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Vision, Volume 7, Issue 4 (December 2023) – 17 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Theories of holistic face processing vary widely with respect to conceptualizations, paradigms, and stimuli. To rectify this gap in the literature, we combined the complete composite face task with a secondary auditory discrimination task at encoding. This secondary task allowed us to divide attention without creating a visual perceptual bottleneck. A key novel feature of this work is our use of a continuous recognition paradigm, which intermixes study and test trials at multiple retention intervals. This differs from other studies on face processing which divide study and test trials into discrete blocks. View this paper
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14 pages, 1947 KiB  
Article
Spatial Attention in Visual Working Memory Strengthens Feature-Location Binding
by Juyeon Joe and Min-Shik Kim
Vision 2023, 7(4), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision7040079 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1924
Abstract
There is a debate about whether working memory (WM) representations are individual features or bound objects. While spatial attention is reported to play a significant role in feature binding, little is known about the role of spatial attention in WM. To address this [...] Read more.
There is a debate about whether working memory (WM) representations are individual features or bound objects. While spatial attention is reported to play a significant role in feature binding, little is known about the role of spatial attention in WM. To address this gap, the current study required participants to maintain multiple items in their WM and employed a memory-driven attention capture paradigm. Spatial attention in WM was manipulated by presenting an exogenous cue at one of the locations that memory items had occupied. The effects of spatial attention on attention guidance in visual search (Experiment 1) and memory performance (Experiments 1 and 2) were explored. The results show that WM-driven attention guidance did not vary based on whether the search features came from the same object in WM; instead, it depended on the number of features, regardless of their source object. In memory tasks, the cued object outperformed the uncued object. Specifically, the test item was better rejected when the features were mis-bound in the cued location than in the uncued location. These findings suggest that memory-driven attention guidance is feature-based, and spatial attention in WM helps bind features into object structures based on location. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Visual Neuroscience)
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19 pages, 29601 KiB  
Review
Revealing the Concealed: Alternatives to Random Dots for Stereograms
by Nicholas J. Wade
Vision 2023, 7(4), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision7040078 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1911
Abstract
Investigations of stereoscopic depth perception were transformed via the use of computer-generated random-dot stereograms in the 1960s. They realized Wheatstone’s wish of demonstrating binocular depth without monocular object recognition, and they have been the dominant stimulus for studying stereopsis since then. Alternative carrier [...] Read more.
Investigations of stereoscopic depth perception were transformed via the use of computer-generated random-dot stereograms in the 1960s. They realized Wheatstone’s wish of demonstrating binocular depth without monocular object recognition, and they have been the dominant stimulus for studying stereopsis since then. Alternative carrier patterns to random dots, based on graphics, photographs, and their combinations, are presented as anaglyphs and for free fusion. A wider range of concealed patterns can be revealed with these alternatives, and presenting them as anaglyphs can yield patterns that have visual appeal independent of the depth they conceal. Full article
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18 pages, 5144 KiB  
Article
Brief Myofascial Intervention Modulates Visual Event-Related Potential Response to Emotional Photographic Contents: A Pilot Study
by Gabriel Byczynski and Amedeo D’Angiulli
Vision 2023, 7(4), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision7040077 - 13 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1406
Abstract
The use of touch for the treatment of psychiatric disorders is increasingly investigated, as it is shown that cognitive symptoms can be improved by various forms of massage. To investigate if the effect of massage is measurable using classical visual event-related potential components [...] Read more.
The use of touch for the treatment of psychiatric disorders is increasingly investigated, as it is shown that cognitive symptoms can be improved by various forms of massage. To investigate if the effect of massage is measurable using classical visual event-related potential components (P1, P2, late positive potential (LPP)), we performed a preliminary study on six participants using myofascial induction massage. Participants were shown emotionally valenced or neutral images before and after a 20 min myofascial massage. We found general increases in P2 amplitude following the intervention across all conditions (both neutral and affective), indicating increased attention or salience to visual stimuli. The magnitude of change was visibly larger for unpleasant stimuli, suggesting that visual perception and attention were modulated specifically in response to unpleasant visual images. The LPP showed reductions in amplitude after myofascial massage, suggesting increased emotional modulation following intervention, as a result of possible DMN alterations, consistent with region and function. We conclude that brief myofascial intervention supports other research in the field, finding that physical touch and massage techniques can alter cognition and perception. We posit further research to investigate its future use as an intervention for both physical and cognitive modulation. Importantly, we provide preliminary evidence that the neural processes that resonate with this type of massage involve complex feedforward and backward cortical pathways, of which a significant portion participate in modulating the visual perception of external stimuli. Full article
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14 pages, 2306 KiB  
Article
Measuring the Contributions of Perceptual and Attentional Processes in the Complete Composite Face Paradigm
by William Blake Erickson and Dawn R. Weatherford
Vision 2023, 7(4), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision7040076 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1371
Abstract
Theories of holistic face processing vary widely with respect to conceptualizations, paradigms, and stimuli. These divergences have left several theoretical questions unresolved. Namely, the role of attention in face perception is understudied. To rectify this gap in the literature, we combined the complete [...] Read more.
