polyacrylic acid gels as matrices and conducting polymers (polyaniline and polypyrrole) as functional components have been obtained. It has been shown that the dependence of the equilibrium degree of swelling on the pH medium for the matrices demonstrates its pronounced maximum at pH = 11. The reversibility of the processes of swelling/contraction for the matrices and composites over a wide variation of swelling medium acidities was studied and analyzed. The effect of the crosslinking degree of the matrix on the content of the conducting components in the composites was determined. The electric conductivity of the composites depended on the degree of crosslinking of the matrices, and the content of the conducting component was measured. Deformational characteristics at compression were measured for the matrices and composites prepared in block-shaped cylinders. It was proven that the formation of a rigid-chain conducting polymer phase in the composites led to an increase in the elastic modulus as compared with the one for the matrix gel, but it did not cause a noticeable decrease in elasticity. It was observed that the new composites were characterized by a combination of swelling capacity, pH sensitivity, and electroconductivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Conductive Polymer Composites, Volume II)
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16 pages, 4126 KiB  
Article
Extraction and Physicochemical Characterization of an Environmentally Friendly Biopolymer: Chitosan for Composite Matrix Application
by Meryiem Derraz, Abdelaziz Elouahli, Chouaib Ennawaoui, Mohamed Aymen Ben Achour, Abdelkader Rjafallah, El Mehdi Laadissi, Hamza Khallok, Zineb Hatim and Abdelowahed Hajjaji
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(6), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7060260 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1363
Abstract
Chitosan, which is a derivative of chitin, is particularly popular due to its biodegradable and renewable nature. However, the properties of chitosan can be inconsistent due to the extraction process and its natural origin, which poses a challenge to its use in composite [...] Read more.
Chitosan, which is a derivative of chitin, is particularly popular due to its biodegradable and renewable nature. However, the properties of chitosan can be inconsistent due to the extraction process and its natural origin, which poses a challenge to its use in composite materials as a matrix. The properties of chitosan can be tuned by controlling the degree of deacetylation (the extent to which acetyl groups are removed from chitin to form chitosan) and molecular weight. This paper presents a detailed study on the extraction and characterization of chitosan from shrimp shells. The structural thermal and mechanical characterization were studied using several techniques: Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The intrinsic viscosity and deacetylation degree were determined using various methods. The results showed an average degree of deacetylation of 77%. The chitosan films exhibited a high tensile strength of 43.9 MPa and an elongation at break of 3.14%. The thermal analysis revealed that the films had a glass transition temperature of 88 °C and a maximum thermal degradation temperature of 320 °C. The findings of this research could contribute to the development of chitosan-based materials with improved properties, leading to its wider adoption in the future for composite matrix application. The simple and efficient method used for the extraction and purification of chitosan from shrimp shells makes it a cost-effective and eco-friendly alternative to synthetic polymers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biocomposites)
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12 pages, 2652 KiB  
Article
Capillary Rise: A Simple Tool for Simultaneous Determination of Porosity and Thickness of Thin Silica Coatings
by Emmanuel E. Ubuo, Inimfon A. Udoetok, Andrew T. Tyouwa, Clement O. Obadimu and Hamza S. Al-Shehri
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(6), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7060259 - 19 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1102
Abstract
Coating porosity is an important property that supports solid-gas and solid-liquid exchange that can either enhance various science and technological applications or promote damage if not properly controlled. However, non-destructive instrumental techniques for the measurement of porosity on coated walls or surfaces can [...] Read more.
Coating porosity is an important property that supports solid-gas and solid-liquid exchange that can either enhance various science and technological applications or promote damage if not properly controlled. However, non-destructive instrumental techniques for the measurement of porosity on coated walls or surfaces can be quite challenging. Here, a seamless capillary rise technique has been used to determine both the thickness and porosity of a thin silica coating. Uniform coatings were prepared from 5 wt% hydrophobic fumed silica in absolute ethanol and spin-coated at 500–8000 rpm on glass slides. Capillary imbibition of squalane was then controlled into known areas of the resulted hydrophobic nano-porous coatings. The mass of the solid (silica) and the infiltrated oil (squalane) were gravimetrically measured. The porosity of the material was calculated as the percentage fraction of the pore volume while the film thickness was determined as the ratio of the total volume to the area of coverage. Mean values of the porosity and coating thickness calculated from capillary impregnation technique were 86 ± 2% and 3.7 ± 0.2 μm, respectively. The coating thickness obtained was comparable with those revealed by SEM and Dektak profiler measurements. This study highlights the effectiveness of capillary rise as a simple and cost-effective non-destructive technique for assessment of coating thickness and porosity. Full article
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20 pages, 9123 KiB  
Article
Numerical Investigation of Flexural Behavior of Reinforced Concrete (RC) T-Beams Strengthened with Pre-Stressed Iron-Based (FeMnSiCrNi) Shape Memory Alloy Bars
by Ahmed Khalil, Mohamed Elkafrawy, Rami Hawileh, Mohammad AlHamaydeh and Wael Abuzaid
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(6), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7060258 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1477
Abstract
Shape memory alloy (SMA) is a material that can change shape in response to external stimuli such as temperature, stress, or magnetic fields. SMA types include nitinol (nickel-titanium), copper-aluminum-nickel, copper-zinc-aluminum, iron-manganese-silicon, and various nickel-titanium-X alloys, each exhibiting unique shape memory properties for different [...] Read more.
