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J. Manuf. Mater. Process., Volume 7, Issue 6 (December 2023) – 40 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): During forming processes, noise parameter variations can impact product quality. This study suggests in-line optimization for deep drawing with lubrication condition fluctuations at the blank-tool interface. The approach estimates noise factor variability by tracking blank draw-in at critical points. Using this estimate, the optimal blank holder force is adjusted in-line to modify blank sliding, preventing critical component issues. A Finite Element (FE) model for a deep drawing case study was developed, and simulation results estimated both friction coefficient and optimal blank holder force. The FE model's predictive capability was verified through experimental tests, and the control logic was numerically validated. View this paper
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17 pages, 7107 KiB  
Article
Design, Configuration Synthesis, and Experimental Study of Side-Rolling Metamorphic Mechanism for Metal Additive Manufacturing
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(6), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7060227 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1238
Abstract
Arc additive manufacturing (AAM) has the advantages of fast deposition speed and good surfacing quality. It is a promising additive manufacturing (AM) method. However, arc additive manufacturing is difficult to use widely in industry due to its poor deformation, microstructure, and mechanical properties. [...] Read more.
Arc additive manufacturing (AAM) has the advantages of fast deposition speed and good surfacing quality. It is a promising additive manufacturing (AM) method. However, arc additive manufacturing is difficult to use widely in industry due to its poor deformation, microstructure, and mechanical properties. Since the mechanical properties of materials can be greatly improved by rolling, a method for configuration synthesis of the side-rolling mechanism by using metamorphic mechanism theory is presented in this paper. Firstly, by analyzing the operational demands of the side-rolling mechanism, we obtained the motion cycle diagram for the metamorphic mechanism in addition to the corresponding equivalent resistance gradient matrix. Secondly, according to the motion cycle diagram and equivalent resistance gradient matrix of the metamorphic mechanism, the structure and constraint form of the metamorphic joints were established, and the relationship between the force variation and the structure and the constraint form of the metamorphic joints was also obtained. Then, the structures of all 12 corresponding constrained metamorphic mechanisms were synthesized. Ultimately, one among the twelve mechanisms was chosen as the side-rolling metamorphic mechanism. The topological transformation of its working configuration was examined. The results confirmed the feasibility and practicality of the proposed structural synthesis method in this study. Full article
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21 pages, 5340 KiB  
Article
Innovative Fabrication Design for In Situ Martensite Decomposition and Enhanced Mechanical Properties in Laser Powder Bed Fused Ti6Al4V Alloy
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(6), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7060226 - 16 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1056
Abstract
Ti6Al4V alloy (Ti64) is a popular material used in the aerospace, medical, and automotive industries due to its excellent mechanical properties. Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF) is a promising manufacturing technique that can produce complex and net-shaped components with comparable mechanical properties to [...] Read more.
Ti6Al4V alloy (Ti64) is a popular material used in the aerospace, medical, and automotive industries due to its excellent mechanical properties. Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF) is a promising manufacturing technique that can produce complex and net-shaped components with comparable mechanical properties to those produced using conventional manufacturing techniques. However, during LPBF, the rapid cooling of the material can limit its ductility, making it difficult to achieve high levels of ductility while maintaining the required tensile strength for critical applications. To address this challenge, this study presents a novel approach to controlling the microstructure of Ti64 during LPBF by using a border design surrounding the main parts. It is hypothesized that the design induces in situ martensitic decomposition at different levels during the fabrication process, which can enhance the ductility of the material without compromising its tensile strength. To achieve this aim, a series of Ti64 samples were fabricated using LPBF with varying border designs, including those without borders and with gaps from 0.5 to 4 mm. The microstructure, composition, and mechanical properties of the Reference sample were compared with those of the samples fabricated with the surrounding border design. It was found that the latter had a more homogenized microstructure, a higher density, and improvements in both ductility and tensile strength. Moreover, it was discovered that the level of property improvement and martensitic transformation can be controlled by adjusting the gap space between the border and the main part, providing flexibility in the fabrication process. Overall, this study presents a promising approach for enhancing the mechanical properties of Ti64 produced via LPBF, making it more suitable for critical applications in various industries. Full article
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30 pages, 15046 KiB  
Article
A Thermo-Structural Analysis of Die-Sinking Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) of a Haynes-25 Super Alloy Using Deep-Learning-Based Methodologies
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(6), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7060225 - 13 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1209
Abstract
The most effective and cutting-edge method for achieving a 0.004 mm precision on a typical material is to employ die-sinking electrical discharge machining (EDM). The material removal rate (MRR), tool wear rate (TWR), residual stresses, and crater depth were analyzed in the current [...] Read more.
The most effective and cutting-edge method for achieving a 0.004 mm precision on a typical material is to employ die-sinking electrical discharge machining (EDM). The material removal rate (MRR), tool wear rate (TWR), residual stresses, and crater depth were analyzed in the current study in an effort to increase the productivity and comprehension of the die-sinking EDM process. A parametric design was employed to construct a two-dimensional model, and the accuracy of the findings was verified by comparing them to prior research. Experiments were conducted utilizing the EDM machine, and the outcomes were assessed in relation to numerical simulations of the MRR and TWR. A significant temperature disparity that arises among different sections of the workpiece may result in the formation of residual strains throughout. As a consequence, a structural model was developed in order to examine the impacts of various stress responses. The primary innovations of this paper are its parametric investigation of residual stresses and its use of Haynes 25, a workpiece material that has received limited attention despite its numerous benefits and variety of applications. In order to accurately forecast the output parameters, a deep neural network model, more precisely, a multilayer perceptron (MLP) regressor, was utilized. In order to improve the precision of the outcomes and guarantee stability during convergence, the L-BFGS solver, an adaptive learning rate, and the Rectified Linear Unit (ReLU) activation function were integrated. Extensive parametric studies allowed us to determine the connection between key inputs, including the discharge current, voltage, and spark-on time, and the output parameters, namely, the MRR, TWR, and crater depth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Metal Cutting and Cutting Tools)
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16 pages, 11551 KiB  
Article
Wear of Carbide Plates with Diamond-like and Micro-Nano Polycrystalline Diamond Coatings during Interrupted Cutting of Composite Alloy Al/SiC
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(6), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7060224 - 08 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1295
Abstract
The complexity of milling metal matrix composite alloys based on aluminum like Al/SiC is due to their low melting point and high abrasive ability, which causes increased wear of carbide tools. One of the effective ways to improve its reliability and service life [...] Read more.
