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Urban Sci., Volume 7, Issue 2 (June 2023) – 35 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Sustainable development has attracted the attention of social, economic, spatial well-being and cultural continuity advocates across the world. The study focused on Greece showed that the indicators of urbanization quality are crucial to achieving different SDGs. There is a significant link between integrated land use strategies and SDGs. The goal of sustainable urban development is to build or reinforce the city’s sustainability-related economic, social, cultural, and environmental aspects. Urban sustainability and the proper use of land require structural changes and fundamental shifts at all societal levels. This research emphasizes the critical role of strong governance institutions and decentralization for a global approach to land management and sustainable development achievement. View this paper
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17 pages, 8539 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Link between Street Layout Centrality and Walkability for Sustainable Tourism in Historical Urban Areas
by Mustafa Aziz Amen, Ahmad Afara and Hourakhsh Ahmad Nia
Urban Sci. 2023, 7(2), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci7020067 - 14 Jun 2023
Viewed by 2164
Abstract
Walkability is considered a vital component of the urban configuration; urban spaces should promote pedestrian walking, which is healthier and increases social sustainability by connecting people in urban spaces. This article aims to find the link between the street layout centrality values and [...] Read more.
Walkability is considered a vital component of the urban configuration; urban spaces should promote pedestrian walking, which is healthier and increases social sustainability by connecting people in urban spaces. This article aims to find the link between the street layout centrality values and the people’s walkability for sustainable tourism in historic areas. Moreover, it attempts to explore the linkage between the urban layout and visiting historical spaces in the urban layout. The approach to the research has two phases; the first is to find people density (the tourist density) in the historical areas, and the second is to measure the centrality values of the urban layout utilizing the spatial design network analysis tool (sDNA). The research found that the street network considerably impacts the final tourist distribution, mainly because of the betweenness centrality; consequently, spaces with low betweenness centrality values are less reachable by the tourists in the historical area, although it has a high closeness centrality. The research concluded that considering the street network is necessary concerning the tourists’ walkability since it affects their density in the urban layout. Full article
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15 pages, 3770 KiB  
Article
Energy and Economic Analysis of Renewable Energy-Based Isolated Microgrids with AGM and Lithium Battery Energy Storage: Case Study Bigene, Guinea-Bissau
by Jesús Armando Aguilar-Jiménez, Luis Hernández-Callejo, José Alejandro Suástegui-Macías, Victor Alonso Gómez, Alfonso García-Álvaro, Raúl Maján-Navalón and Lilian Johanna Obregón
Urban Sci. 2023, 7(2), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci7020066 - 14 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1292
Abstract
By the year 2020, 90% of the population with access to electricity worldwide was surpassed. However, the reality is very different for many countries, especially for those on the African continent that had more than 572 million people without electricity service at the [...] Read more.
By the year 2020, 90% of the population with access to electricity worldwide was surpassed. However, the reality is very different for many countries, especially for those on the African continent that had more than 572 million people without electricity service at the end of 2019. This work studies the implementation of an isolated microgrid activated with photovoltaic energy and energy storage in batteries under the case study of the community of Bigene, located in the African country of Guinea-Bissau. This type of project is a potential solution to the problem of access to energy, but as the cost of the energy storage system is typically very high, this work technically and economically addresses the effect of using absorbed glass material (AGM) and lithium batteries. A simulator was developed using TRNSYS software to analyze the operation of the microgrid under a defined annual demand profile for different types of users, and economic analysis was conducted considering a project lifetime of 25 years. The results showed no significant differences in the solar fraction of both types of batteries when the photovoltaic power was less than 600 kW, regardless of the capacity of the storage bank. The analysis of auxiliary power requirements showed that lithium technology leads to a lower consumption from 800 kW of PV capacity, and utilizing less than this capacity did not have a significant difference with AGM batteries. In this microgrid with a photovoltaic capacity of less than 700 kW and an energy storage of less than 2580 kWh, the type of storage technology, AGM or lithium, did not represent a considerable difference in the levelized cost of energy, indicating that AGM technology could be selected considering its low initial investment cost compared to lithium batteries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Applications in Urban Areas)
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19 pages, 6892 KiB  
Article
Pedestrian Flows Characterization and Estimation with Computer Vision Techniques
by Federico Karagulian, Carlo Liberto, Matteo Corazza, Gaetano Valenti, Andreea Dumitru and Marialisa Nigro
Urban Sci. 2023, 7(2), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci7020065 - 14 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1691
Abstract
This work describes a straightforward implementation of detecting and tracking pedestrian walking across a public square using computer vision. The methodology consists of the use of the well-known YOLOv3 algorithm over videos recorded during different days of the week. The chosen location was [...] Read more.
This work describes a straightforward implementation of detecting and tracking pedestrian walking across a public square using computer vision. The methodology consists of the use of the well-known YOLOv3 algorithm over videos recorded during different days of the week. The chosen location was the Piazza Duca d’Aosta in the city of Milan, Italy, in front of the main Centrale railway station, an access point for the subway. Several analyses have been carried out to investigate macroscopic parameters of pedestrian dynamics such as densities, speeds, and main directions followed by pedestrians, as well as testing strengths and weaknesses of computer-vision algorithms for pedestrian detection. The developed system was able to represent spatial densities and speeds of pedestrians along temporal profiles. Considering the whole observation period, the mean value of the Voronoi density was about 0.035 person/m2 with a standard deviation of about 0.014 person/m2. On the other hand, two main speed clusters were identified during morning/evening hours. The largest number of pedestrians with an average speed of about 0.77 m/s was observed along the exit direction of the subway entrances during both morning and evening hours. The second relevant group of pedestrians was observed walking in the opposite direction with an average speed of about 0.65 m/s. The analyses generated initial insights into the future development of a decision-support system to help with the management and control of pedestrian dynamics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Agenda)
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15 pages, 13883 KiB  
Article
Predicting Gentrification in England: A Data Primitive Approach
by Jennie Gray, Lisa Buckner and Alexis Comber
Urban Sci. 2023, 7(2), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci7020064 - 13 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1902
Abstract
Geodemographic classifications are useful tools for segmenting populations and have many applications but are not suitable for measuring neighbourhood change over time. There is a need for an approach that uses data of a higher spatiotemporal resolution to capture the fundamental dimensions of [...] Read more.
