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Sci, Volume 5, Issue 1 (March 2023) – 13 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The α-Fe2O3/p-Si device shows unipolar resistive switching in dark and light illumination conditions. Just like a synapse in a neuron, the device strengthens its connection or increases its conductance with the application of repetitive identical electrical pulses which is called synaptic potentiation. The effect of light illumination is tested, and it is found that the rate at which the conductance increases is modulated with the application of white light. A mathematical hill function analogy is used to extract the parameter, activation pulses, and plotted against the light intensity shows the activation of the device is programmable by controlling the intensity of light. View this paper
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24 pages, 3397 KiB  
Review
Review on Alzheimer Disease Detection Methods: Automatic Pipelines and Machine Learning Techniques
by Amar Shukla, Rajeev Tiwari and Shamik Tiwari
Sci 2023, 5(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/sci5010013 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 7305
Abstract
Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is becoming increasingly prevalent across the globe, and various diagnostic and detection methods have been developed in recent years. Several techniques are available, including Automatic Pipeline Methods and Machine Learning Methods that utilize Biomarker Methods, Fusion, and Registration for multimodality, [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is becoming increasingly prevalent across the globe, and various diagnostic and detection methods have been developed in recent years. Several techniques are available, including Automatic Pipeline Methods and Machine Learning Methods that utilize Biomarker Methods, Fusion, and Registration for multimodality, to pre-process medical scans. The use of automated pipelines and machine learning systems has proven beneficial in accurately identifying AD and its stages, with a success rate of over 95% for single and binary class classifications. However, there are still challenges in multi-class classification, such as distinguishing between AD and MCI, as well as sub-stages of MCI. The research also emphasizes the significance of using multi-modality approaches for effective validation in detecting AD and its stages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Computer Sciences, Mathematics and AI)
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4 pages, 689 KiB  
Editorial
Exercise Testing and Motivation
by Pantelis T. Nikolaidis
Sci 2023, 5(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/sci5010012 - 07 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1711
Abstract
Exercise testing has important applications for sport, exercise and clinical settings, providing valuable information for exercise prescription and diagnostics for health purposes. Often, exercise testing includes the participant’s maximal effort, and the testing score partially depends on whether the maximal effort has been [...] Read more.
Exercise testing has important applications for sport, exercise and clinical settings, providing valuable information for exercise prescription and diagnostics for health purposes. Often, exercise testing includes the participant’s maximal effort, and the testing score partially depends on whether the maximal effort has been exerted. In this context, motivation in exercise testing, including verbal encouragement and video presentation, plays a vital role in assessing participants. Professionals involved in exercise testing, such as exercise physiologists and sport scientists, should be aware of motivation’s role in performance during laboratory or field testing, especially using verbal encouragement. Motivation during exercise testing should be standardized and fully described in testing protocols. In this way, exercise testing would provide valid and reliable results for exercise prescription or other purposes (e.g., sport talent identification, athletes’ selection, education, research and rehabilitation). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sports Science and Medicine)
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13 pages, 6162 KiB  
Article
The Digital Calibration Certificate (DCC) for an End-to-End Digital Quality Infrastructure for Industry 4.0
by Siegfried Hackel, Shanna Schönhals, Lutz Doering, Thomas Engel and Reinhard Baumfalk
Sci 2023, 5(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/sci5010011 - 06 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3575
Abstract
This article depicts the role of the Digital Calibration Certificate (DCC) for an end-to-end digital quality infrastructure and as the basis for developments that are designated by the keyword “Industry 4.0”. Furthermore, it describes the impact the DCC has on increasing productivity in [...] Read more.
