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J. Manuf. Mater. Process., Volume 7, Issue 4 (August 2023) – 34 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Laser-directed energy deposition (LDED) is a promising technique for the near-net-shape fabrication of 3D structures. Yet, processing copper alloys has been tough due to their high reflectivity of laser beams and high heat conductivity. For the first time in the literature, this study systematically investigates LDED processing of the CuCrZr alloy. The focus is on optimizing input parameters using statistical methods, toolpath planning, and studying the evolution of microstructure and defects. The optimal toolpath involved a zigzag strategy plus a contour with a radial path at the corners. The ranges of 1100–2000 W for laser power (P) and 0.003–0.016 g/mm for powder fed to the melt pool distance (F/V) led to 99.99% density. Finally, the average grain size from 105 to 215 µm was seen within the optimal processing window. View this paper
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34 pages, 13484 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Part Quality Achieved by Material Extrusion Printers in Relation to Their Price
by Carsten Schmidt, Adrian Morlock, Rainer Griesbaum, Jan T. Sehrt and Florian Finsterwalder
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(4), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7040152 - 20 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1179
Abstract
Users of material extrusion printers are faced with a wide range of prices. It is unknown which printer price can achieve the required part quality. However, the price and the resulting quality of a printer are decisive factors for the process, especially at [...] Read more.
Users of material extrusion printers are faced with a wide range of prices. It is unknown which printer price can achieve the required part quality. However, the price and the resulting quality of a printer are decisive factors for the process, especially at small- and medium-sized companies. This study investigated the correlation between the printer price and part quality based on dimensional accuracy, surface quality, strength, and visual appearance. In this paper, 14 printers with different prices were examined. The relationship of printer price and part defects, elongation at break, and the accuracy of roundings could be identified (the regressions achieved a p-value under 0.5 and an R2 over 0.4). A relationship with surface roughness, tensile strength, or other dimensional accuracy characteristics could not be found (the regressions achieved an R2 under 0.4 or anomalies could be detected in the regression analysis). In the performed investigations, more-expensive printers were not necessarily associated with an improvement in these quality characteristics. No relationship between the printer price and the standard deviation, e.g., less variation in part quality, could be identified. This paper provides valuable insights into the relationship of part quality and printer price. The performed research improved upon the existing literature in terms of the number of investigated printers, the observed price range, and the number of tested quality characteristics. The results and approach of this paper will help users select an appropriate printer, and the findings can be used in the sourcing and technology selection phases. Full article
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19 pages, 17042 KiB  
Article
On the Processability and Microstructural Evolution of CuCrZr in Multilayer Laser-Directed Energy Deposition Additive Manufacturing via Statistical and Experimental Methods
by Ali Zardoshtian, Reza Esmaeilizadeh, Mazyar Ansari, Mohsen K. Keshavarz, Hamid Jahed and Ehsan Toyserkani
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(4), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7040151 - 18 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1636
Abstract
Laser-directed energy deposition (LDED) is a promising technology for coating, repairing, and building near-net-shape 3D structures. However, the processing of copper alloys, specifically, has presented a significant challenge due to their low laser absorptivity at the 1060 nm laser wavelength and high thermal [...] Read more.
Laser-directed energy deposition (LDED) is a promising technology for coating, repairing, and building near-net-shape 3D structures. However, the processing of copper alloys, specifically, has presented a significant challenge due to their low laser absorptivity at the 1060 nm laser wavelength and high thermal conductivity. This study undertook a methodical examination by employing a 2 kW disk laser, operating at a wavelength of 1064 nm, and a coaxial nozzle head to comprehensively examine the processability of the highly conductive CuCrZr alloy for expanding the range of materials that can be successfully processed using LDED. The investigation focuses not only on optimizing the input process parameters that are the laser power, scanning speed, powder feed rate, and overlap ratio, but also on planning the toolpath trajectory, as these factors were found to exert a substantial influence on processability, geometrical accuracy, and the occurrence of defects such as lack of fusion. The optimal toolpath trajectory discovered involved implementing a zigzag strategy combined with a 90° rotation of the scanning direction. Additionally, a start point rotation was considered between each layer to even out the deposition of the layers. Moreover, a contour with a radial path at the corners was introduced to enhance the overall trajectory. Based on the hierarchal experimental study, the appropriate ranges for the key process parameters that leads to 99.99% relative density have been identified. They were found to be from 1100 up to 2000 W for the laser power (P), and from 0.003 up to 0.016 g/mm for the amount of powder that is fed to the melt pool distance (F/V). Regarding the influence of process parameters on the microstructure of the samples with equal deposition height, it was observed that varying combinations of process parameters within the optimal processing window resulted in variations in grain size ranging from 105 to 215 µm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Metal Additive Manufacturing/3D Printing)
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13 pages, 5861 KiB  
Article
Semi-Continuous Functionally Graded Material Austenitic to Super Duplex Stainless Steel Obtained by Laser-Based Directed Energy Deposition
by Juan Carlos Pereira, David Aguilar, Iosu Tellería, Raul Gómez and María San Sebastian
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(4), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7040150 - 12 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1076
Abstract
In this work, a semi-continuous functionally graded material (FGM) between an austenitic and a super duplex stainless steel was obtained. These materials are of great interest for the chemical, offshore, and oil and gas sectors since the austenitic stainless steel type 316L is [...] Read more.
In this work, a semi-continuous functionally graded material (FGM) between an austenitic and a super duplex stainless steel was obtained. These materials are of great interest for the chemical, offshore, and oil and gas sectors since the austenitic stainless steel type 316L is common (and not so expensive) and super duplex stainless steels have better mechanical and corrosion resistance but are more expensive and complex in their microstructural phases formation and the obtention of the balance between their main phases. Using directed energy deposition, it was possible to efficiently combine two powders of different chemical compositions by automated mixing prior to their delivery into the nozzle, coaxially to the laser beam for melting. A dense material via additive manufacturing was obtained, with minimum defectology and with a semi-continuous and controlled chemical compositional gradient in the manufactured part. The evolution of ferrite formation has been verified and the phase fraction measured. The resulting microstructure, austenite/ferrite ratio, and hardness variations were evaluated, starting from 100% austenitic stainless-steel composition and with variants of 5% in wt.% until achieving 100% of super duplex steel at the end of the part. Finally, the correlation between the increase in hardness of the FGM with the increase in the ferrite phase area fraction was verified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Metal Additive Manufacturing/3D Printing)
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20 pages, 13354 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Laser-Assisted Micro-Milling Process of Inconel 718
by Haijun Zhang, Fei Chen, Zengqiang Li, Wangjie Hu, Tao Sun and Junjie Zhang
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(4), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7040149 - 10 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1228
Abstract
While Inconel 718 is a widely used engineering material in industrial fields such as the aerospace and automotive fields, the machined surface integrity has a significant effect on the performance of its components and parts. In this work, the laser-assisted micro-milling process of [...] Read more.
