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J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol., Volume 8, Issue 3 (September 2023) – 53 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Fencing visual activity has been extensively studied, first in labs and now in real-life performance settings. All of these studies show that experts focus on a specific area of their opponent to strike or defend themselves. This study examines eight expert fencers' visual activity via eye tracking during a simulated competition. Experts tend to focus on the upper torso in foil and sabre and on the lower torso in epee. Fencers in sabre and/or epee spend 50% of a bout fixating on the upper torso and three other areas. On the contrary, in foil only the upper torso is fixated on during the entire duration of a bout. These findings suggest that expert fencers' visual search strategies depend on the weapon and its rules. In conclusion, understanding these subtle differences can improve fencing training methods and performance. View this paper
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11 pages, 408 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Exercise Intensity Preferences, Tolerance, Competence, and Their Implications for Behavioral Intentions in Fitness Settings
by Filipe Rodrigues, Miguel Jacinto, Raúl Antunes, Nuno Amaro, Rui Matos and Diogo Monteiro
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(3), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8030139 - 20 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1697
Abstract
This study aims to comprehensively investigate the interrelationships among exercise intensity preference, tolerance, competence satisfaction, competence frustration, and exercise intentions within the fitness domain. The research involved 114 participants aged 18 to 59 years (M = 33.23; SD = 10.542), with an average [...] Read more.
This study aims to comprehensively investigate the interrelationships among exercise intensity preference, tolerance, competence satisfaction, competence frustration, and exercise intentions within the fitness domain. The research involved 114 participants aged 18 to 59 years (M = 33.23; SD = 10.542), with an average height of 166.02 cm (SD = 15.856) and weight of 68.02 kg (SD = 13.658). The path analysis revealed positive correlations among constructs, except for the link between exercise intensity tolerance and competence satisfaction. Notably, exercise intensity preference positively related to competence satisfaction (β = 0.20, CI90% = 0.12, 0.40), while both preference and tolerance were negatively linked to competence frustration (preference: β = −0.27, CI90% = −0.44, 0.03; tolerance: β = −0.17, CI90% = −0.03, 0.24). Competence satisfaction (β = 0.37, CI90% = 0.13, 0.34) and competence frustration (β = −0.29, CI90% = −0.48, −0.09) significantly influenced exercise intentions. An indirect effect existed between exercise intensity preference and intentions (β = 0.11, CI90% = 0.03, 0.21), contrasting with the lack of such effect for intensity tolerance (β = 0.05, CI90% = −0.01, 0.14). Intentions explained 16% of the variance. In conclusion, this study underscores the intricate connections between exercise intensity traits and intentions, shedding light on factors influencing individuals’ exercise persistence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Sports-Related Health Issues)
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20 pages, 1996 KiB  
Review
The Effects of Massage Guns on Performance and Recovery: A Systematic Review
by Ricardo Maia Ferreira, Rafael Silva, Pedro Vigário, Pedro Nunes Martins, Filipe Casanova, Ricardo Jorge Fernandes and António Rodrigues Sampaio
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(3), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8030138 - 18 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 10970
Abstract
The use of massage guns has become increasingly popular in recent years. Although their use is more and more common, both in a clinical and sports context, there is still little information to guide the practitioners. This systematic review aimed to determine the [...] Read more.
The use of massage guns has become increasingly popular in recent years. Although their use is more and more common, both in a clinical and sports context, there is still little information to guide the practitioners. This systematic review aimed to determine the effects of massage guns in healthy and unhealthy populations as pre- and post-activity or part of a treatment. Data sources used were PubMed, PEDro, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science and Google Scholar, and the study eligibility criteria were based on “healthy and unhealthy individuals”, “massage guns”, “pre-activity, post-activity or part of a treatment” and “randomized and non-randomized studies” (P.I.C.O.S.). Initially, 281 records were screened, but only 11 could be included. Ten had a moderate risk of bias and one a high risk of bias. Massage guns could be effective in improving iliopsoas, hamstrings, triceps suralis and the posterior chain muscles’ flexibility. In strength, balance, acceleration, agility and explosive activities, it either did not have improvements or it even showed a decrease in performance. In the recovery-related outcomes, massage guns were shown to be cost-effective instruments for stiffness reduction, range of motion and strength improvements after a fatigue protocol. No differences were found in contraction time, rating of perceived exertion or lactate concentration. Massage guns can help to improve short-term range of motion, flexibility and recovery-related outcomes, but their use in strength, balance, acceleration, agility and explosive activities is not recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Musculoskeletal Physiotherapy)
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9 pages, 1207 KiB  
Article
Examination of Countermovement Jump Performance Changes in Collegiate Female Volleyball in Fatigued Conditions
by Paul T. Donahue, Ayden K. McInnis, Madelyn K. Williams and Josey White
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(3), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8030137 - 17 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1552
Abstract
The purpose of this investigation was to examine changes in countermovement vertical jump performance after a single sport-specific training session in a sample of collegiate female volleyball athletes. Eleven NCAA Division I volleyball athletes performed countermovement vertical jumps with and without an arm [...] Read more.
The purpose of this investigation was to examine changes in countermovement vertical jump performance after a single sport-specific training session in a sample of collegiate female volleyball athletes. Eleven NCAA Division I volleyball athletes performed countermovement vertical jumps with and without an arm swing prior to and immediately after a sport-specific training session. Each participant completed two jumps in each condition using a portable force platform. Paired samples t-tests were performed within each jump condition. When using an arm swing, mean braking force was the only variable to display a statistically significant change (p < 0.05). In the no-arm-swing condition, mean propulsive force, propulsive net impulse, jump height and reactive strength index modified all statistically increased (p < 0.05). Time to takeoff was statistically reduced (p < 0.05). Additionally, a single-subject analysis was performed across all eleven participants resulting in general trends seen in the no-arm-swing condition, whereas the arm-swing condition displayed inconsistent findings across participants. Full article
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12 pages, 3630 KiB  
Article
Effect of Instability Training on Compensatory Muscle Activation during Perturbation Challenge in Young Adults
by Stephen C. Glass and Kamryn A. Wisneski
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(3), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8030136 - 15 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1105
Abstract
Balance requires constant adjustments in muscle activation to attain force steadiness. Creating appropriate training can be challenging. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 2 weeks of front squat instability training using a water-filled training tube on force steadiness [...] Read more.