Theories of holistic face processing vary widely with respect to conceptualizations, paradigms, and stimuli. These divergences have left several theoretical questions unresolved. Namely, the role of attention in face perception is understudied. To rectify this gap in the literature, we combined the complete composite face task (allowing for predictions of multiple theoretical conceptualizations and connecting with a large body of research) with a secondary auditory discrimination task at encoding (to avoid a visual perceptual bottleneck). Participants studied upright, intact faces within a continuous recognition paradigm, which intermixes study and test trials at multiple retention intervals. Within subjects, participants studied faces under full or divided attention. Test faces varied with respect to alignment, congruence, and retention intervals. Overall, we observed the predicted beneficial outcomes of holistic processing (e.g., higher discriminability for Congruent, Aligned faces relative to Congruent, Misaligned faces) that persisted across retention intervals and attention. However, we did not observe the predicted detrimental outcomes of holistic processing (e.g., higher discriminability for Incongruent, Misaligned faces relative to Incongruent, Aligned faces). Because the continuous recognition paradigm exerts particularly strong demands on attention, we interpret these findings through the lens of resource dependency and domain specificity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Face Recognition and Cognition)
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11 pages, 1118 KiB  
Systematic Review
Utilization of Mirror Visual Feedback for Upper Limb Function in Poststroke Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Hyunjoong Kim, Eunsang Lee, Jihye Jung and Seungwon Lee
Vision 2023, 7(4), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision7040075 - 15 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1804
Abstract
Mirror visual feedback (MVF), a noninvasive treatment method, is attracting attention as a possibility to promote the recovery of upper limb function in stroke patients. However, the cognitive effects of this therapy have received limited attention in the existing literature. To address this [...] Read more.
Mirror visual feedback (MVF), a noninvasive treatment method, is attracting attention as a possibility to promote the recovery of upper limb function in stroke patients. However, the cognitive effects of this therapy have received limited attention in the existing literature. To address this gap, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the relationship between upper limb function and cognition in stroke patients and to evaluate the effect of MVF on improving upper limb function. A comprehensive search was performed on the Embase, MEDLINE, and PubMed databases to identify original articles and clinical studies published between 2013 and 2022. Qualitative analysis was performed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool, and in the quantitative analysis, a random-effects model was used as the effect model, and standard mean difference (SMD) was used as the effect measure. Eight studies that met the inclusion criteria were entered in the analysis. Data extraction included an assessment tool for upper extremity function. Results of the quantitative analysis demonstrate that MVF was effective in improving upper extremity function in stroke patients (SMD = 0.94, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.20). In conclusion, this systematic review and meta-analysis provides evidence supporting the effectiveness of MVF in improving upper limb function in stroke patients. However, further studies are needed to investigate the cognitive effects of MVF and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Full article
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16 pages, 3100 KiB  
Article
The Random Step Method for Measuring the Point of Subjective Equality
by Penghan Wang and Alexandre Reynaud
Vision 2023, 7(4), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision7040074 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1438
Abstract
Points of Subjective Equality (PSE) are commonly measured using staircase or constant stimuli methods. However, the staircase method is highly dependent on the step size, and the constant stimuli method is time-consuming. Thus, we wanted to develop an efficient and quick method to [...] Read more.