The complexity of milling metal matrix composite alloys based on aluminum like Al/SiC is due to their low melting point and high abrasive ability, which causes increased wear of carbide tools. One of the effective ways to improve its reliability and service life is to modify the surface by plasma chemical deposition of carbon-based multilayer functional layers from vapor (CVD) with high hardness and thermal conductivity: diamond-like (DLC) or polycrystalline diamond (PCD) coatings. Experiments on an indexable mill with CoroMill 200 inserts have shown that initial tool life increases up to 100% for cases with DLC and up to 300% for multilayered MCD/NCD films at a cutting speed of 800 m/min. The primary mechanism of wear of a carbide tool in this cutting mode was soft abrasion, when wear on both the rake and flank surfaces occurred due to the extrusion of cobalt binder between tungsten carbide grains, followed by their loss. Analysis of the wear pattern of plates with DLC and MCD/NCD coatings showed that abrasive wear begins to prevail against the background of soft abrasion. Adhesive wear is also present to a lesser extent, but there is no chipping of the base material from the cutting edge. Full article
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17 pages, 10130 KiB  
Article
Temperature and Wear Analysis of Adhesively Bonded and Soldered Cutting Tools for Woodcutting
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(6), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7060223 - 06 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1070
Abstract
Cutting tools undergo constant development to meet the demands of higher cutting speeds, difficult-to-cut materials and ecological considerations. One way to improve cutting tools involves transitioning from soldering to adhesive bonding in the manufacturing process. However, there is limited research comparing adhesively bonded [...] Read more.
Cutting tools undergo constant development to meet the demands of higher cutting speeds, difficult-to-cut materials and ecological considerations. One way to improve cutting tools involves transitioning from soldering to adhesive bonding in the manufacturing process. However, there is limited research comparing adhesively bonded tools with soldered tools in woodcutting applications. This paper presents a comparison between adhesively bonded and soldered tools in the cutting of medium-density fiberboards over a cutting distance of 1000 m. The results indicate that adhesively bonded tools are well-suited for machining medium-density fiberboards. Additionally, the cutting-edge radii exhibit a slower increase and the tool temperatures are higher compared to soldered tools. Future research could optimize the damping effect through the precise design of the bonding area. Additionally, investigating a cooling concept for the machining process could help minimize ageing effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Metal Cutting and Cutting Tools)
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16 pages, 1683 KiB  
Article
Impact of Injection Molding Parameters on Material Acoustic Parameters
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(6), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7060222 - 06 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1236
Abstract
Understanding the relationship between injection molding parameters and the acoustic properties of polymers is crucial for optimizing the design and performance of acoustic-based polymer devices. In this work, the impact of injection molding parameters, such as the injection velocity and packing pressure, on [...] Read more.
Understanding the relationship between injection molding parameters and the acoustic properties of polymers is crucial for optimizing the design and performance of acoustic-based polymer devices. In this work, the impact of injection molding parameters, such as the injection velocity and packing pressure, on the acoustic parameters of polymers, namely the elastic moduli, is studied. The measurements lead to calculating material parameters, such as the Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio, that can be swiftly measured and determined thanks to this method. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was used as the molding material, and using PMMA LG IG 840, the parts were simulated and injection molded, applying a ‘design of experiment’ (DOE) statistical method. The results indicated a correlation between the injection molding process parameters and the acoustic characteristics, such as the elastic moduli, and a specifically decreasing trend with increase in the injection velocity. Notably, a relative decrease in the Young’s modulus by 1% was observed when increasing the packing pressure from 90MPa to 120MPa. Similarly, a decrease in the Poisson’s ratio of 2.9% was observed when the injection velocity was increased from 16mm/s to 40mm/s. This method can be used to fine-tune the material properties according to the needs of a given application and to facilitate the characterization of different polymer acoustic properties essential for acoustic-based polymer devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Injection Molding: Process, Materials and Applications)
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14 pages, 4799 KiB  
Article
Dissimilar Friction Stir Lap Welding of Aluminium to Steel: Influence of Alloy Type and Sheet Thickness on Strain Distribution and Failure Location
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(6), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7060221 - 06 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1119
Abstract
Dissimilar joining through solid-state welding is an important engineering tool to address the transportation industry’s sustainable goals. The dissimilar friction stir lap welding (FSLW) of two different aluminium alloys (AA5182 and AA5052 with two different thicknesses) to steels AISI1010 and DP1000 was performed [...] Read more.
Dissimilar joining through solid-state welding is an important engineering tool to address the transportation industry’s sustainable goals. The dissimilar friction stir lap welding (FSLW) of two different aluminium alloys (AA5182 and AA5052 with two different thicknesses) to steels AISI1010 and DP1000 was performed in this work, in order to analyse the effect of the mismatch in base material properties and plate thickness on the joint strength and fracture location. The mechanical behaviour and the strength of the welds were assessed using transverse tensile–shear testing and hardness measurements. Strain data acquisition through Digital Image Correlation (DIC) was used. The differences in fracture location registered for the different joints are explained based on the alloy’s plastic properties and on the mismatch in thickness between the plates. Local stress–strain curves were plotted, using the strain data acquired through DIC, to highlight the mechanisms resulting in the differences in tensile behaviour among the joints. It is concluded that despite the differences in failure location and tensile behaviour, the strength of the joints was very similar, irrespective of the base material combinations. Full article
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14 pages, 4326 KiB  
Article
An Experimental Study on Bushing Formation during Friction Drilling of Titanium Grade 2 for Medical Applications
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(6), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7060220 - 06 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1045
Abstract
Recent advances towards patient specific titanium sheet based medical implants introduce a new challenge for the fixation of these implants to bones. Mainly, the use of locking screws requires an implant thickness of approximately 2 mm for screw thread formation. Friction drilling is [...] Read more.
