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Infrastructures, Volume 9, Issue 1 (January 2024) – 16 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In testing infrastructure, to assess possible deformations, it is necessary to carry out a 3D survey approach with topographic measurements carried out by performing Total Stations. The results of least-squares processing must be supplemented by suitable statistical analyses to validate their robustness. This approach was evaluated on a recently constructed double-track railway bridge located near the metropolitan area of the city of Bari (Italy). View this paper
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17 pages, 6979 KiB  
Article
Methodology for Assessing the Technical Condition and Durability of Bridge Structures
by Kostiantyn Medvediev, Anna Kharchenko, Anzhelika Stakhova, Yurii Yevseichyk, Vitalii Tsybulskyi and Adrián Bekö
Infrastructures 2024, 9(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures9010016 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1593
Abstract
The proposed methodology aims to determine and forecast the technical condition of bridge elements, which could serve as an advanced engineering tool for assessing reliability and durability. It is developed based on fundamental studies that synthesize the experience of studying the physical–mechanical and [...] Read more.
The proposed methodology aims to determine and forecast the technical condition of bridge elements, which could serve as an advanced engineering tool for assessing reliability and durability. It is developed based on fundamental studies that synthesize the experience of studying the physical–mechanical and physical–chemical properties of materials in bridge structures operating under real conditions. The theoretical foundation of the methodology is a reliability model and residual lifetime prediction of bridge elements based on Markov’s theory. The developed methodology is designed for assessing the technical condition of individual bridge elements, followed by a comprehensive evaluation of the entire structure. Reliability during operation is adopted as the indicator of technical condition. This quantitative reliability indicator in the model serves as a criterion for evaluating the safety level of bridge elements; ranking of bridge elements as necessary for specific types of repair, reconstruction, or replacement; strategic planning of expenditures for repair or reconstruction under limited funding; and forecasting the remaining resource of elements. An evaluation and prediction algorithm for the technical condition of bridges is proposed for the application of the developed methodology. A mathematical experiment of the developed methodology was conducted, which confirmed the adequacy of the proposed hypothesis, i.e., the use of the reliability model and the prediction of residual lifetime of bridge elements. First, a three-step mechanism for refining the technical condition of the bridge is proposed, significantly enhancing the accuracy of the calculations. Therefore, the developed methodology holds practical value and can serve as a basis for information-analytical systems for managing the condition of bridges. Full article
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14 pages, 2802 KiB  
Article
Innovative Energy Approach for Design and Sizing of Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure
by Daniele Martini, Martino Aimar, Fabio Borghetti, Michela Longo and Federica Foiadelli
Infrastructures 2024, 9(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures9010015 - 16 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1747
Abstract
In Italy, the availability of service areas (SAs) equipped with charging stations (CSs) for electric vehicles (EVs) on highways is limited in comparison to the total number of service areas. The scope of this work is to create a prototype and show a [...] Read more.
In Italy, the availability of service areas (SAs) equipped with charging stations (CSs) for electric vehicles (EVs) on highways is limited in comparison to the total number of service areas. The scope of this work is to create a prototype and show a different approach to assessing the number of inlets required on highways. The proposed method estimates the energy requirements for the future electric fleet on highways. It is based on an energy conversion that starts with the fuel sold in the highway network and ends with the number of charging inlets. A proposed benchmark method estimates energy requirements for the electric fleet using consolidated values and statistics about refueling attitudes, with factors for range correction and winter conditions. The results depend on assumptions about future car distribution, with varying numbers of required inlets. The analysis revealed that vehicle traffic is a critical factor in determining the number of required charging inlets, with significant variance between different SAs. This study highlights the necessity of incorporating factors like weather, car charging power, and the future EV range into these estimations. The findings are useful for planning EV charging infrastructure, especially along major traffic routes and in urban areas with high-range vehicles relying on High-Power DC (HPDC) charging. The model’s applicability to urban scenarios can be improved by considering the proportion of energy recharged at the destination. A key limitation is the lack of detailed origin–destination (OD) highway data, leading to some uncertainty in the calculated range ratio coefficient and underscoring the need for future research to refine this model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Infrastructures for Urban Mobility)
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23 pages, 3613 KiB  
Article
Pedal towards Safety: The Development and Evaluation of a Risk Index for Cyclists
by Lama Ayad, Hocine Imine, Claudio Lantieri and Francesca De Crescenzio
Infrastructures 2024, 9(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures9010014 - 15 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1590
Abstract
Cyclists are at a higher risk of being involved in accidents. To this end, a safer environment for cyclists should be pursued so that they can feel safe while riding their bicycles. Focusing on safety risks that cyclists may face is the main [...] Read more.
