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Infrastructures, Volume 8, Issue 3 (March 2023) – 24 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This paper proposes a novel approach called simplicial complex-enhanced topological manifold embedding for structural health monitoring (SHM). This approach involves two stages: (i) using a simplicial complex-based method for feature extraction in the temporal domain, and (ii) applying topological manifold embedding for dimension reduction in the spatial domain. The proposed method addresses the limitations of existing machine learning methods in SHM, such as the difficulty in automating high-dimensional spatial-temporal data representation, lack of robustness for uncertainties, and large data requirements for training. The proposed method is a new, alternative, and systematic approach for large-scale spatial-temporal data analytics of infrastructure systems. View this paper
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17 pages, 7050 KiB  
Article
Study on Deflection-Span Ratio of Cable-Stayed Suspension Cooperative System with Single-Tower Space Cable
by Lin Xiao, Yaxi Huang and Xing Wei
Infrastructures 2023, 8(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8030062 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1852
Abstract
This study uses the wind–vehicle–bridge coupling vibration analysis method to investigate the bridge stiffness problem of a large-span cable-stayed-suspension cooperative system. On the basis of the particle-damping-spring vehicle model, the TMeasy surface contact tire model is introduced, and a set of universal wind–vehicle–bridge [...] Read more.
This study uses the wind–vehicle–bridge coupling vibration analysis method to investigate the bridge stiffness problem of a large-span cable-stayed-suspension cooperative system. On the basis of the particle-damping-spring vehicle model, the TMeasy surface contact tire model is introduced, and a set of universal wind–vehicle–bridge coupling analysis algorithm is built in the framework of the whole process iterative method. Based on the Latin supercube sampling principle, random traffic flow is generated and loaded onto bridge structures with different stiffness conditions to analyze the driving comfort and safety under each stiffness condition. Combining the specification requirements, engineering experience, and research results, the vertical stiffness limit applicable to the bridge of the highway cable-stayed-suspension collaborative system is proposed. Existing engineering experience shows that the vertical deflection-to-span ratio of a cable-stayed bridge under live load is distributed between 1/400 and 1/1600, and the vertical deflection span ratio under the action of lane load is recommended based on numerical analysis. Full article
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13 pages, 6385 KiB  
Article
Statistical Analysis of the Effective Friction Angle of Sand Tailings from Germano Dam
by Leonardo De Bona Becker, Maria do Carmo Reis Cavalcanti and Alfredo Affonso Monteiro Marques
Infrastructures 2023, 8(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8030061 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1395
Abstract
Tailings dam accidents emphasize the importance of an adequate understanding of the strength parameters of tailings to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the design, construction, and operation of such structures. Usually, the tailings strength is addressed in a deterministic manner. However, a [...] Read more.
Tailings dam accidents emphasize the importance of an adequate understanding of the strength parameters of tailings to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the design, construction, and operation of such structures. Usually, the tailings strength is addressed in a deterministic manner. However, a statistical approach would better represent their behavior due to its inherent heterogeneity. The literature about tailings strength distribution is relatively rare or superficial, which impairs the probabilistic analyses which are essential for risk management. Therefore, this article focuses on the probability density function (PDF) of the effective friction angle (ϕ′) of iron ore tailings from the reservoir of Germano dam, Mariana, Brazil, based on data from publicly available CPTu tests. The influence of the relative density (Dr), and the presence of plastic layers amidst the sand tailings on the strength of the sand are also discussed herein. Several correlations were employed to estimate ϕ’ and Dr. According to the results, the presence of plastic layers influences the estimated properties, and the relative density has a log-normal distribution. The effective friction angle, on the other hand, presents a normal distribution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart, Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructures, 2nd Edition)
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24 pages, 9311 KiB  
Article
Shear Behavior of Recycled Coarse Aggregates Concrete Dry Joints Keys Using Digital Image Correlation Technique
by Jedson Batista Sousa, Sergio Luis Gonzalez Garcia and Rodrigo Moulin Ribeiro Pierott
Infrastructures 2023, 8(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8030060 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1294
Abstract
In this work, twenty-seven dry joint specimens of prestressed segmental bridges produced using recycled coarse aggregate concrete (RAC) were subjected to push-off tests. The substitution rate of coarse aggregate for recycled aggregate was 100%. The variables observed were the number of keys, including [...] Read more.