Recent advances towards patient specific titanium sheet based medical implants introduce a new challenge for the fixation of these implants to bones. Mainly, the use of locking screws requires an implant thickness of approximately 2 mm for screw thread formation. Friction drilling is a hole-making process that displaces material to create a bushing below the sheet rather than extracting material. This experimental study explores the influence of axial force, rotational speed, and workpiece pre-heating temperature on the bushing height and thickness during friction drilling of titanium grade 2 sheets. The drilling parameters are optimized for both drilling at room temperature and at elevated temperatures for maximum bushing thickness with at least a bushing height of 1 mm. Subsequently, the samples are characterized for their microstructure and hardness, revealing preserved strength with a larger thermomechanical affected zone (TMAZ), a more gradual hardness gradient around the drill zone, and a significant reduction in microdefects in the bushing structure of the pre-heated sheets. Full article
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17 pages, 9895 KiB  
Article
Challenges in Contacting Metal–Polymer Current Collectors in Pouch Cells
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(6), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7060219 - 05 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1333
Abstract
Recent research focuses on replacing metal current collectors with metallized polymer foils. However, this introduces significant challenges during cell production, as manufacturing steps must be adapted. Currently, copper is used as the current collector on the anode side and aluminum on the cathode [...] Read more.
Recent research focuses on replacing metal current collectors with metallized polymer foils. However, this introduces significant challenges during cell production, as manufacturing steps must be adapted. Currently, copper is used as the current collector on the anode side and aluminum on the cathode side. These current collectors are then joined within the cell with an arrester tab. This step, known as contacting, is carried out industrially in pouch cells using ultrasonic welding or laser beam welding. However, since the polymer foil is electrically insulating, the current contacting procedures cannot be directly transferred to the metal–polymer current collectors. In this work, ultrasonic welding, laser beam welding, and a mechanical contacting method are considered, and the challenges arising from the material properties are highlighted. The properties of the joints are discussed as a function of the number of foils and the coating thickness of the metallization. It is demonstrated that successful contacting by ultrasonic welding and mechanical clamping is possible, as both mechanical strength and electrical conductivity are ensured by the joint. Laser beam welding was unsuccessful. Additionally, the electrical resistance is one to two orders of magnitude higher than that of pure aluminum and copper foils, which necessitates further optimization. Furthermore, ultrasonic welding is limited to welding 16 foils or fewer. This does not match industrial requirements. Consequently, novel approaches for contacting metal–polymer current collectors are required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Joining Processes and Techniques 2023)
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17 pages, 5449 KiB  
Article
Assessing Electrode Characteristics in Continuous Resistance Spot Welding of BH 340 Steel Based on Dynamic Resistance
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(6), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7060218 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1115
Abstract
The aim of this investigation is to offer a data-based scheme for predicting electrode wear in resistance spot welding. One of the major factors affecting the mechanical properties of spot welds and the variation in weld quality is electrode wear and alloying. In [...] Read more.
The aim of this investigation is to offer a data-based scheme for predicting electrode wear in resistance spot welding. One of the major factors affecting the mechanical properties of spot welds and the variation in weld quality is electrode wear and alloying. In this study, Rogowski coils and twisted pairs attached to the top and bottom electrodes were used to obtain the welding current and the voltage between the electrodes in the welding process, thereby calculating the dynamic resistance value during the welding process. The electrode tip diameter was obtained from the pressure exerted by the upper and lower electrodes on the carbon paper when the current was cut off and was regarded as an indicator of electrode wear. By continuously welding 0.5 mm thick BH 340 steel plates until the electrode failed, the dynamic resistance signal was recorded in real time. Simultaneously, the electrode diameter after every several welds was also recorded. On this basis, the correlation between electrode tip diameter and dynamic resistance is studied. In order to quantitatively study the mapping relationship between dynamic resistance and electrode wear, 10 characteristic values were extracted from the dynamic resistance, and the stepwise regression method was used to obtain the regression formula between the characteristic values and the electrode tip diameter. Using new data to verify the effectiveness of the regression model, the acquired results display that the maximum error between the predicted value of the electrode tip diameter and the measured value obtained by the regression equation with the interactive quadratic term is 0.3 mm, and the corresponding relative error is 7.69%. When welding with a new pair of electrodes, the maximum absolute error was 0.72 mm, and the relative error of the model prediction is within 20% according to the linear regression model with interaction terms. This indicates that this regression model is barely satisfactory for monitoring electrode condition. Full article
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53 pages, 19207 KiB  
Article
Helical Electrodes for Electro-Discharge Drilling: Experimental and CFD-Based Analysis of the Influence of Internal and External Flushing Geometries on the Process Characteristics
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(6), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7060217 - 01 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1377
Abstract
The electro-discharge (ED) drilling of precision boreholes in difficult-to-machine materials, particularly with respect to the cost-effectiveness of the overall process, is still a challenge. Flushing is one key factor for the precise machining of boreholes, especially with high aspect ratios. Therefore, the influence [...] Read more.
The electro-discharge (ED) drilling of precision boreholes in difficult-to-machine materials, particularly with respect to the cost-effectiveness of the overall process, is still a challenge. Flushing is one key factor for the precise machining of boreholes, especially with high aspect ratios. Therefore, the influence of internal and external flushing geometries for six types of brass tool electrodes with a diameter of 3 mm with and without a helical groove was analyzed experimentally and numerically. Using this helical external flushing channel, drilling experiments in X170CrVMo18-3-1 (Elmax Superclean) with an aspect ratio of five revealed a material removal rate (MRR) that was increased by 112% compared with a rod electrode, increased by 28% for a single-channel tool electrode and decreased by 8% for a multi-channel tool electrode. Signal analyses complemented these findings and highlighted correlations between classified discharge event types and the experimental target parameters. Amongst others, it was verified that the arcing frequency ratio drove the electrode wear rate and the beneficial frequency ratio correlated with the MRR and the surface roughness Ra. Sophisticated 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of the liquid phase were introduced and evaluated in great detail to demonstrate the validity and further elucidate the effect of the external flushing channel on the evacuation capability of debris and gas bubbles. The presented methods and models were found to be suitable for obtaining in-depth knowledge about the flushing conditions in the ED drilling working gap. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) and EDM-Based Hybrid Machining)
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20 pages, 12737 KiB  
Article
Crack-Free Joining of High-Strength AA7055 Sheets by Friction Based Self-Piercing Riveting with the Aid of Numerical Design
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(6), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7060216 - 01 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1181
Abstract
Unique friction-based self-piercing riveting (F-SPR) was employed to join high-strength, low-ductility aluminum alloy 7055 for lightweight vehicle applications. This study aimed to maximize the joint strength of the AA7055 F-SPR joint while avoiding cracking issues due to low ductility at room temperature. A [...] Read more.
