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Abstract

Different Kinetics of Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Markers after Eccentric Exercise in Upper and Lower Limbs †

1
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Sciences and Education, Harokopio University, 17676 Athens, Greece
2
Sports Performance Laboratory, School of Physical Education and Sports Science, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 15772 Athens, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Presented at the 9th Greek Conference of Biochemistry and Physiology of Exercise, Thessaloniki, Greece, 18–20 October 2019.
Proceedings 2019, 25(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019025017
Published: 2 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 9th Conference of Biochemistry and Physiology of Exercise)

Abstract

:
AIM: Subclinical, low-grade, inflammation is one of the main pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the majority of chronic diseases. Ιt is therefore obvious that an inflammatory model, inducing inflammatory responses to humans in a regulated, specific, and non-harmful way, could greatly facilitate the assessment of redox and immune status. Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) could serve as such a model; however, the kinetics of biomarkers may be substantially different according to the muscle groups examined. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the responses of selected inflammatory and redox biomarkers after eccentric-induced muscle damage in upper and lower limbs. MATERIAL & METHOD: Ten healthy, sedentary volunteers (5 males) performed, in a randomized and cross-over fashion, two discrete exercise protocols in lower (10 sets × 10 drop jumps from a height of 40 cm) and upper extremities (8 sets × 10 eccentric muscle contractions of the biceps at 90% of 1RM) separated by 6 weeks. Venous blood samples were collected pre-, immediately post-, 2, 24 and 48 h after the exercise protocols. Body composition was evaluated with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, blood cell count analysis by an automated hematology analyzer, CK, CRP and IL-6 by commercially available kits, while serum glutathione peroxidase (GPX3) by enzymatic assays adapted for microwell plates. RESULTS: A different pattern of response (time x protocol p < 0.05) was observed for CK, IL-6 and CRP, with lower limbs reaching the highest increases at 2 h post-exercise, while upper limbs at 24 and 48 h. A similar response between the two protocols was observed for WBC and neutrophils, with a transient 30% increase at 2 h (time p < 0.05). No effect of time or protocol was observed for GPX3. CONCLUSIONS: Kinetics of selected inflammatory and redox biomarkers follow different patterns depending on the muscle group tested. Thus, depending on the targeted muscle group, blood samples should be obtained at specific time points. The higher levels of CK, IL-6 and CRP at 24–48 h implies an augmented inflammatory response at upper limbs, probably due to a lower adaptation to eccentric exercise, indicating that EIMD of upper limbs is a better protocol for the assessment of the inflammatory status in humans.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chalari, E.; Methenitis, S.; Arnaoutis, G.; Stergiou, I.; Kampouropoulou, C.; Karampelas, E.; Prousinoudi, N.; Argyropoulou, V.; Nomikos, T. Different Kinetics of Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Markers after Eccentric Exercise in Upper and Lower Limbs. Proceedings 2019, 25, 17. https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019025017

AMA Style

Chalari E, Methenitis S, Arnaoutis G, Stergiou I, Kampouropoulou C, Karampelas E, Prousinoudi N, Argyropoulou V, Nomikos T. Different Kinetics of Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Markers after Eccentric Exercise in Upper and Lower Limbs. Proceedings. 2019; 25(1):17. https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019025017

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chalari, Eleanna, Spyridon Methenitis, Giannis Arnaoutis, Ioanna Stergiou, Christina Kampouropoulou, Efstathios Karampelas, Niki Prousinoudi, Vassiliki Argyropoulou, and Tzortzis Nomikos. 2019. "Different Kinetics of Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Markers after Eccentric Exercise in Upper and Lower Limbs" Proceedings 25, no. 1: 17. https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019025017

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