Geodemographic classifications are useful tools for segmenting populations and have many applications but are not suitable for measuring neighbourhood change over time. There is a need for an approach that uses data of a higher spatiotemporal resolution to capture the fundamental dimensions of processes driving local changes. Data primitives are measures that capture the fundamental drivers of neighbourhood processes and therefore offer a suitable route. In this article, three types of gentrification are conceptualised, and four key data primitives are applied to capture them in a case study region in Yorkshire, England. These areas are visually validated according to their temporal properties to confirm the presence of gentrification and are then assigned to a high-level gentrification type. Ensemble modelling is then used to predict the presence, type, and temporal properties of gentrification across the rest of England. The results show an alignment of the spatial extent of gentrification types with previous gentrification studies throughout the country but may have made an overprediction in London. The periodicities of (1) residential, (2) rural, and (3) transport-led gentrification also vary throughout the country, but regardless of type, gentrification in areas within close proximity to one another have differing velocities such that they peak and complete within similar times. These temporal findings offer new, more timely tools for authorities in devising schedules of interventions and for understanding the intricacies of neighbourhood change. Full article
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15 pages, 2246 KiB  
Article
Comparative Investigation of On-Grid and Off-Grid Hybrid Energy System for a Remote Area in District Jamshoro of Sindh, Pakistan
by Mansoor Urf Manoo, Faheemullah Shaikh, Laveet Kumar and Siti Indati Mustapa
Urban Sci. 2023, 7(2), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci7020063 - 12 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1422
Abstract
To meet electricity requirements and provide a long-term, sustainable existence, remote areas need to promote renewable projects. Most of the time, wind and solar power sources are selected as renewable energy technologies to help satisfy some of the power requirements. Alternative approaches should [...] Read more.
To meet electricity requirements and provide a long-term, sustainable existence, remote areas need to promote renewable projects. Most of the time, wind and solar power sources are selected as renewable energy technologies to help satisfy some of the power requirements. Alternative approaches should be employed, considering the inconsistent characteristics among those resources, to offer efficient and long-lasting responses. Electricity production needs to be conducted with the help of a wide range of energy sources to be productive and efficient. As a result, the current research concentrates on feasible analyses of interconnected hybrid energy systems for such remote residential electricity supply. To help a remote area’s establishment decide whether to adopt renewable electricity technology, this paper evaluates the techno-economic effectiveness of grid-connected and standalone integrated hybrid energy systems. The electricity requirements for the entire selected remote area were determined first. Furthermore, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, a national renewable energy laboratory, was used to evaluate the possibilities of green energy supplies. A thorough survey was performed to determine which parts were needed to simulate the interconnected hybrid energy systems. Employing the HOMER program, we conducted a simulation, optimizations, and economic research. Considering the net present cost, cost of energy, and compensation time, an economic comparison was made between the evaluated integrated hybrid systems. The assessment reveals that perhaps the grid-connected hybrid energy system is the best option for reliably satisfying remote areas’ energy needs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Applications in Urban Areas)
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27 pages, 21808 KiB  
Article
Spatiotemporal Analysis of Emergency Calls during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Case of the City of Vaughan
by Ali Asgary, Adriano O. Solis, Nawar Khan, Janithra Wimaladasa and Maryam Shafiei Sabet
Urban Sci. 2023, 7(2), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci7020062 - 12 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 992
Abstract
Cities have experienced different realities during the COVID-19 pandemic due to its impacts and public health measures undertaken to respond to and manage the pandemic. These measures revealed significant implications for municipal functions, particularly emergency services. The aim of this study is to [...] Read more.
Cities have experienced different realities during the COVID-19 pandemic due to its impacts and public health measures undertaken to respond to and manage the pandemic. These measures revealed significant implications for municipal functions, particularly emergency services. The aim of this study is to examine the spatiotemporal distribution of emergency calls during different stages/periods of the pandemic in the City of Vaughan, Canada, using spatial density and the emerging hotspot analysis. The Vaughan Fire and Rescue Service (VFRS) provided the dataset of all emergency calls responded to within the City of Vaughan for the period of 1 January 2017 to 15 July 2021. The dataset was divided according to 11 periods during the pandemic, each period associated with certain levels of public health restrictions. A spatial analysis was carried out by converting the data into shapefiles using geographic coordinates of each call. Study findings show significant spatiotemporal changes in patterns of emergency calls during the pandemic, particularly during more stringent public health measures such as lockdowns and closures of nonessential businesses. The results could provide useful information for both resource management in emergency services as well as understanding the underlying causes of such patterns. Full article
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21 pages, 1983 KiB  
Article
Mapping Public-Planner Conflicts in SUDS Implementation Using Cultural Dimensions—A Case Study
by Bridget Thodesen, Erlend Andenæs, Rolf André Bohne and Tore Kvande
Urban Sci. 2023, 7(2), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci7020061 - 06 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1209
Abstract
The timely implementation of climate adaptation measures for the urban environment is essential to the creation of robust cities. Within Norway, these adaptation measures are undertaken at the municipal level. Unfortunately, the implementation of adaptation measures has lagged behind expectations, partially due to [...] Read more.
The timely implementation of climate adaptation measures for the urban environment is essential to the creation of robust cities. Within Norway, these adaptation measures are undertaken at the municipal level. Unfortunately, the implementation of adaptation measures has lagged behind expectations, partially due to public resistance to local projects. City planners seek tools to provide insight into the priorities of residents to build consensus and public support. This study follows up on two previous case studies of Sustainable Urban Drainage System (SUDS) implementation in Trondheim, Norway, where the prioritization of urban space is often a source of conflict. The Hofstede Cultural Compass is a tool that maps six cultural dimensions used in research and practice to inform users about cultural norms and cross-cultural divergences. This study seeks to test and verify this tool for use in building public consensus and support. Municipal managers responsible for project implementation took the Cultural Compass survey, and the results were collectively mapped and compared to the public at large. The Cultural Compass found notable divergences between the municipality and the Norwegian public within the areas of “Long-term Orientation”, “Uncertainty Avoidance”, and “Masculinity vs. Femininity”. These findings were cross-referenced with thematically analyzed interviews of residents regarding their perceptions of a municipal SUDS project. Together, these case studies give greater insight into the issues of diverging priorities and perspectives experienced in the implementation of SUDS. Recommendations are presented to aid the understanding of intercultural divergences between planning offices and public priorities in an effort to better engage the public and build consensus. Full article
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24 pages, 7665 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Spatial and Cultural Features in Contemporary Qatari Housing
by Asmaa Al-Mohannadi, Mark David Major, Raffaello Furlan, Rashid Saad Al-Matwi and Rima J. Isaifan
Urban Sci. 2023, 7(2), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci7020060 - 01 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1857
Abstract
Housing is a basic human need and a fundamental component of settlement status. The architectural form and spatial provisions of housing evolve in line with—and transform to meet—a specific era’s needs. Globalization has been responsible for changing the nature of housing in Qatar [...] Read more.
