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J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol., Volume 8, Issue 2 (June 2023) – 51 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Non-exercise physical activity (NEPA) involves human body movements that lead to energy expenditure without meticulous control or planning. Addressing the systemic factors that contribute to a sedentary lifestyle is crucial, necessitating the creation of active environments and the introduction of policies that promote physical activity. Maximizing the effectiveness of NEPA demands the considerations of motivation, individual preferences, and ease of implementation (e.g., family walks, traditional games, musical activities, and the establishment of active environments and systems). NEPA presents a sustainable, long-term strategy for preventing and managing excess fat mass, highlighting the importance of integrating an active lifestyle intervention with physical exercise (particularly resistance training) and nutrition programs. View this paper
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5 pages, 514 KiB  
Communication
Short-Term Speed Variability as an Index of Pacing Stochasticity in Athletic Running Events
by Daniel Boullosa, Eliésdras Patrocínio, Andrew Renfree, Arturo Casado, Brian Hanley and Carl Foster
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(2), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8020086 - 19 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1111
Abstract
We aimed to compare differences in performance and pacing variability indices between 5000 m heats and finals during major championships in men and women. Data with 100 m time resolution were used to compare overall pacing variability (standard deviation of 100 m section [...] Read more.
We aimed to compare differences in performance and pacing variability indices between 5000 m heats and finals during major championships in men and women. Data with 100 m time resolution were used to compare overall pacing variability (standard deviation of 100 m section times, SD; and coefficient of variation, CV%) and short-term pacing variability (root mean square of successive differences between 100 m section times, RMSSD). The changes in performance and pacing indices differed between races and competitions. For instance, the men’s final in Beijing 2008 was quicker than the heat (p < 0.01) while the CV% was reduced (p = 0.03) and RMSSD increased (p < 0.01). For women, the heats and the final exhibited a similar mean time in London 2017 (p = 0.33) but with CV% (p < 0.001) and RMSSD (p < 0.001) showing opposite trends. Individual analyses of men’s and women’s champions revealed highly individual variability metrics. The use of RMSSD can complement overall variability indices for better characterization of pacing stochasticity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—4th Edition)
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17 pages, 5970 KiB  
Article
Unilaterally Induced Quadriceps Fatigue during Sustained Submaximal Isometric Exercise Does Not Alter Contralateral Leg Extensor Performance
by Brian Benitez, Minyoung Kwak, Pasquale J. Succi, Joseph P. Weir and Haley C. Bergstrom
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(2), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8020085 - 19 Jun 2023
Viewed by 962
Abstract
This study investigated the effects of fatiguing unilateral exercise on the ipsilateral, exercised, and contralateral, non-exercised limb’s post-exercise performance in males and females. Ten males and ten females performed a fatiguing, unilateral isometric leg extension at 50% maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) force. [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effects of fatiguing unilateral exercise on the ipsilateral, exercised, and contralateral, non-exercised limb’s post-exercise performance in males and females. Ten males and ten females performed a fatiguing, unilateral isometric leg extension at 50% maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) force. Prior to and immediately after the fatiguing tasks, MVICs were performed for the exercised and non-exercised limb, with surface electromyographic (sEMG) and mechanomyography (sMMG) amplitude (AMP) and mean power frequency (MPF) recorded from each limb’s vastus lateralis. There were no fatigue-induced, sex-dependent, differences in time to task failure (p = 0.265) or ipsilateral performance fatigability (p = 0.437). However, there was a limb by time interaction (p < 0.001) which indicated decreases in MVIC force of the ipsilateral, exercised (p < 0.001), but not the contralateral, non-exercised limb (p = 0.962). There were no sex-dependent, fatigue-induced differences in neurophysiological outcomes between the limbs (p > 0.05), but there was a fatigue-induced difference in sEMG MPF (p = 0.005). To summarize, there were no differences in fatigability between males and females. Moreover, there was insufficient evidence to support the presence of a general crossover effect following submaximal unilateral isometric exercise. However, independent of sex, the neurophysiological outcomes suggested that competing inputs from the nervous system may influence the performance of both limbs following unilateral fatigue. Full article
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12 pages, 270 KiB  
Article
Bodybuilding Coaching Strategies Meet Evidence-Based Recommendations: A Qualitative Approach
by Alexa Rukstela, Kworweinski Lafontant, Eric Helms, Guillermo Escalante, Kara Phillips and Bill I. Campbell
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(2), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8020084 - 16 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 8055
Abstract
Bodybuilding is a sport where coaches commonly recommend a variety of nutrition and exercise protocols, supplements, and, sometimes, performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs). The present study sought to gain an understanding of the common decisions and rationales employed by bodybuilding coaches. Focusing on coaches of [...] Read more.