Shape memory alloy (SMA) is a material that can change shape in response to external stimuli such as temperature, stress, or magnetic fields. SMA types include nitinol (nickel-titanium), copper-aluminum-nickel, copper-zinc-aluminum, iron-manganese-silicon, and various nickel-titanium-X alloys, each exhibiting unique shape memory properties for different applications. Reinforced concrete (RC) T-beams strengthened and pre-stressed with Fe-SMA bars are numerically investigated for their flexural response under the influence of various parameters. The bars are embedded in a concrete layer attached to the beam’s soffit. Based on the numerical results, it was found that increasing the compression strength from 30 to 60 MPa slightly improves the beam’s strength (by 2%), but it significantly increases its ductility by approximately 45%. As opposed to this, the strength and ductility of the pre-stressed T-beam are considerably improved by using a larger diameter of Fe-SMA bars. Specifically, using 12 mm Fe-SMA bar over 6 mm resulted in 65% and 47% greater strength and ductility, respectively. Furthermore, this study examines the importance of considering the flange in the flexural design of pre-stressed beams. It is seen that considering a 500 mm flange width enhanced the ductility by 25% compared to the rectangular-section beam. The authors recommend further experimental work to validate and supplement the calculations and methodology used in the current numerical analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Composites Modelling and Characterization)
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15 pages, 4480 KiB  
Article
Application of Acoustic Metamaterials in Pulse-Echo Ultrasonic Evaluation of Thick Hybrid Composite Laminates
by Jingwen Zhao, Raj Das and Akbar A. Khatibi
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(6), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7060257 - 19 Jun 2023
Viewed by 851
Abstract
Significant challenges exist in inspecting thick composite laminates for manufacturing defects and operational damage. This is due to acoustic attenuation and impedance mismatch at the interface between the different composite layers. An innovative concept for enhancing ultrasonic testing of such composite laminates is [...] Read more.
Significant challenges exist in inspecting thick composite laminates for manufacturing defects and operational damage. This is due to acoustic attenuation and impedance mismatch at the interface between the different composite layers. An innovative concept for enhancing ultrasonic testing of such composite laminates is introduced in this study. The proposed solution exploits the ability of acoustic metamaterials to cloak virgin composite. Herein, we show that by incorporating carefully designed metamaterials in a pulse-echo ultrasonic testing setup, the position and size of a delamination in a thick hybrid composite laminate can be determined accurately. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2023)
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21 pages, 9510 KiB  
Article
Sawdust-Based Concrete Composite-Filled Steel Tube Beams: An Experimental and Analytical Investigation
by Ammar N. Hanoon, Mahir M. Hason, Amjad Ali K. Sharba, Ali A. Abdulhameed, Mugahed Amran, Siva Avudaiappan and Erick Saavedra Flores
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(6), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7060256 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1020
Abstract
Incorporating waste byproducts into concrete is an innovative and promising way to minimize the environmental impact of waste material while maintaining and/or improving concrete’s mechanical characteristics and strength. The proper application of sawdust as a pozzolan in the building industry remains a significant [...] Read more.
Incorporating waste byproducts into concrete is an innovative and promising way to minimize the environmental impact of waste material while maintaining and/or improving concrete’s mechanical characteristics and strength. The proper application of sawdust as a pozzolan in the building industry remains a significant challenge. Consequently, this study conducted an experimental evaluation of sawdust as a fill material. In particular, sawdust as a fine aggregate in concrete offers a realistic structural and economical possibility for the construction of lightweight structural systems. Failure under four-point loads was investigated for six concrete-filled steel tube (CFST) specimens. The results indicated that recycled lightweight concrete performed similarly to conventional concrete when used as a filler material in composite steel tube beams. The structural effects of sawdust substitution on ultimate load and initial stiffness were less substantial than the relative changes in the material properties, and the ultimate capacity of the tested samples decreased moderately as the substitution percentage of sawdust increased. Moreover, the maximum load capacity was observed to decrease by 6.43–30.71% for sawdust replacement levels between 5% and 45.1% across all tested samples. Additionally, when using lightweight concrete with 5% sawdust, the moment value of the CFST sample was reduced by 6.4%. Notably, the sawdust CFST samples exhibited a flexural behavior that was relatively comparable to that of the standard CFST samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composites for Construction Industry)
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12 pages, 3867 KiB  
Article
CeF3-YF3-TbF3 Nanoparticle-Polymer–“Radachlorin” Conjugates for Combined Photodynamic Therapy: Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Activity
by Alexey Nizamutdinov, Elena Lukinova, Nail Shamsutdinov, Pavel Zelenikhin, Alina Khusainova, Marat Gafurov, Sergey Zinchenko, Damir Safin and Maksim Pudovkin
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(6), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7060255 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 952
Abstract
Promising material for hybrid photodynamic therapy consisting of Ce0.5Y0.35Tb0.15F3 crystalline nanoparticles and Radachlorin is reported. One possible option of conjugation of Ce0.5Y0.35Tb0.15F3 nanoparticles and Radachlorin using polyethylenimine (PEI) is [...] Read more.
Promising material for hybrid photodynamic therapy consisting of Ce0.5Y0.35Tb0.15F3 crystalline nanoparticles and Radachlorin is reported. One possible option of conjugation of Ce0.5Y0.35Tb0.15F3 nanoparticles and Radachlorin using polyethylenimine (PEI) is tested. The energy transfer reaches 28%. It is shown that conjugates of CeF3—Tb3+ NPs and Radachlorin using PEI—are stable, and the distance between nanoparticles and photosensitizer molecules is about 5 nm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nanocomposites)
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13 pages, 1040 KiB  
Article
Effects of Gamma Radiation Doses on the AC Electrical Properties of Epoxy Reinforced with Nano-Silica Composites
by Batool A. Abusaleh, Ziad M. Elimat, Ruba I. Alzubi and Hassan K. Juwhari
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(6), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7060254 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1018
Abstract
This study reports the effects of gamma radiation on the AC electrical properties of epoxy nano-silica composite sheets with an average thickness of 3 mm. Epoxy reinforced with different nano-silica concentrations of 0, 5, 10, and 15 wt.%. The epoxy nano-silica composites were [...] Read more.
This study reports the effects of gamma radiation on the AC electrical properties of epoxy nano-silica composite sheets with an average thickness of 3 mm. Epoxy reinforced with different nano-silica concentrations of 0, 5, 10, and 15 wt.%. The epoxy nano-silica composites were exposed to different gamma radiation dosages of 1, 3, and 5 kGy. The data were analyzed before and after gamma irradiation and the results showed that the AC electrical properties of the gamma-irradiated epoxy nano-silica composites varied from those of the non-irradiated samples. We found that there were significant changes in the impedance, dielectric constant, dielectric loss, and AC electrical conductivity values of the epoxy nano-silica composites after irradiation, and the AC electrical conductivity and dielectric constant values of the nano-silica composites were enhanced by exposing the samples to gamma radiation because more free electrons were released inside the epoxy nano-silica composites. The AC electrical properties, such as impedance, dielectric constant, dielectric loss, and electrical conductivity, of the epoxy nano-silica composites were studied and discussed before and after gamma radiation with different dosages. We found that these AC electrical properties marginally increased with increasing doses of gamma irradiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nanocomposites)
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25 pages, 4401 KiB  
Review
A Review on the Fabrication and Mechanical Characterization of Fibrous Composites for Engineering Applications
by H. S. Ashrith, T. P. Jeevan and Jinyang Xu
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(6), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7060252 - 18 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1848
Abstract
This review focuses on the fabrication and mechanical characterization of fibrous composites for engineering applications. Fibrous composites are materials composed of two or more distinct phases, with fibers embedded in a matrix. The properties of these materials depend on the properties of both [...] Read more.