While Inconel 718 is a widely used engineering material in industrial fields such as the aerospace and automotive fields, the machined surface integrity has a significant effect on the performance of its components and parts. In this work, the laser-assisted micro-milling process of Inconel 718 is investigated using a combination of experiments and finite element simulations. Firstly, an experimental platform of laser-assisted milling is built, and a three-dimensional thermal–mechanical coupled finite element model of laser-assisted milling of Inconel 718 is then established. Secondly, laser-assisted milling experiments and finite element simulations are conducted to investigate the impact of laser assistance on cutting force, chip morphology, tool wear and surface topography of Inconel 718 under a milling process. The results indicate that laser-assisted milling results in a moderate reduction in cutting forces while enhancing surface integrity and chip continuity, as compared with ordinary milling. Thirdly, orthogonal experiments of laser-assisted milling of Inconel 718 are conducted to discover the optimal processing parameters, including spindle speed, feed per tooth, milling depth and laser parameters. Finally, single-factor experiments are conducted to investigate the effect of laser power on cutting force, chip morphology, tool wear, groove burr and surface roughness in the laser-assisted milling of Inconel 718. And, a minimal surface roughness Sa of 137 nm for Inconel 718 accompanied by minimal tool wear is experimentally obtained via laser-assisted milling. These findings highlight the effectiveness of applying laser assistance in enhancing the machinability of difficult-to-machine materials for achieving desirable machined surface integrity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Precision Machining Processes)
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32 pages, 11788 KiB  
Article
A Comparative Study of a Machine Learning Approach and Response Surface Methodology for Optimizing the HPT Processing Parameters of AA6061/SiCp Composites
by Waleed H. El-Garaihy, Abdulrahman I. Alateyah, Mahmoud Shaban, Mohammed F. Alsharekh, Fahad Nasser Alsunaydih, Samar El-Sanabary, Hanan Kouta, Yasmine El-Taybany and Hanadi G. Salem
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(4), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7040148 - 10 Aug 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1341
Abstract
This work investigates the efficacy of high-pressure torsion (HPT), as a severe plastic deformation mechanism for processing plain and silicon-carbide-reinforced AA6061, with the broader objective of using the technique for improving the properties of lightweight materials for a range of objectives. The interactions [...] Read more.
This work investigates the efficacy of high-pressure torsion (HPT), as a severe plastic deformation mechanism for processing plain and silicon-carbide-reinforced AA6061, with the broader objective of using the technique for improving the properties of lightweight materials for a range of objectives. The interactions between input variables, such as the pressure and equivalent strain (εeq) applied during HPT processing, and the presence of SiCp and response variables, like the relative density, grain refinement, homogeneity of the structure, and the mechanical properties of the AA6061 aluminum matrix, were investigated. Hot compaction (HC) of the mixed powders followed by HPT were employed to produce AA6061 discs with and without 15% SiCp. The experimental findings were then analyzed statistically using the response surface methodology (RSM) and a machine learning (ML) approach to predict the output variables and to optimize the input parameters. The optimum combination of HPT process parameters was confirmed by the genetic algorithm (GA) and ML approaches. Furthermore, the constructed ML and RSM models were validated experimentally by HPT processing the same material under new conditions not fed into the models and comparing the experimental results to those predicted by the model. From the ML and RSM models, it was found that processing the AA6061/SiCp composite HPT via four revolutions at 3 GPa produced the highest mechanical properties coupled with significant grain refinement compared to the HC condition. ML analysis revealed that the equivalent strain induced by the number of revolutions was the most effective parameter for grain refinement, whereas the presence of SiCp played the highest role in improving both the hardness values and the compressive strength of the AA6061 matrices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Metal Forming and Thermomechanical Processing)
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11 pages, 1255 KiB  
Article
Investigations on the Influences of the Thermomechanical Manufacturing of Aluminium Auxiliary Joining Elements
by Thomas Borgert, Maximilian Henke and Werner Homberg
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(4), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7040147 - 10 Aug 2023
Viewed by 976
Abstract
The demands on joining technology are constantly increasing due to the consistent lightweight construction and the associated increasing material mix. To meet these requirements, the adaptability of the joining processes must be improved to be able to process different material combinations and to [...] Read more.
The demands on joining technology are constantly increasing due to the consistent lightweight construction and the associated increasing material mix. To meet these requirements, the adaptability of the joining processes must be improved to be able to process different material combinations and to react to challenges caused by deviations in the process chain. One example of a highly adaptable process due to the two-step process sequence is thermomechanical joining with Friction Spun Joint Connectors (FSJCs) that can be individually adapted to the joint. In this paper, the potentials of the adaption in the two-stage joining process with aluminium auxiliary joining elements are investigated. To this end, it is first investigated whether a thermomechanical forming process can be used to achieve a uniform and controlled manufacturing regarding the process variable of the temperature as well as the geometry of the FSJC. Based on the successful proof of the high and good repeatability in the FSJC manufacturing, possibilities, and potentials for the targeted influencing of the process and FSJC geometry are shown, based on an extensive variation of the process input variables (delivery condition and thus mechanical properties of the raw parts as well as the process parameters of rotational speed and feed rate). Here it can be shown that above all, the feed rate of the final forming process has the strongest influence on the process and thus also offers the strongest possibilities for influencing it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Metal Forming and Thermomechanical Processing)
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15 pages, 3466 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study of Improving the Durability of a Cup Cutter by Pre-Processing
by Almat Sagitov, Karibek Sherov, Bakhtiyor Mardonov, Yerzhan Akhmetov, Zhanat Ramazanova, Saule Ainabekova, Gulerke Tattimbek, Gulim Tussupbekova and Azimbek Esirkepov
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(4), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7040146 - 09 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1163
Abstract
This article presents the results of an experimental study on improving the durability of cup cutters through pre-processing. A review of existing methods of increasing the durability of metal-cutting tools is carried out. The conducted experiments and simulations confirmed the application of pre-processing [...] Read more.
