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Designs, Volume 7, Issue 2 (April 2023) – 23 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This free design of an open-source low-cost vertical wood racking system enables large-scale agrivoltaics deployment at farms producing field crops with conventional farming equipment. The design has a hinge mechanism, which reduces mechanical loading and enables wood to be used as the main structural material of photovoltaic (PV) racks. The design is made from locally accessible sustainable materials with hand tools by average farmers, has a 25-year lifetime to match PV warranties, and is structurally sound, following Canadian building codes to weather high wind speeds and heavy snow. Overall, the design provides users with a PV rack that costs less than commercial racks but also has the potential to increase energy yields in windy areas thanks to its unique swinging mechanism. View this paper
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29 pages, 10543 KiB  
Article
Effect of Chill Plate Thickness on Surface Hardening and Dimensional Accuracy of Nodular Cast Iron Gears Manufactured by the Chill Casting Method
by Natalino Fonseca Da Silva Guterres, Rusnaldy Rusnaldy and Achmad Widodo
Designs 2023, 7(2), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs7020056 - 11 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2233
Abstract
The gear manufacturing method is an important determinant of their performance and service life. Surface hardness and dimensional accuracy play a significant influence in determining wear and contact fatigue in gears. This study’s goal was to measure the gear profile dimensions and surface [...] Read more.
The gear manufacturing method is an important determinant of their performance and service life. Surface hardness and dimensional accuracy play a significant influence in determining wear and contact fatigue in gears. This study’s goal was to measure the gear profile dimensions and surface behavior of nodular cast iron made using the chill casting technique. Chill plates made of 304 stainless steel with thicknesses of 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 mm were used to provide good surface cooling rates during the chill casting of gears performed using open molds of silica sand. Chill plates are plated onto the walls of the mold, and then the molten material is poured at 1400 °C. The obtained gears were tested using photographs, microstructures, SEM-EDX, microhardness, wear, and dimensional measurements. The thickness of the chill plate can affect the hardening process of the gear surface. Thicker chill plates result in slower cooling rates, resulting in a more homogeneous microstructure and increasing the hardness level of the hardened layer. Whereas thinner chill plates result in a faster cooling rate, which results in a higher hardness and wear resistance of the hardened layer. Reducing the thickness of the chill plate from 0.6 mm to 0.2 mm increases the cooling rate and increases the amount of diffusion that can occur. The results showed that M7C3 and the (FeCrC)7C3 matrices were formed, with an average hardness within a range of 700–994.96 HV. A chill plate with a thickness of 0.4 mm produces gear with the best accuracy and precision. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mechanical Engineering Design)
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24 pages, 12866 KiB  
Article
Technical and 2E Analysis of Hybrid Energy Generating System with Hydrogen Production for SRM IST Delhi-NCR Campus
by Shilpa Sambhi, Himanshu Sharma, Vikas Bhadoria, Pankaj Kumar, Georgios Fotis and Lambros Ekonomou
Designs 2023, 7(2), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs7020055 - 9 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1828
Abstract
This work intends to perform technical and 2E (economic & environmental) analysis for the proposed hybrid energy generating system for a part load at SRM IST at the Delhi-NCR campus, India. The investigation has been done for electricity generation and hydrogen production through [...] Read more.
This work intends to perform technical and 2E (economic & environmental) analysis for the proposed hybrid energy generating system for a part load at SRM IST at the Delhi-NCR campus, India. The investigation has been done for electricity generation and hydrogen production through renewable energy sources, mainly solar energy. It is in line with the Indian Government’s initiatives. The proposed hybrid system has to meet the electric load demand of 400 kWh/day with a peak load of 74.27 kW and hydrogen load demand of 10 kg/day with a peak demand of 1.86 kg/h. The analysis has been performed for both on-grid and off-grid conditions. As a result, optimum results have been obtained off-grid condition, with $0.408 per kWh cost of energy, $16.6 per kg cost of hydrogen, low O&M cost ($21,955 per year), a high renewable fraction (99.8%), and low greenhouse emissions (247 kg/year). In addition, sensitivity analysis has been performed between—(1) the solar PV array size & the number of battery strings, with NPC, renewable fraction & CO2 emissions as sensitivity variables, and (2) reformer capacity & hydrogen tank capacity, with NPC as sensitivity variable. Full article
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9 pages, 1946 KiB  
Article
By Visualizing the Deformation with Mechanoluminescent Particles, Additive Manufacturing Offers a Practical Alternative to Stress and Strain Simulation
by Ernests Einbergs, Agnese Spustaka, Virginija Vitola and Aleksejs Zolotarjovs
Designs 2023, 7(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs7020054 - 7 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1545
Abstract
The use of stress–strain analysis in structural design or mechanical components is critical for avoiding or investigating structural failures. In the case of complicated designs, mathematical full-field stress modeling produces imprecise predictions. Experimental analysis can be used as a replacement for mathematical modeling, [...] Read more.