Cyclists are at a higher risk of being involved in accidents. To this end, a safer environment for cyclists should be pursued so that they can feel safe while riding their bicycles. Focusing on safety risks that cyclists may face is the main key to preserving safe mobility, reducing accidents, and improving their level of safety during their travel. Identifying and assessing risk factors, as well as informing cyclists about them may lead to an efficient and integrated transportation system. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to introduce a risk index that can be adapted to different road areas in order to measure the degree of how risky these areas are for biking. Cyclists’ behavior and demographics were integrated into the risk index calculation. The methodology followed to obtain the risk index composed of four phases: risk factor identification, risk factor weighting, risk index formulation, and risk index validation. Nineteen risk factors are categorized into four major groups: facility features, infrastructure features, cyclist behavior, and weather and traffic conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Infrastructures for Urban Mobility)
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30 pages, 9273 KiB  
Article
Seepage Actions and Their Consequences on the Support Scheme of Deep-Buried Tunnels Constructed in Soft Rock Strata
by Wadslin Frenelus, Hui Peng and Jingyu Zhang
Infrastructures 2024, 9(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures9010013 - 12 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1484
Abstract
The stability of deep soft rock tunnels under seepage conditions is of particular concern. Aiming at thoroughly discussing seepage actions and their consequences on the support schemes of such structures, the host rocks of the Weilai Tunnel situated in the Guangxi province of [...] Read more.
The stability of deep soft rock tunnels under seepage conditions is of particular concern. Aiming at thoroughly discussing seepage actions and their consequences on the support schemes of such structures, the host rocks of the Weilai Tunnel situated in the Guangxi province of China are used as the research subject. Emphasis is placed on adequately examining the seepage conditions, stresses, displacements and plastic zone radii along the surrounding rocks of such tunnels, taking into consideration the Mogi–Coulomb strength criterion and the elastic-plastic theory. Explicitly, this article proposes analytical solutions for stresses, displacements and plastic radii around deep tunnels in soft rocks under seepage conditions by considering the aforesaid criterion and nonlinear elastoplastic approaches. Subsequently, based on the strain-softening model, the coupled actions of seepage and softening on the rocks surrounding the tunnel are studied. In order to investigate the effects of relevant influencing factors on tunnel stability, parametric studies are thoroughly examined. According to the results, it is revealed that the support scheme of deep soft rock tunnels must be of the highest resistance possible to better decrease the plastic zone and the tangential stress along the host rocks. Moreover, throughout the surrounding rocks, the dissemination of pore water pressure is strongly affected by the uneven permeability coefficient under anisotropic seepage states. The combined effects of softening and seepage are very dangerous for the surrounding rocks of deep-buried tunnels. It is also shown that the seepage pressure substantially affects the plastic radii and tunnel displacements. Under high seepage pressure, the surface displacements of the tunnel are excessive, easily exceeding 400 mm. To better guarantee the reasonable longevity of such tunnels, the long-term monitoring of their support structures with reliable remote sensors is strongly recommended. Full article
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26 pages, 9312 KiB  
Article
The Road Network Design Problem for the Deployment of Automated Vehicles (RNDP-AVs): A Nonlinear Programming Mathematical Model
by Lígia Conceição, Gonçalo Homem de Almeida Correia, Bart van Arem and José Pedro Tavares
Infrastructures 2024, 9(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures9010012 - 10 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1771
Abstract
Once trusted, automated vehicles (AVs) will gradually appear in urban areas. Such a transition is an opportunity in transport planning to control undesired impacts and possibly mitigate congestion at a time when both conventional vehicles (CVs) and AVs coexist. This paper deals with [...] Read more.