Points of Subjective Equality (PSE) are commonly measured using staircase or constant stimuli methods. However, the staircase method is highly dependent on the step size, and the constant stimuli method is time-consuming. Thus, we wanted to develop an efficient and quick method to estimate both the PSE and the slope of the psychometric function. We developed a random-step algorithm in which a one-up-one-down rule is followed but with a random step size in a pre-defined range of test levels. Each stimulus would be chosen depending on the previous response of the subject. If the subject responded “up”, any random level in the lower range would be picked for the next trial. And if the subject responded “down”, any random level in the upper range would be picked for the next trial. This procedure would result in a bell-shaped distribution of the test levels around the estimated PSE, while a substantial amount of trials would still be dispersed at both bounds of the range. We then compared this method with traditional constant stimuli procedure on a task based on the Pulfrich phenomenon while the PSEs of participants could be varied using different neutral density filters. Our random-step method provided robust estimates of both the PSE and the slope under various noise levels with small trial counts, and we observed a significant correlation between the PSEs obtained with the two methods. The random-step method is an efficient way to measure the full psychometric function when testing time is critical, such as in clinical settings. Full article
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11 pages, 1220 KiB  
Article
Repulsive Aftereffects of Visual Space
by Eckart Zimmermann
Vision 2023, 7(4), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision7040073 - 15 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1152
Abstract
Prolonged exposure to a sensory stimulus induces perceptual adaptation aftereffects. Traditionally, aftereffects are known to change the appearance of stimulus features, like contrast, color, or shape. However, shifts in the spatial position of objects have also been observed to follow adaptation. Here, I [...] Read more.
Prolonged exposure to a sensory stimulus induces perceptual adaptation aftereffects. Traditionally, aftereffects are known to change the appearance of stimulus features, like contrast, color, or shape. However, shifts in the spatial position of objects have also been observed to follow adaptation. Here, I demonstrate that visual adaptation produced by different adapter stimuli generates a bi-directional spatial repulsion. Observers had to judge the distance between a probe dot pair presented in the adapted region and compare them to a reference dot pair presented in a region not affected by adaptation. If the probe dot pair was present inside the adapted area, observers underestimated the distance. If, however, the dot pair straddled the adapted area, the distance was perceived as larger with a stronger distance expansion than compression. Bi-directional spatial repulsion was found with a similar magnitude for size and density adapters. Localization estimates with mouse pointing revealed that adaptation also affected absolute position judgments. Bi-directional spatial repulsion is most likely produced by the lines of adapter stimuli since single bars used as adapters were sufficient to induce spatial repulsion. Spatial repulsion was stronger for stimuli presented in the periphery. This finding explains why distance expansion is stronger than distance compression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Visual Neuroscience)
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31 pages, 517 KiB  
Review
Non-Arteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy (NA-AION): A Comprehensive Overview
by Maria Letizia Salvetat, Francesco Pellegrini, Leopoldo Spadea, Carlo Salati and Marco Zeppieri
Vision 2023, 7(4), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision7040072 - 9 Nov 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2664
Abstract
Non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NA-AION) represents one of the most important causes of blindness or severely impaired vision in middle-aged and elderly people. Unilateral optic disc edema and abrupt, painless vision loss are its defining features. It is commonly assumed that NA-AION [...] Read more.
Non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NA-AION) represents one of the most important causes of blindness or severely impaired vision in middle-aged and elderly people. Unilateral optic disc edema and abrupt, painless vision loss are its defining features. It is commonly assumed that NA-AION is caused by an ischemic infarction of the optic nerve head, and, although the exact pathogenesis is still unknown, several risk factors and comorbidities associated with its development have been found. NA-AION occurs generally in patients older than 50 years who have small optic discs and vasculopathy risk factors. Even though numerous treatment options have been proposed, no available effective medical or surgical therapy or prophylactic measure for NA-AION currently exists. The purpose of present-day therapeutic strategies is therefore to identify and possibly control any underlying modifiable risk factors, aiming to prevent the development of new NA-AION episodes in the affected and fellow eye. A thorough assessment of NAION, including its history, epidemiology, etiology, pathophysiology, risk factors, associated comorbidities, clinical findings, diagnostic tests, treatment choices, prognosis, and future research, is the goal of this work. Full article
7 pages, 428 KiB  
Communication
“Air and Visco” Technique: A Promising Innovation in the Surgical Implantation of the Xen Gel Stent Device
by Fabrizio Franco, Federica Serino and Fabrizio Giansanti
Vision 2023, 7(4), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision7040071 - 2 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1168
Abstract
We aimed to describe a variation of the surgical technique for the ab interno implantation of the XEN Gel Stent, which, in our experience, is yielding very successful results. The injection of 0.1 mL of air and then of 0.1 mL of a [...] Read more.