Bodybuilding is a sport where coaches commonly recommend a variety of nutrition and exercise protocols, supplements, and, sometimes, performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs). The present study sought to gain an understanding of the common decisions and rationales employed by bodybuilding coaches. Focusing on coaches of the more muscular divisions in the National Physique Committee/IFBB Professional League federations (men’s classic physique, men’s bodybuilding, women’s physique, women’s bodybuilding) for both natural and enhanced athletes, coaches were recruited via word of mouth and social media, and 33 responded to an anonymous online survey. Survey responses indicated that participant coaches recommend three-to-seven meals per day and no less than 2 g/kg/day of protein regardless of sex, division, or PED usage. During contest preparation, participant coaches alter a natural competitor’s protein intake by −25% to +10% and an enhanced competitor’s protein intake by 0% to +25%. Regarding cardiovascular exercise protocols, approximately two-thirds of participant coaches recommend fasted cardiovascular exercise, with the common rationale of combining the exercise with thermogenic supplements while considering the athlete’s preference. Low- and moderate-intensity steady state were the most commonly recommended types of cardiovascular exercise among participant coaches; high-intensity interval training was the least popular. Creatine was ranked in the top two supplements for all surveyed categories. Regarding PEDs, testosterone, growth hormone, and methenolone were consistently ranked in the top five recommended PEDs by participant coaches. The results of this study provide insight into common themes in the decisions made by bodybuilding coaches, and highlight areas in which more research is needed to empirically support those decisions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Sports-Related Health Issues)
10 pages, 1563 KiB  
Communication
Reliability of a Smooth Pursuit Eye-Tracking System (EyeGuide Focus) in Healthy Adolescents and Adults
by Alan J. Pearce, Ed Daly, Lisa Ryan and Doug King
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(2), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8020083 - 16 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1295
Abstract
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is the most common brain injury, seen in sports, fall, vehicle, or workplace injuries. Concussion is the most common type of mTBI. Assessment of impairments from concussion is evolving, with oculomotor testing suggested as a key component in [...] Read more.
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is the most common brain injury, seen in sports, fall, vehicle, or workplace injuries. Concussion is the most common type of mTBI. Assessment of impairments from concussion is evolving, with oculomotor testing suggested as a key component in a multimodality diagnostic protocol. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of one eye-tracking system, the EyeGuide Focus. A group of 75 healthy adolescent and adult participants (adolescents: n = 28; female = 11, male = 17, mean age 16.5 ± 1.4 years; adults n = 47; female = 22; male = 25, mean age 26.7 ± 7.0 years) completed three repetitions of the EyeGuide Focus within one session. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) analysis showed the EyeGuide Focus had overall good reliability (ICC 0.79, 95%CI: 0.70, 0.86). However, a familiarization effect showing improvements in subsequent trials 2 (9.7%) and 3 (8.1%) was noticeable in both cohorts (p < 0.001) with adolescent participants showing greater familiarization effects than adults (21.7% vs. 13.1%). No differences were observed between sexes (p = 0.69). Overall, this is the first study to address the concern regarding a lack of published reliability studies for the EyeGuide Focus. Results showed good reliability, suggesting that oculomotor pursuits should be part of a multimodality assessment protocol, but the observation of familiarization effects suggests that smooth-pursuit testing using this device has the potential to provide a biologically-based interpretation of the maturation of the oculomotor system, as well as its relationship to multiple brain regions in both health and injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Movement Analysis 4.0)
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12 pages, 731 KiB  
Review
Barriers to Physical Activity for Women with Physical Disabilities: A Systematic Review
by Jurgi Olasagasti-Ibargoien, Arkaitz Castañeda-Babarro, Patxi León-Guereño and Naroa Uria-Olaizola
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(2), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8020082 - 16 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1521
Abstract
Physical activity is essential for women with physical disabilities. This review aims to identify the barriers they face in practicing sport. A systematic review was conducted using the PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science databases in January 2023, with an update in March [...] Read more.