Unique friction-based self-piercing riveting (F-SPR) was employed to join high-strength, low-ductility aluminum alloy 7055 for lightweight vehicle applications. This study aimed to maximize the joint strength of the AA7055 F-SPR joint while avoiding cracking issues due to low ductility at room temperature. A fully coupled Eulerian–Lagrangian (CEL) model was employed to predict the process temperature during F-SPR, and the temperature field was then mapped onto a 2D axisymmetric equivalent model for accelerated numerical analysis. The geometry, dimensions, and material strength of the rivet, as well as the depth of the die cavity and plunging depth, were investigated to enhance joint formation. Also, a static finite-element analysis model was developed to predict and analyze the stress distribution in the rivet under different mechanical testing loading conditions. Overall, the numerical model showed good agreement with the experiment results, such as joint formation and mechanical joint strength. With the aid of virtual fabrication through numerical modeling, the joint design iterations and process development time of F-SPR were greatly reduced regarding the goal of lightweight, high-strength aluminum joining. Full article
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31 pages, 33074 KiB  
Article
Process Chains for Micro-Manufacturing: Modeling and Case Studies
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(6), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7060215 - 01 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1191
Abstract
As the complexity of micro-products increases, the micro-manufacturing processes, tool setups, and measurement processes have to be more precise and efficient. Combining them in a multi-stage process chain can effectively improve production accuracy and performance and reduce limitations and production costs. This paper [...] Read more.
As the complexity of micro-products increases, the micro-manufacturing processes, tool setups, and measurement processes have to be more precise and efficient. Combining them in a multi-stage process chain can effectively improve production accuracy and performance and reduce limitations and production costs. This paper focuses on the process chains for the manufacturing of micro-products and presents the state of the art, highlighting the specific characteristics of the existing models of process chains for micro-manufacturing. Based on the critical review of these characteristics, an evolution of the process chain model for micro-manufacturing is proposed, considering machining, measurement/characterization, referencing processes, and their combination into a suitable sequence. The proposed model accounts for relevant aspects of micro-manufacturing, such as size effects and technological fingerprints at the microscale. This paper also discusses the hierarchical properties of multiple micro-manufacturing process chains and some specific techniques to address the critical issue of referencing processes. Furthermore, some relevant case studies involving micro-electrical discharge machining, micro-injection molding, additive manufacturing, and micro-milling are presented to demonstrate how the micro-manufacturing potentiality can be increased using process chains. Full article
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24 pages, 6380 KiB  
Article
Powder-Mixed Micro-Electro-Discharge Machining-Induced Surface Modification of Titanium Alloy for Antibacterial Properties
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(6), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7060214 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1282
Abstract
The powder-mixed electro-discharge machining (PM-EDM) technique has shown its advantages in forming surfaces and depositing elements on the machined surface. Moreover, using hydroxyapatite (HA) powder in PM-EDM enhances the biocompatibility of the implant’s surfaces. Ti-6Al-4V alloy has tremendous advantages in biocompatibility over other [...] Read more.
The powder-mixed electro-discharge machining (PM-EDM) technique has shown its advantages in forming surfaces and depositing elements on the machined surface. Moreover, using hydroxyapatite (HA) powder in PM-EDM enhances the biocompatibility of the implant’s surfaces. Ti-6Al-4V alloy has tremendous advantages in biocompatibility over other metallic biomaterials in bone replacement surgeries. However, the increasing demand for orthopedical implants is leading to a more significant number of implant surgeries, increasing the number of patients with failed implants. A significant portion of implant failures are due to bacterial inflammation. Despite that, there is a lack of current research investigating the antibacterial properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloys. This paper focuses on studying the performance of HA PMEDM on Ti-6Al-4V alloy and its effects on antibacterial properties. By changing the capacitance (1 nF, 10 nF and 100 nF), gap voltage (90 V, 100 V and 110 V) and HA powder concentration (0 g/L, 5 g/L and 10 g/L), machining performance metrics such as material removal rate (MRR), overcut, crater size and hardness were examined through the HA PM micro-EDM (PM-μ-EDM) technique. Furthermore, the surface roughness, contact angle, and antibacterial properties of HA PM micro-wire EDM (PM-μ-WEDM)-treated surfaces were evaluated. The antibacterial tests were conducted for Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus subtilis bacteria. The key results showed a correlation between the discharge energy and powder concentration with the antibacterial properties of the modified surfaces. The modified surfaces exhibited reduced biofilm formation under low discharge energy and a 0 g/L powder concentration, resulting in a 0.273 μm roughness. This pattern persisted with high discharge energy and a 10 g/L powder concentration, where the roughness measured 1.832 μm. Therefore, it is possible to optimize the antibacterial properties of the surface through its roughness. Full article
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16 pages, 12892 KiB  
Article
Forging Treatment Realized the Isotropic Microstructure and Properties of Selective Laser Melting GH3536
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(6), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7060213 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1120
Abstract
The anisotropy of mechanical properties in SLMed alloy is very important. In order to realize the homogeneity of the microstructure and mechanical properties of GH3536 alloy prepared by selective laser melting (SLM), the as-deposited samples were treated by hot isostatic pressing and then [...] Read more.