This article presents the results of an experimental study on improving the durability of cup cutters through pre-processing. A review of existing methods of increasing the durability of metal-cutting tools is carried out. The conducted experiments and simulations confirmed the application of pre-processing to increase the durability of cup cutters and the hardening of the cutting part after pre-processing, which approves the formation of a secondary contact structure in the pre-processing process. Dependence for determining a period of the durability of cup cutters at various regimes of pre-processing is deduced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Metal Cutting and Cutting Tools)
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13 pages, 7864 KiB  
Article
Determination of the Influence of the Tool Side Stress Superposition and Tool Geometry on the Cut Surface Quality during Precision Shear Cutting
by Alexander Graf, Verena Kräusel, Dieter Weise, Jana Petrů, Jiří Koziorek and Pravishan Bhandari
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(4), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7040145 - 08 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1381
Abstract
Shearing high-strength steels often leads to a subpar cut quality and excessive stress on the tool components. To enhance the quality of the cut surface, intricate techniques like fine blanking are commonly employed. However, for applications with lower quality requirements, precision shear cutting [...] Read more.
Shearing high-strength steels often leads to a subpar cut quality and excessive stress on the tool components. To enhance the quality of the cut surface, intricate techniques like fine blanking are commonly employed. However, for applications with lower quality requirements, precision shear cutting offers an alternative solution. This research paper introduces a novel approach to directly superimpose radial stress on a workpiece during the precision shear cutting process and showcases for the first time how the application of direct stress superimposition can impact the cut surface by concurrently modifying the shear cutting edge and punch surface. A statistical experimental design is employed to investigate the interrelationships between the parameters and their effects. The results indicate that the overall cut quality, including cylindricity, clean-cut angle, rollover height, and tool stress, defined by punch force and retraction force, is influenced by the superimposed stress. Regarding the clean-cut zone, the statistical significance of direct radially superimposed stress was not observed, except when interacting with sheet thickness and clearance. Additionally, the sheet thickness and cutting gap emerged as significant parameters affecting the overall quality of the cut surface. Full article
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26 pages, 8165 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Selective Laser Sintering Three-Dimensional Printing of Thermoplastic Polyurethane Elastomer: A Statistical Approach
by Md Mahfuzur Rahman, Kazi Arman Ahmed, Mehrab Karim, Jakir Hassan, Rakesh Roy, Bayazid Bustami, S. M. Nur Alam and Hammad Younes
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(4), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7040144 - 08 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1722
Abstract
This research addresses the challenge of determining the optimal parameters for the selective laser sintering (SLS) process using thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer (TPU) flexa black powder to achieve high-quality SLS parts. This study focuses on two key printing process parameters, namely layer thickness and [...] Read more.
This research addresses the challenge of determining the optimal parameters for the selective laser sintering (SLS) process using thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer (TPU) flexa black powder to achieve high-quality SLS parts. This study focuses on two key printing process parameters, namely layer thickness and the laser power ratio, and evaluates their impact on four output responses: density, hardness, modulus of elasticity, and time required to produce the parts. The primary impacts and correlations of the input factors on the output responses are evaluated using response surface methodology (RSM). A particular response optimizer is used to find the optimal settings of input variables. Additionally, the rationality of the model is verified through an analysis of variance (ANOVA). The research identifies the optimal combination of process parameters as follows: a 0.11 mm layer thickness and a 1.00 laser power ratio. The corresponding predicted values of the four responses are 152.63 min, 96.96 Shore-A, 2.09 MPa, and 1.12 g/cm3 for printing time, hardness, modulus of elasticity, and density, respectively. These responses demonstrate a compatibility of 66.70% with the objective function. An experimental validation of the predicted values was conducted and the actual values obtained for printing time, hardness, modulus of elasticity, and density at the predicted input process parameters are 159.837 min, 100 Shore-A, 2.17 MPa, and 1.153 g/cm3, respectively. The errors between the predicted and experimental values for each response (time, hardness, modulus of elasticity, and density) were found to be 4.51%, 3.04%, 3.69%, and 2.69%, respectively. These errors are all below 5%, indicating the adequacy of the model. This study also comprehensively describes the influence of process parameters on the responses, which can be helpful for researchers and industry practitioners in setting process parameters of similar SLS operations. Full article
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15 pages, 7676 KiB  
Article
Experimental Analysis and Spatial Component Impact of the Inert Cross Flow in Open-Architecture Laser Powder Bed Fusion
by Magnus Bolt Kjer, Zhihao Pan, Venkata Karthik Nadimpalli and David Bue Pedersen
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(4), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7040143 - 07 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1139
Abstract
Laser-based powder bed fusion is an additive manufacturing process in which a high-power laser melts a thin layer of metal powder layer by layer to yield a three-dimensional object. An inert gas must remove process byproducts formed during laser processing to ensure a [...] Read more.
Laser-based powder bed fusion is an additive manufacturing process in which a high-power laser melts a thin layer of metal powder layer by layer to yield a three-dimensional object. An inert gas must remove process byproducts formed during laser processing to ensure a stable and consistent process. The process byproducts include a plasma plume and spatter particles. An NC sensor gantry is installed inside a bespoke open-architecture laser-based powder bed fusion system to experimentally characterize the gas velocity throughout the processing area. The flow maps are compared to manufactured samples, where the relative density and melt pools are analyzed, seeking a potential correlation between local gas flow conditions and the components. The results show a correlation between low gas flow velocities and increased porosity, leading to lower part quality. Local flow conditions across the build plate also directly impact components, highlighting the importance of optimizing the gas flow subsystem. The experimental flow analysis method enables optimization of the gas flow inlet geometry, and the data may be used to calibrate the computational modeling of the process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Performance Metal Additive Manufacturing)
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9 pages, 3079 KiB  
Communication
Correlating Ultrasonic Velocity in DC04 with Microstructure for Quantification of Ductile Damage
by Steffen Wackenrohr, Sebastian Herbst, Patrick Wöbbeking, Gregory Gerstein and Florian Nürnberger
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(4), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7040142 - 07 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1067
Abstract
The detection of ductile damage by image-based methods is time-consuming and typically probes only small areas. It is therefore of great interest for various cold forming processes, such as sheet-bulk metal forming, to develop new methods that can be used during the forming [...] Read more.