Once trusted, automated vehicles (AVs) will gradually appear in urban areas. Such a transition is an opportunity in transport planning to control undesired impacts and possibly mitigate congestion at a time when both conventional vehicles (CVs) and AVs coexist. This paper deals with the complex transport decision problem of designing part of the network that is exclusive for AVs through a nonlinear programming model. The objective function minimises the costs of travel times where vehicles circulate under user equilibrium. The model evaluates the benefits of having an AVs-dedicated infrastructure and the associated costs from the detouring of CVs. Three planning strategies are explored: incremental, long-term and hybrid planning. The first creates a subnetwork evolving incrementally over time. The second reversely designs a subnetwork from the optimal solution obtained at a ratio of 90% AVs. The third limits the incremental planning towards that optimal long-term solution. The model is applied to the city of Delft, in the Netherlands. Two scenarios are analysed, with and without AV-dedicated roads, at several AV penetration rates. We find that implementing dedicated roads for AVs reduces the overall costs and congestion up to 16%. However, CV detouring is inevitable at later network stages, increasing the total distance travelled (up to 8%) and congestion in the surroundings of AV subnetworks. Concerning the planning strategies, incremental planning is appropriate for starting in the initial stages and is the strategy that most tackles CV detouring. The hybrid or the long-term strategies are more suitable to be applied after a ratio of 50% AVs, and the hybrid planning is the strategy that most reduces delay. Full article
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18 pages, 9168 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Cyclic Behaviour of URM Walls with and without Damp-Proof Course (DPC) Membranes through Discrete Element Method
by Bora Pulatsu, Rhea Wilson, Jose V. Lemos and Nebojša Mojsilović
Infrastructures 2024, 9(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures9010011 - 06 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1505
Abstract
Unreinforced masonry (URM) walls are common load-bearing structural elements in most existing buildings, consisting of masonry units (bricks) and mortar joints. They indicate a highly nonlinear and complex behaviour when subjected to combined compression–shear loading influenced by different factors, such as pre-compression load [...] Read more.
Unreinforced masonry (URM) walls are common load-bearing structural elements in most existing buildings, consisting of masonry units (bricks) and mortar joints. They indicate a highly nonlinear and complex behaviour when subjected to combined compression–shear loading influenced by different factors, such as pre-compression load and boundary conditions, among many others, which makes predicting their structural response challenging. To this end, the present study offers a discontinuum-based modelling strategy based on the discrete element method (DEM) to investigate the in-plane cyclic response of URM panels under different vertical pressures with and without a damp-proof course (DPC) membrane. The adopted modelling strategy represents URM walls as a group of discrete rigid block systems interacting along their boundaries through the contact points. A novel contact constitutive model addressing the elasto-softening stress–displacement behaviour of unit–mortar interfaces and the associated stiffness degradation in tension–compression regimes is adopted within the implemented discontinuum-based modelling framework. The proposed modelling strategy is validated by comparing a recent experimental campaign where the essential data regarding geometrical features, material properties and loading histories are obtained. The results show that while the proposed computational modelling strategy can accurately capture the hysteric response of URM walls without a DPC membrane, it may underestimate the load-carrying capacity of URM walls with a DPC membrane. Full article
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29 pages, 14866 KiB  
Article
Modeling Variability in Seismic Analysis of Concrete Gravity Dams: A Parametric Analysis of Koyna and Pine Flat Dams
by Bikram Kesharee Patra, Rocio L. Segura and Ashutosh Bagchi
Infrastructures 2024, 9(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures9010010 - 05 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1623
Abstract
This study addresses the vital issue of the variability associated with modeling decisions in dam seismic analysis. Traditionally, structural modeling and simulations employ a progressive approach, where more complex models are gradually incorporated. For example, if previous levels indicate insufficient seismic safety margins, [...] Read more.