Housing is a basic human need and a fundamental component of settlement status. The architectural form and spatial provisions of housing evolve in line with—and transform to meet—a specific era’s needs. Globalization has been responsible for changing the nature of housing in Qatar over the last thirty years. It has led to a standardization of construction methods and built form, representing a dramatic departure from past models of vernacular residential architecture. In light of these challenges, the ultimate purpose of this study is to explore the spatial and cultural features in a small sample of contemporary housing in Qatar. It explores the spatial layout of four Qatari residential villas to assess the social and cultural roles in contemporary housing models against the background of previous research. In the study, the authors utilized space syntax as an analytical tool to demonstrate patterns of visibility and room relations in the samples to understand occupants’ system of activities in the contemporary domestic setting, deploying visibility graph analysis (VGA) and relational graphs. Key findings include the interpretation of the probable relation to socio-cultural factors such as gender roles, hospitality, and privacy. Hence, this study fills gaps in knowledge about Qatari and Middle Eastern housing today. Full article
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22 pages, 4429 KiB  
Article
Investigation into the Rationale of Migration Intention Due to Air Pollution Integrating the Homo Oeconomicus Traits
by Quan-Hoang Vuong, Tam-Tri Le, Viet-Phuong La, Thu-Trang Vuong and Minh-Hoang Nguyen
Urban Sci. 2023, 7(2), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci7020059 - 01 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1660
Abstract
Air pollution is a considerable environmental stressor for urban residents in developing countries. Perceived health risks of air pollution might induce migration intention among inhabitants. The current study employed the Bayesian Mindsponge Framework (BMF) to investigate the rationale behind the domestic and international [...] Read more.
Air pollution is a considerable environmental stressor for urban residents in developing countries. Perceived health risks of air pollution might induce migration intention among inhabitants. The current study employed the Bayesian Mindsponge Framework (BMF) to investigate the rationale behind the domestic and international migration intentions among 475 inhabitants in Hanoi, Vietnam—one of the most polluted capital cities worldwide. We found that people perceiving more negative impacts of air pollution in their daily life are more likely to have migration intentions. The effect of perceived air pollution impact on international migration intention is stronger than that of domestic migration. Acknowledging a family member’s air pollution-induced sickness moderated the association between perceived air pollution impact and domestic migration intention, while the personal experience of air pollution-induced sickness did not. In contrast, the moderation effect of personal experience of sickness became significant in the international migration circumstance, but the effect of information about a family member’s sickness was negligible. The findings suggest that urban inhabitants’ consideration of air pollution-averting strategies reflects some characteristics of Homo Oeconomicus. Although an individual’s socioeconomic decision may seem insignificant on a collective scale, through environmental stressors as catalysts, such decisions might result in considerable social tendencies (e.g., internal migration and emigration). Full article
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16 pages, 1409 KiB  
Review
Planning Tools to Revitalise Urban Vacant Land from Ecological Perspectives: A Systematic Review
by Izyan Ayuni Mohamad Selamat, Sreetheran Maruthaveeran, Mohd Johari Mohd Yusof and Mohd Fairuz Shahidan
Urban Sci. 2023, 7(2), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci7020058 - 01 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1808
Abstract
Urban vacant land availability offers revitalisation opportunities in the form of improving ecological functions. However, less is known about the available planning tools with which to mobilise this effort. Hence, this systematic review adopts ecological perspectives to explore planning tools to revitalise urban [...] Read more.
Urban vacant land availability offers revitalisation opportunities in the form of improving ecological functions. However, less is known about the available planning tools with which to mobilise this effort. Hence, this systematic review adopts ecological perspectives to explore planning tools to revitalise urban vacant land. The search strategy employs Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines to track original research on vacant urban land from selected electronic databases. The search revealed thirty-six studies focusing on substance-oriented planning tools (indicator systems, Geographic Information System (GIS), models/simulations, field surveys, and experiments) and process-oriented tools (questionnaire surveys, the Delphi method, focus groups, and interviews). This review suggests that future studies adopt hybrid planning tools that combine the essence of substance- and process-oriented tools. Furthermore, as a framework, it recommends taking a stepwise approach at various planning stages to revive vacant land. Additional studies from the perspective of growing cities are necessary to provide insights into urban vacant land revitalisation planning, considering the competing objectives of economic prosperity and green space preservation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Study of Urban Geography and City Planning)
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15 pages, 310 KiB  
Article
An Evaluation of Passenger Satisfaction among Users of Huambo Airport in Angola
by André Tchoia Relógio and Fernando Oliveira Tavares
Urban Sci. 2023, 7(2), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci7020057 - 01 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1297
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the level of client satisfaction among airline passengers and other users of Huambo’s airport in Angola. A quantitative method was used, based on a questionnaire addressed to airline passengers on their trips to Huambo and their use of [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the level of client satisfaction among airline passengers and other users of Huambo’s airport in Angola. A quantitative method was used, based on a questionnaire addressed to airline passengers on their trips to Huambo and their use of Huambo’s airport. This sample comprises 619 questionnaire answers. As a result of the study, it is possible to relate client satisfaction with the size of the aircraft in question and with the ease of booking a trip. On the contrary, clients become more dissatisfied when the cost of the trip is higher. An analysis of the degree of client satisfaction among airline passengers shows three categories: the waiting time and service at the airline office, the comfort during the trip, and the empathy of the cabin staff. This study is expected to be useful to show the preferences of the clients of this African airport. Full article
20 pages, 1282 KiB  
Article
Urban Quality of Life: A Systematic Literature Review
by Josana Gabriele Bolzan Wesz, Luciana Inês Gomes Miron, Ioanni Delsante and Patricia Tzortzopoulos
Urban Sci. 2023, 7(2), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci7020056 - 18 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4381
Abstract
The built environment has great influence over the sustainability of societies as well as over people’s quality of life. Quality of life (QoL) is a broad concept that has different definitions across diverse bodies of knowledge. The social–cultural environment and the characteristics of [...] Read more.