The detection of ductile damage by image-based methods is time-consuming and typically probes only small areas. It is therefore of great interest for various cold forming processes, such as sheet-bulk metal forming, to develop new methods that can be used during the forming process and that enable an efficient detection of ductile damage. In the present study, ductile damage in DC04 was examined using ultrasonic testing. First, different grain sizes were set by heat treatment. Subsequently, the sheet metal was formed by cold rolling. A clear correlation between the average void diameter and the measured ultrasonic velocity could be shown. The ultrasonic velocity showed a clear decrease when the average void size increased because of the increasing forming degree. The ultrasonic measurements were finally employed to calculate a damage parameter D to determine the amount of ductile damage in the microstructure for different grain sizes after cold rolling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Metal Forming and Thermomechanical Processing)
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15 pages, 5209 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Injection Temperature and Pressure on Pattern Wax Fluidity
by Viacheslav E. Bazhenov, Andrey V. Sannikov, Elena P. Kovyshkina, Andrey V. Koltygin, Andrey I. Bazlov, Vladimir D. Belov and Dmitry N. Dmitriev
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(4), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7040141 - 04 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1067
Abstract
In the investment casting process, the pattern made of wax is obtained in a die for further formation of a shell mold. The problem of die-filling by pattern wax is significant because it influences the quality of the final casting. This work investigates [...] Read more.
In the investment casting process, the pattern made of wax is obtained in a die for further formation of a shell mold. The problem of die-filling by pattern wax is significant because it influences the quality of the final casting. This work investigates three commercial pattern waxes’ fluidity with a newly developed injection fluidity test. It was shown that the fluidity of waxes increased with increasing injection temperature and pressure, and the simultaneous increase in temperature and pressure gives a much more significant enhancement of fluidity than an increase in temperature or pressure separately. The rheological behavior of the waxes was also investigated at different temperatures using a rotational viscosimeter, and temperature dependences of waxes’ dynamic viscosity were determined. It was shown that wax viscosity is increased more than ten times with decreasing temperature from 90 to 60 °C. A good correlation between wax fluidity and its viscosity is observed, which is different from metallic alloys, where the solidification behavior is more critical. The difference in wax flow behavior in comparison with metallic melts is associated with the difference in dynamic viscosity, which for investigated waxes and metallic melts is 3000–27,000 mPa·s and 0.5–6.5 mPa·s, respectively. The difference in investigated filled waxes’ fluidity is observed, which can be associated with the type and amount of filler. The twice-increasing fraction of cross-linked polystyrene decreases fluidity twice. At the same time, terephthalic acid has a minor influence on wax fluidity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Processes in Metallurgical Technologies)
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15 pages, 6768 KiB  
Article
Grain Refinement of Pure Magnesium for Microforming Application
by Siska Titik Dwiyati, Gandjar Kiswanto and Sugeng Supriadi
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(4), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7040140 - 04 Aug 2023
Viewed by 987
Abstract
Magnesium is a suitable candidate material for temporary implant applications, such as a miniplate, due to its biocompatibility, density, and elastic modulus comparable to that of human bone. The biodegradability property of magnesium can minimize the need for a second surgery after the [...] Read more.
Magnesium is a suitable candidate material for temporary implant applications, such as a miniplate, due to its biocompatibility, density, and elastic modulus comparable to that of human bone. The biodegradability property of magnesium can minimize the need for a second surgery after the healing process, thereby reducing costs and pain for patients. On the other hand, microforming is a promising technology for manufacturing miniplates with high production rates and good mechanical properties. However, the application of magnesium in microforming is limited and remains a challenge in resolving issues related to the size effect in microforming and the low formability of magnesium, especially at room temperature. Grain refinement and homogenization are alternative approaches to controlling the size effect in magnesium microforming and improving formability. As the grain refinement process influences the mechanical and corrosion behavior of magnesium, this research shows that the grain refinement process for pure magnesium improves the overall performance of the microforming process for implant applications. Full article
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15 pages, 1755 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Tempering Effects on LDS-MID and PCB Substrates for HF Applications
by Marius Wolf, Kai Werum, Thomas Guenther, Lisa Schleeh, Wolfgang Eberhardt and André Zimmermann
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(4), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7040139 - 03 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1042
Abstract
Mechatronic Integrated Devices or Molded Interconnect Devices (MID) are three-dimensional (3D) circuit carriers. They are mainly fabricated by laser direct structuring (LDS) and subsequent electroless copper plating of an injection molded 3D substrate. Such LDS-MID are used in many applications today, especially antennas. [...] Read more.
Mechatronic Integrated Devices or Molded Interconnect Devices (MID) are three-dimensional (3D) circuit carriers. They are mainly fabricated by laser direct structuring (LDS) and subsequent electroless copper plating of an injection molded 3D substrate. Such LDS-MID are used in many applications today, especially antennas. However, in high frequency (HF) systems in 5G and radar applications, the demand on 3D circuit carriers and antennas increases. Electroless copper, widely used in MID, has significantly lower electrical conductivity compared to pure copper. Its lower conductivity increases electrical loss, especially at higher frequencies, where signal budget is critical. Heat treatment of electroless copper deposits can improve their conductivity and adhesion to the 3D substrates. This paper investigates the effects induced by tempering processes on the metallization of LDS-MID substrates. As a reference, HF Printed Circuit Boards (PCB) substrates are also considered. Adhesion strength and conductivity measurements, as well as permittivity and loss angle measurements up to 1 GHz, were carried out before and after tempering processes. The main influencing factors on the tempering results were found to be tempering temperature, atmosphere, and time. Process parameters like the heating rate or applied surface finishes had only a minor impact on the results. It was found that tempering LDS-MID substrates can improve the copper adhesion and lower their electrical resistance significantly, especially for plastics with a high melting temperature. Both improvements could improve the reliability of LDS-MID, especially in high frequency applications. Firstly, because increased copper adhesion can prevent delamination and, secondly, because the lowered electrical resistance indicates, in accordance with the available literature, a more ductile copper metallization and thus a lower risk of microcracks. Full article
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19 pages, 11821 KiB  
Article
Fabrication of Bimetallic High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel/Si-Bronze Functionally Graded Materials Using Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing
by Marwan M. El-Husseiny, Abdelrahman A. Baraka, Omar Oraby, Ehab A. El-Danaf and Hanadi G. Salem
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(4), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7040138 - 31 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1969
Abstract
In this paper, bimetallic functionally graded structures were fabricated using wire and arc additive manufacturing (WAAM). The bimetallic walls were built by depositing Si-Bronze and high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steel, successively. The microstructural evolution of the built structures, especially within the fusion zone between [...] Read more.