The use of stress–strain analysis in structural design or mechanical components is critical for avoiding or investigating structural failures. In the case of complicated designs, mathematical full-field stress modeling produces imprecise predictions. Experimental analysis can be used as a replacement for mathematical modeling, but with the use of currently available strain gauges, it is cumbersome and impossible in the case of moving parts. Mechanoluminescent materials transform mechanical energy into visible light and can be used as a replacement for strain gauges to monitor strain/stress. Three-dimensional printing technology has made major advances in terms of additive manufacturing. In this article, we describe a method to produce an ML 3D print. The fabricated samples are precise and versatile and satisfy the need for easy and non-destructible spatial stress analysis. A 3D printed photopolymer sample with SrAl2O4: Eu, Dy particle addition only to the final layers was tested, and the number of layers was optimized. It was determined that the optimal number of layers for easy detection is in the range of 10 to 20 layers. It opens the possibility for the real-time evaluation of complex uneven forces on complex parts, thus having a good potential for commercialization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing – Process Optimisation)
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16 pages, 11387 KiB  
Article
Dimensional Accuracy of Electron Beam Powder Bed Fusion with Ti-6Al-4V
by Eric Bol and Mamidala Ramulu
Designs 2023, 7(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs7020053 - 6 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1581
Abstract
While much of additive manufacturing (AM) research is focused on microstructure, material properties, and defects, there is much less research in regards to understanding how well the part coming out of the machine matches the 3D model it is based on, as well [...] Read more.
While much of additive manufacturing (AM) research is focused on microstructure, material properties, and defects, there is much less research in regards to understanding how well the part coming out of the machine matches the 3D model it is based on, as well as what are the key process parameters an engineer needs to care about when they are optimizing for AM. The purpose of this study was to understand the dimensional accuracy of the electron beam powder bed fusion (EB-PBF) process using specimens of different length scales from Ti-6Al-4V. Metrology of the specimens produced was performed using fringe projection, or laser scanning, to characterize the as-built geometry. At the meso-scale, specimen geometry and hatching history play a critical role in dimensional deviation. The effect of hatching history was further witnessed at the macro-scale while also demonstrating the effects of thermal expansion in EB-PBF. These results make the case for further process optimization in terms of dimensional accuracy in order to reduce post-processing costs and flow time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing – Process Optimisation)
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15 pages, 4289 KiB  
Article
Hybrid Control and Energy Management of a Residential System Integrating Vehicle-to-Home Technology
by Khadija El Harouri, Soumia El Hani, Nisrine Naseri, Elhoussin Elbouchikhi, Mohamed Benbouzid and Sondes Skander-Mustapha
Designs 2023, 7(2), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs7020052 - 4 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1981
Abstract
Electric vehicles (EV) and photovoltaic (PV) systems are increasingly becoming environmentally friendly and more affordable solutions for consumers. This article discusses the integration of PV and EV in a residential system to meet the requirements of residential loads taking into account the PV [...] Read more.
Electric vehicles (EV) and photovoltaic (PV) systems are increasingly becoming environmentally friendly and more affordable solutions for consumers. This article discusses the integration of PV and EV in a residential system to meet the requirements of residential loads taking into account the PV supplied power, availability and the state of charge (SOC) of EVs. A hybrid control model has been proposed to control the residential system. The combined PI-Fuzzy logic controller is employed to control the buck-boost bi-directional converter. The DC-AC grid-side converter is controlled by the ADRC controller. The effectiveness of PI-Fuzzy logic controller in reducing voltage and current ripples and ADRC controller in rejecting disturbances is demonstrated in each case. A rule-based energy management strategy has been proposed to control the flow of energy between the components of the residential system. The suggested energy management system (EMS) covers every scenario that might occur. Whether the EV is linked to the home or not, and also takes into account the owner using the EV in an emergency situation. The EV operates in two modes, Home-to-Vehicle (H2V) mode and Vehicle-to-Home (V2H) mode, depending on the power produced by the PV and the conditions related to the EV. All possible scenarios are tested and validated. The simulation results show that the proposed EMS is a reliable solution that can reduce the power grid intervention. Full article
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18 pages, 3401 KiB  
Article
Research on Interface Design of Interactive Response System App with Different Learning Styles
by Shih-Chieh Chen and Hsiao-Yi Lin
Designs 2023, 7(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs7020051 - 1 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1456
Abstract
This paper discusses the interaction between students (humans) and an interaction response system (IRS) app (machine) in the teaching context and explores the interface usability and interactive experience design through the experimental method. The experiment mainly explored the differences in the use of [...] Read more.