We aimed to describe a variation of the surgical technique for the ab interno implantation of the XEN Gel Stent, which, in our experience, is yielding very successful results. The injection of 0.1 mL of air and then of 0.1 mL of a dispersive viscoelastic into the subconjunctival space at the beginning of the surgery allows one to perform a mechanical dissection between the conjunctiva and the Tenon’s capsule, creating a real space. In total, 20 eyes of 16 patients underwent the implantation of a stent gel through the “Air and Visco” technique. We retrospectively analyzed the results. We obtained a reduction in the IOP from an average of 18.3 ± 2.2 mmHg preoperatively to at 13.5 ± 3.5 mmHg at month 12. The needling rate was 20%. We did not register any cases of hypotony (IOP < 6 mmHg), hypotony maculopathy or choroidal detachment. The “Air and Visco” technique allows one to correctly place the device in the subconjunctival space, which the pneumo- and visco-dissection transforms into a real space. This enables an easier surgical performance and more predictable postoperative results, with a low needling rate and reintervention in the follow-up period. It also ensures a greater safety profile because the presence of the OVD on the bleb prevents a sudden lowering of the IOP, eliminating complications such as hypotony, hypotony maculopathy and choroidal detachment in our cohort. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Glaucoma: Diagnosis and Treatment)
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11 pages, 230 KiB  
Article
Barriers to and Facilitators of Physical Activity: A Qualitative Study from the Perspective of Individuals Living with Sight Loss in Cambridgeshire
by Olivia Hillan, Lee Smith, Simon Bishop and Peter M. Allen
Vision 2023, 7(4), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision7040070 - 2 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1834
Abstract
Physical inactivity is a prevalent concern amongst adults living with sight loss. It is essential to understand why these individuals are inactive and how we can increase physical activity levels among them. Therefore, this study aims to explore the barriers and facilitators to [...] Read more.
Physical inactivity is a prevalent concern amongst adults living with sight loss. It is essential to understand why these individuals are inactive and how we can increase physical activity levels among them. Therefore, this study aims to explore the barriers and facilitators to physical activity for individuals living with sight loss. Seven individuals with self-reported sight loss living in Cambridgeshire were recruited for three focus groups. Focus group data were analysed using thematic analysis to identify key themes. Seven themes which represented a barrier, or a facilitator were identified: transport, accessing information, one size fits all, negative previous experience, visually impaired sport, women in disability sport, and taster days. To increase physical activity levels amongst those living with sight loss, interventions need to be focused on the organisational level. This includes producing more accessible environments that can be produced by providing training for sport and physical activity professionals and by ensuring the physical environment is inclusive for those living with sight loss. Full article
10 pages, 1076 KiB  
Article
Parental Stress in a Pediatric Ophthalmology Population
by Sachin Kalarn, Clare DeLaurentis, Zaid Bilgrami, Ryan Thompson, Osamah Saeedi, Janet Alexander, Mary Louise Collins, Allison Jensen, Le Tran Notarfrancesco and Moran Levin
Vision 2023, 7(4), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision7040069 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1207
Abstract
To determine the rate of parental stress within a pediatric ophthalmology population, parents in an urban or suburban community pediatric ophthalmology clinic were administered the Parental Stress Index Short Form survey. Demographic information and parental depression or anxiety data were collected and analyzed [...] Read more.
To determine the rate of parental stress within a pediatric ophthalmology population, parents in an urban or suburban community pediatric ophthalmology clinic were administered the Parental Stress Index Short Form survey. Demographic information and parental depression or anxiety data were collected and analyzed using an independent sample t-test and chi-squared analysis. Stress measures were recorded as percentiles. One hundred and twenty-one surveys revealed the following mean percentiles: Total Stress, 45.9 ± 22.4; Parental Distress (PD), 49.7 ± 19.8; and Parent Child Dysfunctional Interaction (P-CDI), 45.1 ± 23.6. The PD percentiles of the non-married parents, those with positive parental depression or anxiety scores, and those with a high school diploma or less were 55.9 ± 18.5 versus 45.2 ± 19.6, p < 0.01; 55.2 ± 18.6 versus 46.7 ± 19.9, p < 0.05; and 56.8 ± 18.2 versus 47.0 ± 19.8, p < 0.01, respectively. The parents with a high school diploma or less in a suburban environment demonstrated higher PD/P-CDI scores versus those of an urban population. Those with median household incomes (MHI) below USD 60,000 in both the total and suburban populations showed higher PD scores. There is no significant difference in parental stress between the pediatric ophthalmology patients and the general population. The parents who are unmarried, depressed, have a high school degree or less, or an MHI below USD 60,000 experience significantly higher stress levels. Full article
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13 pages, 2512 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Stimulus Contrast and Spatial Position on Saccadic Eye Movement Parameters
by Viktorija Goliskina, Ilze Ceple, Evita Kassaliete, Evita Serpa, Renars Truksa, Aiga Svede, Linda Krauze, Sergejs Fomins, Gatis Ikaunieks and Gunta Krumina