In this work, twenty-seven dry joint specimens of prestressed segmental bridges produced using recycled coarse aggregate concrete (RAC) were subjected to push-off tests. The substitution rate of coarse aggregate for recycled aggregate was 100%. The variables observed were the number of keys, including flat, single-keyed, and three-keyed, and the magnitude of the confining stress, varying at 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 MPa. The slippage between both parts of the joint and the cracking of the specimens were analyzed using the digital image correlation technique (DIC). Equations from the literature were used to predict the shear strength of dry joints with recycled coarse aggregate concrete. The experimental results obtained from the present research were compared to those of other conventional concrete researchers. The results showed that the dry joints produced with recycled coarse aggregate concrete presented a crack formation in conventional concrete joints following a similar mechanism of failure; however, they presented lower strength. Some equations in the literature predicted the strength of dry joints with recycled coarse aggregate concrete. Based on the analysis performed, adopting a reduction coefficient of 0.7 in the AASHTO normative equation was recommended for predicting the shear strength of dry joints when produced with recycled coarse aggregates concrete. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart, Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructures, 2nd Edition)
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15 pages, 10451 KiB  
Article
Experimental Investigations of Cement Clay Interlocking Brick Masonry Structures Strengthened with CFRP and Cement-Sand Mortar
by Panuwat Joyklad, Hafiz Ahmad Waqas, Abdul Hafeez, Nazam Ali, Ali Ejaz, Qudeer Hussain, Kaffayatullah Khan, Arissaman Sangthongtong and Panumas Saingam
Infrastructures 2023, 8(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8030059 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2100
Abstract
Many masonry structures are constructed with cement clay interlocking brick (CCIB) due to its added benefits. Recent research has demonstrated the vulnerability of brick masonry walls against seismic loading. Various strengthening materials and techniques are extensively used to improve the structural behavior of [...] Read more.
Many masonry structures are constructed with cement clay interlocking brick (CCIB) due to its added benefits. Recent research has demonstrated the vulnerability of brick masonry walls against seismic loading. Various strengthening materials and techniques are extensively used to improve the structural behavior of brick walls. Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites are the most popular strengthening material due to their advantages of easy application, lightweight qualities, and superior tensile strength. The current research work aimed to explore the cost-effective solutions and feasibility of CFRP composite-based strengthening techniques to improve the load-bearing capacity of CCIB walls. Various configurations and combinations of strengthening materials were investigated to customize the cost of repair and strengthening. The experimental results indicated that CFRP composites in combination with cement-sand (CS) mortar are an efficient strengthening material to enhance the strength and ultimate deflection of CCIB walls. The ultimate load-bearing capacity and axial deformation of the strengthened CCIB wall (using two layers of CFRP strips and CS mortar of 10 mm thickness) remained 171% and 190% larger than the unstrengthened CCIB wall. The conclusions of this study are expected to enhance the seismic performance of masonry buildings in developing countries. It should be noted that due to the reduced number of tested specimens, the results to be assumed as general considerations need a wider experimental campaign and a large numbers of tests for each strengthening typology. Full article
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17 pages, 3842 KiB  
Article
A Study of Modern Eco-Friendly Composite (Geopolymer) Based on Blast Furnace Slag Compared to Conventional Concrete Using the Life Cycle Assessment Approach
by Alireza Esparham, Nikolai Ivanovich Vatin, Makhmud Kharun and Mohammad Hematibahar
Infrastructures 2023, 8(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8030058 - 19 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2180
Abstract
By posing the question of what will be the definition of sustainable development in the future, it can almost be seen that the principle of “no waste” and the production of new materials with less of a negative environmental impact will have a [...] Read more.
By posing the question of what will be the definition of sustainable development in the future, it can almost be seen that the principle of “no waste” and the production of new materials with less of a negative environmental impact will have a high priority. To further develop environmentally friendly materials, it is necessary to know about the environmental drivers of new materials as well as to evaluate the environmental effects of conventional materials in construction. According to the definitions of sustainable development and sustainable materials, materials with characteristics such as having low energy consumption, sufficient durability, good physical and chemical properties, while simultaneously reducing pollution should be used. Geopolymer materials may be a reasonable option. In this research, two production processes based on blast furnace slag and ordinary concrete (Portland cement) for one cubic meter of geopolymer concrete have been investigated. To investigate, inputs (materials and energy) and outputs (relevant environmental pollutants) of both systems were determined and a life cycle assessment (LCA) was measured using the Center of Environmental Science of Leiden University (CML) and cumulative exergy demand (CED) quantification methods of SimaPro V.9 software. The results showed that the production system of one cubic meter of conventional concrete has maximum environmental effects in all classes except in the destruction of the ozone layer, and the system of producing one cubic meter of geopolymer concrete based on slag has much less environmental effects than the normal concrete system. It also consumes 62% less directly during its lifetime. As a result, geopolymer concrete may be a suitable alternative to traditional concrete as a sustainable material. Full article
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16 pages, 586 KiB  
Article
Critical Government Strategies for Enhancing Building Information Modeling Implementation in Indonesia
by Hafnidar A. Rani, Mohammad S. Al-Mohammad, Mohammad Sadra Rajabi and Rahimi A. Rahman
Infrastructures 2023, 8(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8030057 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2054
Abstract
Building information modeling (BIM) enables substantial improvement in the architect, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry. To enhance BIM implementation, policymakers should develop appropriate strategies addressing local AEC industry needs. However, prior works that have explored government strategies to enhance BIM implementation in Indonesia [...] Read more.