The built environment has great influence over the sustainability of societies as well as over people’s quality of life. Quality of life (QoL) is a broad concept that has different definitions across diverse bodies of knowledge. The social–cultural environment and the characteristics of the built environment influence people’s perception of QoL. This study aims to identify and analyse the factors that impact QoL and sustainable development in the urban context. A systematic literature review was developed to understand QoL concepts and to identify urban indicators that contribute to the multidimensional evaluation of urban QoL. The results include (1) a holistic overview of QoL concepts and indicators; (2) the proposal of a holistic urban QoL concept; (3) the identification of urban QoL dimensions and indicators that contribute to urban QoL evaluation. The main contribution of this study is its discussion of the multidimensional nature of QoL, including objective and subjective dimensions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Built Environment)
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25 pages, 854 KiB  
Article
Customer Loyalty during Disasters: The Case of Internet Service Providers Amidst Typhoon Odette in Central Philippine Urban Districts
by Roberto Suson, Donna Marie Rivero, Alma Arnejo, Nadine May Atibing, Joerabell Lourdes Aro, Angelo Burdeos, Kafferine Yamagishi and Lanndon Ocampo
Urban Sci. 2023, 7(2), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci7020055 - 16 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2937
Abstract
The impact of service disruptions to critical utility services due to natural disasters is evident during delays in emergency responses and humanitarian relief, especially for urban populations with highly interdependent infrastructures. Aside from health and social impacts, failing to address these disruptions would [...] Read more.
The impact of service disruptions to critical utility services due to natural disasters is evident during delays in emergency responses and humanitarian relief, especially for urban populations with highly interdependent infrastructures. Aside from health and social impacts, failing to address these disruptions would inevitably lead to customer dissatisfaction and switching loyalty, adversely affecting service providers’ profitability. Thus, providers must effectively respond to this service failure resulting from disruptions to retain the loyalty of their existing customers. To this end, a theoretical model to explain customer loyalty to internet service providers amidst a disaster-induced disruption through integrating customer loyalty, customer satisfaction, service quality, service innovation, service recovery, perceived value, and brand image is proposed in this work. This study uses the case of a massive disruption caused by Typhoon Odette (Rai) in central Philippine urban districts to empirically test the efficacy of the proposed structural model. A total of 584 responses were utilized in the partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) to derive significant relationships between the constructs. The findings suggest that customer satisfaction strongly predicts customer loyalty during a disaster. Furthermore, efforts towards service recovery do not translate to customer loyalty, but negatively influence customer satisfaction. Moreover, service innovation significantly affects customer satisfaction but negatively influences customer loyalty. Additionally, perceived value does not support customer loyalty but positively affects customer satisfaction. Lastly, brand image and service quality influence both customer satisfaction and loyalty. These findings offer managerial insights for informing the design of a reliable service recovery system, efficient project management planning, practical service innovation, and comprehensive service design. The future research directions are discussed. Full article
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28 pages, 6321 KiB  
Review
Promoting Urban Farming for Creating Sustainable Cities in Nepal
by Keshav Bhattarai and Ambika P. Adhikari
Urban Sci. 2023, 7(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci7020054 - 10 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 5959
Abstract
This paper responds to the research question, “can urban farming in Nepal help create sustainable cities?” Especially after the COVID-19 pandemic, urban residents have begun to realize that food transported from long distances is not always reliable. Urban farming can help produce fresh [...] Read more.
This paper responds to the research question, “can urban farming in Nepal help create sustainable cities?” Especially after the COVID-19 pandemic, urban residents have begun to realize that food transported from long distances is not always reliable. Urban farming can help produce fresh food locally and help urban residents become self-reliant by engaging in healthy eating habits and practicing sustainable agricultural techniques in food-desert areas, while creating a positive impact on the environment through regenerative agricultural methods. In doing so, urban farms can help the growers save on food expenditures and even earn some additional income, while also improving air quality and minimizing the effects of urban heat islands. This practice also helps reduce greenhouse gases through plant carbon use efficiency (CUE), as vegetation carbon dynamics (VCD) can be adjusted while supporting the circular economy. As urban lands command higher prices than agricultural land, urban farming usually happens on residential yards, roofs, balconies, community gardens, and dedicated areas in public parks. Rainwater harvesting and redirecting can help irrigate urban farms, which can be part of rain gardens. The national census of 2021 identified that 66% of Nepal’s population lives in urban areas. However, the World Bank (2018) showed that only 21 of Nepal’s population was projected to live in urban areas in 2021. It is not debatable that the urbanization process in Nepal is on the rise. Thus, urban agriculture can play an important role in supplementing residents’ food needs. Many cities in Nepal have already successfully adapted to urban farming wherein residents grow food on their building sites, balconies, and rooftop, often growing plants in pots, vases, and other types of containers. The UN-Habitat, with the support of the European Union and local agencies, published a rooftop farming training manual (2014), showing the feasibility of urban farming in Nepal. This paper discusses how public-private partnership (PPP) can promote urban agriculture and make the process more effective and attractive to urban-farming households. It also analyzes how a PPP approach also facilitates the use of better technology, advisory support, and use of research extension activities. This paper draws on a literature review, uses remote-sensing imagery data and data from National Census Nepal 2021, and the authors’ professional experiences related to best practices in the areas to analyze the benefits and challenges related to urban farming both in Nepal and Arizona, USA. The paper provides recommendations for Nepali cities to maximize the benefit provided by urban farming. It is expected to be useful to Nepali policymakers, government agencies, and nonprofit organizations which promote sustainability, and organic farming with a sustainable supply chain. Full article
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12 pages, 2903 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Phragmites australis for Environmental Sustainability in Bahrain: Photosynthesis Pigments, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn Content Grown in Urban Wastes
by Simone Perna, Zainab Ali AL-Qallaf and Qaisar Mahmood
Urban Sci. 2023, 7(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci7020053 - 10 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1352
Abstract
Modern urban societies generate tremendous amounts of hazardous wastes, including toxic organics and metals. Toxic metals harm plants and pose a risk to human health; examples of them are copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), palladium (Pb), and cadmium (Cd). Wetland plants are excellent for [...] Read more.