Balance requires constant adjustments in muscle activation to attain force steadiness. Creating appropriate training can be challenging. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 2 weeks of front squat instability training using a water-filled training tube on force steadiness during an instability challenge. Control (CON, n = 13) and experimental (EXP, n = 17) subjects completed pre- and post-testing for EMG variability by completing one set of 10 repetitions with a stable and unstable training tube. Electrodes were placed bilaterally on the anterior deltoid, paraspinal, and vastus lateralis muscles. CON subjects completed 2 weeks of training using a stable training tube, while EXP subjects trained with a water-filled instability tube. EMG data were integrated for each contraction, and force steadiness was computed using the natural log of coefficient of variation. CON results showed no changes in force steadiness for any condition. EXP showed significant reductions in EMG activation variability across all muscles. These results indicate a significant training effect in reducing muscle activation variability in subjects training with a water-filled instability training device. Improvements seen in these healthy subjects support the development of training implements for a more clinical population to help improve force steadiness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Movement and Balance)
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9 pages, 1043 KiB  
Article
A Load–Velocity Relationship in Sprint?
by Roland van den Tillaar, Sam Gleadhill, Pedro Jiménez-Reyes and Ryu Nagahara
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(3), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8030135 - 15 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1607
Abstract
The aims were to compare predicted maximal velocity from load–velocity relationships established with different resisted and assisted loads by different regression analyses to the measured maximal velocity during sprint running, and to compare maximal velocity measured between a robotic pulley system and laser [...] Read more.
The aims were to compare predicted maximal velocity from load–velocity relationships established with different resisted and assisted loads by different regression analyses to the measured maximal velocity during sprint running, and to compare maximal velocity measured between a robotic pulley system and laser gun. Sixteen experienced male sprinters performed regular 50 m sprints, a 50 m with 5-kilogram-assisted sprint, and 10, 20, 30, and 30 m resisted sprints with, respectively, 65, 50, 25, and 10% calculated reduction in maximal velocity. Maximal velocity obtained by laser gun during the regular sprint was compared with predicted maximal velocity calculated from four trendlines (linear and polynomial based upon four resisted loads, and linear and polynomial based upon four resisted and one assisted load). Main findings demonstrate that the robotic pulley system and laser measure similar maximal velocities at all loads except at the load of 10% velocity reduction. Theoretical maximal velocity based upon calculated predictions were underestimated by 0.62–0.22 m/s (2.2–0.78 km/h; 6.7–2.3%) compared to measured maximal velocity. It was concluded that different regression analyses underestimated measured maximal velocity in regular sprinting and polynomial regression analysis (with resisted and assisted loads) estimation was closest to measured velocity (2.3%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strength Training and Performance Enhancement in Athletes)
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10 pages, 885 KiB  
Article
Exercise Cardiac Load and Autonomic Nervous System Recovery during In-Season Training: The Impact on Speed Deterioration in American Football Athletes
by Eric Renaghan, Harrison L. Wittels, Luis A. Feigenbaum, Michael Joseph Wishon, Stephanie Chong, Eva Danielle Wittels, Stephanie Hendricks, Dustin Hecocks, Kyle Bellamy, Joe Girardi, Stephen Lee, Tri Vo, Samantha M. McDonald and S. Howard Wittels
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(3), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8030134 - 12 Sep 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1438
Abstract
Fully restoring autonomic nervous system (ANS) function is paramount for peak sports performance. Training programs failing to provide sufficient recovery, especially during the in-season, may negatively affect performance. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the physiological workload of collegiate football training [...] Read more.
Fully restoring autonomic nervous system (ANS) function is paramount for peak sports performance. Training programs failing to provide sufficient recovery, especially during the in-season, may negatively affect performance. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the physiological workload of collegiate football training on ANS recovery and function during the in-season. Football athletes recruited from a D1 college in the southeastern US were prospectively followed during their 13-week “in-season”. Athletes wore armband monitors equipped with ECG and inertial movement capabilities that measured exercise cardiac load (ECL; total heartbeats) and maximum running speed during and baseline heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV) 24 h post-training. These metrics represented physiological load (ECL = HR·Duration), ANS function, and recovery, respectively. Linear regression models evaluated the associations between ECL, baseline HR, HRV, and maximum running speed. Athletes (n = 30) were 20.2 ± 1.5 years, mostly non-Hispanic Black (80.0%). Negative associations were observed between acute and cumulative exposures of ECLs and running speed (β = −0.11 ± 0.00, p < 0.0000 and β = −0.15 ± 0.04, p < 0.0000, respectively). Similarly, negative associations were found between baseline HR and running speed (β = −0.45 ± 0.12, 95% CI: −0.70, −0.19; p = 0.001). HRV metrics were positively associated with running speed: (SDNN: β = 0.32 ± 0.09, p < 0.03 and rMSSD: β = 0.35 ± 0.11, p < 0.02). Our study demonstrated that exposure to high ECLs, both acutely and cumulatively, may negatively influence maximum running speed, which may manifest in a deteriorating ANS. Further research should continue identifying optimal training: recovery ratios during off-, pre-, and in-season phases. Full article
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13 pages, 284 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Influence of Cognitive and Ecological Dynamics Approaches on Countermovement Jumping Enhancement: A Comparative Training Study
by Felice Di Domenico, Tiziana D’Isanto, Giovanni Esposito, Sara Aliberti and Gaetano Raiola
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(3), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8030133 - 12 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1247
Abstract
Countermovement jumping (CMJ) and free-arm countermovement jumping (CMJFA) express the explosive-elastic force of the lower limbs. Strategies to enhance performance in both types of jumping can be categorized into cognitive and ecological-dynamic approaches. However, the effectiveness of these approaches in improving CMJ and [...] Read more.
Countermovement jumping (CMJ) and free-arm countermovement jumping (CMJFA) express the explosive-elastic force of the lower limbs. Strategies to enhance performance in both types of jumping can be categorized into cognitive and ecological-dynamic approaches. However, the effectiveness of these approaches in improving CMJ and CMJFA remains incompletely understood. This study aims to investigate the impact of training protocols based on the two approaches to improving CMJ. Thirty-six subjects with an average age of 26 years were selected and divided into two groups: the ecological-dynamic group (EDG) and the cognitive group (CG). For 12 weeks, both groups followed separate protocols of three weekly one-hour sessions. EDG group followed a protocol focused on circle time. The CG group followed an instructor-led training protocol. Incoming and outgoing flight heights were measured. Pre and post-intervention differences within and between groups were assessed using t-tests for dependent and independent samples, respectively (p ≤ 0.05). CG demonstrated a 12.2% increase in CMJ and a 7.8% improvement in CMJFA, while EDG showed a 10.2% increase in CMJ and 19.5% progress in CMJFA. No statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed between the groups in the improvement of CMJ; statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in the improvement of CMJFA in favor of EDG. Full article
28 pages, 2711 KiB  
Review
Effects of Exercise, Rehabilitation, and Nutritional Approaches on Body Composition and Bone Density in People with Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Natascia Rinaldo, Alba Pasini, Sofia Straudi, Giovanni Piva, Anna Crepaldi, Andrea Baroni, Lorenzo Caruso, Fabio Manfredini and Nicola Lamberti
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(3), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8030132 - 08 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1383
Abstract
People with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) are affected by a wide range of disabilities, including a decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) and a worsening of body composition (BC), which negatively impact their quality of life quality. This study aims to analyze the effects [...] Read more.