This article depicts the role of the Digital Calibration Certificate (DCC) for an end-to-end digital quality infrastructure and as the basis for developments that are designated by the keyword “Industry 4.0”. Furthermore, it describes the impact the DCC has on increasing productivity in the manufacturing of products and in global trade. The DCC project is international in its scope. Calibration certificates document the measurement capability of a measurement system. They do this independently and by providing traceability to measurement standards. Therefore, they do not only play an important role in the world of metrology, but they also make it possible for manufacturing and commercial enterprises to exchange measurement values reliably and correctly at the national and at the international level. Thus, a DCC concept is urgently needed for the end-to-end digitalization of industry for the era of Industry 4.0 and for Medicine 4.0. A DCC brings about important advantages for issuers and for users. The DCC leads to the stringent, end-to-end, traceable and process-oriented organization of manufacturing and trading. Digitalization is thus a key factor in the field of calibration as it enables significant improvements in product and process quality. The reason for this is that the transmission of errors will be prevented, and consequently, costs will be saved as the time needed for distributing and disseminating the DCCs and the respective calibration objects will be reduced. Furthermore, it will no longer be necessary for the test equipment administration staff to update the data manually, which is a time-consuming, tedious and error-prone process. Full article
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28 pages, 5698 KiB  
Article
A Dual Multimodal Biometric Authentication System Based on WOA-ANN and SSA-DBN Techniques
by Sandeep Pratap Singh and Shamik Tiwari
Sci 2023, 5(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/sci5010010 - 01 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2352
Abstract
Identity management describes a problem by providing the authorized owners with safe and simple access to information and solutions for specific identification processes. The shortcomings of the unimodal systems have been addressed by the introduction of multimodal biometric systems. The use of multimodal [...] Read more.
Identity management describes a problem by providing the authorized owners with safe and simple access to information and solutions for specific identification processes. The shortcomings of the unimodal systems have been addressed by the introduction of multimodal biometric systems. The use of multimodal systems has increased the biometric system’s overall recognition rate. A new degree of fusion, known as an intelligent Dual Multimodal Biometric Authentication Scheme, is established in this study. In the proposed work, two multimodal biometric systems are developed by combining three unimodal biometric systems. ECG, sclera, and fingerprint are the unimodal systems selected for this work. The sequential model biometric system is developed using a decision-level fusion based on WOA-ANN. The parallel model biometric system is developed using a score-level fusion based on SSA-DBN. The biometric authentication performs preprocessing, feature extraction, matching, and scoring for each unimodal system. On each biometric attribute, matching scores and individual accuracy are cyphered independently. A matcher performance-based fusion procedure is demonstrated for the three biometric qualities because the matchers on these three traits produce varying values. The two-level fusion technique (score and feature) is implemented separately, and their results with the current scheme are compared to exhibit the optimum model. The suggested plan makes use of the highest TPR, FPR, and accuracy rates. Full article
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10 pages, 522 KiB  
Article
Industry 4.0: Options for Human-Oriented Work Design
by Hartmut Hirsch-Kreinsen
Sci 2023, 5(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/sci5010009 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1521
Abstract
This contribution deals with the diffusion of Industry 4.0 technologies and their consequences for work. Additionally, design options for work in Industry 4.0 are discussed. The following are outlined: First, since there are as yet no concrete future prospects for digital work, different [...] Read more.
This contribution deals with the diffusion of Industry 4.0 technologies and their consequences for work. Additionally, design options for work in Industry 4.0 are discussed. The following are outlined: First, since there are as yet no concrete future prospects for digital work, different development perspectives can be envisioned. Second, the development of Industry 4.0, therefore, has to be regarded as a design project. One theoretical basis for this is the “sociotechnical systems” approach. Third, this approach enables criteria for the design and implementation of human-oriented forms of digitized work to be systematically developed. The empirical basis of this contribution derives from research findings on the implementation of Industry 4.0 technologies and the development of digitized work in German industry. The research results are based on qualitative research methods such as company case studies and expert interviews. Full article
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27 pages, 3650 KiB  
Article
Multi-Lexicon Classification and Valence-Based Sentiment Analysis as Features for Deep Neural Stock Price Prediction
by Shubashini Rathina Velu, Vinayakumar Ravi and Kayalvily Tabianan
Sci 2023, 5(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/sci5010008 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2370
Abstract
The goal of the work is to enhance existing financial market forecasting frameworks by including an additional factor–in this example, a collection of carefully chosen tweets—into a long-short repetitive neural channel. In order to produce attributes for such a forecast, this research used [...] Read more.