Building information modeling (BIM) enables substantial improvement in the architect, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry. To enhance BIM implementation, policymakers should develop appropriate strategies addressing local AEC industry needs. However, prior works that have explored government strategies to enhance BIM implementation in Indonesia are scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the critical government strategies to enhance BIM implementation in Indonesia. A systematic literature review and semi-structured interviews with AEC professionals yielded 12 potential government strategies. The data were analyzed using mean score ranking, normalization, overlap, agreement, and correlation analyses. The findings illustrate that six strategies are critical for enhancing BIM implementation in Indonesia. Two of the six strategies overlapped between all main construction project stakeholders (i.e., consultants, contractors, and clients): (1) develop programs to integrate BIM into education curricula and academia, and (2) develop BIM implementation guidelines. These two strategies were highly correlated, and all project stakeholders had consistent views on their criticality for enhancing BIM implementation in Indonesia. The findings benefit policymakers by highlighting specific strategies that should take place to enhance BIM implementation in Indonesia. Full article
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23 pages, 9026 KiB  
Article
Micro-Scale Experimental Approach for the Seismic Performance Evaluation of RC Frames with Improper Lap Splices
by Ali Javed, Chaitanya Krishna, Khawaja Ali, Muhammad Faheem Ud Din Afzal, Armin Mehrabi and Kimiro Meguro
Infrastructures 2023, 8(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8030056 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1675
Abstract
Reinforced concrete (RC) frames are an integral part of modern construction as they resist both gravity and lateral loads in beams and columns. However, the construction methodologies of RC frames are vulnerable to non-engineering defects, particularly in developing countries. The most common non-engineering [...] Read more.
Reinforced concrete (RC) frames are an integral part of modern construction as they resist both gravity and lateral loads in beams and columns. However, the construction methodologies of RC frames are vulnerable to non-engineering defects, particularly in developing countries. The most common non-engineering defect occurs due to improper lap splice, which can compromise the structural integrity. This research demonstrates an easy, low-cost, and verifiable experimental technique incorporating micro-concrete to evaluate the seismic performance of a completely engineered RC frame with the defect of improper lap splice. The micro-concrete was prepared by using the locally available material for a target compressive strength and then two scaled-down RC frames (1/16 scale) were prepared, including one proper frame and another with improper lap splice. Finally, these frames were tested on a shake table to study their behavior under various seismic loading conditions. This study quantifies the severity of high-risk structural systems due to non-engineering defects. The experimental results demonstrate that improper lap splice can alter the frame’s damage points, triggering the failure of the whole structure. Full article
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22 pages, 16894 KiB  
Article
Testing the Shear Strength of Mass Concrete Lift Lines: A Comparison of Procedures
by Evan J. Lindenbach, Richard G. Bearce, John (Jack) R. Foran and Westin T. Joy
Infrastructures 2023, 8(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8030055 - 15 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1504
Abstract
Accurately evaluating the break bond and sliding shear strength of mass concrete lift lines is critical for any structural analysis of a dam. Of paramount importance and difficulty is the determination of break bond strength and of realistic peak and residual sliding shear [...] Read more.
Accurately evaluating the break bond and sliding shear strength of mass concrete lift lines is critical for any structural analysis of a dam. Of paramount importance and difficulty is the determination of break bond strength and of realistic peak and residual sliding shear strength parameters, in order to develop the anticipated strength degradation with shear displacement. Traditional multistage direct shear testing repeatedly shears the same specimen surface under increasing normal loads. The first sliding stage post-break bond has the freshest shear surface, which then degrades with each subsequent sliding stage, resulting in an artificially lower sliding friction angle and higher apparent cohesion due to accumulated damage on the shear surface. A novel approach has been proposed that, when a group of specimens are assumed to have similar characteristics, utilizes a matrix-based variable normal loading schedule that develops unique insight into shear strength degradation with sliding displacement. To eliminate the uncertainty as to which approach should be used and when, this paper documents a unique laboratory testing program where two different direct shear procedures were used for two differently sized cores obtained from the Thief Valley Dam. The two procedures were: (1) a state-of-the-art matrix-oriented approach which varies the order of the normal loads applied to develop an understanding of the shear strength degradation with sliding displacement, and (2) the typical direct shear procedure outlined in ASTM D5607, where normal loads are applied in an increasing order. This paper presents the results from: (1) the two different direct shear testing procedures and (2) the obtained strength parameters of the different core sizes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Dam Engineering of the 21st Century)
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13 pages, 4738 KiB  
Article
Demonstrating the Test Procedure for Preventive Maintenance of Aging Concrete Bridges
by Hyun-joong Kim, Yeong-hun Seong, Jong-wook Han, Seung-hee Kwon and Chul-young Kim
Infrastructures 2023, 8(3), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8030054 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1467
Abstract
Deteriorated facility maintenance is a critical social issue in advanced countries. Its cost increases when considering the social consequences in terms of asset value and direct maintenance costs. Data from Korea’s Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport shows that there were 3454 bridges [...] Read more.