People with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) are affected by a wide range of disabilities, including a decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) and a worsening of body composition (BC), which negatively impact their quality of life quality. This study aims to analyze the effects of nonpharmacological interventions—in particular, physical activity, nutritional approaches, and rehabilitation—on BC and BMD in pwMS. This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed following the updated version of the PRISMA guidelines. In July 2022, five databases (MEDLINE, Embase, The Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, Web of Science) and gray literature were screened. Relevant articles published between 1 January 1990 and 1 September 2022 in any language were included. Outcomes of interest were anthropometric, BC measures, and BMD. The RoB 2.0 tool was used to assess the risk of bias. After duplicates elimination, 1120 records were screened, and 36 studies were included. A total of 25 articles were focused on physical activity and rehabilitation, 10 on nutrition, and 1 on multimodal intervention. One-third of the studies were judged to be at high risk of bias. The meta-analysis showed a high degree of heterogeneity due to the high variability in disease severity and intervention duration, intensity, frequency, and type. In general, no intervention showed consistent positive effects on BC. However, the most promising interventions seemed to be high-intensity training and ketogenic diets. Only a few studies considered BMD, and the results are inconsistent. Nevertheless, more studies are needed in order to confirm these results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sports Medicine and Nutrition)
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12 pages, 801 KiB  
Article
Mediating Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Associations between Physical Activity and Physical Fitness; Cross-Sectional Study among High School Adolescents
by Mirela Sunda, Barbara Gilic, Petra Rajkovic Vuletic, Vladimir Pavlinovic and Natasa Zenic
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(3), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8030131 - 06 Sep 2023
Viewed by 971
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic and the imposed social distancing measures caused negative changes in physical activity levels (PALs) and physical fitness (PF) among adolescents, but the potential mediating effect of the pandemic on the association between PAL and PF is unknown. This study aimed [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic and the imposed social distancing measures caused negative changes in physical activity levels (PALs) and physical fitness (PF) among adolescents, but the potential mediating effect of the pandemic on the association between PAL and PF is unknown. This study aimed to evaluate gender-specific associations between objectively measured PAL and indices of PF among high school adolescents during the period of the COVID-19 pandemic. The participants were 150 adolescents (101 females) aged 14–18 years; their anthropometrics were evaluated, and they were tested on PF (cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF; beep test), power (broad jump), flexibility (sit-and-reach test), and abdominal strength (sit-ups)) and PAL (using a pedometer for 7 days) during the pandemic period. A T-test was calculated to determine differences between genders. Associations between variables were evaluated using Pearson correlations. Additionally, multivariate taxonomic classification was used to sort participants into homogenous groups (clusters) according to their PF, and then analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to differentiate them according to PAL. For the total sample, PAL was correlated with CRF only (R = 0.25, p < 0.05), while gender-stratified correlations showed that PAL was significantly associated with CRF among girls only (R = 0.29, p < 0.05), which was additionally confirmed with multivariate cluster analysis and subsequent ANOVA. No association between PAL and PF was found for boys. The relatively low association between PAL and PF is most likely related to the mediating effect of the change in life circumstances during the COVID-19 pandemic, and limited applicability of pedometers in evaluating high-intensity PAL. Further studies in other age groups and environments are warranted. Full article
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14 pages, 1220 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Offensive Play in Elite Water Polo Using the Team Sport Assessment Procedure (TSAP) over an Entire Competitive Season
by Andrea Perazzetti, Milivoj Dopsaj, Mauro Mandorino and Antonio Tessitore
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(3), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8030130 - 05 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1396
Abstract
In water polo, the team’s technical and tactical performance is determined by the sum of the players’ activities. This study aimed to investigate the playing offensive performance of an Italian First League team performed during all matches (n = 19) of the 2021/22 [...] Read more.
In water polo, the team’s technical and tactical performance is determined by the sum of the players’ activities. This study aimed to investigate the playing offensive performance of an Italian First League team performed during all matches (n = 19) of the 2021/22 championship using the Team Sport Assessment Procedure (TSAP). For all subjects (n = 15), gaining possession of the ball (received balls (RB) and conquered balls (CB)) and disposing of the ball (neutral balls (NB); lost balls (LB); offensive ball (OB) and successful Shots (SS)) parameters, as well as volume of play (VP), efficiency index (EI) and performance score (PS) indexes, were analyzed in relation to the playing positions, season phase, match location and final score difference. Multiple linear regression showed a significant association between the playing position and VP and PS. Perimetral players showed the highest VP (65%) and PS (66%) values, and center defenders showed the highest values of CB (30%), while center forwards gained the highest amount of exclusion when handling the ball (48%). Although they were not significant, the other contextual factors showed that season phase and match location could affect the TSAP indexes. For water polo coaches, the TSAP represents an effective tool to assess how players interpret the match. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—4th Edition)
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11 pages, 954 KiB  
Article
Kinematic Differences Based on Shooting Proficiency and Distance in Female Basketball Players
by Dimitrije Cabarkapa, Damjana V. Cabarkapa, Nicolas M. Philipp, Chloe A. Myers, Shay M. Whiting, Grant T. Jones and Andrew C. Fry
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(3), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8030129 - 05 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1810
Abstract
The purpose of the present study was to examine differences in kinematic characteristics between (a) proficient and non-proficient two-point and three-point shooters, (b) made and missed two-point and three-point shots within a proficient group of shooters, and (c) shots attempted from two-point and [...] Read more.
The purpose of the present study was to examine differences in kinematic characteristics between (a) proficient and non-proficient two-point and three-point shooters, (b) made and missed two-point and three-point shots within a proficient group of shooters, and (c) shots attempted from two-point and three-point shooting distances. Eighteen recreationally active females with previous basketball playing experience attempted 10 two-point (5.10 m) and 10 three-point shots (6.32 m) while facing directly to the basket. To eliminate the possible influence of fatigue, each shot was separated by a 5–10 s rest interval. Participants who made ≥50% of their two-point and ≥40% of their three-point shooting attempts were classified as proficient. A high-definition video camera recording at 30 fps and video analysis software (Kinovea) were used to obtain the kinematic variables of interest during both the preparatory phase (PP) and release phase (RP) of the shooting motion. The results indicate that proficient two-point shooters attained less hip and shoulder flexion during the PP and had greater release height and vertical displacement during the RP. Hip angle differentiated made from missed two-point shots within the proficient group of shooters, with made shots being depicted by less hip flexion. Significantly greater vertical displacement was observed in proficient three-point shooters during the RP. Additionally, the greater elbow and release angles separated made from missed three-point shots within the proficient group of shooters. In response to an increase in shooting distance, hip, knee, ankle, and shoulder angles during the PP all decreased. Moreover, an increase in shooting distance caused a decrease in release angle and an increase in vertical displacement during the RP, while the relative release height remained unchanged. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strength Training and Performance Enhancement in Athletes)
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11 pages, 679 KiB  
Article
Running-Related Overuse Injuries and Their Relationship with Run and Resistance Training Characteristics in Adult Recreational Runners: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Lea R. Stenerson, Bridget F. Melton, Helen W. Bland and Greg A. Ryan
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(3), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8030128 - 05 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4327
Abstract
This study aimed to characterize running-related injuries (RRIs), explore their relationship with run and resistance training (RT) parameters, and identify perceived prevention measures among adult recreational runners. An anonymous online survey was designed and distributed via social media and email. Data were analyzed [...] Read more.