This review focuses on the fabrication and mechanical characterization of fibrous composites for engineering applications. Fibrous composites are materials composed of two or more distinct phases, with fibers embedded in a matrix. The properties of these materials depend on the properties of both the fibers and the matrix, as well as the way they are combined and fabricated. The various fabrication methods, along with the process parameters, used to manufacture synthetic and natural fibrous composites for engineering applications, including hand lay-up, compression molding, resin transfer molding, additive manufacturing, etc., are discussed. The mechanical characterization of fibrous composites, including their strength, stiffness, and toughness of both synthetic and natural fibrous composites are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of fiber reinforcement are discussed, along with their influence on the resulting mechanical characteristics of the composites. It can be observed that the mechanical properties of fibrous composites can be tailored by controlling various factors, such as the fiber orientation, fiber volume fraction, and matrix type. Although fibrous composites offer significant advantages, several challenges hinder their widespread use in engineering applications. These challenges include high manufacturing costs, limited design guidelines, and difficulties in predicting their mechanical behavior under various loading conditions. Therefore, despite their unique properties, these challenges must be overcome for fibrous composites to realize their full potential as high-performance materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing of Fibrous Composites for Engineering Applications)
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12 pages, 4056 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Nitrogen Flow Rate on the Structure and Properties of Mo-Hf-Y-Si-B-N Coatings
by Philipp Kiryukhantsev-Korneev, Alina Sytchenko, Fedor Chudarin, Boris Senatulin and Evgeny Levashov
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(6), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7060253 - 17 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1091
Abstract
This work is devoted to the production of Mo-Hf-Y-Si-B-N coatings using magnetron sputtering with varying N2 flow rate; the analysis of magnetron discharge plasma; and the investigation of the structure, and optical, mechanical, and tribological characteristics, as well as crack resistance and [...] Read more.
This work is devoted to the production of Mo-Hf-Y-Si-B-N coatings using magnetron sputtering with varying N2 flow rate; the analysis of magnetron discharge plasma; and the investigation of the structure, and optical, mechanical, and tribological characteristics, as well as crack resistance and oxidation resistance, of the coatings. The results show that Mo-Hf-Y-Si-B-N coatings were characterized by a dense, homogeneous structure. The non-reactive coatings had a maximum growth rate of 270 nm/min. An increase in the flow rate of N2 from 0 to 37.5 sccm led to a decrease in the growth rate by 5.4 times. Mo-Hf-Y-Si-B-N coatings were X-ray amorphous. In non-reactive coatings, the presence of Mo-Si and Mo-B bonds was revealed. The introduction of nitrogen contributed to the formation of an additional Si-N bond, an increase in the proportion of which led to an increase in transmittance. The Mo-Hf-Y-Si-B coating was characterized by a hardness value of 14 GPa. The maximum hardness of 16 GPa was observed in coatings obtained at nitrogen flow rates of 12.5 and 25.0 sccm. A further increase in the consumption of N2 to 37.5 sccm led to a decrease in hardness by 38%. The coating obtained at a flow rate of 25 sccm N2 was characterized by maximum elastic recovery of 57%, elastic strain to failure of 0.098, and resistance to plastic deformation of 0.157 GPa. An increase in nitrogen flow rate from 0 to 12.5 sccm contributed to a decrease in the wear rate of coatings under sliding friction conditions by 40%. The non-reactive Mo-Hf-Y-Si-B coating had the best oxidation resistance at 1000 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Composites)
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20 pages, 5745 KiB  
Article
Ternary Ni-Ce-Mg-O Composites: In-Depth Optical Spectroscopy Study and Catalytic Performance in CO Oxidation
by Grigory B. Veselov, Vladimir O. Stoyanovskii and Aleksey A. Vedyagin
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(6), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7060251 - 15 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 922
Abstract
In the present work, ternary Ni-Ce-Mg-O composites containing various amounts of NiO and CeO2 were synthesized via a sol-gel approach. Aqueous solutions of cerium and nickel nitrates were introduced at the stage of hydrolysis of magnesium methoxide, which allowed for avoiding the [...] Read more.
In the present work, ternary Ni-Ce-Mg-O composites containing various amounts of NiO and CeO2 were synthesized via a sol-gel approach. Aqueous solutions of cerium and nickel nitrates were introduced at the stage of hydrolysis of magnesium methoxide, which allowed for avoiding the use of expensive organic precursors. It was revealed that the properties of the composites were defined by the complex interactions between NiO, CeO2, and MgO components. In order to perform an in-depth characterization of the prepared samples, diffuse reflectance UV–vis and Raman spectroscopies were applied. According to the results of these methods, Mg2+ ions did not substitute Ce4+ ions in the CeO2 lattice. However, in the case of the Ni-containing samples, approximately 2–3% of the Ce4+ ions were substituted by Ni2+, thus resulting in the formation of vacancies in the CeO2. The strong interaction of NiO with MgO predictably resulted in the formation of NixMg1−xO solid solutions. When the NiO content in the sample was 20 wt%, the composition of the formed solid solution was estimated to be Ni0.60Mg0.40O. In addition, the presence of CeO2 affected the texture of the ternary composites, thus leading to a slight decrease in the specific surface area. The catalytic performance of the Ni-Ce-Mg-O composites was examined in the CO oxidation reaction under prompt thermal aging conditions. The choice of reaction conditions was due to a high sensitivity of the CO oxidation response toward the available metal surface area and possible metal-support interactions. Full article
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17 pages, 6195 KiB  
Article
Chopped Basalt Fiber-Reinforced High-Performance Concrete: An Experimental and Analytical Study
by Ahmed M. Tahwia, Khaled A. Helal and Osama Youssf
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(6), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7060250 - 15 Jun 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1051
Abstract
Basalt fiber (BF) is an environmentally friendly type of fiber that has attracted the attention of researchers in recent years due to its excellent performance in concrete constructions. This current research was conducted to investigate the effect of chopped basalt fiber on the [...] Read more.