Physical activity is essential for women with physical disabilities. This review aims to identify the barriers they face in practicing sport. A systematic review was conducted using the PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science databases in January 2023, with an update in March 2023. The eligibility criteria used for inclusion were as follows. (i) Women with physical disabilities; (ii) women who engage in or want to engage in physical activities and/or sport, both adapted and non-adapted; (iii) identification of women’s barriers to such practice; (iv) research articles; and (v) papers written in English and published in peer-reviewed journals. The exclusion were as follows. (i) Women with illness, injury or transient physical activity difficulties; (ii) mention of rehabilitative physical activity; and (iii) results showing no differentiation in barrier types by gender. This review identified different barriers, grouped into eight types according to the differentiating factor, thus showing that disable people’s participation in physical activity is directly related to some specific barriers which seem to differ according to their gender. Therefore, the success of participation in physical activities depends not only on the user’s concern, but also on an inclusive social environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Performance through Sports at All Ages 2.0)
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15 pages, 311 KiB  
Article
A Chair-Based Music–Kinetic Combined Exercise Program as an Alternative Approach for Increasing Health, Functional Capacity, and Physical Fitness Indices in Middle-Aged Pre-Menopausal Women
by Konstantina Karatrantou, Theodoros Papavasiliou, Christos Batatolis, Theodora Vasilopoulou, Panagiotis Ioakimidis and Vassilis Gerodimos
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(2), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8020081 - 15 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1447
Abstract
Lately, chairs have been widely used as a cheap, easily accessible, safe, and effective training means in different settings (e.g., in gyms, the house, workplaces, and in rehabilitation). This study investigated the effectiveness of a 10-week chair-based music–kinetic integrated combined exercise program on [...] Read more.
Lately, chairs have been widely used as a cheap, easily accessible, safe, and effective training means in different settings (e.g., in gyms, the house, workplaces, and in rehabilitation). This study investigated the effectiveness of a 10-week chair-based music–kinetic integrated combined exercise program on health, functional capacity, and physical fitness indicators of middle-aged pre-menopausal women. A total of 40 healthy women (40–53 years) were assigned to two groups: exercise (EG) and control (CG). The EG followed a 10-week (3 times/weekly; 30 training sessions) chair-based exercise program including aerobic dance, flexibility, coordination, and strength exercises with body weight or auxiliary means. Selected indicators of health, functional capacity, and physical fitness were evaluated before and after the 10 weeks. Following the program, the EG significantly reduced their body fat (−2.5%), blood pressure (by −4.5 to −5.5%), the time during the timed up-and-go (TUG) test (by −10.27%), heart rate (by −6.35 to −13.78%), and the rate of perceived exertion (by −24.45 to −25.88%), while increasing respiratory function (3.5–4%), flexibility (12.17%), balance (50.38–51.07%), maximal handgrip strength (10–12.17%), and endurance strength (43.87–55.91%). The chair-based combined music–kinetic exercise program was effective and could be safely used in different settings to improve health, functional capacity, and physical fitness in middle-aged women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Performance through Sports at All Ages 2.0)
11 pages, 1352 KiB  
Article
How Do Football Playing Positions Differ in Body Composition? A First Insight into White Italian Serie A and Serie B Players
by Tindaro Bongiovanni, Alessio Rossi, Federico Genovesi, Giulia Martera, Giuseppe Puleo, Carmine Orlandi, Mirco Spedicato, F. Marcello Iaia, Riccardo Del Vescovo, Stefano Gallo, Roberto Cannataro, Patrizio Ripari, Matteo Levi Micheli, Stefania Cataldi and Athos Trecroci
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(2), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8020080 - 15 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2148
Abstract
The present study aimed to investigate how playing positions differ in specific body composition variables in professional soccer players with respect to specific field zones and tactical lines. Five hundred and six Serie A and B professional soccer players were included in the [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to investigate how playing positions differ in specific body composition variables in professional soccer players with respect to specific field zones and tactical lines. Five hundred and six Serie A and B professional soccer players were included in the study and analyzed according to their playing positions: goalkeepers (GKs), central backs (CBs), fullbacks (FBs), central midfielders (MIDs), wide midfielders (WMs), attacking midfielders (AMs), second strikers (SSs), external strikers (ESs), and central forwards (CFs), as well as their field zones (central and external) and tactical lines (defensive, middle, and offensive). Anthropometrics (stature and body mass) of each player were recorded. Then, body composition was obtained by means of bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA). GKs and CFs were the tallest and heaviest players, with no differences from each other. Likewise, GKs and CFs, along with CBs, were apparently more muscular (for both upper and lower limbs) and fatter at the same time compared with the other roles. Overall, players of the defensive line (CBs and FBs), along with those playing in central field zones (CBs, MIDs, AMs, SSs, and CFs), were significantly (p < 0.05) superior in almost all anthropometric and body composition variables than those of middle and offensive line and external zones, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Performance through Sports at All Ages 2.0)