Vision 2023, 7(4), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision7040068 - 23 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1492
Abstract
(1) Background: Saccadic eye movements are rapid eye movements aimed to position the object image on the central retina, ensuring high-resolution data sampling across the visual field. Although saccadic eye movements are studied extensively, different experimental settings applied across different studies have left [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Saccadic eye movements are rapid eye movements aimed to position the object image on the central retina, ensuring high-resolution data sampling across the visual field. Although saccadic eye movements are studied extensively, different experimental settings applied across different studies have left an open question of whether and how stimulus parameters can affect the saccadic performance. The current study aims to explore the effect of stimulus contrast and spatial position on saccadic eye movement latency, peak velocity and accuracy measurements. (2) Methods: Saccadic eye movement targets of different contrast levels were presented at four different spatial positions. The eye movements were recorded with a Tobii Pro Fusion video-oculograph (250 Hz). (3) Results: The results demonstrate a significant effect of stimulus spatial position on the latency and peak velocity measurements at a medium grey background, 30 cd/m2 (negative and positive stimulus polarity), light grey background, 90 cd/m2 (negative polarity), and black background, 3 cd/m2 (positive polarity). A significant effect of the stimulus spatial position was observed on the accuracy measurements when the saccadic eye movement stimuli were presented on a medium grey background (negative polarity) and on a black background. No significant effect of stimulus contrast was observed on the peak velocity measurements under all conditions. A significant stimulus contrast effect on latency and accuracy was observed only on a light grey background. (4) Conclusions: The best saccadic eye movement performance (lowest latency, highest peak velocity and accuracy measurements) can be observed when the saccades are oriented to the right and left from the central fixation point. Furthermore, when presenting the stimulus on a light grey background, a very low contrast stimuli should be considered carefully. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the Scottish Vision Group Meeting 2023)
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27 pages, 7730 KiB  
Review
Phenomenological Studies of Visual Mental Imagery: A Review and Synthesis of Historical Datasets
by David F. Marks
Vision 2023, 7(4), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision7040067 - 20 Oct 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2075
Abstract
This article reviews historically significant phenomenological studies of visual mental imagery (VMI), starting with Fechner in 1860 and continuing to the present. This synthesis of diverse VMI phenomenological studies in healthy adults serves as a unique resource for investigators of individual differences, cognitive [...] Read more.
This article reviews historically significant phenomenological studies of visual mental imagery (VMI), starting with Fechner in 1860 and continuing to the present. This synthesis of diverse VMI phenomenological studies in healthy adults serves as a unique resource for investigators of individual differences, cognitive development and clinical and neurological conditions. The review focuses on two kinds of VMI, “memory imagery” and “eidetic imagery”. Ten primary studies are drawn from three periods of the scholarly literature: early (1860–1929), middle (1930–1999) and recent (2000–2023). It is concluded that memory and eidetic imagery are two forms of constructive imagery, varying along a continuum of intensity or vividness. Vividness is a combination of clarity, colourfulness and liveliness, where clarity is defined by brightness and sharpness, colourfulness by image saturation and liveliness by vivacity, animation, feeling, solidity, projection and metamorphosis. The findings are integrated in a template that specifies, as a tree-like structure, the 16 properties of VMI vividness in healthy adult humans. The template takes into account the weight of evidence drawn from the accounts and reveals an extraordinary degree of consistency in reported VMI characteristics, revealed by specialized studies of healthy adult humans across time, space and culture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Visual Mental Imagery System: How We Image the World)
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4 pages, 201 KiB  
Book Review
Book Review: Efron, N. Contact Lens Practice; Elsevier Health Sciences: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2024; ISBN: 978-0-7020-8427-0
by Nir Erdinest
Vision 2023, 7(4), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision7040066 - 11 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1174
Abstract
The book Contact Lens Practice (ISBN 978-0-7020-8427-0), fourth edition [...] Full article
18 pages, 2713 KiB  
Article
Camera–Monitor Systems as An Opportunity to Compensate for Perceptual Errors in Time-to-Contact Estimations
by Elisabeth Maria Wögerbauer, Heiko Hecht and Marlene Wessels
Vision 2023, 7(4), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision7040065 - 8 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1482
Abstract
For the safety of road traffic, it is crucial to accurately estimate the time it will take for a moving object to reach a specific location (time-to-contact estimation, TTC). Observers make more or less accurate TTC estimates of objects of average size that [...] Read more.