This study aimed to characterize running-related injuries (RRIs), explore their relationship with run and resistance training (RT) parameters, and identify perceived prevention measures among adult recreational runners. An anonymous online survey was designed and distributed via social media and email. Data were analyzed with chi-square, t-test, or analysis of variance (ANOVA), with significance accepted at p ≤ 0.05. Data from 616 participants (76.8% female, age: 42.3 ± 10.5 y) were analyzed. Most runners (84.4%) had an injury history, with 44.6% experiencing one in the past year. The most common RRI sites included the foot/ankle (30.9%) and knee (22.2%). RRI prevalence was higher in those running >19 miles weekly (48.4%, p = 0.05), but there were no differences based on RT participation status. Among those using RT, relatively more RRIs were observed in runners who trained the hip musculature (50.3%, p = 0.005) and did not include the upper body (61.6%, p < 0.001). A disproportionately high RRI prevalence was found for several of the other risk-reduction strategies. RRIs remain a substantial problem, particularly around the ankle/foot and knee. Higher run volume and performance motives were positively associated with RRIs. Most runners incorporated RRI risk-reduction techniques, with over half using RT. The current study did not determine whether preventative strategies were implemented before or after injury; therefore, prospective studies controlling for previous injuries are required to evaluate the effectiveness of RT in preventing future RRIs. Full article
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11 pages, 282 KiB  
Article
Understanding Physical Activity Behavior in Ghanaian Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Qualitative Descriptive Study
by Mohammed Amin, Debra Kerr, Yacoba Atiase, Yusif Yakub and Andrea Driscoll
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(3), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8030127 - 05 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1139
Abstract
Despite a relatively low prevalence rate, sub-Saharan Africa bears a substantial diabetes burden. Physical activity (PA) plays a crucial role in managing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, PA levels among this population remain suboptimal. This study aimed to explore patients’ perspectives on [...] Read more.
Despite a relatively low prevalence rate, sub-Saharan Africa bears a substantial diabetes burden. Physical activity (PA) plays a crucial role in managing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, PA levels among this population remain suboptimal. This study aimed to explore patients’ perspectives on the barriers and facilitators to PA participation among Ghanaian adults with T2DM. Thirteen adults with T2DM were recruited from Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Ghana, for this qualitative descriptive study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, and the data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Two overarching themes (personal factors and socio-structural factors) and 10 sub-themes relating to PA barriers and facilitators were identified. Participants had limited awareness of the recommended PA guidelines for T2DM management. Chronic illness-related factors hindered exercise participation. Difficulty differentiating between PA and exercise impeded the achievement of PA targets. Socio-structural barriers include concerns about social ridicule or embarrassment, safety during outdoor activities, a lack of culturally appropriate exercise facilities, and high social and work demands. Despite these barriers, participants were motivated by their understanding of the health benefits of PA. They emphasized integrating PA into daily routines through walking, work-related tasks, and household chores. Motivation and PA education from healthcare professionals are valued supports in achieving PA targets. Our findings showed that PA behaviour in Ghanaian adults with T2DM is influenced by both personal and external factors. Tailored PA interventions for this population should address identified barriers while leveraging facilitators to implement successful PA programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Physiology of Training)
11 pages, 458 KiB  
Review
The Anterolateral Ligament of the Knee in Pediatric Patients: What Do We Know? A Scoping Review
by Ludovico Lucenti, Gianluca Testa, Marco Montemagno, Marco Sapienza, Arcangelo Russo, Fabrizio Di Maria, Claudia de Cristo and Vito Pavone
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(3), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8030126 - 04 Sep 2023
Viewed by 784
Abstract
The knowledge on the anatomy, function and biomechanics and the role of surgical procedures on the anterolateral ligament (ALL) of the knee is still controversial. Only a few papers have examined the ALL in children. The aim of this review is to analyze [...] Read more.
The knowledge on the anatomy, function and biomechanics and the role of surgical procedures on the anterolateral ligament (ALL) of the knee is still controversial. Only a few papers have examined the ALL in children. The aim of this review is to analyze all the available literature about ALL in the pediatric population. Following the PRISMA criteria, the literature was systematically reviewed, examining all the articles about ALL in pediatric patients. Eight articles were involved in this study. Five cadaveric studies, two diagnostic studies, and one cross-sectional study were found. The identification of the ALL is not always possible in diagnostic studies using magnetic resonance (MRI) or in dissecting specimens. A high variability in the presence of the ligament and in its origin and insertion were found among the studies. It is more difficult to identify the ligament in younger patients than in older children, suggesting that its presence may develop at some point during the growth. Further studies are needed for a detailed knowledge of the ALL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—6th Edition)
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10 pages, 752 KiB  
Article
Effects of Peer-Supported and Self-Guided Exercise on Self-Reported Anxiety and Depression among Young Adults—A Pilot Study
by Xihe Zhu, Michael D. Kostick and Justin A. Haegele
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(3), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8030125 - 01 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1259
Abstract
Mental health conditions such as anxiety and depression became heightened issues for college-aged young adults during the global pandemic. The main purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a peer-supported exercise intervention on young adults (vs. self-guided exercise) who reported [...] Read more.