The anisotropy of mechanical properties in SLMed alloy is very important. In order to realize the homogeneity of the microstructure and mechanical properties of GH3536 alloy prepared by selective laser melting (SLM), the as-deposited samples were treated by hot isostatic pressing and then forged at different temperatures. The microstructure, grain size, room- and high- temperature tensile properties, and endurance properties of the samples were studied. The results showed that the microstructure of the sample was mainly equiaxed austenite phase, and granular carbides were precipitated inside the grains after forging treatment, resulting in the anisotropy of the sample almost disappearing. The grain boundary phase difference distribution was most concentrated at 60°. The grain size was less than 10 μm, and a large number of twins were formed. With the increase in forging temperature, the yield strength, tensile strength, and contraction of area of the samples changed little, and the properties parallel to the z-axis (parallel samples) and vertical to the z-axis (vertical samples) were almost the same. In particular, the yield strength, tensile strength, and contraction of area in the transverse and vertical samples were almost at the same level. Judging from the elongation after fracture and the contraction of area, the properties of the samples showed characteristics of anisotropy after a high temperature endurance test. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Performance Metal Additive Manufacturing)
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14 pages, 3558 KiB  
Technical Note
Experimental and Numerical Investigations into Heat Transfer Using a Jet Cooler in High-Pressure Die Casting
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(6), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7060212 - 28 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1214
Abstract
During high-pressure die casting, a significant amount of heat is dissipated via the liquid-cooled channels in the die. The jet cooler, also known as the die insert or bubbler, is one of the most commonly used cooling methods. Nowadays, foundries casting engineered products [...] Read more.
During high-pressure die casting, a significant amount of heat is dissipated via the liquid-cooled channels in the die. The jet cooler, also known as the die insert or bubbler, is one of the most commonly used cooling methods. Nowadays, foundries casting engineered products rely on numerical simulations using commercial software to determine cooling efficiency, which requires precise input data. However, the literature lacks sufficient investigations to describe the spatial distribution of the heat transfer coefficient in the jet cooler. In this study, we propose a solver using the open-source CFD package OpenFOAM and free library for nonlinear optimization NLopt for the inverse heat conduction problem that returns the desired distribution of the heat transfer coefficient. The experimental temperature measurements using multiple thermocouples are considered the input data. The robustness, efficiency, and accuracy of the model are rigorously tested and confirmed. Additionally, temperature measurements of the real jet cooler are presented. Full article
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19 pages, 5743 KiB  
Article
Influence of Temperature on the Forming Limits of High-Strength Low Alloy, and Dual-Phase Steels
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(6), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7060211 - 28 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1158
Abstract
High-strength steels (HSS) appear as a good alternative to common steels to reduce vehicle weight, thus reducing fuel consumption. Despite the excellent mechanical behavior towards its lower weight, its application in industry is still limited, as manufacturing such materials suffers from limitations, especially [...] Read more.
High-strength steels (HSS) appear as a good alternative to common steels to reduce vehicle weight, thus reducing fuel consumption. Despite the excellent mechanical behavior towards its lower weight, its application in industry is still limited, as manufacturing such materials suffers from limitations, especially regarding formability. The literature shows springback to be the most common problem. Among the parameters that can be studied to minimize this problem, the temperature appears, according to the literature, to be one of the most influential parameters in minimizing springback. However, the consequence of the temperature increase on the forming limits of materials is not completely understood. This study proposes to determine the consequences of the use of the temperature rise technique in the forming limits of high-strength steels. Two different steels were studied (HSLA 350/440 and DP 350/600). To evaluate the formability, the Nakazima method was used (practical). Finite element models were made which describe the material as well as Nakazima experimental behavior. To predict the forming limit strains via the numerical method, the thickness gradient criterion was applied. The practical and computational results were compared to validate the finite element model. Four different temperature ranges were analyzed. In general, it was found that 400 °C has a negative impact on the forming limits of both steels. This negative effect was found to be due to the alloying elements, such as silicon and manganese, present in the alloy. These alloying elements take part in the increase and decrease in resistance coefficient at the elevated temperature. For HSLA 350/440 steel, the forming limit strain decreased with an increase in temperature up to 600 °C and then increased at 800 °C; whereas for DP 350/600 steel, the forming limit strain decreased till 400 °C and then increased for 600 °C and 800 °C. Another factor which might have contributed to the behavior of the DP steel is the interaction of hard martensite with soft ferrite phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Material Forming)
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13 pages, 3541 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Investigation of Recyclability for Sustainable Use of Laser-Based Metal–Polymer Joints
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(6), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7060210 - 28 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1223
Abstract
Metal–plastic hybrid components combine the strength of metal with the low density of plastic. Due to weight reduction, these components are becoming increasingly important. To reduce the need for raw materials, processes for the recyclability of hybrid compounds are being investigated to reuse [...] Read more.
Metal–plastic hybrid components combine the strength of metal with the low density of plastic. Due to weight reduction, these components are becoming increasingly important. To reduce the need for raw materials, processes for the recyclability of hybrid compounds are being investigated to reuse the metal part. The aim of this research is to characterize the mechanical bond strength after laser-based cleaning and reuse of the metal component. For this purpose, laser radiation is used to introduce microstructures into the metal surface. Afterwards, the polymer is joined to the metal component with laser radiation. As a reference of the initial mechanical bond strength, the joined samples are examined in a tensile testing machine. The polymer residues remaining in the structured metal surface are removed with different laser-based cleaning strategies. The metal is used again to generate another hybrid joined sample with a new polymer component. The results of the subsequent tests in the tensile testing machine are used for a detailed analysis of the reusability. As a result of this investigation, the laser-cleaned specimens showed significant improvements in bond strength compared to the uncleaned specimens. The process of laser-based cleaning for the reuse of the metallic part of hybrid joined components provides a fundamental procedure for improving the circular economy. In the future, this study should be validated in subsequent investigations on realistic components with complex geometries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Joining Processes and Techniques 2023)
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14 pages, 4521 KiB  
Article
Surface Characteristics and Residual Stress Variation in Semi-Deep Hole Machining of Ti6Al4V ELI with Low-Frequency Vibration-Assisted Drilling
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(6), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7060209 - 27 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1228
Abstract
This study examined the impact of vibration-assisted drilling (VAD) on hole quality and residual stress in Ti-6Al-4V ELI (Extra Low Interstitials) material. Ti-6Al-4V ELI possesses excellent mechanical properties but presents challenges in machining, including chip evacuation, burr formation, and elevated cutting temperatures. VAD, [...] Read more.