The goal of the work is to enhance existing financial market forecasting frameworks by including an additional factor–in this example, a collection of carefully chosen tweets—into a long-short repetitive neural channel. In order to produce attributes for such a forecast, this research used a unique attitude analysis approach that combined psychological labelling and a valence rating that represented the strength of the sentiment. Both lexicons produced extra properties such 2-level polarization, 3-level polarization, gross reactivity, as well as total valence. The emotional polarity explicitly marked into the database contrasted well with outcomes of the innovative lexicon approach. Plotting the outcomes of each of these concepts against actual market rates of the equities examined has been the concluding step in this analysis. Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), preciseness, as well as Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) were used to evaluate the results. Across most instances of market forecasting, attaching an additional factor has been proven to reduce the RMSE and increase the precision of forecasts over lengthy sequences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Linguistics and Artificial Intelligence)
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7 pages, 242 KiB  
Editorial
Make a Stand(ard) for Science
by Ahmad Yaman Abdin and Claus Jacob
Sci 2023, 5(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/sci5010007 - 09 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1407
Abstract
During the global Corona pandemic, the validity of science has been challenged by sections of the public, often for political gains [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers 2021 Editors Collection)
21 pages, 1205 KiB  
Article
Explaining Personal and Public Pro-Environmental Behaviors
by Philip Q. Yang and Michaela LaNay Wilson
Sci 2023, 5(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/sci5010006 - 07 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2410
Abstract
A global crisis generated by human-made climate change has added urgency to the need to fully understand human pro-environmental behaviors (PEBs) that may help slow down the crisis. Factors influencing personal and public PEBs may or may not be the same. Only a [...] Read more.
A global crisis generated by human-made climate change has added urgency to the need to fully understand human pro-environmental behaviors (PEBs) that may help slow down the crisis. Factors influencing personal and public PEBs may or may not be the same. Only a few studies have empirically investigated the determinants of personal and public PEBs simultaneously, but they contain major limitations with mixed results. This study develops a conceptual model for explaining both personal and public PEBs that incorporate demographic, socioeconomic, political, and attitudinal variables, and their direct and indirect effects. Using the latest available data from the 2010 General Social Survey and structural equation modeling (SEM), we tested the determinants of both personal and public PEBs in the United States. The results reveal that environmental concerns, education, and political orientation demonstrate similar significant impacts on both personal and public PEBs, but income, gender, race, urban/rural residency, region, and party affiliation have differential effects on these behaviors. Age, cohort, and religion have no significant effect on both types of behaviors. Our results confirm some existing findings; however, they challenge the findings of much of the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental and Earth Science)
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8 pages, 708 KiB  
Opinion
Socioconnectomics: Connectomics Should Be Extended to Societies to Better Understand Evolutionary Processes
by Cédric Sueur
Sci 2023, 5(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/sci5010005 - 30 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1645
Abstract
Connectomics, which is the network study of connectomes or maps of the nervous system of an organism, should be applied and expanded to human and animal societies, resulting in the birth of the domain of socioconnectomics compared to neuroconnectomics. This new network study [...] Read more.
Connectomics, which is the network study of connectomes or maps of the nervous system of an organism, should be applied and expanded to human and animal societies, resulting in the birth of the domain of socioconnectomics compared to neuroconnectomics. This new network study framework would open up new perspectives in evolutionary biology and add new elements to theories, such as the social and cultural brain hypotheses. Answering questions about network topology, specialization, and their connections with functionality at one level (i.e., neural or societal) may help in understanding the evolutionary trajectories of these patterns at the other level. Expanding connectomics to societies should be done in comparison and combination with multilevel network studies and the possibility of multiorganization selection processes. The study of neuroconnectomes and socioconnectomes in animals, from simpler to more advanced ones, could lead to a better understanding of social network evolution and the feedback between social complexity and brain complexity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biology Research and Life Sciences)
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7 pages, 203 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of Sci in 2022
by Sci Editorial Office
Sci 2023, 5(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/sci5010004 - 18 Jan 2023
Viewed by 994
Abstract
High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...] Full article
10 pages, 1771 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Trap-Assisted Tunneling and Poole–Frenkel Emission on Synaptic Potentiation in an α-Fe2O3/p-Si Memristive Device
by Punya Mainali, Phadindra Wagle, Chasen McPherson and David. N. McIlroy
Sci 2023, 5(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/sci5010003 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3193
Abstract
A signature of synaptic potentiation conductance has been observed in an α-Fe2O3/p-Si device fabricated using spin coating. The conductance of the device in dark conditions and illumination with a white light source was characterized as a function of the [...] Read more.