Modern urban societies generate tremendous amounts of hazardous wastes, including toxic organics and metals. Toxic metals harm plants and pose a risk to human health; examples of them are copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), palladium (Pb), and cadmium (Cd). Wetland plants are excellent for the ecological restoration of toxic metal-affected environments. Phragmites australis (common reed) belongs to the family Poaceae and is a broadly distributed wetland grass that is native to Bahrain, Europe, and America. P. australis shows a high content of chlorophyll. This study aimed to assess percentages of water, chlorophyll, and toxic metal content using acetone extraction; the calculation of the concentrations was performed according to the equations proposed by Lichtenthaler and the percentage of water content was calculated. After the metal exposure, the reed plants were digested, and their total mineral analysis was accomplished by atomic absorption spectroscopy; statistical analysis was conducted by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21. The results revealed that the immature stage showed the highest chlorophyll a (mean 1641.5 (µg/g)) carotenoids (mean 359.75 (µg/g)) and total chlorophyll (mean 2183.93 (µg/g)), and the mature flowering stem had the highest chlorophyll b (mean 676.45 (µg/g)). The mature flowering stem stage showed the highest Pb (mg/L) and Cd (mg/L) values; on the other hand, Cu was the highest in the fully elongated non-flowering stage (0.108 mg/L), and the highest Zn content was found in the immature stage (mean 2.083). Owing to its growth in contaminated environments, P. australis can be considered a potential source of phytonutrients; higher concentrations were mostly available in the immature and mature flowering stages, with a favorable immature stage. The use of such marginal wetland plants may be very useful in reducing the pollution burden of urban built environments. These plants offer a green and sustainable solution for the disposal of waste from urban areas. Hence, further planning and execution of such a green solution are pivotal for creating environmental sustainability. Full article
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23 pages, 463 KiB  
Article
Identifying Urban Heritage Facility Management Support Services Considering World Heritage Sites
by Bintang Noor Prabowo, Alenka Temeljotov Salaj and Jardar Lohne
Urban Sci. 2023, 7(2), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci7020052 - 10 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2279
Abstract
Whether public sectors or private institutions, in-house or outsourced, building-level or urban-scale, the critical role of facility management (FM) is to support the core business activities of an organization in accomplishing its objectives. Through the services it manages and provides, FM impacts people’s [...] Read more.
Whether public sectors or private institutions, in-house or outsourced, building-level or urban-scale, the critical role of facility management (FM) is to support the core business activities of an organization in accomplishing its objectives. Through the services it manages and provides, FM impacts people’s health, well-being, and quality of life. While there is no difficulty in defining a corporation, organization, or institution’s core business, defining the core business of a city as an institution is not widely discussed in the urban-scale facility management literature. By using a narrative research approach from the available literature, this study seeks to shed light on potential justifications for a city’s “core business” and its possible support services. The context of the World Heritage site is used to provide a sharper perspective on the possible urban-scale support services customized for urban heritage areas. This study suggests that a city’s primary objective is to maintain and possibly attract new “desirable” citizens through the provision of excellent services, a quality-built environment, a sense of well-being, health, safety and security, and economic growth. Consequently, the integration of urban-scale support services must be aligned with the purpose of the city, or the World Heritage site, to be specific. Full article
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10 pages, 1462 KiB  
Article
Particulate Matter Accumulation and Elemental Composition of Eight Roadside Plant Species
by Huong-Thi Bui, Jihye Park, Eunyoung Lee, Moonsun Jeong and Bong-Ju Park
Urban Sci. 2023, 7(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci7020051 - 10 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1472
Abstract
Particulate matter (PM) is the most dangerous air pollutant that adversely affects health. Increasing PM in urban areas is a big problem that must be solved. This study analyzed the amount of PM that accumulated on plant leaves, as well as the leaf [...] Read more.
Particulate matter (PM) is the most dangerous air pollutant that adversely affects health. Increasing PM in urban areas is a big problem that must be solved. This study analyzed the amount of PM that accumulated on plant leaves, as well as the leaf traits that contribute to PM accumulation, to determine the plant’s ability to accumulate PM and the impact of PM on the plants. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis were used to quantitatively assess metal concentrations in the particles that had accumulated on the leaf samples. Eight common plant species that grow on the roadside were used to analyze leaf traits using leaf samples. Specific leaf areas (SLA), leaf extract pH (pH), relative leaf water content (RWC), chlorophyll (Chl), and carotenoids were analyzed. PM accumulation and leaf traits varied among plant species, and Parthenocissus tricuspidata showed the highest PM accumulation on its leaf surface. The leaf’s elemental composition included C, O, Ca, K, Mg, S, P, Al, Si, Na, Cl, and Fe. Among these elements, Ca, K, and Cl made up a relatively large percentage. Fe was only detected in the leaves of Pachysandra terminalis and P. tricuspidata, while C and O were excluded as they are not relevant in determining PM metal content. Plants not only accumulate PM but also heavy metals from the atmosphere. This study found that plants with highly effective PM accumulation, such as P. tricuspidate, should be considered for optimizing the benefits of plants in improving air quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Resources and Environment)
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21 pages, 13502 KiB  
Article
Testing the Informal Development Stages Framework Globally: Exploring Self-Build Densification and Growth in Informal Settlements
by Jota Samper and Weichun Liao
Urban Sci. 2023, 7(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci7020050 - 09 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2655
Abstract
This article challenges the narrow definition of informal settlements as solely lacking a formal framework, which overlooks the dynamic city-making and urban design processes within these areas. Communities’ self-building processes and areas’ constant growth are indeed informal settlements’ most salient morphological features. The [...] Read more.
This article challenges the narrow definition of informal settlements as solely lacking a formal framework, which overlooks the dynamic city-making and urban design processes within these areas. Communities’ self-building processes and areas’ constant growth are indeed informal settlements’ most salient morphological features. The study builds upon the informal development stages (IDS) framework and explores how it applies globally. The research follows a sample of fifty informal settlements with a high change coefficient from the Atlas of Informality (AoI) across five world regions to explore how change and urban densification across IDS can be mapped in such areas using human visual interpretation of Earth observation (EO). The research finds evidence of IDS framework fitment across regions, with critical morphological differences. Additionally, the study finds that settlements can pass through all IDS phases faster than anticipated. The study identifies IDS as a guiding principle for urban design, presenting opportunities for policy and action. The study suggests that integrating IDS with predictive morphological tools can create valuable data to refine identification models further. Finally, the article concludes that an IDS approach can anticipate development and integrate into an urban design evolutionary process that adapts to the deprived areas’ current and future needs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deprived Area (Slum) Mapping)
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14 pages, 833 KiB  
Article
Not All Social Capital Is Equal: Conceptualizing Social Capital Differences in Cities
by Maren Wesselow
Urban Sci. 2023, 7(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci7020049 - 09 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2098
Abstract
Social capital is the basis of community-based action and constitutes an important resource for the poor in urban areas. However, social class, age, ethnicity and gender play an important role in shaping social capital outcomes. This article provides a literature-based framework for the [...] Read more.