Deteriorated facility maintenance is a critical social issue in advanced countries. Its cost increases when considering the social consequences in terms of asset value and direct maintenance costs. Data from Korea’s Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport shows that there were 3454 bridges aged 30 years or over in Korea in 2017; this number will increase to 10,961 by 2027. In thirty years, maintenance costs will be incurred for more than 32,000 old bridges in Korea. These trends are also observed in the US, Japan, and Korea. Diverse studies have been conducted to predict the residual life of old bridges via bridge performance evaluation and load-carrying capacity assessments. However, criteria for evaluating bridge performance and verifying the effect of bridge maintenance are yet to be established due to two reasons. First, most studies on performance evaluation, maintenance, and rehabilitation techniques have been performed on limited specimens from building elements or through small-scale simulations that do not reflect the deterioration factors of complex materials in diverse environments. Second, the performance evaluation of bridges is difficult compared to quantitative state evaluations. As a method of predicting the future performance of aged concrete bridges, it is effective to understand the actual aged bridges through experiments, and this study intends to propose the method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Infrastructures Inspection and Maintenance)
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22 pages, 15879 KiB  
Article
Imaging Concrete Structures with Ultrasonic Shear Waves—Technology Development and Demonstration of Capabilities
by Kien Dinh, Khiem Tran, Nenad Gucunski, Christopher C. Ferraro and Tu Nguyen
Infrastructures 2023, 8(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8030053 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2029
Abstract
Since 1987 when dry-point-contact (DPC) transducers were invented in the USSR, ultrasonic shear wave devices based on those transducers have been commercialized and have become one of the most effective technologies for imaging concrete. That said, the objectives of this paper are (1) [...] Read more.
Since 1987 when dry-point-contact (DPC) transducers were invented in the USSR, ultrasonic shear wave devices based on those transducers have been commercialized and have become one of the most effective technologies for imaging concrete. That said, the objectives of this paper are (1) to provide a brief review of the historical development of these powerful devices and (2) to provide a comprehensive assessment of their capabilities in imaging internal entities and structural defects. Regarding the former, the paper presents the context that gave birth to DPC technology and different generations of ultrasonic shear wave devices for concrete inspection. For the latter, one of the state-of-the-art ultrasonic shear wave devices (MIRA 3D) was used to collect data on concrete specimens with different built-in flaws/defects. Those data are then visualized with a commonly used data processing algorithm, the so-called synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT). Finally, based on the resulting images, the capabilities of the device are discussed in detail for each concrete imaging problem. A main limitation of ultrasonic shear wave technique for concrete inspection is that it requires a significant amount of time and effort for data collection. Full article
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22 pages, 62036 KiB  
Article
Influence of Corrosion on Dynamic Behavior of Pedestrian Steel Bridges—Case Study
by Susana Barrios, Andrés Guzmán and Albert Ortiz
Infrastructures 2023, 8(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8030052 - 13 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2212
Abstract
Corrosion directly affects the structural stiffness of a steel element, reducing the thickness, thus inertia, due to the gradual deterioration of the material. Quickly identifying corrosion damage to the stiffness of a steel structure is a challenge in coastal environments since corrosion progresses [...] Read more.
Corrosion directly affects the structural stiffness of a steel element, reducing the thickness, thus inertia, due to the gradual deterioration of the material. Quickly identifying corrosion damage to the stiffness of a steel structure is a challenge in coastal environments since corrosion progresses rapidly, and traditional methods of inspection and diagnosis are time-consuming and costly. This is an important issue; therefore, characterization of the corrosion level represents a key element in making decisions regarding maintenance or structural integrity. This work estimates the relationship between the corrosion level in steel structures and their dynamic parameters using ambient vibration records. It comprises the characterization of the dynamic behavior and corrosion state of three full-scale pedestrian bridges with similar geometry, material, and structural configuration characteristics but with significant differences in the degree of deterioration. The structures were instrumented with piezoelectric sensors connected to a portable data acquisition system; the recorded information was analyzed with optimization algorithms in Python based on the power spectral density (PSD) of the vibrations of each bridge. The parameters obtained related to the degree of corrosion determine the incidence of the level of deterioration in the structural behavior, thus involving changes in its stiffness and mass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Critical Infrastructure Resilience Facing Extreme Weather Events)
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15 pages, 10333 KiB  
Article
Effect of Sea Level Rise and Access Channel Deepening on Future Tidal Power Plants in Buenaventura Colombia
by Juan Gabriel Rueda-Bayona, José Luis García Vélez and Daniel Mateo Parrado-Vallejo
Infrastructures 2023, 8(3), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8030051 - 13 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1871
Abstract
The evolution of tidal stream turbines is increasing the feasibility of future tidal plants in shallow depth areas with mid-tidal ranges (<5 m). However, extreme events such as changes in bathymetry due to the access channel deepening of coastal ports and sea level [...] Read more.