This study addresses the vital issue of the variability associated with modeling decisions in dam seismic analysis. Traditionally, structural modeling and simulations employ a progressive approach, where more complex models are gradually incorporated. For example, if previous levels indicate insufficient seismic safety margins, a more advanced analysis is then undertaken. Recognizing the constraints and evaluating the influence of various methods is essential for improving the comprehension and effectiveness of dam safety assessments. To this end, an extensive parametric study is carried out to evaluate the seismic response variability of the Koyna and Pine Flat dams using various solution approaches and model complexities. Numerical simulations are conducted in a 2D framework across three software programs, encompassing different dam system configurations. Additional complexity is introduced by simulating reservoir dynamics with Westergaard-added mass or acoustic elements. Linear and nonlinear analyses are performed, incorporating pertinent material properties, employing the concrete damage plasticity model in the latter. Modal parameters and crest displacement time histories are used to highlight variability among the selected solution procedures and model complexities. Finally, recommendations are made regarding the adequacy and robustness of each method, specifying the scenarios in which they are most effectively applied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Dam Engineering of the 21st Century)
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21 pages, 2544 KiB  
Technical Note
Smartphone-Based Cost-Effective Pavement Performance Model Development Using a Machine Learning Technique with Limited Data
by Samiulhaq Wasiq and Amir Golroo
Infrastructures 2024, 9(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures9010009 - 03 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1629
Abstract
Road networks play a significant role in each country’s economy, especially in countries such as Afghanistan, which is strategically located in the international transit path from Europe to East Asia. In such a country, pavement performance models are fundamental for the pavement maintenance [...] Read more.
Road networks play a significant role in each country’s economy, especially in countries such as Afghanistan, which is strategically located in the international transit path from Europe to East Asia. In such a country, pavement performance models are fundamental for the pavement maintenance planning that provides high-quality infrastructure for transporting goods and travelers. However, due to the lack of a budget for pavement monitoring and maintenance in Afghanistan, transportation networks and pavement condition data have not been widely acquired for the development of a pavement performance model. The main aim of this study is to use a machine learning technique to, for the first time, develop a pavement performance model for Afghanistan that uses simple, cost-effective, and fairly accurate data—collected via smartphones—and that is based on a case study of over 550 km of Afghanistan’s highways. First, the current condition of Afghanistan’s road network is investigated using a smartphone. Then, collected data are prepared and analyzed so as to estimate the pavement condition index (PCI). Finally, a pavement performance model for PCI is developed using pavement age with an adequate coefficient of determination of 0.70 and successfully validated. It is concluded that the proposed approach is efficient and effective when developing a performance model in other developing countries encountering such data and budget limitations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Infrastructures Inspection and Maintenance)
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37 pages, 2107 KiB  
Review
State of the Art Review of Ageing of Bituminous Binders and Asphalt Mixtures: Ageing Simulation Techniques, Ageing Inhibitors and the Relationship between Simulated Ageing and Field Ageing
by Ahmed Abouelsaad, Greg White and Ali Jamshidi
Infrastructures 2024, 9(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures9010008 - 02 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2034
Abstract
Asphalt mixtures age during service in the field, primarily as the result of chemical changes in the bituminous binder phase. The ageing phenomenon changes the properties of the asphalt mixture, including the stiffness modulus, the resistance to deformation and the resistance to cracking, [...] Read more.