This study examined the impact of vibration-assisted drilling (VAD) on hole quality and residual stress in Ti-6Al-4V ELI (Extra Low Interstitials) material. Ti-6Al-4V ELI possesses excellent mechanical properties but presents challenges in machining, including chip evacuation, burr formation, and elevated cutting temperatures. VAD, particularly low-frequency vibration-assisted drilling (LF-VAD), has been explored as a potential solution to address these issues. The research compares LF-VAD with conventional drilling (CD) under various cutting and cooling conditions. LF-VAD exhibits higher maximum thrust forces under specific conditions, which result in accelerated tool wear. However, it also demonstrates lower RMS (root mean square) forces compared to CD, offering better control over chip formation, reduced burr formation, and improved surface roughness within the hole. Furthermore, LF-VAD generates greater compressive residual stresses on the hole’s inner surface compared to CD, suggesting enhanced fatigue performance. These findings indicate that LF-VAD holds promise for improving the hole’s surface characteristics, fatigue life, and overall component durability in Ti-6Al-4V machining applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Machining of Difficult-to-Cut Materials)
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22 pages, 36929 KiB  
Article
Towards a Simulation-Assisted Prediction of Residual Stress-Induced Failure during Powder Bed Fusion of Metals Using a Laser Beam: Suitable Fracture Mechanics Models and Calibration Methods
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(6), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7060208 - 27 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1193
Abstract
In recent years, Additive Manufacturing (AM) has emerged as a transformative technology, with the process of Powder Bed Fusion of Metals using a Laser Beam (PBF-LB/M) gaining substantial attention for its precision and versatility in fabricating metal components. A major challenge in PBF-LB/M [...] Read more.
In recent years, Additive Manufacturing (AM) has emerged as a transformative technology, with the process of Powder Bed Fusion of Metals using a Laser Beam (PBF-LB/M) gaining substantial attention for its precision and versatility in fabricating metal components. A major challenge in PBF-LB/M is the failure of the component or the support structure during the production process. In order to locate a possible residual stress-induced failure prior to the fabrication of the component, a suitable failure criterion has to be identified and implemented in process simulation software. In the work leading to this paper, failure criteria based on the Rice-Tracey (RT) and Johnson-Cook (JC) fracture models were identified as potential models to reach this goal. The models were calibrated for the nickel-based superalloy Inconel 718. For the calibration process, a conventional experimental, a combined experimental and simulative, and an AM-adapted approach were applied and compared. The latter was devised to account for the particular phenomena that occur during PBF-LB/M. It was found that the JC model was able to capture the calibration data points more precisely than the RT model due to its higher number of calibration parameters. Only the JC model calibrated by the experimental and AM-adapted approach showed an increased equivalent plastic failure strain at high triaxialities, predicting a higher cracking resistance. The presented results can be integrated into a simulation tool with which the potential fracture location as well as the cracking susceptibility during the manufacturing process of PBF-LB/M parts can be predicted. Full article
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17 pages, 5774 KiB  
Article
Comprehensive Investigation of Hastelloy C-22 Powder Weld Overlay on SA 240 Type 316L Using Laser Beam Welding for Enhanced Performance
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(6), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7060207 - 24 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1388
Abstract
This article presents a comprehensive study on the application of Hastelloy C-22 powder weld overlay on SA 240 Type 316L austenitic stainless steel using the laser beam welding process. This novel combination of materials and processes was investigated for the first time, focusing [...] Read more.
This article presents a comprehensive study on the application of Hastelloy C-22 powder weld overlay on SA 240 Type 316L austenitic stainless steel using the laser beam welding process. This novel combination of materials and processes was investigated for the first time, focusing on its potential utility for various industrial applications. Various testing techniques, including visual testing, hardness testing, bend testing, chemical composition analysis using optical spectroscopy, corrosion resistance assessment through the potentiodynamic polarization technique, and macro- and microstructural observation, were employed to evaluate the performance of the weld overlay. The research findings had several significant outcomes. Notably, precise control and minimal alloy mixing were achieved, as evidenced by the dilution at a remarkable height of 0.5 mm from the base metal. The laser welding process resulted in a minimal heat-affected zone and a fine columnar interdendritic microstructure, with average primary and secondary arm spacing values of 3.981 µm and 2.289 µm, respectively. Rigorous visual and bend testing confirmed the integrity of the sound welds in the overlay. Moreover, the high-quality finish of the weld overlay eliminated the need for extensive machining and finishing processes, resulting in cost reductions. This study also demonstrated primary and secondary inter-laminar spacing, leading to improved overall structural integrity. Additionally, the weld overlay exhibited excellent hardness characteristics. The current work contributes to the advancement of welding processes and provides practical solutions to enhance efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and structural performance in relevant industrial applications. Full article
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22 pages, 7364 KiB  
Article
A Selective Integration-Based Adaptive Mesh Refinement Approach for Accurate and Efficient Welding Process Simulation
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(6), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7060206 - 24 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1192
Abstract
To save computational time and physical memory in welding thermo-mechanical analysis, an accurate adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) method was proposed based on the feature of moving heat source during the welding. The locally refined mesh was generated automatically according to the position of [...] Read more.
To save computational time and physical memory in welding thermo-mechanical analysis, an accurate adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) method was proposed based on the feature of moving heat source during the welding. The locally refined mesh was generated automatically according to the position of the heat source to solve the displacement field. A background mesh, without forming a global matrix, was designed to maintain the accuracy of stress and strain after mesh coarsening. The solutions are always carried out on the refined computational mesh using a selective integration scheme. To evaluate the performance of the developed method, a fillet welding joint was first analyzed via validation of the accuracy of conventional FEM by experiment. Secondly, a larger fillet joint and its variations with a greater number of degrees of freedom were analyzed via conventional FEM and current AMR. The simulation results confirmed that the proposed method is accurate and efficient. An improvement in computational efficiency by 7 times was obtained, and memory saving is about 63% for large-scale models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Joining Processes and Techniques 2023)
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26 pages, 17033 KiB  
Article
Technological Principles of Complex Plasma-Beam Surface Treatment of Al2O3/TiC and SiAlON Ceramics
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(6), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7060205 - 21 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1292
Abstract
Thermomechanical action during high-performance diamond grinding of sintered cutting Al2O3/TiC and SiAlON ceramics leads to increased defectiveness of the surface layer of the deposited TiZrN and CrAlSiN/DLC coatings. It predetermines the discontinuous and porous coatings and reduces its effectiveness [...] Read more.