This paper discusses the interaction between students (humans) and an interaction response system (IRS) app (machine) in the teaching context and explores the interface usability and interactive experience design through the experimental method. The experiment mainly explored the differences in the use of the IRS app by learners with different learning styles. A total of 72 subjects were recruited for the experiment, of which the four learning styles (diverger, assimilator, converger, and accommodator) and the two kinds of information architecture (deep/shallow) are discussed respectively. With operating time performance and use experience as dependent variables, the relationship between variables was explored. The results of this study are as follows: in the learning style factor, subjects of the reflection and observation type responded faster to vibration; in the information architecture factor, with the deep information architecture, it took longer for page switching as more pages needed to be switched, and thus the operation performance was poor. According to the results of the two-stage experiment, the following design suggestions are proposed. It is expected that the research results can contribute to the fields of interactive experience design and teaching technology. Full article
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19 pages, 3162 KiB  
Article
Designing and Testing a Tool That Connects the Value Proposition of Deep-Tech Ventures to SDGs
by Joppe Schutselaars, A. Georges L. Romme, John Bell, Annelies S. A. Bobelyn and Robin van Scheijndel
Designs 2023, 7(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs7020050 - 26 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3176
Abstract
Deep-tech startups have enormous potential to solve major societal challenges, but their failure rates are quite high (above 90%). In this respect, deep-tech systems and products have long development times and thus require substantial amounts of investment capital long before the first customer [...] Read more.
Deep-tech startups have enormous potential to solve major societal challenges, but their failure rates are quite high (above 90%). In this respect, deep-tech systems and products have long development times and thus require substantial amounts of investment capital long before the first customer can be served. Moreover, potential investors increasingly expect that the value proposition of a deep-tech venture has a clear sustainability dimension. We therefore designed a tool that serves to develop a convincing value proposition for investors, one that is explicitly connected to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations. We adopted a design science approach to develop and test this tool in the context of a deep-tech venture builder located in the Netherlands. The final tool arising from this study extends and integrates various existing tools with an explicit connection to the SDGs. As such, this tool enables deep-tech entrepreneurs to develop a value proposition that is more likely to attract early-stage investors. Full article
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13 pages, 23905 KiB  
Article
Caffeine–Acrylic Resin DLP-Manufactured Composite as a Modern Biomaterial
by Dorota Tomczak, Radosław Wichniarek and Wiesław Kuczko
Designs 2023, 7(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs7020049 - 26 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1603
Abstract
Materials based on photocurable resins and pharmaceutically active agents (APIs) are gaining interest as a composite drug delivery system. In this study, a composite of caffeine with acrylic resin was obtained using an additive manufacturing method of digital light processing (DLP) as a [...] Read more.
Materials based on photocurable resins and pharmaceutically active agents (APIs) are gaining interest as a composite drug delivery system. In this study, a composite of caffeine with acrylic resin was obtained using an additive manufacturing method of digital light processing (DLP) as a potential material for transdermal drug delivery. The mechanical properties of the composites and the ability to release caffeine from the resin volume in an aqueous environment were investigated. The amount of caffeine in the resulting samples before and after release was evaluated using a gravimetric method. The global thresholding method was also evaluated for its applicability in examining caffeine release from the composite. It was shown that as the caffeine content increased, the strength properties worsened and the ability to release the drug from the composite increased, which was caused by negligible interfacial interactions between the hydrophilic filler and the hydrophobic matrix. The global thresholding method resulted in similar caffeine release rate values compared to the gravimetric method but only for samples in which the caffeine was mainly located near the sample surface. The distribution of caffeine throughout the sample volume made it impossible to assess the caffeine content of the sample using global thresholding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing – Process Optimisation)
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27 pages, 5634 KiB  
Article
Biomaterials Research-Driven Design Visualized by AI Text-Prompt-Generated Images
by Yomna K. Abdallah and Alberto T. Estévez
Designs 2023, 7(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs7020048 - 24 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3574
Abstract
AI text-to-image generated images have revolutionized the design process and its rapid development since 2022. Generating various iterations of perfect renders in few seconds by textually expressing the design concept. This high-potential tool has opened wide possibilities for biomaterials research-driven design. That is [...] Read more.
AI text-to-image generated images have revolutionized the design process and its rapid development since 2022. Generating various iterations of perfect renders in few seconds by textually expressing the design concept. This high-potential tool has opened wide possibilities for biomaterials research-driven design. That is based on developing biomaterials for multi-scale applications in the design realm and built environment. From furniture to architectural elements to architecture. This approach to the design process has been augmented by the massive capacity of AI text-to-image models to visualize high-fidelity and innovative renders that reflect very detailed physical characteristics of the proposed biomaterials from micro to macro. However, this biomaterials research-driven design approach aided by AI text-to-image models requires criteria for evaluating the role and efficiency of employing AI image generation models in this design process. Furthermore, since biomaterials research-driven design is focused not only on design studies but also the biomaterials engineering research and process, it requires a sufficient method for protecting its novelty and copyrights. Since their emergence in late 2022, AI text-to-image models have been raising alarming ethical concerns about design authorship and designer copyrights. This requires the establishment of a referencing method to protect the copyrights of the designers of these generated renders as well as the copyrights of the authors of their training data referencing by proposing an auxiliary AI model for automatic referencing of these AI-generated images and their training data as well. Thus, the current work assesses the role of AI text-to-image models in the biomaterials research-driven design process and their methodology of operation by analyzing two case studies of biomaterials research-driven design projects performed by the authors aided by AI text-to-image models. Based on the results of this analysis, design criteria will be presented for a fair practice of AI-aided biomaterials research-driven process. Full article
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13 pages, 3513 KiB  
Article
On Liquid Flow Maldistribution through Investigation of Random Open-Structure Packings
by Daniela Dzhonova-Atanasova, Konstantina Stefanova and Svetoslav Nakov
Designs 2023, 7(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs7020047 - 24 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1400
Abstract
The optimal design of packed columns for separation processes is strongly dependent on an accurate prediction of the fluid flows in the packing. Insufficient knowledge about the complex factors and mechanisms governing hydrodynamic effects is compensated for by empirical information. The present study [...] Read more.