A signature of synaptic potentiation conductance has been observed in an α-Fe2O3/p-Si device fabricated using spin coating. The conductance of the device in dark conditions and illumination with a white light source was characterized as a function of the application of a periodic bias (voltage) with a triangular profile. The conductance of the device increases with the number of voltage cycles applied and plateaus to its maximum value of 0.70 μS under dark conditions and 12.00 μS under illumination, and this mimics the analog synaptic weight change with the action potential of a neuron. In the range of applied voltage from 0 V to 0.7 V, the conduction mechanism corresponds to trap-assisted tunneling (TAT) and in the range of 0.7–5 V it corresponds to the Poole–Frenkel emission (PFE). The conductance as a function of electrical pulses was fitted with a Hill function, which is a measure of cooperation in biological systems. In this case, it allows one to determine the turn-on threshold (K) of the device in terms of the number of voltage pulses, which are found to be 3 and 166 under dark and illumination conditions, respectively. The gradual conductance change and activation after a certain number of pulses perfectly mimics the synaptic potentiation of neurons. In addition, the threshold parameter extracted from the Hill equation fit, acting as the number of pulses for synaptic activation, is found to have programmability with the intensity of the light illumination. Full article
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15 pages, 927 KiB  
Article
Yield and Composition Variations of the Milk from Different Camel Breeds in Saudi Arabia
by Amr A. El-Hanafy, Yasser M. Saad, Saleh A. Alkarim, Hussein A. Almehdar, Fuad M. Alzahrani, Mohammed A. Almatry, Vladimir N. Uversky and Elrashdy M. Redwan
Sci 2023, 5(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/sci5010002 - 06 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2805
Abstract
With the increasing interest in the identification of differences between camel breeds over the last decade, this study was conducted to estimate the variability of milk production and composition of four Saudi camel breeds during different seasons. Milk records were taken two days [...] Read more.
With the increasing interest in the identification of differences between camel breeds over the last decade, this study was conducted to estimate the variability of milk production and composition of four Saudi camel breeds during different seasons. Milk records were taken two days per week from females of Majahem, Safra, Wadha, and Hamra breeds distributed over Saudi Arabia. The milk yield during winter indicated that the weekly average of the Wadha breed was significantly lower (27.13 kg/week) than Majahem and Hamra breeds. The Safra breed had the lowest milk yield (30.7 kg/week) during summer. During winter, the Hamra breed had a lower content of all analyzed milk components except proteins and was characterized by a lower pH than the milk of the other breeds. However, the Hamra breed had significantly higher contents of milk fat and lactose than the other breeds during summer, with the corresponding values of 3.87 and 4.86%, respectively. Milk collected during winter from Majahem, Safra, and Wadha breeds was characterized by a significant increase in all milk components and milk pH. Finally, the isoelectric focusing analysis revealed noticeable variability of casein purified from camel milk within the different Saudi breeds, with the highest significant value of 2.29 g per 100 mL recorded for the Wadha breed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biology Research and Life Sciences)
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15 pages, 8900 KiB  
Article
Financial Feasibility of Harvesting Rainwater from Permeable Pavements: A Case Study in a City Square
by Caio Wolf Klein, Jéssica Kuntz Maykot, Enedir Ghisi and Liseane Padilha Thives
Sci 2023, 5(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/sci5010001 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1795
Abstract
The objective of this study was to carry out the financial feasibility analysis of harvesting rainwater from permeable pavements in a city square. A case study was carried out in a square close to the beach in the city of Florianópolis, Brazil. Questionnaires [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to carry out the financial feasibility analysis of harvesting rainwater from permeable pavements in a city square. A case study was carried out in a square close to the beach in the city of Florianópolis, Brazil. Questionnaires were applied to pedestrians who circulate within the area. The square is to be implemented to promote sustainability and improve the user’s quality of life. From the rainfall data and the average daily water demand for irrigation of the square vegetation, the volume of rainwater to be harvested from the permeable pavement was calculated. The rainwater demand was estimated as 662 L/day. The implementation and operation costs of the pavement and irrigation systems were evaluated. The potential for potable water savings was 89.8%. The payback period was estimated as 347 months. This study showed that rainwater collected from permeable pavements is financially feasible and represents a promising technique. Full article
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