Basalt fiber (BF) is an environmentally friendly type of fiber that has attracted the attention of researchers in recent years due to its excellent performance in concrete constructions. This current research was conducted to investigate the effect of chopped basalt fiber on the workability, compressive strength, and impact resistance of high-performance concrete (HPC). Three various lengths (3, 12, and 18 mm) and six volume fractions (0%, 0.075%, 0.15%, 0.3%, 0.45%, and 0.6% by concrete volume) of BF were used in producing sixteen HPC mixes. HPC compressive strength and impact resistance were measured for each mix. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was also conducted on selected mixes to closely investigate the effects of the applied variables through the microstructural scale. An empirical model was developed to study the relationship between the impact energy and compressive strength of BF-reinforced HPC. The results show that adding BF improves the compressive strength and impact resistance. Compared with the control concrete, the compressive strength of the HPC reinforced with 3 mm, 12 mm, and 18 mm BF increased by 12.2%, 15.1%, and 17.5%, respectively. The impact resistance increased with a dosage of 8 kg/m3 for all lengths of BF. The SEM observations revealed that the BF accumulated in pores and on the surface of the attached cement which improved the microstructure of the interfacial transition zone (ITZ), which further enhanced the strength and ductility of the HPC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Fiber Composites)
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16 pages, 6598 KiB  
Article
The Potential of Replacing Concrete with Sand and Recycled Polycarbonate Composites: Compressive Strength Testing
by Morgan C. Woods, Apoorv Kulkarni and Joshua M. Pearce
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(6), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7060249 - 15 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1969
Abstract
Concrete contributes 8% of all global carbon emissions, making the need to find substitutes critical for environmental sustainability. Research has indicated the potential for recycled plastics to be used as concrete substitutes. This study extends existing research by investigating the use of polycarbonate [...] Read more.
Concrete contributes 8% of all global carbon emissions, making the need to find substitutes critical for environmental sustainability. Research has indicated the potential for recycled plastics to be used as concrete substitutes. This study extends existing research by investigating the use of polycarbonate (PC) in plastic sand bricks as a mechanical equivalent to concrete. PC has high compressive strength, durability, impact strength, thermal resistivity, clarity, fatigue resistance, and UV resistance. This work provides a method and mold to produce a matrix of sand–plastic sample compositions with dimensions adhering to the ASTM D695 standard for compressive properties of rigid plastic. Compositions of 0% (control), 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% sand by weight were tested. Samples were tested for compressive strength until yield and stress–strain behaviors were plotted. The results for 100% PC demonstrated an average and maximum compressive strength of 71 MPa and 72 MPa, respectively. The 50% PC and 50% sand composition yielded an average and maximum compressive strength of 71 MPa and 73 MPa, respectively, with an increase in compressive stiffness and transition to shear failure resembling concrete. With a composite density of 1.86 g/cm3 compared to concrete’s average of 2.4 g/cm3, and a compressive strength exceeding commercial concrete demands of 23.3 MPa to 30.2 MPa, this lightweight alternative meets the strength demands of concrete, reduces the need for new construction materials, and provides an additional recycling opportunity for nonbiodegradable waste plastic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2023)
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12 pages, 1287 KiB  
Article
Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Recyclable Composites Prepared from Bio-Olefins and Industrial Waste
by Perla Y. Sauceda-Oloño, Ana C. Borbon-Almada, Martin Gaxiola, Ashlyn D. Smith, Andrew G. Tennyson and Rhett C. Smith
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(6), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7060248 - 15 Jun 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1425
Abstract
Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) production consumes tremendous amounts of fresh water and energy and releases vast quantities of CO2 into the atmosphere. Not only would an alternative to OPC whose production requires no water, releases little CO2, and consumes less [...] Read more.
Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) production consumes tremendous amounts of fresh water and energy and releases vast quantities of CO2 into the atmosphere. Not only would an alternative to OPC whose production requires no water, releases little CO2, and consumes less energy represent a transformative advance in the pursuit of industrial decarbonization, but the greater availability of safe drinking water would lead to significantly improved public health, particularly among vulnerable populations most at risk from contaminated water supply. For any OPC alternative to be adopted on any meaningful scale, however, its structural capabilities must meet or exceed those of OPC. An inverse vulcanization of brown grease, sunflower oil, and elemental sulfur (5:5:90 weight ratio) was successfully modified to afford the high-sulfur-content material SunBG90 in quantities > 1 kg, as was necessary for standardized ASTM and ISO testing. Water absorption (ASTM C140) and thermal conductivity (ISO 8302) values for SunBG90 (<1 wt% and 0.126 W·m−1·K−1, respectively) were 84% and 94% lower than those for OPC, respectively, suggesting that SunBG90 would be more resistant against freeze-thaw and thermal stress damage than OPC. Consequently, not only does SunBG90 represent a more environmentally friendly material than OPC, but its superior thermomechanical properties suggest that it could be a more environmentally robust material on its own merits, particularly for outdoor structural applications involving significant exposure to water and seasonal or day/night temperature swings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Polymer Composites)
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12 pages, 1961 KiB  
Article
An In Vitro Comparison of Elastoplastic and Viscoelastic Behavior of Dental Composites with Reversible Addition–Fragmentation Chain Transfer-Mediated Polymerization
by Nicoleta Ilie
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(6), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7060247 - 13 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 719
Abstract
Reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT)-mediated polymerization has been implemented in commercially available bulk-fill dental composites, with the idea of either optimizing polymerization at depth, while providing sufficient opacity, or reducing exposure time. The elastoplastic and viscoelastic behavior of the materials pursuing both ideas [...] Read more.
Reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT)-mediated polymerization has been implemented in commercially available bulk-fill dental composites, with the idea of either optimizing polymerization at depth, while providing sufficient opacity, or reducing exposure time. The elastoplastic and viscoelastic behavior of the materials pursuing both ideas are described comparatively in connection with the microstructure of the materials and artificial aging. A 3-point bending test was followed by reliability and fractographical analyses. The elastoplastic and viscoelastic behavior was monitored with an instrumented indentation test equipped with a DMA-module at various frequencies (0.5–5 Hz). Data reveal that the similarity in filler loading is reflected in similar elastic moduli. Increased strength was offset by higher plasticity and creep and was related to microstructure. Aging showed a significantly stronger influence on material behavior than differences in composition. The elastoplastic parameters of both materials deteriorate as a result of aging, but to a material-specific extent. Aging has a strong influence on elastic material behavior, but very little on viscous material behavior. The parameter that is most sensitive to aging is damping behavior. Detailed laboratory characterization indicates comparable in vitro behavior with clinically successful materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composites: Biomaterials in Dental Fields, Volume II)
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20 pages, 5070 KiB  
Article
Failure Modes Behavior of Different Strengthening Types of RC Slabs Subjected to Low-Velocity Impact Loading: A Review
by Rayeh Nasr Al-Dala’ien, Agusril Syamsir, Mohd Supian Abu Bakar, Fathoni Usman and Mohammed Jalal Abdullah
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(6), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7060246 - 13 Jun 2023
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1785
Abstract
Concrete is brittle; hence, it is incredibly likely that concrete buildings may fail in both local and global ways under dynamic and impulsive stresses. An extensive review investigation was carried out to examine reinforced concrete (RC) slab behavior under low-velocity impact loading. Significant [...] Read more.
Concrete is brittle; hence, it is incredibly likely that concrete buildings may fail in both local and global ways under dynamic and impulsive stresses. An extensive review investigation was carried out to examine reinforced concrete (RC) slab behavior under low-velocity impact loading. Significant past research studies that dealt with experimental and numerical simulations and analytical modeling of the RC slabs under impact loading have been presented in this work. As a result, numerous attempts to define failure behavior and to assess concrete structures’ vulnerability to lateral impact loads have been made in the literature. Based on analytical, numerical, and experimental studies carried out in previous research, this article thoroughly reviewed the current state of the art regarding the responses and failure behaviors of various types of concrete structures and members subjected to low-velocity impact loading. The effects of different structural and load-related factors were examined regarding the impact strength and failure behavior of reinforced concrete slabs reinforced with various types of strengthening procedures and exposed to low-velocity impact loads. The reviews suggested that advanced composite materials, shear reinforcement, and hybrid techniques are promising for effectively strengthening concrete structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Polymeric Composites and Hybrid Materials)
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17 pages, 2539 KiB  
Article
Composite Alginate–Ginger Oil Edible Coating for Fresh-Cut Pears
by Neelakanth A. Lamani and Hosahalli S. Ramaswamy
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(6), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7060245 - 12 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1256
Abstract
Fresh-cut fruit is highly perishable due to damage to its external protective skin leading to the acceleration of chemical and biochemical activities, respiration rate, ethylene production, texture softening and moisture loss. Edible films and coatings can provide effective barrier properties to control respiration [...] Read more.
Fresh-cut fruit is highly perishable due to damage to its external protective skin leading to the acceleration of chemical and biochemical activities, respiration rate, ethylene production, texture softening and moisture loss. Edible films and coatings can provide effective barrier properties to control respiration and transpiration of produce. Sodium alginate and ginger oil have been successfully employed as coating materials in several studies. This study focused on evaluating the effect of composite alginate and ginger-essential-oil-based edible coatings for controlling physiological and microbiological activity in fresh-cut pear during refrigerated storage. A 2% sodium alginate solution with 0.5% ginger oil as a herbal antimicrobial agent was used as coating material and a 2% calcium chloride dip was used for cross linking and firming. Coated cut fruit and control cut fruit were sealed in plastic containers and stored at 4 °C for two weeks. Respiration rate, color, texture, moisture loss and other quality parameters were evaluated during the storage. The coated fruit (both with and without ginger oil) had significantly better retention of product quality with no microbial spoilage up to 15 days as compared to the control fruit which spoiled within a week. The sodium alginate–ginger oil–calcium alginate formulation was recommended as a good composite coating for extending the refrigerated shelf-life of cut pears. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Composites Applications)
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12 pages, 2574 KiB  
Article
Design and Analysis of an Automobile Disc Brake Rotor by Using Hybrid Aluminium Metal Matrix Composite for High Reliability
by Mandeep Singh, Harish Kumar Garg, Sthitapragyan Maharana, Appusamy Muniappan, M. K. Loganathan, Tien V. T. Nguyen and V. Vijayan
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(6), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7060244 - 12 Jun 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2205
Abstract
Due to their superior capabilities for manufacturing lightweight automotive components, aluminium metal matrix composites have gained a lot of attention in the last few years. Aluminium metal matrix composites are an exceptional class of metal matrix composites that can solve all the major [...] Read more.
Due to their superior capabilities for manufacturing lightweight automotive components, aluminium metal matrix composites have gained a lot of attention in the last few years. Aluminium metal matrix composites are an exceptional class of metal matrix composites that can solve all the major problems related to the automobile industry. Aluminium matrix composites in the disc braking system have already been employed and studied by many scientists. However, the developed materials are not yet always sufficiently accurate and reliable. In this article, a new enhanced metal matrix composite material is used and studied to improve the efficiency of an ordinary car’s braking system. To improve the accuracy of the designated braking system, an innovative hybrid aluminium matrix composite (Al6061/SiC/Gr)-based brake rotor has been developed, and its effectiveness has been determined by finite element analysis. From the simulation, the product performance confirmed that the hybrid aluminium matrix composite (Al6061/SiC/Gr)-based brake rotor has the potential to replace the standard cast iron brake disc. The new enhanced hybrid composite material used in this study can be used for the efficient design of various braking parts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Composites)
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19 pages, 3674 KiB  
Article
Glassy and Rubbery Epoxy Composites with Mesoporous Silica
by Dimitrios Gkiliopoulos, Dimitrios Bikiaris, Doukas Efstathiadis and Konstantinos Triantafyllidis
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(6), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7060243 - 12 Jun 2023
Viewed by 807
Abstract
The reinforcing efficiency of SBA-15-type mesoporous silica, when used as additive in epoxy polymers, was evaluated in this study. The effects of silica loading and its physicochemical characteristics on the thermal, mechanical, and viscoelastic properties of glassy and rubbery epoxy mesocomposites were examined [...] Read more.
