Evaluation of Phragmites australis for Environmental Sustainability in Bahrain: Photosynthesis Pigments, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn Content Grown in Urban Wastes
2. Material and Methods
2.1. Plant Samples
2.2. Percent Water Content
2.3. Toxic Metal Analyses
2.4. Total Chlorophyll Content
- The chlorophyll content was measured by acetone extraction, and the calculation of the concentration was determined according to the equations proposed by Lichtenthaler . The percent water content was estimated by the formula mentioned in Section 2.2. The data obtained were statistically analyzed by Statistical Package (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY, USA) for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.
- The fresh weight of sets A and B (0.05 g) was measured using an analytical balance and transferred to a pestle; then, 2 mL of acetone was added with the addition of 0.01 g of sea sand acid and (0.01 g) MgCO3. The mixture was ground using a mortar until it was dry (powder), and then the ground powder was transferred to a plastic centrifuge test tube. Using a micropipette, 1 mL of 80% acetone was added to the pestle, homogenized, and then transferred to a centrifuge tube, and the process was repeated until the pestle was clear; then, the volume was adjusted to 3 mL by adding 80% acetone. The sample was centrifuged at a speed of 5000 rpm for 15 min at 4 °C; after that, the supernatant was collected in a UV–Vis tube, and absorbance was determined by a UV–Vis spectrophotometer at 470, 646.8, 663.2, and 750 nm.
- The calculation of the chlorophyll concentration was performed according to the equations proposed by Lichtenthaler :
2.5. Statistical Analysis
3.1. Water and Chlorophyll Content
3.2. Toxic Metal Contents
3.3. Statistical Analysis
- The present investigation of the effect of selected toxic metal concentrations on the chlorophyll contents of the common reed generated some useful information. The common reed was found to accumulate significant amounts of toxic metals in its biomass. The photosynthetic machinery and plant growth were not affected by metal accumulation. Thus, the common reed (Phragmites australis) can be considered a potential source of phytonutrients, including chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids. Higher concentrations of total chloroplast pigments are mostly available in the immature and mature flowering stages.
- The immature stage of the stems of the plant can be favored as a source of phytonutrients. However, chloroplast pigment extraction from the common reed for human and animal consumption should be treated with caution to avoid any harmful side effects resulting from contamination with other hazardous compounds that accumulate in the plant tissues, as it can be a water filtering tool for toxic metals.
- The use of such marginal wetlands plants may be very useful in reducing the pollution burden of urban built environments. These plants offer a green, sustainable solution for the disposal of waste from urban areas.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Stages||Chl. a (µg/g)||Chl. b (µg/g)||Carotenoids (µg/g)||Total Chl. (µg/g)||% Water |
|fully elongated non-flowering||1017.4||346.23||308.35||1363.64||66.37|
|mature flowering stem||1351.95||676.45||357.01||2028.41||42.23|
|Stages||Cu (mg/L)||Zn (mg/L)||Pb (mg/L)||Cd (mg/L)|
|fully elongated |
|mature flowering stem||0.095||1.752||20.208||0.591|
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Perna, S.; AL-Qallaf, Z.A.; Mahmood, Q. Evaluation of Phragmites australis for Environmental Sustainability in Bahrain: Photosynthesis Pigments, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn Content Grown in Urban Wastes. Urban Sci. 2023, 7, 53. https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci7020053
Perna S, AL-Qallaf ZA, Mahmood Q. Evaluation of Phragmites australis for Environmental Sustainability in Bahrain: Photosynthesis Pigments, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn Content Grown in Urban Wastes. Urban Science. 2023; 7(2):53. https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci7020053Chicago/Turabian Style
Perna, Simone, Zainab Ali AL-Qallaf, and Qaisar Mahmood. 2023. "Evaluation of Phragmites australis for Environmental Sustainability in Bahrain: Photosynthesis Pigments, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn Content Grown in Urban Wastes" Urban Science 7, no. 2: 53. https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci7020053