Asphalt mixtures age during service in the field, primarily as the result of chemical changes in the bituminous binder phase. The ageing phenomenon changes the properties of the asphalt mixture, including the stiffness modulus, the resistance to deformation and the resistance to cracking, and it leads to surface weathering or erosion that often leads to pavement resurfacing. Consequently, many researchers have attempted to understand and to simulate the ageing of bituminous binders and asphalt mixtures in the laboratory. This review of bituminous binder and asphalt mixture ageing considers ageing simulation techniques, the effect of ageing on both bituminous binders and asphalt mixtures, the potential benefits of ageing inhibitors, and efforts to relate simulated laboratory ageing to observed field ageing. It is concluded that ageing has a significant effect on the properties of bituminous binders and asphalt mixtures, and that improved simulated ageing is important for comparing the effect of ageing on different materials and mixtures, as well as for quantifying the potential benefits of ageing inhibitors, which have generally been promising. It is also concluded that current ageing protocols are based on heat only, omitting the important contribution of solar radiation to the weathering and ageing of asphalt surfaces in the field. In the future, different simulated ageing protocols should be developed for binder and mixture samples. Similarly, a different ageing protocol is appropriate for understanding base-layer fatigue, compared to research on surface-layer weathering. Finally, it is concluded that a universal ageing protocol is unlikely to be found and that mixture- and climate-specific protocols need to be developed. However, given the importance of simulated ageing to asphalt researchers, the development of reliable, robust and calibrated laboratory ageing protocols is essential for the future. Full article
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21 pages, 17818 KiB  
Article
Conceptual Design of Public Charging Stations for Freight Road Transport
by Jakub Hospodka, Jindřich Sadil, Helena Bínová, Kekula František, Hykš Oldřich, Hykšová Magdalena and Neubergová Kristýna
Infrastructures 2024, 9(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures9010007 - 27 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1592
Abstract
We present a comprehensive methodology for a two-step approach to address the task at hand. The first step involves the optimal placement of charging stations, while the second step focuses on determining the necessary capacity of the charging stations based on traffic factors. [...] Read more.
We present a comprehensive methodology for a two-step approach to address the task at hand. The first step involves the optimal placement of charging stations, while the second step focuses on determining the necessary capacity of the charging stations based on traffic factors. This methodology is applicable to countries, states, or specific areas where the placement and optimization of charging stations for truck road transport are being considered. We identify the key inputs required for solving such a task. In the results section, we demonstrate the outcomes using a model example for the Czech Republic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable and Digital Transformation of Road Infrastructures)
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21 pages, 7594 KiB  
Article
On the Generation of Digital Data and Models from Point Clouds: Application to a Pedestrian Bridge Structure
by F. Necati Catbas, Jacob Anthony Cano, Furkan Luleci, Lori C. Walters and Robert Michlowitz
Infrastructures 2024, 9(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures9010006 - 25 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1790
Abstract
This study investigates the capture of digital data and the development of models for structures with incomplete documentation and plans. LiDAR technology is utilized to obtain the point clouds of a pedestrian bridge structure. Two different point clouds with varying densities, (i) fine [...] Read more.
This study investigates the capture of digital data and the development of models for structures with incomplete documentation and plans. LiDAR technology is utilized to obtain the point clouds of a pedestrian bridge structure. Two different point clouds with varying densities, (i) fine (11 collection locations) and (ii) coarse (4 collection locations), collected via terrestrial LiDAR, are analyzed to generate geometry and structural sections. This geometry is compared to the structural plans, which are then converted into numerical models (finite element—FE model) based on the point cloud data. Point cloud-based FE models (based on fine and coarse data) are compared with the structural plan-based FE model. It is observed that the static and dynamic responses are comparable within an acceptable range of a maximum difference of 5.5% for static deformation and an 8.23% frequency difference, with an average difference of less than 5%. Additionally, the dynamic properties of the fine and coarse point cloud FE models are compared with the operational modal analysis data obtained from the bridge. The fine and course point-cloud-based FE models, without model calibration, achieve an average accuracy of 8.76% and 9.94% for natural frequencies and a 0.89 modal assurance criterion value. The research found that the digital data generation yields promising results in this case for a bridge if documentation or plans are unavailable. With recent technologies and approaches such as digital twins, the connection between physical and virtual entities needs to be established by fusing digital models, sensorial information, and other data forms for better infrastructure management. Models such as those investigated and discussed in this paper can assist engineers with structural preservation in conjunction with monitoring data and utilization for digital twins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Structural Health Monitoring of the Built Environment)
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21 pages, 7458 KiB  
Article
Prediction of the Response of Masonry Walls under Blast Loading Using Artificial Neural Networks
by Sipho G. Thango, Georgios A. Drosopoulos, Siphesihle M. Motsa and Georgios E. Stavroulakis
Infrastructures 2024, 9(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures9010005 - 25 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1513
Abstract
A methodology to predict key aspects of the structural response of masonry walls under blast loading using artificial neural networks (ANN) is presented in this paper. The failure patterns of masonry walls due to in and out-of-plane loading are complex due to the [...] Read more.