The reinforcing efficiency of SBA-15-type mesoporous silica, when used as additive in epoxy polymers, was evaluated in this study. The effects of silica loading and its physicochemical characteristics on the thermal, mechanical, and viscoelastic properties of glassy and rubbery epoxy mesocomposites were examined using SBA-15 mesoporous silicas with varying porosities (surface area, pore size, and volume), particle sizes, morphologies, and organo-functionalization. Three types of SBA-15 were used: SBA-15 (10) with 10 nm pore diameters and long particles, SBA-15 (5) with 5 nm pore diameters and short particles, and SBA-15 (sc) with 10 nm pore diameters and short particles (“sc” for short channel). SBA-15 (10) was modified with propyl-, epoxy-, and amino-groups to study the effect of functionalization. The glassy or rubbery epoxy polymers and mesocomposites were produced by the crosslinking of a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DEGBA) epoxy resin with isophorone diamine (IPD) or Jeffaminje D-2000, respectively. Mesoporous silica was uniformly dispersed inside the polymer matrices; however, the opacity levels between the rubbery and glassy samples were different, with completely transparent rubbery composites being prepared with as high as a 9 wt. % addition of SBA-15. The mechanical and thermal performance properties of the mesocomposites were dependent on both the type of the curing agent, which affected the cross-linking density of the pristine polymer matrix, and the characteristics of the mesoporous silica variants, being, in general, improved by the addition of up to 6 wt. % silica for the glassy polymers and up to 9 wt. % for the rubbery polymers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2023)
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20 pages, 4496 KiB  
Review
Biopolymer-Based Composites: An Eco-Friendly Alternative from Agricultural Waste Biomass
by Yashas Gowda T. G., Sharath Ballupete Nagaraju, Madhu Puttegowda, Akarsh Verma, Sanjay Mavinkere Rangappa and Suchart Siengchin
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(6), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7060242 - 11 Jun 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2699
Abstract
This review article addresses the potential for biopolymer-based composites made from agricultural waste biomass to replace conventional materials in a sustainable and responsible manner. The composition and manufacturing method of biopolymer-based composites are described in the article, along with some of their distinctive [...] Read more.
This review article addresses the potential for biopolymer-based composites made from agricultural waste biomass to replace conventional materials in a sustainable and responsible manner. The composition and manufacturing method of biopolymer-based composites are described in the article, along with some of their distinctive qualities and benefits, such as their low cost, renewable nature, and biodegradability. The article also shows a number of real-world uses for these composites, including packaging, construction, vehicle parts, biofuels, soil amendments, and medical uses. Overall, the article highlights the potential of biopolymer-based composites made from agricultural waste biomass for lowering waste generation, decreasing dependency on non-renewable resources, and boosting sustainability in a variety of industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biocomposites)
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20 pages, 4837 KiB  
Article
Bulk Glass Reinforced Composite Columns: Physical Testing Results, Analysis, and Discussion
by John Cotter and Rasim Guldiken
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(6), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7060241 - 11 Jun 2023
Viewed by 872
Abstract
Glass-reinforced composite columns (GRCCs) may provide an economical alternative to conventional construction materials due to the superior cost to strength provided by bulk glass. Prior to this study, no GRCCs had been physically tested, having previously relied on simulation to predict the behavior [...] Read more.
Glass-reinforced composite columns (GRCCs) may provide an economical alternative to conventional construction materials due to the superior cost to strength provided by bulk glass. Prior to this study, no GRCCs had been physically tested, having previously relied on simulation to predict the behavior of the columns. This study utilizes polyurethane resin bonds in place of sizing agents for adherence between materials, a key requirement for the development of the structural system of the columns. The unreinforced control column failed at a load of 11.2 kN while the maximum GRCC load was 30.8 kN. This indicates that glass can be loaded to 123 MPa before the onset of delamination failure of the GRCCs. Maximum shear stress of 53 MPa was reached, exceeding the 11 MPa required for practical GRCCs. Buckling of the columns occurred at 30.8 kN, below the theoretical maximum of 64.4 kN. Through gradual delamination, the column slowly transferred to an unbonded condition, causing buckling failure. Delamination is unlikely to occur in practical GRCCs due to the lower required shear strengths. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composites for Construction Industry)
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20 pages, 9447 KiB  
Review
Conducting Polymer Nanocomposites for Electromagnetic Interference Shielding—Radical Developments
by Ayesha Kausar and Ishaq Ahmad
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(6), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7060240 - 10 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2423
Abstract
Electromagnetic interference disturbs the working of electronic devices and affects the surroundings and human health. Consequently, research has led to the development of radiation-protection materials. Inherently conducting polymers have been found to be suitable for electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding owing to their fine [...] Read more.
Electromagnetic interference disturbs the working of electronic devices and affects the surroundings and human health. Consequently, research has led to the development of radiation-protection materials. Inherently conducting polymers have been found to be suitable for electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding owing to their fine electrical conductivity properties. Moreover, nanoparticle-reinforced conjugated polymers have been used to form efficient nanocomposites for EMI shielding. Nanoparticle addition has further enhanced the radiation protection capability of conducting polymers. This state-of-the-art comprehensive review describes the potential of conducting polymer nanocomposites for EMI shielding. Conducting polymers, such as polyaniline, polypyrrole, and polythiophene, have been widely used to form nanocomposites with carbon, metal, and inorganic nanoparticles. The EMI shielding effectiveness of conducting polymers and nanocomposites has been the focus of researchers. Moreover, the microscopic, mechanical, thermal, magnetic, electrical, dielectric, and permittivity properties of nanocomposites have been explored. Electrically conducting materials achieve high EMI shielding by absorbing and/or dissipating the electromagnetic field. The future of these nanomaterials relies on nanomaterial design, facile processing, and overcoming dispersion and processing challenges in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2023)
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23 pages, 4352 KiB  
Article
Statistical Analysis of the Ultimate Strength of Filaments, Tows and Minicomposites
by Jacques Lamon and Mohamed R’Mili
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(6), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7060239 - 08 Jun 2023
Viewed by 715
Abstract
The present paper investigates the failure of SiC and alumina-fiber-reinforced minicomposites in relation to the strength distributions of filaments, and the failure behavior of the reinforcing dry tows. The strength data are measured on single-filament, dry-tow and minicomposite specimens using tensile tests under [...] Read more.