Mental health conditions such as anxiety and depression became heightened issues for college-aged young adults during the global pandemic. The main purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a peer-supported exercise intervention on young adults (vs. self-guided exercise) who reported elevated levels of anxiety and/or depression. A parallel group design was used where young adults (n = 27) were randomly assigned to either a peer-supported or self-guided exercise group which lasted for eight weeks. The generalized anxiety and depression subscales of the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms (CCAPS-34) were measured for a baseline and then at 4-week, 8-week, and 12-week follow-up. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) with repetitive measures show that peer-supported and self-guided exercise programs reduced participant anxiety and depression scores; however, intervention decay for the peer-supported exercise intervention was more severe than that for the self-guided group. Self-guided exercise had a longer-lasting effect than the peer-supported alternative and could be a cost-effective approach to combat anxiety and depression issues among young adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Sports-Related Health Issues)
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12 pages, 1150 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Individual V˙O2max Responses during a Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test and the Verification Phase in Physically Active Women
by Pasquale J. Succi, Brian Benitez, Minyoung Kwak and Haley C. Bergstrom
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(3), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8030124 - 31 Aug 2023
Viewed by 874
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the test–retest reliability, mean, and individual responses in the measurement of maximal oxygen consumption (V˙O2max) during a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) and the verification phase during cycle ergometry in women. Nine women (22 [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the test–retest reliability, mean, and individual responses in the measurement of maximal oxygen consumption (V˙O2max) during a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) and the verification phase during cycle ergometry in women. Nine women (22 ± 2 yrs, 166.0 ± 4.5 cm, 58.6 ± 7.7 kg) completed a CPET, passively rested for 5 min, and then completed a verification phase at 90% of peak power output to determine the highest V˙O2 from the CPET (V˙O2CPET) and verification phase (V˙O2verification) on 2 separate days. Analyses included a two-way repeated measures ANOVA, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC2,1), standard errors of the measurement (SEM), minimal differences (MD), and coefficients of variation (CoV). There was no test (test 1 versus test 2) × method (CPET vs. verification phase) interaction (p = 0.896) and no main effect for method (p = 0.459). However, test 1 (39.2 mL·kg−1·min−1) was significantly higher than test 2 (38.3 mL·kg−1·min−1) (p = 0.043). The V˙O2CPET (ICC = 0.984; CoV = 1.98%; SEM = 0.77 mL·kg−1·min−1; MD = 2.14 mL·kg−1·min−1) and V˙O2verification (ICC = 0.964; CoV = 3.30%; SEM = 1.27 mL·kg−1·min−1; MD = 3.52 mL·kg−1·min−1) demonstrated “excellent” reliability. Two subjects demonstrated a test 1 V˙O2CPET that exceeded the test 2 V˙O2CPET, and one subject demonstrated a test 1 V˙O2verification that exceeded the test 2 V˙O2verification by more than the respective CPET and verification phase MD. One subject demonstrated a V˙O2CPET that exceeded the V˙O2verification, and one subject demonstrated a V˙O2verification that exceeded the V˙O2CPET by more than the MD. These results demonstrate the importance of examining the individual responses in the measurement of the V˙O2max and suggest that the MD may be a useful threshold to quantify real individual changes in V˙O2. Full article
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12 pages, 1509 KiB  
Article
Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Visceral Adipose Tissue Thickness among Lean and Non-Lean People with and without Spinal Cord Injury
by Amy L. Kimball, Michael A. Petrie, Patrick M. McCue, Kristin A. Johnson and Richard K. Shields
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(3), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8030123 - 21 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1010
Abstract
After spinal cord injury (SCI), multiple adaptations occur that influence metabolic health and life quality. Prolonged sitting and inactivity predispose people with SCI to body composition changes, such as increased visceral adipose tissue (VAT) thickness, which is often associated with impaired glucose tolerance. [...] Read more.
After spinal cord injury (SCI), multiple adaptations occur that influence metabolic health and life quality. Prolonged sitting and inactivity predispose people with SCI to body composition changes, such as increased visceral adipose tissue (VAT) thickness, which is often associated with impaired glucose tolerance. Our goal is to understand whether VAT is an index of leanness, and, secondarily, whether mobility methods influence glucose tolerance for people living with SCI. A total of 15 people with SCI and 20 people without SCI had fasting oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) and VAT thickness (leanness) measured during a single session. Glucose was 51% and 67% greater for individuals with SCI relative to those without SCI after 60 and 120 min of an OGTT (p < 0.001). Glucose area under the curve (AUC) was 28%, 34%, and 60% higher for non-lean people with SCI than lean people with SCI and non-lean and lean people without SCI, respectively (p = 0.05, p = 0.009, p < 0.001). VAT was associated with glucose AUC (R2 = 0.23, p = 0.004). Taken together, these findings suggest that leanness, as estimated from VAT, may be an important consideration when developing rehabilitation programs to influence metabolism among people with SCI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—6th Edition)
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9 pages, 834 KiB  
Article
Tibiotarsal Arthrodesis with Retrograde Intramedullary Nail and RIA Graft: A Salvage Technique
by Giancarlo Salvo, Salvatore Bonfiglio, Marco Ganci, Salvo Milazzo, Rocco Ortuso, Giacomo Papotto and Gianfranco Longo
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(3), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8030122 - 21 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1108
Abstract
Ankle arthrodesis is a commonly used salvage procedure in the management of post-traumatic ankle fractures, which often result in severe disability and may require the amputation of the distal third of the leg. Successful ankle arthrodesis relies on a thorough assessment of local [...] Read more.