A methodology to predict key aspects of the structural response of masonry walls under blast loading using artificial neural networks (ANN) is presented in this paper. The failure patterns of masonry walls due to in and out-of-plane loading are complex due to the potential opening and sliding of the mortar joint interfaces between the masonry stones. To capture this response, advanced computational models can be developed requiring a significant amount of resources and computational effort. The article uses an advanced non-linear finite element model to capture the failure response of masonry walls under blast loads, introducing unilateral contact-friction laws between stones and damage mechanics laws for the stones. Parametric finite simulations are automatically conducted using commercial finite element software linked with MATLAB R2019a and Python. A dataset is then created and used to train an artificial neural network. The trained neural network is able to predict the out-of-plane response of the masonry wall for random properties of the blast load (standoff distance and weight). The results indicate that the accuracy of the proposed framework is satisfactory. A comparison of the computational time needed for a single finite element simulation and for a prediction of the out-of-plane response of the wall by the trained neural network highlights the benefits of the proposed machine learning approach in terms of computational time and resources. Therefore, the proposed approach can be used to substitute time consuming explicit dynamic finite element simulations and used as a reliable tool in the fast prediction of the masonry response under blast actions. Full article
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20 pages, 4350 KiB  
Article
Topographic Measurements and Statistical Analysis in Static Load Testing of Railway Bridge Piers
by Massimiliano Pepe, Domenica Costantino and Vincenzo Saverio Alfio
Infrastructures 2024, 9(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures9010004 - 22 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1493
Abstract
The aim of the paper is to identify a suitable method for assessing the deformation of structures (buildings, bridges, walls, etc.) by means of topographic measurements of significant targets positioned on the infrastructure under consideration. In particular, the paper describes an approach to [...] Read more.
The aim of the paper is to identify a suitable method for assessing the deformation of structures (buildings, bridges, walls, etc.) by means of topographic measurements of significant targets positioned on the infrastructure under consideration. In particular, the paper describes an approach to testing a bridge in a mixed structure (concrete and steel). The methodological approach developed can be schematised into the following main phases: (i) surveying using total stations (TSs) in order to obtain the spatial coordinates of the targets by means of the three-dimensional intersection technique (planimetric and altimetric measurements); (ii) least-squares compensation for the measurements performed; (iii) displacement analysis; and (iv) statistical evaluation of the reliability of the results. This method was evaluated on a case study of a newly built double-track railway bridge, located near the metropolitan area of the city of Bari, Italy, during various loading and unloading activities. The results obtained, evaluated by means of certain statistical tests, made it possible to verify the structural suitability of the bridge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Structural Health Monitoring of the Built Environment)
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16 pages, 9253 KiB  
Article
Deep Learning-Based Steel Bridge Corrosion Segmentation and Condition Rating Using Mask RCNN and YOLOv8
by Zahra Ameli, Shabnam Jafarpoor Nesheli and Eric N. Landis
Infrastructures 2024, 9(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures9010003 - 20 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2397
Abstract
The application of deep learning (DL) algorithms has become of great interest in recent years due to their superior performance in structural damage identification, including the detection of corrosion. There has been growing interest in the application of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for [...] Read more.