The evolution of tidal stream turbines is increasing the feasibility of future tidal plants in shallow depth areas with mid-tidal ranges (<5 m). However, extreme events such as changes in bathymetry due to the access channel deepening of coastal ports and sea level rise modify hydrodynamics and might affect the infrastructure and energy production of tidal energy converters. This research focused on Buenaventura Bay to analyze the effect of these extreme events on marine currents through calibrated-validated numerical modeling. Several monitored points were analyzed, and the results highlighted that the bay has potential for implementing tidal stream turbines because of the reported velocities between 0.25 and 2 m/s. The sea level rise increased 11.39% and access channel deepening reduced by 17.12% the velocity currents of the bay, respectively. These findings convert Buenaventura Bay to a candidate for implementing third generation tidal stream turbines and motivate future research for implementing tidal power systems in crucial areas such as the Colombian Pacific, where communities face restrictions in accessing affordable and clean energy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Critical Infrastructure Resilience Facing Extreme Weather Events)
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20 pages, 6095 KiB  
Article
On a Benchmark Problem for Modeling and Simulation of Concrete Dams Cracking Response
by Paulo Marcelo Vieira Ribeiro and Pierre Léger
Infrastructures 2023, 8(3), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8030050 - 09 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1614
Abstract
Concrete dams are massive unreinforced quasi-brittle structures prone to cracking from multiple causes. The structural safety assessment of cracked concrete dams is typically performed using computational analysis through numerical methods, with adequate representation of the material model. Advances in the last decades including [...] Read more.
Concrete dams are massive unreinforced quasi-brittle structures prone to cracking from multiple causes. The structural safety assessment of cracked concrete dams is typically performed using computational analysis through numerical methods, with adequate representation of the material model. Advances in the last decades including computational processing power, novel material, and numerical models have enabled remarkable progress in the analysis of concrete dams. Nevertheless, classical benchmarks remain reliable references for the performance analysis of these structures. This paper presents the main aspects of modeling and simulation of a concrete gravity dam cracking response based on a broad literature survey. Emphasis is given to an in-depth review of the benchmark problem analyzed by Carpinteri et al. (1992). We then use the Abaqus concrete damage plasticity constitutive model to solve the benchmark problem and provide recommendations to obtain accurate results with an optimal computational cost. The best practices of modeling, simulation, verification, and validation are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Dam Engineering of the 21st Century)
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23 pages, 7699 KiB  
Article
Testing Road Vehicle User Interfaces Concerning the Driver’s Cognitive Load
by Viktor Nagy, Gábor Kovács, Péter Földesi, Dmytro Kurhan, Mykola Sysyn, Szabolcs Szalai and Szabolcs Fischer
Infrastructures 2023, 8(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8030049 - 09 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2080
Abstract
This paper investigates the usability of touch screens used in mass production road vehicles. Our goal is to provide a detailed comparison of conventional physical buttons and capacitive touch screens taking the human factor into account. The pilot test focuses on a specific [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the usability of touch screens used in mass production road vehicles. Our goal is to provide a detailed comparison of conventional physical buttons and capacitive touch screens taking the human factor into account. The pilot test focuses on a specific Non-driving Related Task (NDRT): the control of the on-board climate system using a touch screen panel versus rotating knobs and push buttons. Psychological parameters, functionality, usability and, the ergonomics of In-Vehicle Information Systems (IVIS) were evaluated using a specific questionnaire, a system usability scale (SUS), workload assessment (NASA-TLX), and a physiological sensor system. The measurements are based on a wearable eye-tracker that provides fixation points of the driver’s gaze in order to detect distraction. The closed road used for the naturalistic driving study was provided by the ZalaZONE Test Track, Zalaegerszeg, Hungary. Objective and subjective results of the pilot study indicate that the control of touch screen panels causes higher visual, manual, and cognitive distraction than the use of physical buttons. The statistical analysis demonstrated that conventional techniques need to be complemented in order to better represent human behavior differences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Transport, Vehicle and Railway Engineering)
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24 pages, 2537 KiB  
Review
Review: Shear Properties and Various Mechanical Tests in the Interface Zone of Asphalt Layers
by Hatim M. Akraym, Ratnasamy Muniandy, Fauzan Mohd Jakarni and Salihudin Hassim
Infrastructures 2023, 8(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8030048 - 08 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1946
Abstract
Over four decades, researchers have extensively focused on bonding flexible pavement layers. Scholars have concentrated on the partial or complete lack of interlayer bonding between asphalt layers, which is the primary cause of premature pavement failures, such as cracking, rutting, slippage of wearing [...] Read more.
Over four decades, researchers have extensively focused on bonding flexible pavement layers. Scholars have concentrated on the partial or complete lack of interlayer bonding between asphalt layers, which is the primary cause of premature pavement failures, such as cracking, rutting, slippage of wearing courses, and decline in pavement life. These defects are observed within the high horizontal force areas owing to increased speed, braking, and sharp angles when entering or exiting highways and the variations in paving materials, traffic load, and climatic factors. Various studies have investigated the debonding of flexible pavements, and test methods have been developed to find effective solutions. This review is aimed at summarising and discussing certain factors influencing shear strength performance, such as tack coat material, surface characteristics of multi-layer construction of flexible pavements, and different mechanical shear tests. First, bonding in the interface zone area and its Effect on the shear strength performance is reviewed. Subsequently, the types of materials and construction methods and their effects on the bonding quality of the interface zone area are clarified. Finally, the linear relationships between certain effects and the Ability of nanofibers to improve the emulsion properties are discussed. However, no agreement on the optimum tack coat could be obtained owing to the variety of surfaces. Hence, a milling surface is recommended for higher shear strength. The shear test is the most used method for verifying the interlayer bonding strengths, and continuous research endeavours are recommended to analyse debonding in multi-layer asphalt pavements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geomaterials for Transportation Infrastructures)
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17 pages, 1423 KiB  
Article
Are We Missing the Bus? A Case Study on Flexibility Options for Charging Infrastructure at the Amsterdam Central Station
by Rogier Pennings, Bart Wiegmans and Tejo Spit
Infrastructures 2023, 8(3), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8030047 - 07 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1584
Abstract
Is it possible for flexible applications of infrastructure to help cope with the demand for space? In this paper we tried to answer how different forms of flexibility can impact the societal costs of infrastructure development on passenger transport hubs. For this explorative [...] Read more.