Social capital is the basis of community-based action and constitutes an important resource for the poor in urban areas. However, social class, age, ethnicity and gender play an important role in shaping social capital outcomes. This article provides a literature-based framework for the qualitative analysis of the differences in social capital between social groups. This study defines and distinguishes social capital functions and resources and highlights the importance of taking negative effects of social capital and social capital needs into account. To test the framework, the social capital portfolios of two exemplary social groups, namely young people and ethnic minorities in urban areas, are presented. The analysis shows that the social capital resources and functions of the different groups as well as the specific needs vary in quality. The study provides a conceptual enhancement to the concept of social capital and recommends that strategies aiming at improving social capital must acknowledge the differences in social capital according to specific groups and environments. Full article
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21 pages, 7566 KiB  
Article
Formulating a Railway Station Accessibility (RsAI) Model for Station Hierarchy Classification
by Rahul Vardhan Bhatnagar and Sewa Ram
Urban Sci. 2023, 7(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci7020048 - 08 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2099
Abstract
The accessibility of railway stations plays a crucial role in assessing service quality, predicting travel patterns, and developing infrastructure in the surrounding areas. This paper proposes a railway station accessibility index (RsAI) (external) that incorporates various parameters, including network performance, into a weighted [...] Read more.
The accessibility of railway stations plays a crucial role in assessing service quality, predicting travel patterns, and developing infrastructure in the surrounding areas. This paper proposes a railway station accessibility index (RsAI) (external) that incorporates various parameters, including network performance, into a weighted measure. We reviewed different methods for measuring accessibility levels for transit systems to identify the most suitable models for this study. The primary objective of this paper is to classify railway stations into different hierarchies based on their accessibility levels and to develop an external accessibility index to measure their performance. With increasing urbanization and congestion, accessing railway stations has become more challenging, impacting railway efficiency and leading to modal shifts to other transportation systems. This paper not only identifies critical parameters but also emphasizes the need to measure and improve last-mile network performance to enhance station accessibility, thereby benefiting both passengers and the railway industry. Full article
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25 pages, 2550 KiB  
Article
Emerging Transformations in Material Use and Waste Practices in the Global South: Plastic-Free and Zero Waste in India
by Katie Conlon
Urban Sci. 2023, 7(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci7020047 - 02 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2393
Abstract
This study uses a qualitative approach to address limitations and blockages to current plastics reduction via semi-structured interviews with zero waste business practitioners in India. Although they are nascent, India is home to a budding zero waste community that is grappling with how [...] Read more.
This study uses a qualitative approach to address limitations and blockages to current plastics reduction via semi-structured interviews with zero waste business practitioners in India. Although they are nascent, India is home to a budding zero waste community that is grappling with how to reduce plastics—via trial and error—and these stakeholders hold insights from lived experience on how plastic reduction can actualize in the Indian subcontinent. This research involved interviewing zero waste businesses and consultants and makers of plastic alternatives in India to understand their experiences with plastic reduction strategies. The key stakeholder interviews reveal key insights for moving forward with plastic reduction initiatives, including challenges faced at government, business, and social levels; considerations regarding plastic waste generation; motivations for starting zero waste businesses and organizations; how it will be possible to operationalize plastic bans in India; appropriate actions for plastic waste reduction; elements that would help India shift into a more circular, regenerative economy; and locally appropriate alternatives to plastics. The discussion further delves into caveats with various alternatives to plastic materials, economic considerations, and characteristics of the zero waste network, and provides next steps for action at the government, business, and civil levels for reducing plastic waste generation in India and minimizing plastic pollution. Full article
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19 pages, 2978 KiB  
Article
Preventing the Separation of Urban Humans from Nature: The Impact of Pet and Plant Diversity on Biodiversity Loss Belief
by Minh-Hoang Nguyen, Minh-Hieu Thi Nguyen, Ruining Jin, Quang-Loc Nguyen, Viet-Phuong La, Tam-Tri Le and Quan-Hoang Vuong
Urban Sci. 2023, 7(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci7020046 - 25 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2541
Abstract
Despite the dependence of human existence on myriad ecosystem services and products, a high proportion of people feel disconnection from nature due to urbanization. This separation appears to have created an increase in the numbers of climate change and biodiversity loss denialists, thereby [...] Read more.
Despite the dependence of human existence on myriad ecosystem services and products, a high proportion of people feel disconnection from nature due to urbanization. This separation appears to have created an increase in the numbers of climate change and biodiversity loss denialists, thereby weakening global efforts to prevent environmental degradation and address environmental issues. The current study employs the reasoning capability of Mindsponge theory and the statistical advantages of Bayesian inference to examine whether access to in-home pet and plant diversity can increase the probability of biodiversity loss belief among urban residents. The findings from 535 Vietnamese respondents indicate that, when respondents feel comfortable at home, a higher diversity of pets is associated with a higher likelihood of believing that biodiversity loss is a real and major problem. However, the effect becomes the opposite when the respondents feel uncomfortable at home. Plant diversity has a positive impact on biodiversity loss belief regardless of comfort. Notably, the impact of plant diversity on biodiversity loss belief is more substantial among respondents who feel uncomfortable than those who feel comfortable. Following these findings, we suggest that increasing in-home biodiversity can be a promising way to raise urban residents’ awareness of the occurrence and significance of biodiversity loss, which will subsequently help them build up an eco-surplus culture. Full article
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13 pages, 1826 KiB  
Article
Financialisation of Housing in London: Empirical Evidence on Housing Prices
by José Francisco Vergara-Perucich
Urban Sci. 2023, 7(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci7020045 - 25 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1665
Abstract
This paper aims to empirically review the process of housing financialisation in London, exploring a time series causal relationship between house prices and financial instruments, using the Granger method and a VAR test. In order to carry out this analysis, we use a [...] Read more.