The optimal design of packed columns for separation processes is strongly dependent on an accurate prediction of the fluid flows in the packing. Insufficient knowledge about the complex factors and mechanisms governing hydrodynamic effects is compensated for by empirical information. The present study fills the gap in experimental data about the liquid phase distribution in plastic Raschig Super-Ring (RSRP) packing and plastic Ralu–Flow (RF) packing. These belong to the family of widely used random packings with an open lattice structure characterized by high mass transfer efficiency and a low pressure drop. The study was performed using the liquid collection method with a device with concentric annular collection sections at the packing outlet. Large-scale liquid maldistribution in the central and peripheral zones of the packed bed were evaluated in comparison data on competing random and structured packings. The effects of the packing size and the liquid load on the radial distribution of the superficial liquid velocity, wall flow formation and the maldistribution factor were investigated and analyzed. The results contribute to deepening the knowledge about the phenomenon of large-scale liquid flow maldistribution in packed columns, as well as to design enhancement. Full article
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19 pages, 2315 KiB  
Article
Sensor Data Quality in Ships: A Time Series Forecasting Approach to Compensate for Missing Data and Drift in Measurements of Speed through Water Sensors
by Kiriakos Alexiou, Efthimios G. Pariotis and Helen C. Leligou
Designs 2023, 7(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs7020046 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1882
Abstract
In this paper, four machine learning algorithms are examined regarding their effectiveness in dealing with a complete lack of sensor drift values for a crucial parameter for ship performance evaluation, such as a ship’s speed through water (STW). A basic Linear Regression algorithm, [...] Read more.
In this paper, four machine learning algorithms are examined regarding their effectiveness in dealing with a complete lack of sensor drift values for a crucial parameter for ship performance evaluation, such as a ship’s speed through water (STW). A basic Linear Regression algorithm, a more sophisticated ensemble model (Random Forest) and two modern Recurrent Neural Networks i.e., Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) and Neural Basis Expansion Analysis for Time Series (N-Beats) are evaluated. A computational algorithm written in python language with the use of the Darts library was developed for this scope. The results regarding the selected parameter (STW) are provided on a real- or near-to-real-time basis. The algorithms were able to estimate the speed through water in a progressive manner, with no initial values needed, making it possible to replace the complete missingness of the label data. A physical model developed with the simulation platform of Siemens Simcenter Amesim is used to calculate the ship STW under the real operating conditions of a banker ship type during a period of six months. These theoretically obtained values are used as reference values (“ground-truth” values) to evaluate the performance of each of the four machine learning algorithms examined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical Engineering Design)
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16 pages, 2910 KiB  
Article
Optimal Hybridization with Minimum Fuel Consumption of the Hybrid Fuel Cell Train
by Mario Mišić, Marinko Stojkov, Rudolf Tomić and Mario Lovrić
Designs 2023, 7(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs7020045 - 16 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1677
Abstract
This paper describes a numerical study of the optimal distribution of energy between fuel cells and auxiliary energy storages in the hybrid train. Internal combustion engines (ICEs) are currently under pressure from environmental agencies due to their harmful gas emissions, and pure battery [...] Read more.
This paper describes a numerical study of the optimal distribution of energy between fuel cells and auxiliary energy storages in the hybrid train. Internal combustion engines (ICEs) are currently under pressure from environmental agencies due to their harmful gas emissions, and pure battery vehicles have a short range; a hybrid train powered by fuel cells, batteries, and supercapacitors can provide a viable propulsion solution. In this study, special energy management on the mountain railway with optimal power distribution and minimum hydrogen consumption is proposed. Considering the characteristics of the mountain railway, the vehicle uses recuperation of regenerative braking energy and thus charges additional power devices, and hybridization optimization gives favorable power to each power source device with a minimum consumption of hydrogen in the fuel cell. In this study, a simulation model was created in a Matlab/Simulink environment for the optimization of hybridized power systems on trains, and it can be easily modified for the hybridization of any type of train. Optimization was performed by using Sequential quadratic programming (SQP). The results show that this hybrid train topology has the ability to recover battery and supercapacitor state of charge (SOC) while meeting vehicle speed and propulsion power requirements. The effect of battery and supercapacitor parameters on power distribution and fuel consumption was also simulated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Zero Carbon Vehicles and Power Generation)
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15 pages, 7477 KiB  
Article
Design of a Liquid Jamming Gripper
by Madan Pushpakath and Marcelo H Ang Jr
Designs 2023, 7(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs7020044 - 10 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2639
Abstract
We present the design of a universal gripper based on the principle of liquid jamming. The phase change behavior of a mineral oil subjected to cooling is used for adaptive gripping and release of objects. The mineral oil is enclosed in a soft, [...] Read more.