Is it possible for flexible applications of infrastructure to help cope with the demand for space? In this paper we tried to answer how different forms of flexibility can impact the societal costs of infrastructure development on passenger transport hubs. For this explorative research option, the value is used to determine these impacts. It is applied to charging infrastructure for electric buses at the Amsterdam Central Station. It shows the challenge in setting up a collective approach towards attaining the optimal societal impact, due to limited knowledge on the potential of flexibility, the complexity in setting up a win-win for each stakeholder based on their different interests and the lacking ownership of the overall collective impact that can be made. The remaining question is, will there be a way out? Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Smart Infrastructures)
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19 pages, 6393 KiB  
Article
Simplicial Complex-Enhanced Manifold Embedding of Spatiotemporal Data for Structural Health Monitoring
by Nan Xu, Zhiming Zhang and Yongming Liu
Infrastructures 2023, 8(3), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8030046 - 05 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1587
Abstract
Structural Health Monitoring requires the continuous assessment of a structure’s operational conditions, which involves the collection and analysis of a large amount of data in both spatial and temporal domains. Conventionally, both data-driven and physics-based models for structural damage detection have relied on [...] Read more.
Structural Health Monitoring requires the continuous assessment of a structure’s operational conditions, which involves the collection and analysis of a large amount of data in both spatial and temporal domains. Conventionally, both data-driven and physics-based models for structural damage detection have relied on handcrafted features, which are susceptible to the practitioner’s expertise and experience in feature selection. The limitations of handcrafted features stem from the potential for information loss during the extraction of high-dimensional spatiotemporal data collected from the sensing system. To address this challenge, this paper proposes a novel, automated structural damage detection technique called Simplicial Complex Enhanced Manifold Embedding (SCEME). The key innovation of SCEME is the reduction of dimensions in both the temporal and spatial domains for efficient and information-preserving feature extraction. This is achieved by constructing a simplicial complex for each signal and using the resulting topological invariants as key features in the temporal domain. Subsequently, curvature-enhanced topological manifold embedding is performed for spatial dimension reduction. The proposed methodology effectively represents both intra-series and inter-series correlations in the low-dimensional embeddings, making it useful for classification and visualization. Numerical simulations and two benchmark experimental datasets validate the high accuracy of the proposed method in classifying different damage scenarios and preserving useful information for structural identification. It is especially beneficial for structural damage detection using complex data with high spatial and temporal dimensions and large uncertainties in reality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Health Monitoring of Civil Infrastructures)
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13 pages, 1567 KiB  
Communication
A Space Fractional Uphill Dispersion in Traffic Flow Model with Solutions by the Trial Equation Method
by Rfaat Moner Soliby and Siti Suhana Jamaian
Infrastructures 2023, 8(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8030045 - 02 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1297
Abstract
This paper has two main objectives. First, we modify the traffic flow model by introducing the uphill dispersion that derives from the fact that, in peak hours, drivers tend to travel from low to high density regions. This means that the proposed model [...] Read more.
This paper has two main objectives. First, we modify the traffic flow model by introducing the uphill dispersion that derives from the fact that, in peak hours, drivers tend to travel from low to high density regions. This means that the proposed model recovers wrong-way travel and is free from advected discontinuity. Second, in order to describe the anomalous transport behavior, we fractalize the proposed model to include dynamics with the fractional in space. As a result of adopting the fractional Fick’s law, several moving jam waves are presented which elucidate the non-homogeneity of driving styles. Then, the GFFD fractional derivative and the trail equation method are applied and for some special cases solutions are simulated which could help transportation engineers to understand traffic behavior and thus make appropriate decisions when constructing a traffic signals network. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Mobility)
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14 pages, 11532 KiB  
Article
Quality of Automatic Traffic Volume Counting by Cameras and Impact on the Qualitative Indicators of Traffic
by Gëzim Hoxha, Arjanit Fandaj and Xhevahir Bajrami
Infrastructures 2023, 8(3), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8030044 - 28 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2153
Abstract
This paper presents research on the collection, analysis, and evaluation of the fundamental data needed for road traffic systems. The basis for the research, analysis, planning and projections for traffic systems are traffic counts and data collection related to traffic volume and type. [...] Read more.