The present paper investigates the failure of SiC and alumina-fiber-reinforced minicomposites in relation to the strength distributions of filaments, and the failure behavior of the reinforcing dry tows. The strength data are measured on single-filament, dry-tow and minicomposite specimens using tensile tests under commonly used test condition of strain-controlled loading. Pertinence of the normal distribution of strengths at different length scales is assessed using the construction of p-quantile diagrams, and the pertinence of the Weibull distribution was assessed by comparing to the normal distribution function. SiC and alumina minicomposites exhibited significantly different failure behaviors. Comparison with filament strength distributions and the behavior of the underlying tow in relation to the loading condition (stress- or strain-controlled conditions) allows for the interpretation of the results. The sensitivity of the results to loading conditions is highlighted. Various scenarios of minicomposite failure are discussed as alternatives to the stress concentration induced by clusters of broken fibers. It appears that the failure of alumina-fiber-reinforced minicomposites is stable and dictated by the highest-strength filaments, whereas the SiC-fiber-reinforced minicomposites exhibited premature failure that is attributed to the microstructural imperfections that induced overstressing by the fiber or fiber/matrix interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2023)
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18 pages, 5100 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of Ni-Cu-CNF Composite Materials via Carbon Erosion of Ni-Cu Bulk Alloys Prepared by Mechanochemical Alloying
by Sofya D. Afonnikova, Grigory B. Veselov, Yury I. Bauman, Evgeny Y. Gerasimov, Yury V. Shubin, Ilya V. Mishakov and Aleksey A. Vedyagin
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(6), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7060238 - 06 Jun 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1180
Abstract
The unique physical and chemical properties of composite materials based on carbon nanofibers (CNFs) makes them attractive to scientists and manufacturers. One promising method to produce CNFs is catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD). In the present work, a method based on carbon erosion [...] Read more.
The unique physical and chemical properties of composite materials based on carbon nanofibers (CNFs) makes them attractive to scientists and manufacturers. One promising method to produce CNFs is catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD). In the present work, a method based on carbon erosion (CE) of bulk microdispersed Ni-Cu alloys has been proposed to prepare efficient catalysts for the synthesis of CNF-based composites. The initial Ni-Cu alloys were obtained by mechanochemical alloying (MCA) of metallic powders in a planetary mill. The effect of MCA duration on the phase composition of Ni-Cu samples was studied by X-ray diffraction analysis and temperature-programmed reduction in hydrogen. It has been also revealed that, during such stages as heating, reduction, and short-term exposure to the reaction mixture (C2H4/H2/Ar) at 550 °C, the formation of a Ni-based solid solution from the initial Ni-Cu alloys takes place. The early stages of the CE process were monitored by transmission electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive X-Ray analysis. It was found that the composition of the catalytic particles is identical to that of the initial alloy. The morphological and structural features of the prepared Ni-Cu-CNF composites were studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. The textural characteristics of the composites were found to be dependent on the reaction time. Full article
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15 pages, 2998 KiB  
Article
PGS/Gelatin Nanocomposite Electrospun Wound Dressing
by Mahyar Naseri, Aysan Hedayatnazari and Lobat Tayebi
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(6), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7060237 - 06 Jun 2023
Viewed by 971
Abstract
Infectious diabetic wounds can result in severe injuries or even death. Biocompatible wound dressings offer one of the best ways to treat these wounds, but creating a dressing with a suitable hydrophilicity and biodegradation rate can be challenging. To address this issue, we [...] Read more.
Infectious diabetic wounds can result in severe injuries or even death. Biocompatible wound dressings offer one of the best ways to treat these wounds, but creating a dressing with a suitable hydrophilicity and biodegradation rate can be challenging. To address this issue, we used the electrospinning method to create a wound dressing composed of poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) and gelatin (Gel). We dissolved the PGS and Gel in acetic acid (75 v/v%) and added EDC/NHS solution as a crosslinking agent. Our measurements revealed that the scaffolds’ fiber diameter ranged from 180.2 to 370.6 nm, and all the scaffolds had porosity percentages above 70%, making them suitable for wound healing applications. Additionally, we observed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the contact angle from 110.8° ± 4.3° for PGS to 54.9° ± 2.1° for PGS/Gel scaffolds, indicating an improvement in hydrophilicity of the blend scaffold. Furthermore, our cell viability evaluations demonstrated a significant increase (p < 0.05) in cultured cell growth and proliferation on the scaffolds during the culture time. Our findings suggest that the PGS/Gel scaffold has potential for wound healing applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nanocomposites)
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13 pages, 17915 KiB  
Article
Ready-to-Use Recycled Carbon Fibres Decorated with Magnetic Nanoparticles: Functionalization after Recycling Process Using Supercritical Fluid Chemistry
by Sophie Martin, Tatjana Kosanovic Milickovic, Costas A. Charitidis and Sandy Moisan
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(6), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7060236 - 06 Jun 2023
Viewed by 983
Abstract
An innovative simultaneous process, using supercritical fluid (SCF) chemistry, was used to recycle uncured prepregs and to functionalize the recovered carbon fibres with Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), to produce a new type of secondary raw material suitable for composite applications. [...] Read more.
An innovative simultaneous process, using supercritical fluid (SCF) chemistry, was used to recycle uncured prepregs and to functionalize the recovered carbon fibres with Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), to produce a new type of secondary raw material suitable for composite applications. This specific functionalization allows the fibres to be heated by induction through a hysteresis loss mechanism characteristic for nanoparticle susceptor-embedded systems, for triggered healing properties and a potentially easy route for CF reclamation. Using SCF and hydrothermal conditions for recycling, functionalization of fibres can be performed in the same reactor, resulting in the creation of ready-to-use fibres and limiting the use organic solvent. After cutting the uncured prepreg to the desired length to fit in future applications, supercritical CO2 extraction is performed to partially remove some components of the uncured prepreg matrix (step 1). Then, the recycled carbon fibres (rCFs), still embedded inside the remaining organic matrix, are brought into contact with reactants for the functionalization step (step 2). Two possibilities were studied: the direct synthesis of MNPs coated with PAA in hydrothermal conditions, and the deposition of already synthesized MNPs assisted by supercritical CO2-acetone. No CF surface activation is needed thanks to the presence of functional groups due to the remaining matrix. After functionalization, ready-to-use material with homogeneous depositions of MNPs at the surface of rCF is produced, with a strong magnetic behaviour and without observed degradation of the fibres. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multifunctional Composite Structures)
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16 pages, 14189 KiB  
Article
Mechanical and Viscoelastic Properties of Carbon Fibre Epoxy Composites with Interleaved Graphite Nanoplatelet Layer
by Barbara Palmieri, Ciro Siviello, Angelo Petriccione, Manuela Espresso, Michele Giordano, Alfonso Martone and Fabrizia Cilento
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(6), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7060235 - 06 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1106
Abstract
The use of interleaving material with viscoelastic properties is one of the most effective solutions to improve the damping capacity of carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates. Improving composite damping without threatening mechanical performance is challenging and the use of nanomaterials should lead to [...] Read more.