We present the design of a universal gripper based on the principle of liquid jamming. The phase change behavior of a mineral oil subjected to cooling is used for adaptive gripping and release of objects. The mineral oil is enclosed in a soft, compliant membrane molded into a spherical shape. The membrane with the liquid easily adapts to the shape of the object to be picked up. A thermoelectric cooling system is designed with a conductive spreader immersed in the oil to quickly cool the liquid held in a membrane. Once the membrane gripper conforms to the shape of the object partially enclosing it, the liquid is cooled below the phase change temperature, thus freezing the liquid and hardening the gripper around the object and effectively gripping it. We describe the design methodology of the gripper, part selection, and mechanical design. A proprietary controller developed by Venture Corporation is used for controlling the TEC module and the controller is based on a simple PID optimized using Ziegler–Nichols tuning for the P, I, and D values. The hardware is evaluated and the basic gripping functions on different odd-shaped objects are demonstrated. An invention disclosure has been submitted to the NUS IP office (ILO). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mechanical Engineering Design)
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15 pages, 2446 KiB  
Article
Design of Real-Time Monitoring System for Cutting Fluids
by Frantisek Jurina, Jozef Peterka, Marek Vozar, Boris Patoprsty and Tomas Vopat
Designs 2023, 7(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs7020043 - 8 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2220
Abstract
The paper describes the design and implementation of a cutting fluid monitoring system, as well as the design and development of an algorithm to increase the life of the cutting fluid in the machine tool reservoir. Cutting fluids are the most common type [...] Read more.
The paper describes the design and implementation of a cutting fluid monitoring system, as well as the design and development of an algorithm to increase the life of the cutting fluid in the machine tool reservoir. Cutting fluids are the most common type of coolant in machining. During its use, it becomes contaminated and gradually degrades until it needs to be replaced with fresh fluid. To increase its effective service life, its parameters should be monitored at regular intervals, and corrective measures such as topping up the fluid quantity and adding inhibitors and additives should be taken if necessary. For this purpose, a conceptual design of a monitoring device was developed, and a prototype device was subsequently manufactured. The device is designed as a floating probe in the storage tank. Therefore, its shape had to be designed to accommodate multiple sensors, batteries, and electronic components while remaining floating and watertight. The designed prototype was made by additive manufacturing and placed in a cutting fluid while being measured at regular intervals. In the event of non-compliant parameters, the algorithm generated corrective actions, and the machine operator could take the required steps to significantly increase the lifetime of the cutting fluid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical Engineering Design)
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17 pages, 864 KiB  
Review
Manufacturing and Assembly for the Ease of Product Recycling: A Review
by Ahad Shahhoseini, Sara Heydari and Siamak Pedrammehr
Designs 2023, 7(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs7020042 - 7 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4684
Abstract
Design for manufacturing, assembly, and disassembly is critical in manufacturing. Failing to consider this aspect can lead to inefficient performance and material overuse, which significantly impact cost and construction time. Production with a high capability for recycling is a method to help conserve [...] Read more.
Design for manufacturing, assembly, and disassembly is critical in manufacturing. Failing to consider this aspect can lead to inefficient performance and material overuse, which significantly impact cost and construction time. Production with a high capability for recycling is a method to help conserve natural resources. This article is compiled with a review method and has evaluated the recent and related articles that consider design for production, design for assembly and disassembly, design for recycling and reuse, and sustainable design. This review, moreover, aims to focus more on the relationship between using a design approach for production and assembly in the ease of recycling and preservation of raw materials and reuse of materials. The survey for the design methods conducive to achieving ease of recycling is one of the crucial issues that fill the gap in the literature in this respect. Google Scholar was selected as a database, and the keywords “DFMA”, “design”, “facility of recycling”, “recycling”, “EoL”, and “product design” were considered to collect related articles. At first, 115 articles were identified, and 26 articles with a high focus on the subject were selected. Finally, nine articles were considered for final evaluation, 33% of which focused on the design approach for assembly. Many of the issues evaluated are about reducing the number of components and reducing complexity in design, materials, environmental impact, manufacturing cost and time, repair, reuse, end-of-life, remanufacturing, recycling, and non-recyclable waste. According to the mentioned materials, compiling a category of crucial information along with sustainable design indicators and approaches, as well as identifying and explaining the strategic actions of the researchers in this field, will benefit the experts and help them to obtain better insight into environmentally friendly production. This, moreover, helps to substantiate a circular economy by increasing the percentage of recycling materials and parts with various methods and reducing costs and the use of raw materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Smart Manufacturing System Design)
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16 pages, 4062 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Impact of Rutting Depth of Bituminous Airport Runway Pavements on Aircraft Landing Braking Distance during Intense Precipitation
by Emanuele Toraldo, Misagh Ketabdari, Gianluca Battista and Maurizio Crispino
Designs 2023, 7(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs7020041 - 6 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1734
Abstract
A runway pavement during its useful life is subject to a series of deteriorations because of repeated load cycles and environmental conditions. One of the most common deteriorations is the formation of rutting (surface depression in the wheel path) on the runway surface. [...] Read more.