The application of deep learning (DL) algorithms has become of great interest in recent years due to their superior performance in structural damage identification, including the detection of corrosion. There has been growing interest in the application of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for corrosion detection and classification. However, current approaches primarily involve detecting corrosion within bounding boxes, lacking the segmentation of corrosion with irregular boundary shapes. As a result, it becomes challenging to quantify corrosion areas and severity, which is crucial for engineers to rate the condition of structural elements and assess the performance of infrastructures. Furthermore, training an efficient deep learning model requires a large number of corrosion images and the manual labeling of every single image. This process can be tedious and labor-intensive. In this project, an open-source steel bridge corrosion dataset along with corresponding annotations was generated. This database contains 514 images with various corrosion severity levels, gathered from a variety of steel bridges. A pixel-level annotation was performed according to the Bridge Inspectors Reference Manual (BIRM) and the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) regulations for corrosion condition rating (defect #1000). Two state-of-the-art semantic segmentation algorithms, Mask RCNN and YOLOv8, were trained and validated on the dataset. These trained models were then tested on a set of test images and the results were compared. The trained Mask RCNN and YOLOv8 models demonstrated satisfactory performance in segmenting and rating corrosion, making them suitable for practical applications. Full article
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19 pages, 1112 KiB  
Article
A Generic Component for Analytic Hierarchy Process-Based Decision Support and Its Application for Postindustrial Area Management
by Marcin Michalak, Jacek Bagiński, Andrzej Białas, Artur Kozłowski and Marek Sikora
Infrastructures 2024, 9(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures9010002 - 20 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1451
Abstract
This paper presents a generic component for Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)-based decision support in risk management. The component was originally dedicated to railway transportation issues; however, its generality enabled it to extend its functionality for other domains too. To show the generality of [...] Read more.
This paper presents a generic component for Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)-based decision support in risk management. The component was originally dedicated to railway transportation issues; however, its generality enabled it to extend its functionality for other domains too. To show the generality of the module and possibility of its application in other domains, an environmental case was run. Its goal was to select methods for planning the post-mining heap revitalization process, especially decision-making focusing on the selection of the most advantageous revitalization option on the basis of the Analytic Hierarchy Process and different, non-financial factors, e.g., social, environmental, technological, political, etc. Taking into account expert responses, the suggested solution was related to energy production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Railway in the City (RiC))
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17 pages, 12064 KiB  
Article
Stochastic Simulation of Construction Methods for Multi-purpose Utility Tunnels
by Shayan Jorjam, Mohammed Mawlana and Amin Hammad
Infrastructures 2024, 9(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures9010001 - 19 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1395
Abstract
The traditional method of installing underground utilities (e.g., water, sewer, gas pipes, electrical cables) by burying them under roads has been used for decades. However, the repeated excavations related to this method cause problems, such as traffic congestion and business disruption, which can [...] Read more.
The traditional method of installing underground utilities (e.g., water, sewer, gas pipes, electrical cables) by burying them under roads has been used for decades. However, the repeated excavations related to this method cause problems, such as traffic congestion and business disruption, which can significantly increase financial and social costs. Multi-purpose Utility Tunnels (MUTs) are a good alternative for buried utilities. Although the initial cost of MUTs is higher than that of the traditional method, social cost savings make them more feasible, especially in dense urban areas. Different factors, such as the specifications of utilities, the location of the MUTs, and the construction method, should be investigated to determine if MUTs can be an economical and practical alternative. The construction method is one of the most important factors to assess to have a successful MUT project and reduce its impact on the surrounding area. Simulation can be used to investigate the different construction methods of MUTs. In this paper, two Stochastic Discrete Event Simulation models depicting two MUT construction methods (i.e., microtunneling and cut-and-cover) are developed to analyze the duration and cost of the MUT projects. Also, 4D simulation models of these methods are developed for constructability assessment of these projects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Infrastructures Materials and Constructions)
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