This paper aims to empirically review the process of housing financialisation in London, exploring a time series causal relationship between house prices and financial instruments, using the Granger method and a VAR test. In order to carry out this analysis, we use a vector autoregressive model with a monthly data series that seeks to contribute to exploring this relationship. The results are relevant to the important role that the theory of housing financialisation plays in explaining the crisis of access to secure tenure that can be seen in developed nations. The results also provide an empirical background to pursue this theory more specifically in the context of the vectors that are effectively causal to the financialisation processes that impact everyday life through housing prices. The study is original, given that this type of modelling has not previously been carried out for a major world city such as London, and adds to the findings of similar explorations that have applied other methodologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Urban Transport and Urban Real Estate)
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12 pages, 2943 KiB  
Article
What Makes a Pedestrian Path Pleasant? Analysis of Young Pedestrians’ Perceptions
by Carmen Forciniti and Laura Eboli
Urban Sci. 2023, 7(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci7020044 - 25 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1528
Abstract
In this paper, an analysis of the pedestrian environment based on users’ perceptions is proposed. The specific aim of the study is to discover the aspects mostly influencing the pleasantness of a path in a university campus situated in southern Italy and used [...] Read more.
In this paper, an analysis of the pedestrian environment based on users’ perceptions is proposed. The specific aim of the study is to discover the aspects mostly influencing the pleasantness of a path in a university campus situated in southern Italy and used by young pedestrians every day to reach various destinations for their university activities. The work is based on data collected by a sample survey and analyzed through a two-step methodology consisting of the application of a Chi-square test and a development of an ordered logit (OL) model. The model results reveal which aspects affect path pleasantness. The specific finding suggests that these aspects relate to the presence of buildings with good facades along the path and to the continuity of the path. As a general and highly relevant finding, we can state that the applied methodology could be very useful in identifying the path characteristics that can be considered as the most important for pedestrians. This identification could support practitioners to plan new strategies and future interventions to improve the pedestrian environment and increase the sense of pleasure perceived by pedestrians. Full article
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23 pages, 1740 KiB  
Article
Urbanization and Land Use Planning for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): A Case Study of Greece
by Dimitrios Kalfas, Stavros Kalogiannidis, Fotios Chatzitheodoridis and Ermelinda Toska
Urban Sci. 2023, 7(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci7020043 - 24 Apr 2023
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 7399
Abstract
Sustainable development has attracted the attention of social-economic, spatial well-being, and cultural continuity advocates across the world. However, the processes involved in land use as well as urban development have continued to affect the attainment of sustainable development. This study assessed the effects [...] Read more.
Sustainable development has attracted the attention of social-economic, spatial well-being, and cultural continuity advocates across the world. However, the processes involved in land use as well as urban development have continued to affect the attainment of sustainable development. This study assessed the effects of urbanization and land use planning on achieving sustainable development goals. The data were collected using a survey questionnaire from 384 different government leaders in Greece. The study showed that the indicators of urbanization quality have a positive effect on sustainable development goals. It was revealed that there is a significant relationship between integrated land use strategies and sustainable development goals. The study showed that indicators of urbanization quality are very key to achieving different SDGs. This indicates that sustainable urbanization entails more than just converting agricultural land and forests without making any changes to them into cities, and it is equally one of the answers to the problem of the world’s population growth if it is done with vision and dedication. The study clearly shows that integrated land use strategies are important in achieving the SDGs. In this case, land use planning is mostly a local effort, though some nations employ guiding land use plans created at the regional or inter-municipal level. Furthermore, urbanization opportunities and land-use plans have a great influence on the achievement of sustainable development goals. Notably, the goal of sustainable urban development is to make urban areas “sustainable” as well as to build or reinforce the city’s sustainability-related economic, social, cultural, and environmental aspects. It then goes on to discover how to spread that idea and why it is important to be focused, using various definitions. The fundamental idea of sustainable urban development is then realized by reviewing the ideas and principles of sustainable development. Finally, some general recommendations are made regarding urban planning, sustainable urban development, and the significance of establishing the necessary conditions for its realization. Urban sustainability and proper use of land require structural changes as well as significant, fundamental shifts at all societal levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Agenda)
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14 pages, 280 KiB  
Article
Discourse Studies and Urban Research: Methodological Challenges, Achievements, and Future Prospects
by M. Reza Shirazi
Urban Sci. 2023, 7(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci7020042 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1985
Abstract
This paper offers a critical appraisal of the methodological capacity of Discourse Studies (DS) in conducting urban research. Based on an extensive literature search, 125 publications that explicitly claim to utilise DS were reviewed. The results show that DS has been utilised for [...] Read more.
This paper offers a critical appraisal of the methodological capacity of Discourse Studies (DS) in conducting urban research. Based on an extensive literature search, 125 publications that explicitly claim to utilise DS were reviewed. The results show that DS has been utilised for its methodological value, critical lens, interdisciplinary approach, ability to reveal the undiscovered, and presentation of new insights to urban questions. This paper identifies and discusses major sources of inspiration and main trends in utilising DS in urban research. Theoretical diversity, the scarcity of analytical framework, and the lack of required expertise and skills are presented as three main methodological challenges for urban researchers. This paper concludes with suggestions for advancing the use of DS in urban research: obtaining an in-depth knowledge about its theoretical foundations, gaining an analytical overview of the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches, developing innovative frameworks that better explain urban questions, and gaining required linguistic knowledge for the application of DS. Full article
19 pages, 2114 KiB  
Article
The Practice of Peri-Urban Land Acquisition by Expropriation for Housing Purposes and the Implications: The Case of Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
by Dereje Tessema Adigeh and Birhanu Girma Abebe
Urban Sci. 2023, 7(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci7020041 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2821
Abstract
Urban land acquisition is a fundamental precondition to sustaining the socio-economic livelihood of urban residents. In Ethiopia, with the high rate of peri-urbanization, the demand for urban land for various urban uses, such as housing development, is responded to by expropriating peri-urban landholdings [...] Read more.