A runway pavement during its useful life is subject to a series of deteriorations because of repeated load cycles and environmental conditions. One of the most common deteriorations is the formation of rutting (surface depression in the wheel path) on the runway surface. Rutting negatively affects aircraft performance during landings and will behave even worse during precipitation or with the existence of fluid contaminations on the surface. This paper aims to develop a model for calculating aircraft braking distance during landing on wet-pavement runways affected by rutting based on dynamic skid resistances generated by tire–fluid–pavement interactions. Intense precipitation, variable rutting depths for a 100 m length step, water film depths (e.g., 1 to 26 mm), and aircraft wheel loads (e.g., 10 to 140 kN) are considered as the boundary conditions of the developed model. The output is a model that can estimate aircraft braking distance as a function of rutting depth and can perform further assessment of the probability of the occurrence of landing overrun. After validating the model with existing methodologies and calibrating it according to the actual landing distance required for each type of aircraft, an Italian airport is simulated using a model with real data regarding the level of service of its pavement surface characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Civil Engineering Design)
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19 pages, 4821 KiB  
Article
Testing System for PV Grid-Connected Power Condition Systems with Support for Ancillary Services
by Vitor Fernão Pires, Armando Cordeiro, Daniel Foito, João F. Martins, Armando Pires and Hao Chen
Designs 2023, 7(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs7020040 - 4 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2101
Abstract
Due to the high spread of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the low voltage distribution grids there is a substantial number of requirements for the connection of these systems. Therefore, several tests should be performed before the integration of the PV systems [...] Read more.
Due to the high spread of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the low voltage distribution grids there is a substantial number of requirements for the connection of these systems. Therefore, several tests should be performed before the integration of the PV systems into the grid. Moreover, new requirements have been established that are most likely to be implemented in the near future. To provide these tests and verify if PV systems are in accordance with requirements and recommendations, a testing setup for the PV systems was developed. This testing system consists of a controllable power source prepared to receive energy and to inject it into the grid. In fact, that system imposes a controllable voltage, in amplitude and frequency, to the PV system to simulate the perturbations of the grid. Since the system under test must inject energy in accordance with the standards’ specifications, then the controllable power source that emulates the grid must receive that energy. Moreover, it should also be prepared for PV systems that are able to provide ancillary services, including new ones that support imbalanced networks. A fast and robust control system will be used for this controllable power source. Several experimental tests from the developed prototype are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy System Design)
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22 pages, 4421 KiB  
Article
Water Pumping System Supplied by a PV Generator and with a Switched Reluctance Motor Using a Drive Based on a Multilevel Converter with Reduced Switches
by Vitor Fernão Pires, Daniel Foito, Armando Cordeiro, Tito G. Amaral, Hao Chen, Armando Pires and João F. Martins
Designs 2023, 7(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs7020039 - 3 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1721
Abstract
Pumping systems play a fundamental role in many applications. One of the applications in which these systems are very important is to pump water. However, in the real world context, the use of renewable energies to supply this kind of system becomes essential. [...] Read more.