This paper presents research on the collection, analysis, and evaluation of the fundamental data needed for road traffic systems. The basis for the research, analysis, planning and projections for traffic systems are traffic counts and data collection related to traffic volume and type. The quality and accuracy of this data are very important for traffic planning or optimization. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to apply advanced methods of automatic counting of motorized traffic and to evaluate the impact of this data on the measurement of important traffic indicators. The accuracy of measurements arising from the traditional method of data collection through manual counting will be compared with the most advanced methods of automatic counting through cameras. For this purpose, an analytical algorithm for the recognition and processing of data related to road users as a function of the time of day was applied. The program was written in the programming language Python, and the accuracy of the data and its effect on the results of qualitative traffic indicators were analyzed using the Synchro software model. The developed program is capable of recognizing and classifying different types of vehicles in traffic, such as motorbikes, motorcycles, cars, pick-ups, trucks, vans and buses, as well as counting the traffic volume over time. The results obtained from these two models show the advantages of applying advanced methods of data collection and processing related to dynamic traffic processes, as well as the quality in terms of the impact on the measurement of qualitative traffic indicators. A comparison of the quality of results for the different time intervals and varying levels of visibility in traffic is presented using tables and graphs. At nighttime, when visibility was poor, the discrepancy between the manual and automatic counting methods was around 9.5%. However, when visibility was good, the difference between manual counting and the automated program was 4.87% for the period 19:00–19:15 and 3.64% for the period 05:00–05:15. This discrepancy was especially noticeable when distinguishing between vehicle categories, due to the limitations in the accuracy in recognizing and measuring the dimensions of these vehicles. The difference between the two calculation models has a minor effect on qualitative traffic indicators such as: approach LOS, progression factor, v/s, v/c, clearance time, lane group flow, adj. flow, satd, and flow approach delay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Transport, Vehicle and Railway Engineering)
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24 pages, 10828 KiB  
Article
Optimization of 3D Printed Rapid Prototype Deep Drawing Tools for Automotive and Railway Sheet Material Testing
by Szabolcs Szalai, Bálint Herold, Dmytro Kurhan, Attila Németh, Mykola Sysyn and Szabolcs Fischer
Infrastructures 2023, 8(3), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8030043 - 27 Feb 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2252
Abstract
The main objective of this research is to identify optimal printing strategies and PLA (polylactic acid) filament materials to produce rapid prototype deep drawing tools. Additive 3D printing technologies have been applied for a long time to produce tools, but the research is [...] Read more.
The main objective of this research is to identify optimal printing strategies and PLA (polylactic acid) filament materials to produce rapid prototype deep drawing tools. Additive 3D printing technologies have been applied for a long time to produce tools, but the research is unique in that it uses conventional and various reinforced PLA materials with conventional FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling) printers. The advantage of this method is that PLA is easy to print and recycle and does not require expensive or special printers, this also gives the article its novelty. A further aim was to produce the tools using commercially available low-end printers. DX53D 0.8 mm thick body steel and AlMg3 2.5 mm thick sheet were the materials to be molded for the tests. The test tool was an Erichsen deep drawing punch. Tool wear was tested using the GOM ATOS measuring system, an optical coordinate measuring machine based on the DIC (Digital Image Correlation) principle, which is also popular in the automotive industry. The study aims to determine the 3D printing and material parameters that can safely produce a minimum batch of 100 parts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Transport, Vehicle and Railway Engineering)
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16 pages, 4319 KiB  
Article
Engineering Challenges for Safe and Sustainable Underground Occupation
by Maria do Carmo Reis Cavalcanti, Wagner Nahas Ribeiro and Marcelo Cabral dos Santos Junior
Infrastructures 2023, 8(3), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8030042 - 27 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1442
Abstract
Shallow tunnels induce surface displacements which can cause damage to existing structures; an adequate evaluation of their settlement trough is of paramount importance. Nowadays, it becomes even more critical when dealing with an underground occupation where the green stress field has already been [...] Read more.
Shallow tunnels induce surface displacements which can cause damage to existing structures; an adequate evaluation of their settlement trough is of paramount importance. Nowadays, it becomes even more critical when dealing with an underground occupation where the green stress field has already been disturbed by previous excavations. Since the end of the last century, many researchers have explored the subject. Some empirical methodologies have been developed based on data from actual cases, sometimes associated with numerical analysis. The present work used plane strain numerical analysis of different geometric arrangements of side-by-side twin tunnels for different depths and distances between tunnel axes to evaluate its compatibility with some of the proposed methods to adjust the settlement profile of the second cavity. It was observed that the discussed methodologies have similar results for maximum settlement and its eccentricity. Nevertheless, the behavior of the trough width parameter from the semi-empirical methods has shown discrepancies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart, Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructures, 2nd Edition)
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37 pages, 19799 KiB  
Article
Numerical Investigation of Pre-Stressed Reinforced Concrete Railway Sleeper for High-Speed Application
by Zoltán Major, Sarah Khaleel Ibrahim, Majid Movahedi Rad, Attila Németh, Dániel Harrach, Géza Herczeg, Szabolcs Szalai, Szabolcs Kocsis Szürke, Dóra Harangozó, Mykola Sysyn, Dmytro Kurhan, Gusztáv Baranyai, László Gáspár and Szabolcs Fischer
Infrastructures 2023, 8(3), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8030041 - 26 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2130
Abstract
The current paper deals with the numerical investigation of a unique designed pre-stressed reinforced concrete railway sleeper for the design speed of 300 km/h, as well as an axle load of 180 kN. The authors applied different methodologies in their research: traditional hand-made [...] Read more.