Thermomechanical action during high-performance diamond grinding of sintered cutting Al2O3/TiC and SiAlON ceramics leads to increased defectiveness of the surface layer of the deposited TiZrN and CrAlSiN/DLC coatings. It predetermines the discontinuous and porous coatings and reduces its effectiveness under abrasive exposure and fretting wear. The developed technological approach is based on “dry” etching with beams of accelerated argon atoms with an energy of 5 keV for high-performance removal of defects. It ensures the removal of the defective layer on ceramics and reduces the index of defectiveness (the product of defects’ density per unit surface area) by several orders of magnitude, compared with diamond grinding. There are no pronounced discontinuities and pores in the microstructure of coatings. Under mechanical loads, the coatings ensure a stable boundary anti-friction film between the ceramics and counter body that significantly increases the wear resistance of samples. The treatment reduces the volumetric wear under 20 min of abrasive action by 2 and 6 times for TiZrN and CrAlSiN/DLC coatings for Al2O3/TiC and by 5 and 23 times for SiAlON. The volumetric wear under fretting wear at 105 friction cycles is reduced by 2–3 times for both coatings for Al2O3/TiC and by 3–4 times for SiAlON. Full article
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33 pages, 3726 KiB  
Review
Recent Trends and Developments in the Electrical Discharge Machining Industry: A Review
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(6), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7060204 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1595
Abstract
Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a highly precise technology that not only facilitates the machining of components into desired shapes but also enables the alteration of the physical and chemical properties of workpieces. The complexity of the process is due to a number [...] Read more.
Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a highly precise technology that not only facilitates the machining of components into desired shapes but also enables the alteration of the physical and chemical properties of workpieces. The complexity of the process is due to a number of regulating factors such as the material of the workpiece and tools, dielectric medium, and other process parameters. Based on the material type, electrode shape, and process configuration, various shapes and degrees of accuracy can be generated. The study of erosion is based on research into processing techniques, which are the primary tools for using EDM. Empirical knowledge with subsequent optimization of technological parameters is one of the ways to obtain the required surface quality of the workpiece with defect minimization, as well as mathematical and numerical modeling of the EDM process. This article critically examines all key aspects of EDM, reflecting both the early foundations of electrical erosion and the current state of the industry, noting the current trends towards the transition of EDM to the 5.0 industry zone in terms of safety and minimizing the impact of the process on the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Machining of Difficult-to-Cut Materials)
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12 pages, 2094 KiB  
Article
Enhancing the Microhardness of Coatings Produced by Cold Gas Dynamic Spraying through Multi-Reinforcement with Aluminum Powders Containing Fullerenes and Aluminum Nitride
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(6), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7060203 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1573
Abstract
Coatings with high hardness were successfully obtained using low-pressure cold spray (LPCS) technology from nanocrystalline powders based on the aluminum alloy AlMg6, which were multi-reinforced with 0.3 wt.% fullerenes and 10–50 wt.% AlN. The powders were synthesized through a two-stage high-energy ball milling [...] Read more.
Coatings with high hardness were successfully obtained using low-pressure cold spray (LPCS) technology from nanocrystalline powders based on the aluminum alloy AlMg6, which were multi-reinforced with 0.3 wt.% fullerenes and 10–50 wt.% AlN. The powders were synthesized through a two-stage high-energy ball milling process, resulting in a complex mechanical mixture consisting of agglomerates and micro-sized ceramic particles of AlN. The agglomerates comprise particles of the nanocomposite material AlMg6/C60 with embedded and surface-located, micro-sized ceramic particles of AlN. Scanning electron microscopy and EDS analyses demonstrated a uniform distribution of reinforcing particles throughout the coating volume. An X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the coatings revealed a change in the predominant orientation of matrix alloy grains to a more chaotic state during deformation over the course of cold gas dynamic spraying. A quantitative determination of AlN content in the coating was achieved through the processing of XRD data using the reference intensity ratio (RIR) method. It was found that the proportion of transferred ceramic particles from the multi-reinforced powder to the coating did not exceed ~65%. Experimental evidence indicated that LPCS processing of mono-reinforced nanocrystalline powder composite AlMg6/C60 practically did not lead to the formation of a coating on the substrate and was limited to a monolayer with a thickness of ~10 µm. The microhardness of the monolayer coating obtained from the deposition of AlMg6/C60 powder was 181 ± 12 HV. Additionally, the introduction of 10 to 50 wt.% AlN into the powder mixture contributed to the enhancement of growth efficiency and an increase in coating microhardness by ~1.4–1.7 times. The obtained results demonstrate that the utilization of agglomerated multi-reinforced powders for cold gas dynamic spraying can be an effective strategy for producing coatings and bulk materials based on aluminum and its alloys with high microhardness. Full article
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19 pages, 9780 KiB  
Article
Next-Gen Manufacturing: Machine Learning for Surface Roughness Prediction in Ti-6Al-4V Biocompatible Alloy Machining
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(6), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7060202 - 15 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1363
Abstract
Mechanical engineering plays an important role in the design and manufacture of medical devices, implants, prostheses, and other medical equipment, where the machining of bio-compatible materials have a special place. There are a lot of different conventional and non-conventional types of machining of [...] Read more.