Pumping systems play a fundamental role in many applications. One of the applications in which these systems are very important is to pump water. However, in the real world context, the use of renewable energies to supply this kind of system becomes essential. Thus, this paper proposes a water pumping system powered by a photovoltaic (PV) generator. In addition, due to its interesting characteristics, such low manufacturing cost, free of rare-earth elements, simple design and robustness for pumping systems, a switched reluctance motor (SRM) is used. The power electronic system to be used in the PV generator and to control the SRM consists of a DC/DC converter with a bipolar output and a multilevel converter. The adopted DC/DC converter uses only one switch, so its topology can be considered as a derivation of the combination of a Zeta converter with a buck–boost converter. Another important aspect is that this converter allows continuous input current, which is desirable for PV panels. The topology selected to control the SRM is a multilevel converter. This proposed topology was adopted with the purpose of reducing the number of power semiconductors. A maximum power point algorithm (MPPT) associated with the DC/DC converter to obtain the maximum power of the PV panels is also proposed. This MPPT will be developed based on the concept of the time derivative of the power and voltage. It will be verified that with the increase in solar irradiance, the generated power will also increase. From this particular case study, it will be verified that changes in the irradiance from 1000 W/m2 to 400 W/m2 will correspond to a change in the motor speed from 1220 rpm to 170 rpm. The characteristics and operation of the proposed system will be verified through several simulation and experimental studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Electrical Machines and Drives Technologies)
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19 pages, 11579 KiB  
Article
CAD-Based Design Optimization of Four-Bar Mechanisms: An Emergency Ventilator Case Study
by Abdelmajid Ben Yahya, Nick Van Oosterwyck, Ferre Knaepkens, Simon Houwen, Stijn Herregodts, Jan Herregodts, Bart Vanwalleghem, Annie Cuyt and Stijn Derammelaere
Designs 2023, 7(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs7020038 - 3 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1639
Abstract
The design optimization of mechanisms is promising as it results in more energy-efficient machines without compromising performance. However, machine builders do not apply state-of-the-art methods, as these algorithms require case-specific theoretical analysis. Moreover, the design synthesis approaches in the literature predominantly utilize heuristic [...] Read more.
The design optimization of mechanisms is promising as it results in more energy-efficient machines without compromising performance. However, machine builders do not apply state-of-the-art methods, as these algorithms require case-specific theoretical analysis. Moreover, the design synthesis approaches in the literature predominantly utilize heuristic optimizers, leading to suboptimal local minima. This paper introduces a widely applicable workflow, guaranteeing the global optimum. The constraints describing the feasible region of the possible designs are essential to find the global optimum. Therefore, kinematic analysis of the point-to-point planar four-bar mechanism is discussed. Within the feasible design space, objective value samples were generated through the CAD multi-body software. These motion simulations determine the required torque to fulfill the movement for a combination of design parameters. This replaces the cumbersome analytic derivation of the torque. This paper introduces sparse interpolation techniques to avoid brute force sampling of the design space. The advantage of this approach is that it is easily scalable to more design parameters, as the interpolation method minimizes the number of necessary samples. This paper explains the mathematical background of our developed interpolation approach. However, a step-by-step procedure is introduced to allow the employment of the interpolation technique by machine designers without the necessity to understand the underlying mathematics. Finally, the mathematical expression, obtained from the interpolation, enables applying global optimizers. In a case study of an emergency ventilator mechanism with three design parameters, 1870 CAD motion simulations allowed reducing the RMS torque of the mechanism by 67%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mechanical Engineering Design)
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15 pages, 2581 KiB  
Article
Karla: A Simple and Affordable 3-D Printed Body-Powered Prosthetic Hand with Versatile Gripping Technology
by Ardianto Satriawan, Wildan Trusaji, Dradjad Irianto, Isa Anshori, Casi Setianingsih, Erza Nurtriandari and Rachmat Zulkarnain Goesasi
Designs 2023, 7(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs7020037 - 2 Mar 2023
Viewed by 3581
Abstract
Losing a hand can significantly impact an individual’s physical and emotional well-being. Prosthetic hands can help restore some function and independence for individuals who have lost a hand. However, the prosthetic hands available on the market are prohibitively expensive, especially for developing countries, [...] Read more.
Losing a hand can significantly impact an individual’s physical and emotional well-being. Prosthetic hands can help restore some function and independence for individuals who have lost a hand. However, the prosthetic hands available on the market are prohibitively expensive, especially for developing countries, such as Indonesia. Commercial electronically powered prosthetic hands can be expensive, having prices ranging from $25,000 to $75,000 and annual maintenance costs ranging from $500 to $3000. In contrast, body-powered prosthetic hands are generally cheaper, ranging from $2000 to $10,000, but are still considered expensive for many people in developing countries. To make prosthetic hands more accessible, we have designed a body-powered prosthetic hand, “Karla”, using affordable materials and with as few components as possible. This report presents our proposed designs, the innovations, the parts in detail, and experiences using the designed prosthetic hand. The highlight of our design is a novel whippletree-like mechanism that utilizes the 3-D space to contract the fingers of the prosthetic hand. Full article
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30 pages, 8014 KiB  
Article
Automated Solar PV Simulation System Supported by DC–DC Power Converters
by Armando Cordeiro, Miguel Chaves, Paulo Gâmboa, Filipe Barata, Pedro Fonte, Hélio Lopes, Vítor Fernão Pires, Daniel Foito, Tito G. Amaral and João Francisco Martins
Designs 2023, 7(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs7020036 - 1 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2041
Abstract
Solar photovoltaic simulators are valuable tools for the design and evaluation of several components of photovoltaic systems. They can also be used for several purposes, such as educational objectives regarding operation principles, control strategies, efficiency, maintenance, and other aspects. This paper presents an [...] Read more.