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13 pages, 890 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Nordic Walking and a Resistance Indoor Training Program: Anthropometric, Body Composition, and Functional Parameters in the Middle-Aged Population
by Alessia Grigoletto, Mario Mauro and Stefania Toselli
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(2), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8020079 - 15 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 917
Abstract
Sedentary behaviors are increasing in the population, so strategies for the increment of physical activity levels are needed. The use of green space seems to be a valid support to be more active. The present study aimed to compare the effectiveness of a [...] Read more.
Sedentary behaviors are increasing in the population, so strategies for the increment of physical activity levels are needed. The use of green space seems to be a valid support to be more active. The present study aimed to compare the effectiveness of a period of outdoor training (Nordic walking (NW)) with indoor resistance training (GYM) in a nonclinical population based on anthropometric characteristics, body composition, and functional parameters. This study was conducted on 102 participants (77 middle-aged people performed NW and 25 performed indoor training). Participants were measured twice: at baseline and after three months. Anthropometric measurements (weight, BMI, skinfolds, perimeters), body composition, bioelectrical impedance, vectorial analysis (BIA and BIVA), and physical tests were carried out. A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to evaluate the effect of the treatments, groups, and sexes. There were several intervention effects linked to a decrease in fat parameters (such as skinfolds, fat mass, and percentage of fat mass). Considering the type of intervention, NW showed a higher increase in muscle mass and a higher decrease in fat parameters than the GYM group. In conclusion, the two types of training could represent a good way to remain active and prevent sedentary behaviors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Performance through Sports at All Ages 2.0)
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11 pages, 994 KiB  
Article
Accumulated Workload Differences in Collegiate Women’s Soccer: Starters versus Substitutes
by Maxine Furtado Mesa, Jeffrey R. Stout, Michael J. Redd and David H. Fukuda
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(2), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8020078 - 12 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1179
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to estimate the workloads accumulated by collegiate female soccer players during a competitive season and to compare the workloads of starters and substitutes. Data from 19 college soccer players (height: 1.58 ± 0.06 m; body mass: 61.57 [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to estimate the workloads accumulated by collegiate female soccer players during a competitive season and to compare the workloads of starters and substitutes. Data from 19 college soccer players (height: 1.58 ± 0.06 m; body mass: 61.57 ± 6.88 kg) were extracted from global positioning system (GPS)/heart rate (HR) monitoring sensors to quantify workload throughout the 2019 competitive season. Total distance, distance covered in four speed zones, accelerations, and time spent in five HR zones were examined as accumulated values for training sessions, matches, and the entire season. Repeated-measures ANOVA and Student’s t tests were used to determine the level of differences between starter and substitute workloads. Seasonal accumulated total distance (p < 0.001), sprints (≥19.00 km/h; p < 0.001), and high-speed distance (≥15.00 km/h; p = 0.005) were significantly greater for starters than substitutes. Accumulated training load (p = 0.08) and training load per minute played in matches (p = 0.08) did not differ between starters and substitutes. Substitutes had similar accumulated workload profiles during training sessions but differed in matches from starters. Coaches and practitioners should pursue strategies to monitor the differences in workload between starters and substitutes. Full article
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11 pages, 744 KiB  
Article
Low Correlation between Gait and Quality of Life in Advanced Knee Osteoarthritis
by Valentín Freijo, Claudia Navarro, Begoña Molina and Jordi Villalba
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(2), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8020077 - 08 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1018
Abstract
Advanced knee osteoarthritis patients’ gait usually undergoes alterations leading to decreased mobility and lower functional performance, which can result in a worsening of their quality of life (QoL). While several authors have reported a moderate correlation between gait parameters and QoL assessed by [...] Read more.