The use of interleaving material with viscoelastic properties is one of the most effective solutions to improve the damping capacity of carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates. Improving composite damping without threatening mechanical performance is challenging and the use of nanomaterials should lead to the target. In this paper, the effect of a nanostructured interlayer based on graphite nanoplatelets (GNPs) on the damping capacity and fracture toughness of CFRP laminates has been investigated. High-content GNP/epoxy (70 wt/30 wt) coating was sprayed on the surface of CF/epoxy prepregs at two different contents (10 and 40 g/m2) and incorporated at the middle plane of a CFRP laminate. The effect of the GNP areal weights on the viscoelastic and mechanical behaviour of the laminates is investigated. Coupons with low GNP content showed a 25% increase in damping capacity with a trivial reduction in the storage modulus. Moreover, a reduction in interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) and fracture toughness (both mode I and mode II) was observed. The GNP alignment and degree of compaction reached during the process were found to be key parameters on material performances. By increasing the GNP content and compaction, a mitigation on the fracture drop was achieved (−15%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composite Carbon Fibers, Volume II)
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15 pages, 3833 KiB  
Article
Physico-Chemical Study of the Possibility of Utilization of Coal Ash by Processing as Secondary Raw Materials to Obtain a Composite Cement Clinker
by Bekkeldi Muratov, Alexandr Kolesnikov, Shermakhan Shapalov, Samal Syrlybekkyzy, Irina Volokitina, Dana Zhunisbekova, Gulchehra Takibayeva, Farida Nurbaeva, Taslima Aubakirova, Lazzat Nurshakhanova, Akmaral Koishina, Leila Seidaliyeva, Andrey Volokitin, Aizhan Izbassar and Igor Panarin
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(6), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7060234 - 06 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1327
Abstract
A significant amount of energy waste has accumulated in the world, in particular, large-tonnage fine ash from central heating stations (coal ash), which can negatively affect the natural environment and the health of the population. However, at the same time, due to its [...] Read more.
A significant amount of energy waste has accumulated in the world, in particular, large-tonnage fine ash from central heating stations (coal ash), which can negatively affect the natural environment and the health of the population. However, at the same time, due to its chemical composition, this waste can be disposed of by complex processing as a secondary mineral component, thus reducing the anthropogenic load on the natural environment. This article presents a physico-chemical study of coal ash for its further use as a secondary mineral component, in particular, a component of a raw mixture with limestone to produce a composite Portland cement clinker. Coal ash and limestone were subjected to granulometric, chemical, differential thermal, scanning electron microscopy, elemental chemical and X-ray structural analyses, as well as modeling to assess the possibility of optimizing the raw material and mineralogical composition of the composite Portland cement clinker. During the research, the chemical and elemental compositions of the coal ash and limestone were determined and SEM images of the coal ash were obtained; it was found that 68.04% of the coal ash was represented by the fraction with granules <0.16 mm. Using X-ray diffraction analysis, the main limestone minerals were identified, which were represented by calcite and silica. Based on the results of mathematical modeling of the utilization of coal ash from a thermal power plant by processing with limestone, a two-component raw material mixture containing 23.66% fly ash and 76.34% limestone was optimized and the optimal mineralogical composition of the composite Portland cement clinker was determined. Utilization of coal ash by processing as a secondary raw material can be carried out at almost any ash storage facility anywhere in the world, taking into account the chemical composition of the processed ash. It was found that the replacement of natural raw materials with man-made raw materials in the form of coal ash contributed to a reduction in fuel consumption for firing (kg of conventional fuel) by 13.76% and a decrease in the thermal effect of clinker formation by 5.063%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composites for Construction Industry)
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18 pages, 5656 KiB  
Article
Research on Improving Energy Storage Density and Efficiency of Dielectric Ceramic Ferroelectric Materials Based on BaTiO3 Doping with Multiple Elements
by Jiaxuan Sun and Yuanzhe Li
J. Compos. Sci. 2023, 7(6), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs7060233 - 05 Jun 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1397
Abstract
In order to promote the research of green energy in the situation of increasingly serious environmental pollution, dielectric ceramic energy storage materials, which have the advantages of an extremely fast charge and discharge cycle, high durability, and have a broad use in new [...] Read more.
In order to promote the research of green energy in the situation of increasingly serious environmental pollution, dielectric ceramic energy storage materials, which have the advantages of an extremely fast charge and discharge cycle, high durability, and have a broad use in new energy vehicles and pulse power, are being studied. However, the energy storage density of ordinary dielectric ceramic ferroelectric materials is low, so, in this paper, we have divided eight components based on BaTiO3 (BT). Through the traditional solid phase sintering method, AB positions were replaced with various elements of different proportions to improve their energy storage density and the energy storage efficiency of BT-based ferroelectric materials. In this paper, we studied the results of XRD, Raman, ferroelectric, dielectric, and impedance tests of doped samples, and the best components were determined. The (1−x)BT−xBi(Mg1/3Zn1/3Ta1/6Nb1/6)O3 series of ceramics are made by the incorporation of five elements, Bi3+, Mg2+, Zn2+, Ta5+, and Nb5+. With the rising electric hysteresis loop of the doping amount x thin, the saturation polarization strength and residual polarization strength decrease, and the energy storage density rises first and then decreases. The dielectric characteristic after x = 0.08 showed a flat dielectric peak, indicating that the ferroelectric relaxation had been formed. The energy storage density and efficiency of the best component x = 0.12 reached 1.75 J/cm3 and 75%, respectively, and the Curie temperature was about −20 °C, so it has the potential to be used at room temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composites for Energy Storage Applications, Volume II)
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