Mechanical engineering plays an important role in the design and manufacture of medical devices, implants, prostheses, and other medical equipment, where the machining of bio-compatible materials have a special place. There are a lot of different conventional and non-conventional types of machining of biocompatible materials. One of the most frequently used methods is milling. The first part of this research explores the machining parameters optimization minimizing surface roughness in milling titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V. A full factorial design involving four factors (cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut, and the cooling/lubricating method), each having three levels, implies the 81 experimental runs. Using the Taguchi method, the number of experimental runs was reduced from 81 to 27 through an orthogonal design. According to the analysis of variance (ANOVA), the most significant parameter for surface roughness is feed rate. The second part explores the possibilities of using different ML techniques to create a predictive model for average surface roughness using the previously created small datasets. The paper presents a comparative analysis of several commonly used techniques for handling small datasets and regression problems. The best results indicate that the widely used machine learning algorithm Random Forest excels in handling regression problems and small datasets. Full article
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12 pages, 5325 KiB  
Article
Processing of the Ti25Ta25Nb3Sn Experimental Alloy Using ECAP Process for Biomedical Applications
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(6), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7060201 - 10 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1170
Abstract
The development of titanium-β alloys for biomedical applications is associated with the addition of alloying elements or the use of processing techniques to obtain suitable bulk properties. The Ti25Ta25Nb3Sn alloy has been highlighted for its mechanical properties and biocompatibility. To further enhance the [...] Read more.
The development of titanium-β alloys for biomedical applications is associated with the addition of alloying elements or the use of processing techniques to obtain suitable bulk properties. The Ti25Ta25Nb3Sn alloy has been highlighted for its mechanical properties and biocompatibility. To further enhance the properties of titanium alloys for biomedical applications, equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) was used due to its capability of refining the microstructure of the alloy, leading to improved mechanical properties without significant changes in Young’s modulus. This study aims to evaluate the impact of ECAP on the microstructure of the Ti-25Sn-25Nb-3Nb alloy and investigate the correlation between the microstructure, mechanical properties, and corrosive behavior. Grain refinement was achieved after four ECAP passes, with an average grain diameter of 395 nm and a non-homogeneous structure, and microhardness was slightly increased from 193 to 212 HV after four ECAP passes. The thermomechanical aspects of the ECAP processing have led to the formation of a metastable α″ phase during the first two passes, while after four passes, the structure was composed only of the β phase. The corrosion resistance of the alloy was increased after four passes, presenting the best results in terms of the improvement of passivation corrosion density. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Material Forming)
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13 pages, 41882 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Friction Hydro-Pillar Processing as a Repair Technique for Offshore Mooring Chain Links
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(6), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7060200 - 09 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1351
Abstract
Repairing links of offshore mooring chains has presented a significant industry challenge, primarily arising from modifications in material properties, encompassing alterations in microstructure, hardness, and residual stress. In this context, the present work investigates the method of friction hydro-pillar processing (FHPP) applied to [...] Read more.
Repairing links of offshore mooring chains has presented a significant industry challenge, primarily arising from modifications in material properties, encompassing alterations in microstructure, hardness, and residual stress. In this context, the present work investigates the method of friction hydro-pillar processing (FHPP) applied to R4 grade mooring chain steel. Joints in as-repaired and post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) conditions were subjected to residual stress (RS) tests using the neutron diffraction technique, microhardness mapping, and microstructural evaluations. The process generated peaks of tensile and compressive stresses in different directions and hardness below that of the parent material in the softening zone. The friction zone promoted high hardness levels in the thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ) with a maximum of 19% of the ultimate tensile strength of the parent material. As expected, the PWHT restored the RS and reduced the hardness; however, 4 h PWHT allowed the elimination of a hardness higher than that of the base material. Full article
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30 pages, 8620 KiB  
Article
Machine Learning Algorithm to Predict CO2 Using a Cement Manufacturing Historic Production Variables Dataset: A Case Study at Union Bridge Plant, Heidelberg Materials, Maryland
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(6), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7060199 - 08 Nov 2023
Viewed by 2020
Abstract
This study uses machine learning methods to model different stages of the calcination process in cement, with the goal of improving knowledge of the generation of CO2 during cement manufacturing. Calcination is necessary to determine the clinker quality, energy needs, and CO [...] Read more.
This study uses machine learning methods to model different stages of the calcination process in cement, with the goal of improving knowledge of the generation of CO2 during cement manufacturing. Calcination is necessary to determine the clinker quality, energy needs, and CO2 emissions in a cement-producing facility. Due to the intricacy of the calcination process, it has historically been challenging to precisely anticipate the CO2 produced. The purpose of this study is to determine a direct association between CO2 generation from the manufacture of raw materials and the process factors. In this paper, six machine learning techniques are investigated to explore two output variables: (1) the apparent degree of oxidation, and (2) the apparent degree of calcination. CO2 molecular composition (dry basis) sensitivity analysis uses over 6000 historical manufacturing health data points as input variables, and the results are used to train the algorithms. The Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) of various regression models is examined, and the models are then run to ascertain which independent variables in cement manufacturing had the largest impact on the dependent variables. To establish which independent variable has the biggest impact on CO2 emissions, the significance of the other factors is also assessed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Manufacturing for a Better Future)
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16 pages, 12811 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Microstructure–Porosity–Hardness of Thermal Plasma-Sprayed NiTi Coating Layers
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(6), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7060198 - 07 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1413
Abstract
The quality of NiTi coating influences the thermal, microstructural, and mechanical behavior of the material produced by plasma spraying. To understand the behavior of the coating, the study has been designed and planned at two different plasma powers with various feed rates. NiTi [...] Read more.
The quality of NiTi coating influences the thermal, microstructural, and mechanical behavior of the material produced by plasma spraying. To understand the behavior of the coating, the study has been designed and planned at two different plasma powers with various feed rates. NiTi as shape memory layers emerge as promising protective coatings on the surface of substrates against corrosion or wear. In the present investigation, NiTi multilayers were produced by thermal plasma spraying using NiTi (50 at. %) powder as the feedstock material. This work illustrates the studies of the microstructure, porosity of the coating layers, phase detection, hardness values, shape memory behavior, and the formation of samples produced by different spraying parameters. The porosity within coating layers has been analyzed based on the various shape factors of pores that correlate with the hardness and mechanical behavior of the samples. This work will explore the quality of the coating in terms of its porosity and compactness, which will affect the performance of the shape memory behavior. The functional coating of NiTi will have a significant influence on the durability of the material’s performance against corrosion. Full article
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