Advanced knee osteoarthritis patients’ gait usually undergoes alterations leading to decreased mobility and lower functional performance, which can result in a worsening of their quality of life (QoL). While several authors have reported a moderate correlation between gait parameters and QoL assessed by generic questionnaires, the literature is scarce. This study aimed to explore the relationship between gait and QoL parameters assessed by a generic and a disease-specific questionnaire in patients with advanced knee osteoarthritis. In this single-centre, prospective, observational study, 129 patients with advanced knee osteoarthritis scheduled for elective total knee replacement were selected. The patients’ gait was evaluated by means of a validated wireless device while they walked 30 m at a comfortable speed. Patient function was also analysed using the Knee Society Score (KSS). QoL was measured with the EQ-5D and the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) questionnaires. Patients showed a mean walking speed of 0.95 ± 0.19 m/s, a mean cadence of 105.6 ± 9.9 steps/min, and a mean stride length of 1.25 ± 0.17 m on both legs. They presented poor knee status (KSS < 60) and poor QoL, with an EQ-5D of 0.44 ± 0.24 and a total KOOS of 29.77 ± 13.99. Positive low correlations (r <0.5, p <0.5) were found only between the speed, propulsion and stride length of both legs, and the overall and ADLs subscale scores of the total KOOS questionnaire. In conclusion, several gait parameters have a significant low correlation with the QoL of patients with advanced knee osteoarthritis, as assessed by an osteoarthritis-specific questionnaire. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—6th Edition)
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13 pages, 625 KiB  
Article
Countermovement Jump Performance Is Related to Ankle Flexibility and Knee Extensors Torque in Female Adolescent Volleyball Athletes
by Vassilios Panoutsakopoulos and Eleni Bassa
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(2), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8020076 - 07 Jun 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1879
Abstract
Ankle flexibility and isokinetic knee torque/power generating capacity were previously suggested to contribute or to be correlated to the vertical countermovement jump (CMJ) performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the passive ankle joint dorsi flexion (θPDF [...] Read more.
Ankle flexibility and isokinetic knee torque/power generating capacity were previously suggested to contribute or to be correlated to the vertical countermovement jump (CMJ) performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the passive ankle joint dorsi flexion (θPDF) and the knee muscle’s isokinetic torque and power on the CMJ in adolescent female volleyball players. The θPDF at a knee extension angle of 140 degrees were measured for 37 female post-pubertal volleyball players. Then, the players were assigned to either the flexible (n = 10) or inflexible (n = 14) groups according to earlier recommended criteria. Testing included the CMJ with and without an arm swing, and maximal knee extensions and flexions in 3 angular velocities on an isokinetic dynamometer. CMJ height performed with or without an arm swing (r(22) = 0.563, p = 0.040 and r(22) = 0.518, p = 0.009, respectively) and relative power (r(22) = 0.517, p = 0.010 and r(22) = 0.446, p = 0.030, respectively) were positively correlated with the extensors’ torque at 180°/s and were negatively correlated with the flexibility level of the dominant side ankle (r(22) = −0.529, p = 0.008 and r(22) = −0.576, p = 0.030, respectively). A moderate positive correlation was also revealed between the CMJ height with and without an arm swing and the power of the non-dominant knee extensors (r(22) = 0.458, p = 0.024 and r(22) = 0.402, p = 0.049, respectively) and flexors (r(22) = 0.484, p = 0.016 and r(22) = 0.477, p = 0.018, respectively). Results of the 2 × 2 repeated ANOVA measurements revealed that flexible players jumped significantly (p < 0.05) higher during the CMJs, whilst there was a group effect only on the isokinetic knee extensor muscles’ torque. In conclusion, a more flexible ankle joint and a higher isokinetic knee extensor’s torque generating capacity resulted in higher CMJ performance. Therefore, ankle flexibility should be emphasized in training and is suggested to be included in preseason screening tests of youth female volleyball players. Full article
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9 pages, 603 KiB  
Case Report
Performance in the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test May Improve with Repeated Trials: Does Practice Matter?