In this paper, bimetallic functionally graded structures were fabricated using wire and arc additive manufacturing (WAAM). The bimetallic walls were built by depositing Si-Bronze and high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steel, successively. The microstructural evolution of the built structures, especially within the fusion zone between the dissimilar alloys, was investigated in relation to their mechanical properties. The built bimetallic walls showed a high level of integrity. An overall interface length of 9 mm was investigated for microstructural evolution, elemental mapping and microhardness measurements along the building direction. Microhardness profiles showed a gradual transition in hardness passing through the diffusion zone with no evidence for intermetallic compounds. Failure of the tensile specimens occurred at the Si-Bronze region, as expected. Bending tests confirmed good ductility of the joint between the dissimilar alloys. Direct shear test results proved a shear strength comparable to that of HSLA steel. The obtained results confirm that it is appropriate to fabricate HSLA steel/Si-Bronze FGMs using WAAM technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Metal Additive Manufacturing/3D Printing)
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16 pages, 4969 KiB  
Article
Manufacturing of High Conductivity, High Strength Pure Copper with Ultrafine Grain Structure
by Leila Ladani, Jafar Razmi and Terry C. Lowe
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(4), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7040137 - 30 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1365
Abstract
Applications of Copper (Cu) range from small scale applications such as microelectronics interconnects to very large high-powered applications such as railguns. In all these applications, Cu conductivity and ampacity play vital roles. In some applications such as railguns, where Cu also plays a [...] Read more.
Applications of Copper (Cu) range from small scale applications such as microelectronics interconnects to very large high-powered applications such as railguns. In all these applications, Cu conductivity and ampacity play vital roles. In some applications such as railguns, where Cu also plays a structural role, not only is high conductivity needed, but high strength, high ductility, and high wear resistance are also critical. Current technologies have achieved their full potential for producing better materials. New approaches and technologies are needed to develop superior properties. This research examines a new fabrication approach that is expected to produce Cu with superior mechanical strength, enhanced wear resistance, and increased electrical conductivity. Materials with refined grain structures were obtained by breaking down the coarse-grained Cu particles via cryogenic ball milling, followed by the consolidation of powders using cold isostatic pressing (CIP) and subsequent Continuous Equal Channel Angular Pressing (C-ECAP). The mixture of fine and ultrafine grains, with sizes between 200 nm to 2.5 µm and an average of 500 nm, was formed after ball milling at cryogenic temperatures. Further processing via C-ECAP produced nanostructured Cu with average grain sizes below 50 nm and excellent homogenous equiaxed grain shapes and random orientations. The hardness and tensile strength of the final Cu were approximately 158% and 95% higher than the traditional coarse-grained Cu bar, respectively. This material also displayed a good electrical conductivity rate of 74% International Annealed Copper Standard (IACS), which is comparable to the current Cu materials used in railgun applications. Full article
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13 pages, 3219 KiB  
Article
ANOVA Analysis and L9 Taguchi Design for Examination of Flat Slide Burnishing of Unalloyed Structural Carbon Steel
by Csaba Felhő, Frezgi Tesfom and Gyula Varga
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(4), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7040136 - 29 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1123
Abstract
Diamond burnishing is a finishing precision machining that is often used to improve the quality characteristics of previously machined surfaces. With its help, the surface roughness can be reduced, the surface hardness can be increased, and the tensile stresses remaining in the surface [...] Read more.
Diamond burnishing is a finishing precision machining that is often used to improve the quality characteristics of previously machined surfaces. With its help, the surface roughness can be reduced, the surface hardness can be increased, and the tensile stresses remaining in the surface after cutting can be transformed into compressive ones, and these changes can increase the service life of the components. Diamond burnishing was typically developed for processing cylindrical surfaces and is most often used for this type of surface. In this manuscript, we present a new method with the help of sliding burnishing, which can also be used on flat surfaces. By using the clamping head of a special tool into the main spindle of the vertical milling machine and moving it along a suitable path, the flat surface can be burnished. Machining experiments were carried out with the new type of tool on general-purpose, unalloyed, structural carbon steel samples on which the flat surfaces were previously generated by face milling. The examined parameters were the burnishing force F, the feed fb, and the number of passes (NoP). The L9 Taguchi experiment design was applied for executing flat slide burnishing, and the examination was conducted by ANOVA analysis. This research contributes to the field by providing insights into optimizing the burnishing process parameters for achieving desired surface quality in milling operations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Precision Machining Processes)
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29 pages, 33251 KiB  
Article
A Novel Apparatus for the Simulation of Powder Spreading Procedures in Powder-Bed-Based Additive Manufacturing Processes: Design, Calibration, and Case Study
by Salah Eddine Brika and Vladimir Brailovski
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(4), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7040135 - 28 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1438
Abstract
Powder-bed-based additive manufacturing processes (PBAM) are sensitive to variations in powder feedstock characteristics, and yet the link between the powder properties and process performance is still not well established, which complicates the powder selection, quality control, and process improvement processes. An accurate assessment [...] Read more.
Powder-bed-based additive manufacturing processes (PBAM) are sensitive to variations in powder feedstock characteristics, and yet the link between the powder properties and process performance is still not well established, which complicates the powder selection, quality control, and process improvement processes. An accurate assessment of the powder characteristics and behavior during recoating is important and must include the flow and packing properties of the powders, which are dependent on the application conditions. To fulfill the need for suitable powder testing techniques, a novel apparatus is developed to reproduce the generic PBAM powder spreading procedure and allow the measurements of the powder bed density, surface uniformity, and spreading forces as functions of the powder characteristics and spreading conditions, including the spreading speed and the type of spreading mechanism. This equipment could be used for research and development purposes as well as for the quality control of the PBAM powder feedstock, as showcased in this paper using a gas-atomized Ti-6Al-4V powder (D10 = 25.3 µm, D50 = 35.8 µm and D90 = 46.4 µm) spread using a rigid blade by varying the recoating speed from 100 to 500 mm/s and the layer thickness from 30 to 100 µm. Full article
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16 pages, 8144 KiB  
Article
Influence of Carbon on Additively Manufactured Ti-6Al-4V
by Kerstin Winkler, Paul Seidel, Andre Danzig, Lothar Kroll and Andreas Undisz
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(4), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7040134 - 26 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1151
Abstract
In this study, the Ti-6Al-4V powder material for additive manufacturing was mixed with amorphous carbon and processed by powder bed fusion using a laser beam. The specimens were subjected to mechanical and microstructural analyses to investigate the impact of the organic constituent that [...] Read more.