Urban land acquisition is a fundamental precondition to sustaining the socio-economic livelihood of urban residents. In Ethiopia, with the high rate of peri-urbanization, the demand for urban land for various urban uses, such as housing development, is responded to by expropriating peri-urban landholdings from the farming community through paying compensation to the farmers. The paper highlights Ethiopia’s urbanization pace and the associated urban land acquisition scenarios, mainly for housing purposes. Thus, it aims to analyze the peri-urban land acquisition scenarios through the expropriation of peri-urban land holdings used for agricultural purposes in Bahir Dar and the associated adverse effect on the farming community. To address the intended aim, data were collected by interviewing senior officials, experts, and elder farm households of the study area who were more knowledgeable about the study issue. There were focus group discussions with selected farming communities, and an extended field observation was conducted intending to triangulate the data collected by other techniques. Moreover, the Geographic Information System (GIS) was utilized to analyze satellite images of Bahir Dar City to demonstrate the extent of peri-urban land conversion from 2011 to 2021. The result of this study revealed that there is a 7% urban population growth rate, which resulted in 8% of Bahir Dar being converted from peri-urban between the stated period, and hence a considerable size of land had been expropriated in the peri-urban areas of Bahir Dar with expropriation measures. This study exposed that the compensation for expropriated agricultural landholdings often fails to adequately account for the full range of livelihoods and economic activities that farmers engage in, leaving them struggling to adapt to urban life. The urban development in the study area of Bahir Dar is taking place by jeopardizing the livelihoods of the farming community, and the urban expansion is seen as a threat to them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rural–Urban Transformation and Regional Development)
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21 pages, 6392 KiB  
Article
Enhancing the Definitions of Climate-Change Loss and Damage Based on Land Conversion in Florida, U.S.A.
by Elena A. Mikhailova, Lili Lin, Zhenbang Hao, Hamdi A. Zurqani, Christopher J. Post, Mark A. Schlautman, Gregory C. Post, George B. Shepherd and Sarah J. Kolarik
Urban Sci. 2023, 7(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci7020040 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2535
Abstract
Loss and damage (L&D) from climate change result from past and current greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Current definitions of L&D exclude GHG emissions even though they represent L&D to human beings and the environment. This study’s objective was to identify and quantify the [...] Read more.
Loss and damage (L&D) from climate change result from past and current greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Current definitions of L&D exclude GHG emissions even though they represent L&D to human beings and the environment. This study’s objective was to identify and quantify the L&D from GHG emissions associated with land developments using the state of Florida (FL) in the United States of America (USA) as a case study. All land developments in FL caused various L&D (20,249.6 km2, midpoint 3.0 × 1011 of total soil carbon (TSC) losses with midpoint $50.3B (where B = billion = 109, USD) in social costs of carbon dioxide emissions, SC-CO2), while “new” land developments (1703.7 km2) in the period from 2001 to 2016 caused a complete loss of midpoint 2.8 × 1010 kg of TSC resulting in midpoint $4.5B SC-CO2. These emissions are currently not accounted for in FL’s total carbon footprint (CF). Climate-change-related damages in FL include permanent losses (e.g., land losses), with 47 out of 67 FL’s counties potentially affected by the projected sea-level rise and repairable damages (e.g., destruction from hurricanes). Based on the fixed social cost of carbon (C), there appears to be a disconnect between the value attributed to soil-based emissions and the actual market-driven losses from climate-change-associated costs. The social cost of C could be scaled based on the vulnerability of a particular community and the market-based cost of L&D mitigation. Programs for compensation on the international level should be carefully designed to help people who have suffered climate-related L&D, without creating reverse climate change adaptation (RCCA), where compensation causes people to remain in areas that are vulnerable to climate-related L&D. Full article
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16 pages, 2786 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Role of Urban Vehicle Access Regulations as a Policy Tool for Promoting Electric Mobility in Budapest
by Gabriel Ayobami Ogunkunbi and Ferenc Meszaros
Urban Sci. 2023, 7(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci7020039 - 31 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1842
Abstract
To promote sustainable urban mobility and reduce environmental pollution, transportation policies worldwide aim to decrease reliance on fossil fuels. This requires reducing private car use through policy instruments such as urban vehicle access regulations (UVARs) and promoting alternative sustainable transport technologies such as [...] Read more.
To promote sustainable urban mobility and reduce environmental pollution, transportation policies worldwide aim to decrease reliance on fossil fuels. This requires reducing private car use through policy instruments such as urban vehicle access regulations (UVARs) and promoting alternative sustainable transport technologies such as electromobility. Considering that the deployment of such regulations and the market penetration of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) is still low in Hungary, this study aimed to examine the willingness of urban dwellers in Budapest, Hungary, to adopt battery electric vehicles (BEVs) upon implementation of an UVAR measure. The study analysed the BEV adoption intention of 409 urban residents who participated in an UVAR study in 2022. The results show that age is a significant factor, with individuals aged 35–44 most likely to adopt BEVs. However, other socio-demographic characteristics did not significantly affect willingness to adopt BEVs. Additionally, pro-environmental behaviour or attitude did not significantly predict BEV adoption. Based on these findings, this study highlights the importance of considering multiple interrelated factors and provides policy insights for promoting sustainable transportation technology adoption. Full article
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12 pages, 2361 KiB  
Article
Enumerating and Modelling the Seasonal alterations of Surface Urban Heat and Cool Island: A Case Study over Indian Cities
by Vinayak Bhanage, Sneha Kulkarni, Rajat Sharma, Han Soo Lee and Shirishkumar Gedam
Urban Sci. 2023, 7(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci7020038 - 30 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1847
Abstract
The present study has been carried out to analyze the seasonal variation of the Urban Heat and Cool Island over the nine developing cities of India. The magnitude of urban heat/cool island and vegetation gradient (∆NDVI) were measured from the daytime satellite datasets. [...] Read more.
The present study has been carried out to analyze the seasonal variation of the Urban Heat and Cool Island over the nine developing cities of India. The magnitude of urban heat/cool island and vegetation gradient (∆NDVI) were measured from the daytime satellite datasets. Results of this study show that during the pre-monsoon (March to May) season, the maximum magnitude of the Surface Urban Heat Island (SUHI) was experienced over Kolhapur city, whereas, in the winter, the highest intensity of SUHI was noticed over Pune city. Subsequently, outcomes also depict that the changes in ∆NDVI restrain the pre-monsoon means and the seasonal alterations in SUHI magnitude. However, during the winter (November to February) season, it is controlled by the temperature–vegetation conditions of the rural areas. For pre-monsoon and seasonal changes in SUHI, with the aid of ∆NDVI and the surface temperature of the urban area, regression equations were fitted for pre-monsoon and seasonal changes in SUHI, which explains nearly 90% of SUHI variation. Similarly, the variation of SUHI has been modeled for winter, which elucidates up to 84% of SUHI discrepancy. The study reveals that, on a seasonal scale, a decrement of 0.1 in seasonal ∆NDVI leads to an increase in the seasonal intensity of SUHI by 1.74 °C, which is quite a significant augmentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Agenda)
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