For the safety of road traffic, it is crucial to accurately estimate the time it will take for a moving object to reach a specific location (time-to-contact estimation, TTC). Observers make more or less accurate TTC estimates of objects of average size that are moving at constant speeds. However, they make perceptual errors when judging objects which accelerate or which are unusually large or small. In the former case, for instance, when asked to extrapolate the motion of an accelerating object, observers tend to assume that the object continues to move with the speed it had before it went out of sight. In the latter case, the TTC of large objects is underestimated, whereas the TTC of small objects is overestimated, as if physical size is confounded with retinal size (the size–arrival effect). In normal viewing, these perceptual errors cannot be helped, but camera–monitor systems offer the unique opportunity to exploit the size–arrival effect to cancel out errors induced by the failure to respond to acceleration. To explore whether such error cancellation can work in principle, we conducted two experiments using a prediction-motion paradigm in which the size of the approaching vehicle was manipulated. The results demonstrate that altering the vehicle’s size had the expected influence on the TTC estimation. This finding has practical implications for the implementation of camera–monitor systems. Full article
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15 pages, 2087 KiB  
Review
An Update on Multimodal Ophthalmological Imaging of Diffuse Choroidal Hemangioma in Sturge–Weber Syndrome
by Chiara Ciancimino, Mariachiara Di Pippo, Daria Rullo, Francesco Ruggeri, Flaminia Grassi, Gianluca Scuderi and Solmaz Abdolrahimzadeh
Vision 2023, 7(4), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision7040064 - 6 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1627
Abstract
Sturge–Weber syndrome (SWS) is characterized by facial port-wine stains, leptomeningeal hemangiomas, and prominent ocular manifestations such as glaucoma and diffuse choroidal hemangiomas (DCHs). Imaging modalities are critical for diagnosing and longitudinally monitoring DCHs in SWS. Fundus photography is fundamental in assessing both eyes [...] Read more.
Sturge–Weber syndrome (SWS) is characterized by facial port-wine stains, leptomeningeal hemangiomas, and prominent ocular manifestations such as glaucoma and diffuse choroidal hemangiomas (DCHs). Imaging modalities are critical for diagnosing and longitudinally monitoring DCHs in SWS. Fundus photography is fundamental in assessing both eyes simultaneously, fluorescein angiography and indocyanine green angiography effectively map the retinal and choroidal circulation, and ultrasonography offers essential structural insights into the choroid and retina. NIR imaging reveals subtle retinal pigment changes, often overlooked in standard fundus examination. Enhanced depth imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography (EDI-SDOCT) and swept-source OCT (SSOCT) improve the visualization of the choroidal-scleral boundary, essential for DCH characterization. The potential of OCT angiography (OCTA) is under exploration, particularly its role in predicting signs of disease progression or worsening, as well as potential new biomarkers such as the choroidal vascularity index (CVI). The present review aims to provide an update on multimodal imaging of DCHs in SWS. Full article
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12 pages, 883 KiB  
Article
Screen Time at 6 Years Old and Visual Function in Early Adolescence
by Mathilde Champagne-Hamel, Christine Monfort, Cécile Chevrier and Dave Saint-Amour
Vision 2023, 7(4), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision7040063 - 23 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1942
Abstract
Excessive screen time has been linked to adverse health outcomes in children, including vision-related problems such as myopia. However, very few studies have evaluated the effect of moderate screen exposure on the development of visual functions. This study aimed to examine the association [...] Read more.
Excessive screen time has been linked to adverse health outcomes in children, including vision-related problems such as myopia. However, very few studies have evaluated the effect of moderate screen exposure on the development of visual functions. This study aimed to examine the association between screen time during middle childhood and color discrimination, contrast sensitivity, and short-range visual acuity in 12-year-old children (n = 305) from the mother–child PELAGIE cohort (France) for the whole sample and for boys and girls separately. Visual functions were assessed using the Freiburg Acuity and Contrast Test and an adapted version of the Cambridge Color Test. Screen exposure was documented using a parent self-report questionnaire. Regression models showed that screen exposure at 6 years of age was significantly associated with higher contrast sensitivity across the entire sample at 12 years of age. However, when controlling for covariates, this association remained statistically significant in girls only. Sex-stratified analyses also showed that moderate screen exposure was linked to improved tritan-axis color vision in boys only. These findings suggest that moderate screen exposure in middle childhood is not harmful to visual function development and as such, provide new insights into the impact of digital technology on children’s visual health and development. Full article
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