In this study, the Ti-6Al-4V powder material for additive manufacturing was mixed with amorphous carbon and processed by powder bed fusion using a laser beam. The specimens were subjected to mechanical and microstructural analyses to investigate the impact of the organic constituent that may become introduced unintentionally as an impurity along the powder handling chain. It is documented that hardness and tensile strength increase with increasing carbon content up to 0.2 wt.%. Above this carbon concentration, extensive crack formation in the samples prevents successful procession. Full article
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20 pages, 5675 KiB  
Article
Innovative Process Strategies in Powder-Based Multi-Material Additive Manufacturing
by Robert Setter, Jan Hafenecker, Richard Rothfelder, Sebastian-Paul Kopp, Stephan Roth, Michael Schmidt, Marion Merklein and Katrin Wudy
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(4), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7040133 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2085
Abstract
Multi-material additive manufacturing (AM) attempts to utilize the full benefits of complex part production with a comprehensive and complementary material spectrum. In this context, this research article presents new processing strategies in the field of polymer- and metal-based multi-material AM. The investigation highlights [...] Read more.
Multi-material additive manufacturing (AM) attempts to utilize the full benefits of complex part production with a comprehensive and complementary material spectrum. In this context, this research article presents new processing strategies in the field of polymer- and metal-based multi-material AM. The investigation highlights the current progress in powder-based multi-material AM based on three successfully utilized technological approaches: additive and formative manufacturing of hybrid metal parts with locally adapted and tailored properties, material-efficient AM of multi-material polymer parts through electrophotography, and the implementation of UV-curable thermosets within the laser-based powder bed fusion of plastics. Owing to the complex requirements for the mechanical testing of multi-material parts with an emphasis on the transition area, this research targets an experimental shear testing set-up as a universal method for both metal- and polymer-based processes. The method was selected based on the common need of all technologies for the sufficient characterization of the bonding behavior between the individual materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Powder-Based Additive Manufacturing)
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15 pages, 3504 KiB  
Article
Mechanical and Microstructure Characterisation of the Hypoeutectic Cast Aluminium Alloy AlSi10Mg Manufactured by the Twin-Roll Casting Process
by Moritz Neuser, Mirko Schaper and Olexandr Grydin
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(4), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7040132 - 23 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1030
Abstract
Multi-material designs (MMD) are more frequently used in the automotive industry. Hereby, the combination of different materials, metal sheets, or cast components, is mechanically joined, often by forming joining processes. The cast components mostly used are high-strength, age-hardenable aluminium alloys of the Al–Si [...] Read more.
Multi-material designs (MMD) are more frequently used in the automotive industry. Hereby, the combination of different materials, metal sheets, or cast components, is mechanically joined, often by forming joining processes. The cast components mostly used are high-strength, age-hardenable aluminium alloys of the Al–Si system. Here, the low ductility of the AlSi alloys constitutes a challenge because their brittle nature causes cracks during the joining process. However, by using suitable solidification conditions, it is possible to achieve a microstructure with improved mechanical and joining properties. For this study, we used the twin-roll casting process (TRC) with water-cooled rollers to manufacture the hypoeutectic AlSi10Mg for the first time. Hereby, high solidification rates are realisable, which introduces a microstructure that is about four times finer than in the sand casting process. In particular, it is shown that a fine microstructure close to the modification with Na or Sr is achieved by the high solidification rate in the TRC process without using these elements. Based on this, the mechanical properties increase, and especially the ductility is enhanced. Subsequent joining investigations validate the positive influence of a high solidification rate since cracks in joints can be avoided. Finally, a microstructure-property-joint suitability correlation is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Metal Forming and Thermomechanical Processing)
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13 pages, 8760 KiB  
Article
Performance Evaluation of Graphene Nanofluid to Mitigate the Wear of a Diamond Tool in Micro-Machining of Ti6Al4V Alloy
by Hongfei Wang, Qingshun Bai, Shandeng Chen, Yuhao Dou, Wanmin Guo and Tingting Wang
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(4), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7040131 - 19 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1093
Abstract
Diamond tools are extensively used in ultra-precision machining due to their exceptional performance. However, when machining challenging materials like Ti6Al4V, diamond tools experience significant wear due to poor machining properties and catalytic effects. Tool wear not only impacts machining quality but also escalates [...] Read more.
Diamond tools are extensively used in ultra-precision machining due to their exceptional performance. However, when machining challenging materials like Ti6Al4V, diamond tools experience significant wear due to poor machining properties and catalytic effects. Tool wear not only impacts machining quality but also escalates machining costs and energy consumption. Cutting fluids are commonly employed to mitigate interfacial reactions and suppress tool wear. However, traditional cutting fluids are difficult to penetrate the cutting area and have limited lubrication and cooling capabilities. Therefore, in this paper, a technique combining graphene nanofluid and minimum-quantity lubrication (MQL) is used to suppress diamond tool wear. Firstly, micro-milling experiments for Ti6Al4V alloy are conducted using diamond tools in the graphene nanofluid MQL and under a dry environment. The experimental results show that tool wear is effectively suppressed by graphene nanofluids. Subsequently, the cutting process in both environments (graphene nanofluid MQL, dry) is simulated. The suppression mechanism of graphene nanofluid MQL for diamond tool wear is evaluated from phase transition, atomic transfer process, and amorphous behavior of diamond structure. The simulation results show that the contact characteristics, cutting force, and cutting temperature are improved by graphene nanofluids. Tool wear is effectively reduced. In addition, the removal efficiency of workpiece materials has also been improved. This work provides a technical basis for exploring the application of graphene nanofluids in diamond tool damage suppression and micro-milling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Precision Machining Processes)
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10 pages, 2686 KiB  
Article
Contact Temperature Measurements on Hybrid Aluminum–Steel Workpieces in a Cross-Wedge Rolling Process
by Paulina Merkel, Jens Kruse, Mareile Kriwall, Bernd-Arno Behrens and Malte Stonis
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(4), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7040130 - 13 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1315
Abstract
The Collaborative Research Center 1153 is investigating a novel process chain for manufacturing high-performance hybrid components. The combination of aluminum and steel can reduce the weight of components and lead to lower fuel consumption. During the welding of aluminum and steel, a brittle [...] Read more.