Ankle arthrodesis is a commonly used salvage procedure in the management of post-traumatic ankle fractures, which often result in severe disability and may require the amputation of the distal third of the leg. Successful ankle arthrodesis relies on a thorough assessment of local and systemic risk factors to ensure optimal results. Failure to accurately assess these factors may lead to unsatisfactory results. High-energy trauma causing bone defects and soft tissue necrosis often results in osteomyelitis, a condition that poses a significant threat to the success of the arthrodesis procedure. It is important to apply a standardised surgical protocol to minimise the possibility of superficial and deep infection and limit damage to the neighbouring soft tissues. Therefore, it is critical to undertake surgical lavage and debridement and administer systemic and local antibiotic therapy, along with the use of a spacer, to eradicate infection prior to performing arthrodesis. In this study, we present our experience in the recovery of limbs with post-traumatic complications via tibio-astragalic or tibio-calcaneal arthrodesis using a retrograde intramedullary nail technique. The approach involves a multi-step procedure using a previous antibiotic spacer implant and an autologous bone graft (RIA). This study spanned a period from January 2014 to December 2021 and included 35 patients (12 women and 23 men) with a mean age of 47.8 ± 20.08 years (range: 22–85 years). Among the patients, 18 had osteomyelitis following AO 43 C3 fractures, and 9 of them had previous exposure and bone loss at the time of injury. The remaining cases included 10 patients with AO 44 C fracture outcomes and 7 patients with AO 44 B fracture outcomes. Our results emphasise the importance of the meticulous management of local and systemic risk factors in ankle arthrodesis procedures. The successful eradication of infection and subsequent arthrodesis can be achieved via the implementation of surgical lavage, debridement, and systemic and local antibiotic therapy using spacers. This surgical protocol implemented by us has yielded excellent results, saving affected limbs from post-traumatic complications and avoiding the need for amputation. Our study contributes to the existing knowledge supporting the use of retrograde arthrodesis with intramedullary nails in severe cases where limb salvage is the primary goal. However, further research and long-term follow-up studies are needed to validate these results and evaluate the effectiveness of this technique in a larger patient population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—6th Edition)
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17 pages, 2293 KiB  
Article
Effects of a Tart Cherry Supplement on Recovery from Exhaustive Exercise
by Dolores G. Ortega, Jared W. Coburn, Andrew J. Galpin and Pablo B. Costa
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(3), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8030121 - 18 Aug 2023
Viewed by 2391
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a tart cherry supplement on recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage. Seventeen recreationally active women (mean age ± SD = 22.2 ± 3.3 years, height = 162.0 ± 6.0 cm, body mass = [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a tart cherry supplement on recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage. Seventeen recreationally active women (mean age ± SD = 22.2 ± 3.3 years, height = 162.0 ± 6.0 cm, body mass = 65.1 ± 11.1 kg, BMI = 24.7 ± 3.5 kg·m2) supplemented with 1000 mg of concentrated tart cherry or a placebo for eight consecutive days. An overload protocol of 8 sets of 10 repetitions of maximal effort concentric and eccentric muscle actions of the leg extensors at a velocity of 60°·s1 was performed on the fourth day of supplementation. Testing sessions consisted of a muscle function test (MFT) to examine pre- and post-testing peak torque, peak power, total work, time-to-peak torque, mean power, muscle activation of the quadriceps, and muscle soreness at baseline and post-testing at 0 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h. A second trial of testing was repeated two weeks later using the opposite supplement to the one assigned for the first trial. No significant interaction for time × condition × velocity (p = 0.916) and no significant main effect for condition (p = 0.557) were demonstrated for peak torque. However, there were main effects for time and velocity for concentric quadriceps peak torque (p < 0.001). For muscle soreness, there was no two-way interaction for time x condition (p > 0.05) and no main effect for condition (p > 0.05), but there was a main effect for time (p < 0.001). In conclusion, a tart cherry supplement did not attenuate losses in isokinetic muscle peak torque, peak power, total work, time-to-peak torque, muscle soreness, or quadriceps muscle activation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Sports-Related Health Issues)
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10 pages, 1170 KiB  
Article
Dry-Land Force–Velocity, Power–Velocity, and Swimming-Specific Force Relation to Single and Repeated Sprint Swimming Performance
by Ioannis Chalkiadakis, Gavriil G. Arsoniadis and Argyris G. Toubekis
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(3), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8030120 - 16 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1401
Abstract
The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between dry-land and in-water strength with performance and kinematic variables in short-distance, middle-distance, and repeated sprint swimming. Fifteen competitive swimmers applied a bench press exercise to measure maximum strength (MS), maximum power (P), [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between dry-land and in-water strength with performance and kinematic variables in short-distance, middle-distance, and repeated sprint swimming. Fifteen competitive swimmers applied a bench press exercise to measure maximum strength (MS), maximum power (P), strength corresponding to P (F@P), maximum velocity (MV), and velocity corresponding to P (V@P) using F–V and P–V relationships. On a following day, swimmers performed a 10 s tethered swimming sprint (TF), and impulse was measured (IMP). On three separate days, swimmers performed (i) 50 and 100 m, (ii) 200 and 400 m, and (iii) 4 × 50 m front crawl sprint tests. Performance time (T), arm stroke rate (SR), arm stroke length (SL), and arm stroke index (SI) were calculated in all tests. Performance in short- and middle-distance tests and in 4 × 50 m training sets were related to dry-land MS, P, TF, and IMP (r = 0.51–0.83; p < 0.05). MS, P, and TF were related to SR in 50 m and SI in 50 and 100 m (r = 0.55–0.71; p < 0.05). A combination of dry-land P and in-water TF variables explains 80% of the 50 m performance time variation. Bench press power and tethered swimming force correlate with performance in short- and middle-distance tests and repeated sprint swimming. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Open Water Swimming—Characteristics and Challenges)
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10 pages, 1135 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Match External Loads across a Men’s and Women’s Lacrosse Season
by Jennifer B. Fields, Andrew R. Jagim, Nicholas Kuhlman, Mary Kate Feit and Margaret T. Jones
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(3), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8030119 - 14 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1244
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to compare external workloads between collegiate men’s (MLAX) and women’s lacrosse (WLAX) matches and examine positional differences across the season. Athletes (MLAX: n = 10; WLAX: n = 13) wore a global positional system device during all [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to compare external workloads between collegiate men’s (MLAX) and women’s lacrosse (WLAX) matches and examine positional differences across the season. Athletes (MLAX: n = 10; WLAX: n = 13) wore a global positional system device during all matches. External load metrics included in the analysis were total distance (TD), sprint distance (SD), accelerations (>3 m/s2), sprint efforts, player load per minute (PL/min), top speed, and distances spent in various speed zones. WLAX had higher TD (p = 0.001), SD (p < 0.001), distances in SZs 2–5 (p < 0.001), PL (p < 0.001), and sprint efforts (p < 0.001) compared to MLAX. However, MLAX performed more acceleration (p < 0.001) and deceleration (p < 0.001) efforts. WLAX midfielders (M) and defenders (D) reached higher top speeds and performed more accelerations than attackers (p < 0.001). Midfielders covered the greatest distance at high speeds (p = 0.011) and the smallest distance at low speeds (<0.001) for WLAX. For MLAX, midfielders performed the highest SDs, top speeds, accelerations, decelerations, and distances in higher speed zones (p < 0.001) compared to attackers and defenders. Results indicate that there are significant gender and positional differences in external workload demands during match play, specifically for volume- and intensity-derived workload parameters, between men’s and women’s lacrosse. Therefore, sports performance coaches should create gender- and position-specific conditioning programs to prepare athletes for match demands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strength Training and Performance Enhancement in Athletes)
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14 pages, 306 KiB  
Article
A Mixed-Methods Study of Women’s Empowerment through Physical Activities: Relationships with Self-Efficacy and Physical Activity Levels
by Aspen E. Streetman, Madiera M. Lister, Averie Brown, Halle N. Brin and Katie M. Heinrich
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(3), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8030118 - 12 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1499
Abstract
Participation in empowering physical activities may increase self-efficacy and facilitate long-term engagement. This explanatory sequential mixed-methods study examined the relationship between physical activity empowerment, exercise self-efficacy, and engagement. Midwestern women (N = 147) aged 18–65, 90% white, completed an online cross-sectional survey [...] Read more.