by Erika Zemková and Martin Pacholek
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(2), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8020075 - 06 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2168
Abstract
The Yo-Yo Intermittent Test is frequently used to monitor changes in athletes’ performance in response to different interventions. However, the question remains as to whether, and to what extent, retakes of this test would contribute to these changes. This case study sought to [...] Read more.
The Yo-Yo Intermittent Test is frequently used to monitor changes in athletes’ performance in response to different interventions. However, the question remains as to whether, and to what extent, retakes of this test would contribute to these changes. This case study sought to determine the magnitude of practice effects, involving test repetition, on performance in the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test. A recreational soccer player performed four attempts of the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test—Level 1 (YYIR1) with a week’s rest in between. The same participant repeated this test protocol (four attempts of the YYIR1) again after six months. Changes in distance covered, level achieved, maximal oxygen uptake, and heart rate between the first and last attempt were assessed. The smallest worthwhile change (SWC), the coefficient of variation (CV), and the 2CV were calculated to identify a trivial, a possibly meaningful, and a certainly meaningful change in YYIR1 performance. The distance covered in the first set of measurements increased from 1320 m to 1560 m (15.4%), which corresponds to a 4.6% increase in the level achieved (from 16.6 to 17.4). Similarly, the distance covered in the second set of measurements increased from 1280 m to 1560 m (17.9%), which corresponds to a 5.5% increase in the level achieved (from 16.5 to 17.4). The participant’s performance changes fell outside of the SWC and the CV, but not the 2CV during both sets of measurements. These improvements in YYIR1 performance may be ascribed to practice with repeated attempts of the test by improving running technique at the turning point and/or by simply increasing the linear speed. This fact should always be kept in mind when interpreting the effects of training. Practitioners should differentiate between practice effects associated with repeated test execution and adaptation induced by conducting sport-specific training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Athletic Training and Human Performance)
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16 pages, 3840 KiB  
Review
Stretching and Releasing of Iliotibial Band Complex in Patients with Iliotibial Band Syndrome: A Narrative Review
by Manca Opara and Žiga Kozinc
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(2), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8020074 - 04 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 5777
Abstract
Iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS) is one of the most common overuse syndromes causing knee pain; it is especially prevalent in runners and also common in cyclists, rowers, and field athletes, with occasional cases occurring in non-athletes too. ITBS symptoms can negatively affect not [...] Read more.
Iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS) is one of the most common overuse syndromes causing knee pain; it is especially prevalent in runners and also common in cyclists, rowers, and field athletes, with occasional cases occurring in non-athletes too. ITBS symptoms can negatively affect not only knee function, but also mental and physical aspects of health-related quality of life. Although various conservative treatment options have been investigated and discussed, there is still no consensus on a standard of care for ITBS. Moreover, the literature on the etiology and risk factors of ITBS, which could help in selecting appropriate treatment methods, is conflicting and inconclusive. The role of individual treatment modalities such as stretching and releasing techniques has not been extensively studied and remains unclear. In this article, we will critically review the available evidence for the benefits of ITB stretching and “release” methods in the treatment of ITBS. In addition to the direct evidence (clinical studies examining the effects of ITB stretching and other methods that purportedly stretch or “release” the ITB), we present several additional lines of reasoning that discuss the rationale for ITB stretching/releasing in terms of the etiology of ITBS, the mechanical properties and behavior of the ITB, and the risk factors for ITBS development. We conclude that the current literature provides some evidence for the inclusion of stretching or other “release” methods in the early rehabilitation of ITBS. Long-term interventions typically include ITB stretching; however, it remains unclear to what extent stretching within a multimodal treatment actually contributes to resolving the symptoms. At the same time, there is no direct evidence to suggest that stretching and “release” methods have any negative effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Sports-Related Health Issues)
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25 pages, 20091 KiB  
Review
Exercise Prescription for the Work–Life Population and Beyond
by Gisela Sjøgaard, Karen Søgaard, Anne Faber Hansen, Anne Skov Østergaard, Sanel Teljigovic and Tina Dalager
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(2), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8020073 - 26 May 2023
Viewed by 1643
Abstract
The background for this paper concerns a high frequency of work-related disorders that may result from physical exposure at work being highly sedentary, repetitive–monotonous, or physically demanding. This may result in levels of physical inactivity or strenuous activity impairing health. The aim is [...] Read more.