The Collaborative Research Center 1153 is investigating a novel process chain for manufacturing high-performance hybrid components. The combination of aluminum and steel can reduce the weight of components and lead to lower fuel consumption. During the welding of aluminum and steel, a brittle intermetallic phase is formed that reduces the service life of the component. After welding, the workpiece is heated inhomogeneously and hot-formed in a cross-wedge rolling process. Since the intermetallic phase grows depending on the temperature during hot forming, temperature control is of great importance. In this paper, the possibility of process-integrated contact temperature measurement with thin-film sensors is investigated. For this purpose, the initial temperature distribution after induction heating of the workpiece is determined. Subsequently, cross-wedge rolling is carried out, and the data of the thin-film sensors are compared to the temperature measurements after heating. It is shown that thin-film sensors inserted into the tool are capable of measuring surface temperatures even at a contact time of 0.041 s. The new process monitoring of the temperature makes it possible to develop a better understanding of the process as well as to further optimize the temperature distribution. In the long term, knowledge of the temperatures in the different materials also makes it possible to derive quality characteristics as well as insights into the causes of possible process errors (e.g., fracture of the joining zone). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Metal Forming and Thermomechanical Processing)
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48 pages, 8831 KiB  
Review
Tool Wear Monitoring with Artificial Intelligence Methods: A Review
by Roberto Munaro, Aldo Attanasio and Antonio Del Prete
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(4), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7040129 - 11 Jul 2023
Viewed by 2873
Abstract
Tool wear is one of the main issues encountered in the manufacturing industry during machining operations. In traditional machining for chip removal, it is necessary to know the wear of the tool since the modification of the geometric characteristics of the cutting edge [...] Read more.
Tool wear is one of the main issues encountered in the manufacturing industry during machining operations. In traditional machining for chip removal, it is necessary to know the wear of the tool since the modification of the geometric characteristics of the cutting edge makes it unable to guarantee the quality required during machining. Knowing and measuring the wear of tools is possible through artificial intelligence (AI), a branch of information technology that, by interpreting the behaviour of the tool, predicts its wear through intelligent systems. AI systems include techniques such as machine learning, deep learning and neural networks, which allow for the study, construction and implementation of algorithms in order to understand, improve and optimize the wear process. The aim of this research work is to provide an overview of the recent years of development of tool wear monitoring through artificial intelligence in the general and essential requirements of offline and online methods. The last few years mainly refer to the last ten years, but with a few exceptions, for a better explanation of the topics covered. Therefore, the review identifies, in addition to the methods, the industrial sector to which the scientific article refers, the type of processing, the material processed, the tool used and the type of wear calculated. Publications are described in accordance with PRISMA-P (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis Protocols). Full article
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23 pages, 4328 KiB  
Article
Modeling of Energy Consumption and Print Time for FDM 3D Printing Using Multilayer Perceptron Network
by Mohamed Achraf El youbi El idrissi, Loubna Laaouina, Adil Jeghal, Hamid Tairi and Moncef Zaki
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(4), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7040128 - 07 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1509
Abstract
Given the recognized advantages of additive manufacturing (AM) printing systems in comparison with conventional subtractive manufacturing systems, AM technology has become increasingly adopted in 3D manufacturing, with usage rates increasing dramatically. This strong growth has had a significant and direct impact not only [...] Read more.
Given the recognized advantages of additive manufacturing (AM) printing systems in comparison with conventional subtractive manufacturing systems, AM technology has become increasingly adopted in 3D manufacturing, with usage rates increasing dramatically. This strong growth has had a significant and direct impact not only on energy consumption but also on manufacturing time, which in turn has generated significant costs. As a result, this problem has attracted the attention of industry actors and the research community, and several studies have focused on predicting and reducing energy consumption and additive manufacturing time, which has become one of the main objectives of research in this field. However, there is no effective model yet for predicting and optimizing energy consumption and printing time in a fused deposition modeling (FDM) process while taking into account the correct part orientation that minimizes both of these costs. In this paper, a neural-network-based model has been proposed to solve this problem using experimental data from isovolumetrically shaped mechanical parts. The data will serve as the basis for proposing the appropriate model using a specific methodology based on five performance criteria with the following statistical values: R2-squared > 99%, explained variance > 99%, MAE < 0.99%, MSE < 0.02% and RMSE < 1.36%. These values show just how effective the proposed model will be in estimating energy consumption and FDM printing time, taking into account the best choice of part orientation for the lowest cost. This model provides a global understanding of the primary energy and time requirements for manufacturing while also improving the system’s cost efficiency. The results of this work can be extended and applied to other additive manufacturing processes in future work. Full article
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19 pages, 9370 KiB  
Article
Fracture Characterisation and Modelling of AHSS Using Acoustic Emission Analysis for Deep Drawing
by Eugen Stockburger, Hendrik Wester and Bernd-Arno Behrens
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(4), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7040127 - 05 Jul 2023
Viewed by 984
Abstract
Driven by high energy prices, AHSS are still gaining importance in the automotive industry regarding electric vehicles and their battery range. Simulation-based design of forming processes can contribute to exploiting their potential for lightweight design. Fracture models are frequently used to predict the [...] Read more.
Driven by high energy prices, AHSS are still gaining importance in the automotive industry regarding electric vehicles and their battery range. Simulation-based design of forming processes can contribute to exploiting their potential for lightweight design. Fracture models are frequently used to predict the material’s failure and are often parametrised using different tensile tests with optical measurements. Hereby, the fracture is determined by a surface crack. However, for many steels, the fracture initiation already occurs inside the specimen prior to a crack on the surface. This leads to inaccuracies and more imprecise fracture models. Using a method that detects the fracture initiation within the specimen, such as acoustic emission analysis, has a high potential to improve the modelling accuracy. In the presented paper, tests for fracture characterisation with two AHSS were performed for a wide range of stress states and measured with a conventional optical as well as a new acoustical measurement system. The tests were analysed regarding the fracture initiation using both measurement systems. Numerical models of the tests were created, and the EMC fracture model was parametrised based on the two evaluation areas: a surface crack as usual and a fracture from the inside as a novelty. The two fracture models were used in a deep drawing simulation for analysis, comparison and validation with deep drawing experiments. It was shown that the evaluation area for the fracture initiation had a significant impact on the fracture model. Hence, the failure prediction of the EMC fracture model from the acoustic evaluation method showed a higher agreement in the numerical simulations with the experiments than the model from the optical evaluation. Full article
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19 pages, 5322 KiB  
Article
Improving Material Formability and Tribological Conditions through Dual-Pressure Tube Hydroforming
by Gracious Ngaile and Mauricio Avila
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(4), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7040126 - 02 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1054
Abstract
Dual-pressure tube hydroforming (THF) is a tube-forming process that involves applying fluid pressure to a tube’s inner and outer surfaces to achieve deformation. This study investigates the effect of dual-pressure loading paths on material formability and tribological conditions. Specifically, pear-shaped and triangular cross-sectional [...] Read more.