Participation in empowering physical activities may increase self-efficacy and facilitate long-term engagement. This explanatory sequential mixed-methods study examined the relationship between physical activity empowerment, exercise self-efficacy, and engagement. Midwestern women (N = 147) aged 18–65, 90% white, completed an online cross-sectional survey that captured exercise engagement and self-efficacy for exercise. Participants entered up to five types of physical activities and ranked them from most to least empowering. Physical activities were coded by training type for statistical comparisons using independent t-tests. After survey completion, seventeen women completed a 30 min, 8-question semi-structured interview. Women ranked resistance training as the most empowering physical activity type (38%), followed by running (14%). Total and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and self-efficacy for exercise scores did not vary between women empowered by cardiorespiratory or resistance training (i.e., total physical activity t(136) = 1.13, p = 0.11; moderate-to-vigorous physical activity t(136) = 2.42, p = 0.06; and self-efficacy for exercise t(136) = 0.66, p = 0.07). Themes identified from the interviews included: (1) women’s physical activity participation barriers are gender-centric, (2) physical activity participation benefits extend beyond physical health, (3) some exercise types are more empowering than others, and (4) empowerment and enjoyment are closely related. Exploring empowerment in exercise may reveal mechanisms to facilitate exercise self-efficacy and engagement in physical activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—4th Edition)
8 pages, 248 KiB  
Article
Associations of Pain Vigilance and Past and Current Pain with Kinesiophobia after Sport Injury in Current and Former Athletes from Iran and the United States
by Fahimeh Badiei, Britton W. Brewer and Judy L. Van Raalte
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(3), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8030117 - 12 Aug 2023
Viewed by 962
Abstract
High levels of kinesiophobia (fear of movement/reinjury) have been related to reinjury and adverse injury rehabilitation outcomes in athletes. To examine the extent to which pain vigilance, memory of injury-related pain, and current injury-related pain were associated with kinesiophobia, a cross-sectional study was [...] Read more.
High levels of kinesiophobia (fear of movement/reinjury) have been related to reinjury and adverse injury rehabilitation outcomes in athletes. To examine the extent to which pain vigilance, memory of injury-related pain, and current injury-related pain were associated with kinesiophobia, a cross-sectional study was conducted with 172 current and former athletes from Iran (n = 113) and the United States (n = 59) who reported having experienced a serious injury that affected their participation or performance in sport. Questionnaires were administered to participants via an online survey platform. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that pain vigilance and memory of pain were positively associated with kinesiophobia, with the full model accounting for 31% of the variance in kinesiophobia scores. The findings suggest that excessive attention to pain-related stimuli and memory of pain for an injury that occurred an average of four years earlier may contribute to the experience of fear of movement and reinjury in current and former athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Sports-Related Health Issues)
9 pages, 561 KiB  
Article
Can 16 Minutes of HIIT Improve Attentional Resources in Young Students?
by Karina E. Andrade-Lara, Pedro Ángel Latorre Román, Juan Antonio Párraga Montilla and José Carlos Cabrera Linares
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(3), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8030116 - 11 Aug 2023
Viewed by 996
Abstract
Attentional resources are a cornerstone of both cognitive and academic performance. The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) sessions on selective attention and visuoperceptual ability in young students. A total of 134 students (12.83 ± [...] Read more.
Attentional resources are a cornerstone of both cognitive and academic performance. The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) sessions on selective attention and visuoperceptual ability in young students. A total of 134 students (12.83 ± 1.23 years) joined this study. They were randomly assigned to a control group (CG) (n = 67), which watched a documentary, or an experimental group (EG) (n = 67), which performed 16 min of HIIT. Attention and visuoperceptual ability were assessed through the Perception of Similarities and Differences test (Caras-R test). A repeated-measures two-way ANOVA analysis was conducted. The CG showed an increased number of errors compared to the EG (p < 0.001) and showed a lower Impulsivity Control Index (p < 0.001) after the investigation. The EG, meanwhile, showed an increased number of hits (p < 0.001), Impulsivity Control Index (p < 0.001), and attentional efficacy (p < 0.001). In addition, the EG showed a decreased number of errors (p < 0.001) and omissions (p < 0.01). In conclusion, 16 min of HIIT was time-effective in improving selective attention and visuoperceptual ability in young students. These results show the importance of physical exercise and the promotion of physical activity breaks during the academic day to improve learning processes. Full article
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11 pages, 1576 KiB  
Article
Vertical Jump Kinetic Parameters on Sand and Rigid Surfaces in Young Female Volleyball Players with a Combined Background in Indoor and Beach Volleyball
by George Giatsis, Vassilios Panoutsakopoulos, Christina Frese and Iraklis A. Kollias
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(3), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8030115 - 10 Aug 2023
Viewed by 2010
Abstract
Little is known about the differences in vertical jump biomechanics executed on rigid (RJS) and sand (SJS) surfaces in female indoor and beach volleyball players. Eleven young female beach volleyball players with a combined indoor and beach volleyball sport background performed squat jumps, [...] Read more.
Little is known about the differences in vertical jump biomechanics executed on rigid (RJS) and sand (SJS) surfaces in female indoor and beach volleyball players. Eleven young female beach volleyball players with a combined indoor and beach volleyball sport background performed squat jumps, countermovement jumps with and without an arm swing, and drop jumps from 40 cm on a RJS (force plate) and SJS (sand pit attached to the force plate). The results of the 2 (surface) × 4 (vertical jump test) repeated-measure ANOVA revealed a significant (p < 0.05) main effect of the surface and the vertical jump test on the jump height and time to achieve peak vertical body center of mass velocity. A significant (p < 0.05) main effect of the test, but not of the surface (p > 0.05), was observed for the other examined biomechanical parameters. The only significant (p < 0.05) jump height gain difference between RJS and SJS was observed for the utilization of the stretch-shortening cycle, which was higher in SJS (15.4%) compared to RJS (7.5%). In conclusion, as the testing was conducted during the beach volleyball competitive season, the examined female players showed adaptations relating the effective utilization of the pre-stretch and enhanced stability during the execution of the vertical jump tests on a SJS compared to RJS. Full article
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16 pages, 2648 KiB  
Article
Fatiguing Joint Angle Does Not Influence Torque and Neuromuscular Responses Following Sustained, Isometric Forearm Flexion Tasks Anchored to Perceptual Intensity in Men
by Dolores G. Ortega, Terry J. Housh, Robert W. Smith, Jocelyn E. Arnett, Tyler J. Neltner, John Paul V. Anders, Richard J. Schmidt and Glen O. Johnson
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(3), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8030114 - 10 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 813
Abstract
This study examined the effects of joint angle (JA) on maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) and neuromuscular responses following fatiguing tasks anchored to RPE. Nine men (mean ± SD: age = 20.7 ± 1.2 yrs) performed forearm flexion MVICs at elbow JAs of [...] Read more.