The current paper deals with the numerical investigation of a unique designed pre-stressed reinforced concrete railway sleeper for the design speed of 300 km/h, as well as an axle load of 180 kN. The authors applied different methodologies in their research: traditional hand-made calculations and two types of finite element software. The latter were AxisVM and ABAQUS, respectively. During the calculations, the prestressing loss was not considered. The results from the three methods were compared with each other. The hand-made calculations and the finite element modeling executed by AxisVM software are adequate for determining the mechanical inner forces of the sleeper; however, ABAQUS is appropriate for consideration of enhanced and sophisticated material models, as well as the stress-state of the elements, i.e., concrete, pre-stressed tendons, etc. The authors certified the applicability of these methodologies for performing the dimensioning and design of reinforced concrete railway sleepers with pre-stressing technology. The research team would like to continue their research in an improved manner, taking into consideration real laboratory tests and validating the results from FE modeling, special material models that allow calculation of crackings and their effects in the concrete, and so that the real pattern of the crackings can be measured by GOM Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technology, etc. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Transport, Vehicle and Railway Engineering)
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15 pages, 3102 KiB  
Article
Exploiting Surrogate Safety Measures and Road Design Characteristics towards Crash Investigations in Motorway Segments
by Dimitrios Nikolaou, Anastasios Dragomanovits, Apostolos Ziakopoulos, Aikaterini Deliali, Ioannis Handanos, Christos Karadimas, George Kostoulas, Eleni Konstantina Frantzola and George Yannis
Infrastructures 2023, 8(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8030040 - 22 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2914
Abstract
High quality data on road crashes, road design characteristics, and traffic are typically required to predict crash frequency. Surrogate Safety Measures (SSMs) are an alternative category of indicators that can be used in road safety analyses in order to quantify various unsafe traffic [...] Read more.
High quality data on road crashes, road design characteristics, and traffic are typically required to predict crash frequency. Surrogate Safety Measures (SSMs) are an alternative category of indicators that can be used in road safety analyses in order to quantify various unsafe traffic events. The objective of this research is to exploit road geometry data and SSMs toward various road crash investigations in motorway segments. To that end, for this analysis, a database containing data on injury and property-damage-only crashes, road design characteristics, and SSMs of 668 segments was compiled and utilized. The results of the developed negative binomial regression model revealed that crash frequency is positively correlated with the average annual daily traffic volume, the length of the segment, harsh accelerations, and harsh braking. Moreover, four distinct clusters representing crash risk levels of the examined segments emerged from the hierarchical clustering procedure, ranging from more risk-prone, potentially unsafe locations to more safe locations. These four clusters also formed the response variable classes of a random forest model. This classification model used various road geometry data and SSMs as predictors and achieved high classification performance for all classes, averaging more than 88% correct classification rates. Full article
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17 pages, 4308 KiB  
Article
Adaptive Fault Diagnosis for Simultaneous Sensor Faults in Structural Health Monitoring Systems
by Thamer Al-Zuriqat, Carlos Chillón Geck, Kosmas Dragos and Kay Smarsly
Infrastructures 2023, 8(3), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8030039 - 22 Feb 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2017
Abstract
Structural health monitoring (SHM) is a non-destructive testing method that supports the condition assessment and lifetime estimation of civil infrastructure. Sensor faults may result in the loss of valuable data and erroneous structural condition assessments and lifetime estimations, in the worst case with [...] Read more.
Structural health monitoring (SHM) is a non-destructive testing method that supports the condition assessment and lifetime estimation of civil infrastructure. Sensor faults may result in the loss of valuable data and erroneous structural condition assessments and lifetime estimations, in the worst case with structural damage remaining undetected. As a result, the concepts of fault diagnosis (FD) have been increasingly adopted by the SHM community. However, most FD concepts for SHM consider only single-fault occurrence, which may oversimplify actual fault occurrences in real-world SHM systems. This paper presents an adaptive FD approach for SHM systems that addresses simultaneous faults occurring in multiple sensors. The adaptive FD approach encompasses fault detection, isolation, and accommodation, and it builds upon analytical redundancy, which uses correlated data from multiple sensors of an SHM system. Specifically, faults are detected using the predictive capabilities of artificial neural network (ANN) models that leverage correlations within sensor data. Upon defining time instances of fault occurrences in the sensor data, faults are isolated by analyzing the moving average of individual sensor data around the time instances. For fault accommodation, the ANN models are adapted by removing faulty sensors and by using sensor data prior to the occurrence of faults to produce virtual outputs that substitute the faulty sensor data. The proposed adaptive FD approach is validated via two tests using sensor data recorded by an SHM system installed on a railway bridge. The results demonstrate that the proposed approach is capable of ensuring the accuracy, reliability, and performance of real-world SHM systems, in which faults in multiple sensors occur simultaneously. Full article
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