Dual-pressure tube hydroforming (THF) is a tube-forming process that involves applying fluid pressure to a tube’s inner and outer surfaces to achieve deformation. This study investigates the effect of dual-pressure loading paths on material formability and tribological conditions. Specifically, pear-shaped and triangular cross-sectional parts were formed using dual-pressure modes where fluid pressure on the inside of the tubular blank was alternated with pressure on the outside surface of the tubular blank, causing the tube to expand/stretch and contract. During expansion, the tube conformed to the die’s cavity, while during contraction, the contact area between the die and the workpiece reduced, leading to decreased friction stress at the tube–die interface. Additionally, the reversal of pressure loadings caused the tubular blank to buckle, altering the stress state and potentially increasing local shear stress, improving material formability. Dual-pressure THF has demonstrated that the pressure loading paths chosen can substantially influence material formability. Comparing the geometries of parts formed by dual-pressure THF and conventional THF shows a significant increase in the protrusion height of both the pear-shaped and triangular specimens using dual-pressure THF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Material Forming)
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18 pages, 5045 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Nanoparticle Reinforcement on the Micromilling Process of A356/Al2O3 Nanocomposites
by Talha Sunar, Paolo Parenti, Tansel Tunçay, Dursun Özyürek and Massimiliano Annoni
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(4), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7040125 - 01 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1414
Abstract
Improving scientific knowledge around the manufacturing of nanocomposites is key since their performance spreads across many applications, including those in meso/micro products. Powder metallurgy is a reliable process for producing these materials, but usually, machining postprocessing is required to achieve tight tolerances and [...] Read more.
Improving scientific knowledge around the manufacturing of nanocomposites is key since their performance spreads across many applications, including those in meso/micro products. Powder metallurgy is a reliable process for producing these materials, but usually, machining postprocessing is required to achieve tight tolerances and quality requirements. When processing these materials, cutting force evolution determines the ability to control the microcutting operation toward the successful surface and part quality generation. This paper investigates cutting force and part quality generation during the micromilling of A356/Al2O3 aluminum nanocomposites produced via powder metallurgy. A set of micromilling experiments were carried out under various process parameters on nanocomposites with different nano-Al2O3 reinforcements (0–12.5 vol.%). The material’s ductility, internal porosity, and lack of interparticle bonding cause the cutting force generation to be irregular when nanoparticle reinforcements were absent or small. Reinforcement ratios higher than 2.5 vol.% strongly affect the cutting process by regularizing the milling force generation but lead to a proportionally increasing average force magnitudes. Hardening due to nano-reinforcement positively affects cutting mechanisms by reducing the plowing tendency of the cutting process, resulting in better surface quality. Therefore, a threshold on the nano-Al2O3 particles’ volumetric loadings enables an optimal design of these composite materials to support their micromachinability. Full article
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11 pages, 2711 KiB  
Article
Robotic Belt Finishing with Process Control for Accurate Surfaces
by Ramón Torres, Sara Mata, Xabier Iriarte and David Barrenetxea
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(4), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7040124 - 01 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1261
Abstract
The aerospace industry still relies on manual processes for finish applications, which can be a tedious task. In recent years, robotic automation has gained interest due to its flexibility and adaptability to provide solutions to this issue. However, these processes are difficult to [...] Read more.
The aerospace industry still relies on manual processes for finish applications, which can be a tedious task. In recent years, robotic automation has gained interest due to its flexibility and adaptability to provide solutions to this issue. However, these processes are difficult to automate, as the material removal rate can vary due to changes in the process variables. This work proposes an approach for automatically modeling the material removal process based on experimental data in a robotic belt grinding application. The methodology concerns the measurement of the removed mass of a test part during a finishing process using an automatic precision measurement system. Then, experimental models are used to develop a control algorithm for continuous material removal that maintains a uniform finishing process by regulating the robot’s feed rate. Next, the results for various experimental material removal models under different process conditions are presented, showing the process parameter’s influence on the removal capacity. Finally, the proposed control algorithm is validated, achieving a constant material removal rate. Full article
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21 pages, 5345 KiB  
Article
Impact of Gas Metal Arc Welding Parameters on Bead Geometry and Material Distortion of AISI 316L
by Samir Khrais, Hadeel Al Hmoud, Ahmad Abdel Al and Tariq Darabseh
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(4), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7040123 - 29 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2059
Abstract
This study investigates the impact of gas metal arc welding (GMAW) parameters on the bead geometry and material distortion of AISI 316L. Three parameters—arc current in ampere (A), filler feed rate (m/min), and gas composition—were modified at varying levels in order to examine [...] Read more.
This study investigates the impact of gas metal arc welding (GMAW) parameters on the bead geometry and material distortion of AISI 316L. Three parameters—arc current in ampere (A), filler feed rate (m/min), and gas composition—were modified at varying levels in order to examine their effects. This study sheds new light on MAG welding lines’ physical properties and behavior and highlights the influence of quaternary shielding gas compositions. Taguchi analysis, which includes signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and analysis of variance (ANOVA), was utilized to analyze and optimize the welding parameters. This study found that arc current significantly impacts bead geometry, while the shielding gas composition has the most significant effect on angular distortion and transverse shrinkage. The optimal welding parameters for achieving the best bead height and width are 160 A, 3.5 m/min, G1, with a bead height of 4.89 mm, and 120 A, 3 m/min, G2, with a bead width of 6.69 mm. Moreover, the optimal welding parameters for minimizing both angular distortion and transverse shrinkage are 120 A, 4 m/min, G2, resulting in an angular distortion value of 0.0042° and a transverse shrinkage value of 0.0254 mm. This research has practical implications for improving welding performance and can contribute to the advancement of MAG and MIG welding in manufacturing applications. Full article
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