Solar photovoltaic simulators are valuable tools for the design and evaluation of several components of photovoltaic systems. They can also be used for several purposes, such as educational objectives regarding operation principles, control strategies, efficiency, maintenance, and other aspects. This paper presents an automated solar photovoltaic simulation system with the capability to generate automated tests considering different parameters of solar photovoltaic panels and different operation conditions. The proposed simulator is composed of three buck-boost DC–DC power converters controlled in such a way that will behave similarly to solar photovoltaic panels. It allows to introduce additional variable loads and maximum power point tracker algorithms similar to real systems. Some converters are controlled by a DSP microcontroller connected to a single programmable logic controller which generates the automated tests. Thus, using the presented solution, it is possible to implement the I-V and P-V characteristic curves of solar photovoltaic panels and evaluate different maximum power point tracker algorithms considering different meteorological conditions and load variations, being a useful tool to teach subjects related to renewable energy sources and related applications. Several simulation results using Matlab/Simulink and experimental results are presented to validate the operation of the proposed solution. Experimental results achieve a ripple between 2% and 5% of the desired average current in MPP conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power Electronics Converters)
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17 pages, 4241 KiB  
Article
Design of Electrical Characterization Method for Electroporation-Treated Biological Tissues
by Patrizia Lamberti, Elisabetta Sieni and Raji Sundararajan
Designs 2023, 7(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs7020035 - 1 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1939
Abstract
The design of a method to evaluate the efficacy of electroporation-treated (with several pulses) tissues is proposed. This method is based on the application of both the standard and a non-standard electrical characterization of biological tissues, on a platform, containing the samples under [...] Read more.
The design of a method to evaluate the efficacy of electroporation-treated (with several pulses) tissues is proposed. This method is based on the application of both the standard and a non-standard electrical characterization of biological tissues, on a platform, containing the samples under test, adopted to have minimal invasive contact measurements. Standard direct current electrical characterization was performed for comparison. For the electroporated tissues (using eight pulses), the electrical behavior of the tissue in working condition, governed by high intensity and short duration square wave stimuli, typically used in electrochemotherapy treatments, is utilized. Both electroporation stimuli application and direct current testing were performed using the same electrodes in parallel plate configuration on the parallelepiped shaped samples. The electrodes were not removed during the designed procedure to reduce the interaction with the tissue under test and the effect of different contact resistances. A finite element analysis-based numerical evaluation of the test cell used in the procedure was also performed, both with a constant and an electric field-dependent electrical conductivity, showing its robustness. The method is tested on potato samples, as an example of a biomaterial, whose electrical conductivity is electric field-dependent. The samples were subjected to a high intensity square wave pulse voltage of 100μs long, in order to evaluate the effect of multiple pulses, as a single protocol parameter. Results indicate the dependency of the electrical conductivity on the electric field strength applied using multiple pulses, and the method is easily scalable and usable as a starting point for evaluating the effect of other protocol parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bioengineering Design)
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22 pages, 6368 KiB  
Article
Open-Source Vertical Swinging Wood-Based Solar Photovoltaic Racking Systems
by Nicholas Vandewetering, Koami Soulemane Hayibo and Joshua M. Pearce
Designs 2023, 7(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs7020034 - 22 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3198
Abstract
Vertical bifacial solar photovoltaic (PV) racking systems offer the opportunity for large-scale agrivoltaics to be employed at farms producing field crops with conventional farming equipment. Unfortunately, commercial proprietary vertical racks cost more than all types of conventional PV farm racking solutions. To overcome [...] Read more.
Vertical bifacial solar photovoltaic (PV) racking systems offer the opportunity for large-scale agrivoltaics to be employed at farms producing field crops with conventional farming equipment. Unfortunately, commercial proprietary vertical racks cost more than all types of conventional PV farm racking solutions. To overcome these cost barriers, this study reports on the development of a new wood-based PV racking design. The open-source design consists of a hinge mechanism, which reduces mechanical loading and enables wood to be used as the main structural material, and is the first of its kind. This open-source vertical wood-based PV rack is (i) constructed from locally accessible (domestic) renewable and sustainable materials, (ii) able to be made with hand tools by the average farmer on site, (iii) possesses a 25-year lifetime to match PV warranties, and (iv) is structurally sound, following Canadian building codes to weather high wind speeds and heavy snow loads. The results showed that the capital cost of the racking system is less expensive than the commercial equivalent and all of the previous wood-based rack designs, at a single unit retail cost of CAD 0.21. The racking LCOE is 77% of the cost of an equivalent commercial racking system using retail small-scale component costs, and is 22%, 34%, and 38% less expensive than commercial metal vertical racking, wood fixed tilt racking, and wood seasonal tilt racking costs, respectively. Overall, wooden vertical swinging PV racking provides users with a low-cost, highly available alternative to conventional metal vertical racking, along with a potential increase in energy yield in high wind areas thanks to its unique swinging mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Smart Manufacturing System Design)
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