This study examined the effects of joint angle (JA) on maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) and neuromuscular responses following fatiguing tasks anchored to RPE. Nine men (mean ± SD: age = 20.7 ± 1.2 yrs) performed forearm flexion MVICs at elbow JAs of 75° and 125° before and after sustained, isometric forearm flexion tasks to failure at fatiguing joint angles (FJA) of 75° and 125° anchored to RPE = 8. The amplitude and frequency of the electromyographic and mechanomyographic signals were recorded. Neuromuscular efficiency was calculated by dividing normalized torque by normalized electromyographic amplitude. A dependent t-test was used to assess the mean difference for time to task failure (TTF) between FJA. Repeated measure ANOVAs were used to assess mean differences for pre-test to post-test MVIC and neuromuscular responses. There was no significant difference between FJA for TTF (p = 0.223). The MVIC (collapsed across FJA and MVIC JA) decreased from pre-test to post-test (51.1 ± 5.0 vs. 45.3 ± 5.6 Nm, p < 0.001). Normalized neuromuscular parameters remained unchanged (p > 0.05). The FJA resulted in similar torque and neuromuscular responses, and the decreases in MVIC were not tracked by changes in the neuromuscular parameters. Thus, the neuromuscular parameters were not sensitive to fatigue, and pre-test to post-test measures may be compared between different FJA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—6th Edition)
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9 pages, 290 KiB  
Article
Positive Effects of Plyometric vs. Eccentric-Overload Training on Performance in Young Male Handball Players
by Eduardo Saez de Villareal, Julio Calleja-González, Pedro E. Alcaraz, Javier Feito-Blanco and Rodrígo Ramírez-Campillo
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(3), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8030113 - 08 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1589
Abstract
This study aimed to compare the effects of two 8-week in-season strength-training programs on handball players’ physical and technical parameters. Thirty-six male athletes were randomly separated into three groups: a control group (n = 12), a plyometric training group (PG, n = [...] Read more.
This study aimed to compare the effects of two 8-week in-season strength-training programs on handball players’ physical and technical parameters. Thirty-six male athletes were randomly separated into three groups: a control group (n = 12), a plyometric training group (PG, n = 12), and an eccentric-overload training group (EG, n = 12). The PG and EG performed upper- and lower-limb plyometric or eccentric-overload exercises, respectively, three times per week. Control groups performed regular handball training. The athletes were assessed for counter movement jump (CMJ) and Abalakov vertical jump (ABK) height, 15 m linear sprint time, handball-throwing speed (i.e., penalty throw; 3-step running throw; jump throw), and cardiorespiratory endurance through the 20 m shuttle-run test. Heart rate and blood lactate were measured at the end of the endurance test. No baseline differences were noted for dependent variables between groups. The session rating of perceived exertion was similar between the intervention groups (PG = 361 ± 12.2 AU; EG = 370 ± 13.3 AU). The ANOVA revealed significant (p < 0.05; Δ = 5–9%; effect size (ES) = 0.45–1.96). Similar improvements for experimental groups compared to the control group for CMJ, ABK jump, penalty throw, 3-step running throw, and jump throw. However, interventions did not affect 15 m, cardiorespiratory endurance, nor heart rate or blood lactate after the endurance test. In conclusion, an 8-week handball intervention by performing plyometric or eccentric-overload training in-season improves the physical and technical parameters of male players when compared to regular handball practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strength Training and Performance Enhancement in Athletes)
11 pages, 1934 KiB  
Article
Exercise Prescription Principles among Physicians and Physical Therapists for Patients with Impaired Glucose Control: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Michael A. Petrie, Kristin A. Johnson, Olga Dubey and Richard K. Shields
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(3), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8030112 - 07 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1097
Abstract
Exercise confers a multitude of benefits with limited adverse side effects, making it a powerful “medication” for a plethora of diseases. In people living with uncontrolled glucose levels, exercise can be an effective “medication” to assist in the management of hyperglycemia. We sought [...] Read more.
Exercise confers a multitude of benefits with limited adverse side effects, making it a powerful “medication” for a plethora of diseases. In people living with uncontrolled glucose levels, exercise can be an effective “medication” to assist in the management of hyperglycemia. We sought to survey healthcare providers (physicians and physical therapists) to determine the current state of exercise recommendation for people with glucose control issues. Healthcare providers were surveyed from six academic medical centers in the Midwest to determine the recommended exercise parameters (type, frequency, duration, intensity, and timing) for patients with glucose control issues. Data from 209 practitioners who completed the survey were used for analysis. Chi-square tests were used to determine differences in exercise recommendations between physical therapists (PTs) and physicians (MD/DOs). PTs and MD/DOs recommended similar exercise parameters. Of all respondents, 78.9% recommended exercise to patients with glucose control issues. Respondents who considered themselves to be active exercisers were more likely to recommend exercise than those who were not exercisers. Only 6.1% of all respondents recommended post-meal exercise. Healthcare providers overwhelmingly recommended exercise for people with glucose control issues, but the “timing” is not congruent with best practice recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—4th Edition)
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5 pages, 215 KiB  
Editorial
Efficiency in Kinesiology: Innovative Approaches in Enhancing Motor Skills for Athletic Performance
by Vincenzo Sorgente and Diego Minciacchi
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(3), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8030111 - 04 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1344
Abstract
The inaugural edition of the Special Issue titled “Efficiency in Kinesiology: Innovative approaches in enhancing motor skills for Athletic Performance” has been effectively concluded [...] Full article
11 pages, 1440 KiB  
Article
Transversus Abdominis Ultrasound Thickness during Popular Trunk–Pilates Exercises in Young and Middle-Aged Women
by Ioannis Tsartsapakis, Maria Gerou, Aglaia Zafeiroudi and Eleftherios Kellis
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(3), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8030110 - 04 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2352
Abstract
The transversus abdominis (TrA) is a core muscle that contributes to functional mobility and lumbar stability. This study aimed to compare the changes in TrA thickness during different Pilates exercises, and to identify the exercise that elicited the greatest TrA activation. Forty-four healthy [...] Read more.
The transversus abdominis (TrA) is a core muscle that contributes to functional mobility and lumbar stability. This study aimed to compare the changes in TrA thickness during different Pilates exercises, and to identify the exercise that elicited the greatest TrA activation. Forty-four healthy women were divided into two groups: young (25–35 years old) and middle-aged (36–55 years old). TrA thickness was assessed by ultrasound while the participants performed five Pilates exercises: basic position, hundred, hip roll, side plank, and dead bug. A repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that the dead bug exercise induced a significantly higher increase in TrA thickness (relative to rest) than the other exercises (p < 0.05). The young group also showed a significantly higher overall TrA thickness than the middle-aged group (p < 0.05). The findings suggest that the dead bug exercise is the most effective for enhancing TrA activation among the Pilates exercises tested. The basic position and the hundred exercises can be used as warm-up exercises before performing more challenging exercises such as the hip roll, the side plank, and the dead bug. The sequence of exercises can be similar for both young and middle-aged women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Performance through Sports at All Ages 2.0)
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