The background for this paper concerns a high frequency of work-related disorders that may result from physical exposure at work being highly sedentary, repetitive–monotonous, or physically demanding. This may result in levels of physical inactivity or strenuous activity impairing health. The aim is to present an evidence-based exercise prescription for the work–life population and beyond. The exercise program is designed to be feasible for use at the workplace and/or during leisure time and to improve health, workability, productivity, sickness absence, etc. The specific concept of Intelligent Physical Exercise Training, IPET, includes the assessment of several health-related variables, including musculoskeletal disorders, physical capacity, and physical exposure at work and/or daily life activity. An algorithm with cut-points for prescribing specific exercises is provided. Exercise programs in praxis are addressed through descriptions of precise executions of various prescribed exercises and possible alternatives to optimize variation and adherence. Finally, perspectives on the significance of introducing IPET and the ongoing, as well as future lines of development, are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription—4th Edition)
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8 pages, 448 KiB  
Brief Report
The Reliability of the Wall Drop Punt Kick and Catch Test
by Rui Matos, Nuno Amaro, Nataniel Lopes, Pedro Costa, Miguel Jacinto, Filipe Rodrigues, Raul Antunes, Luís Coelho, Sergio J. Ibáñez and Diogo Monteiro
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(2), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8020072 - 26 May 2023
Viewed by 877
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the reliability of a manipulative eye–segmental (hand and foot) coordination task, namely the Wall Drop Punt Kick and Catch test (WDPK&C), over two weeks. Forty-one children and adolescents (18 boys, 23 girls) with a mean age of 10.2 [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the reliability of a manipulative eye–segmental (hand and foot) coordination task, namely the Wall Drop Punt Kick and Catch test (WDPK&C), over two weeks. Forty-one children and adolescents (18 boys, 23 girls) with a mean age of 10.2 (SD = 1.62) years old were recruited for assessment. Subjects had 30 s to perform as many ball impacts as possible on a wall two meters away, following a drop punt kick, rebound on the wall, and catch sequence. The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC = 0.896) for unique measures, Cronbach Alpha (α = 0.945), and Lin’s Concordance Correlation Coefficient (CCC = 0.896) provide evidence of reliability considering two consecutive measurements. These results further support the reliability of the WDPK&C test in a sample of Portuguese children and adolescents. Thus, the WDPK&C test can be applied to Portuguese boy and girl children and adolescents. Forthcoming studies should test the reliability of this test across different age groups since it is intended to be a test with a wide lifespan coverage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sports Medicine and Nutrition)
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11 pages, 282 KiB  
Review
Saddle Pressures Factors in Road and Off-Road Cyclists of Both Genders: A Narrative Review
by Domenico Savio Salvatore Vicari, Antonino Patti, Valerio Giustino, Flavia Figlioli, Giuseppe Alamia, Antonio Palma and Antonino Bianco
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(2), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8020071 - 25 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1547
Abstract
The contact point of the pelvis with the saddle of the bicycle could generate abnormal pressure, which could lead to injuries to the perineum in cyclists. The aim of this review was to summarize in a narrative way the current literature on the [...] Read more.
The contact point of the pelvis with the saddle of the bicycle could generate abnormal pressure, which could lead to injuries to the perineum in cyclists. The aim of this review was to summarize in a narrative way the current literature on the saddle pressures and to present the factors that influence saddle pressures in order to prevent injury risk in road and off-road cyclists of both genders. We searched the PubMed database to identify English-language sources, using the following terms: “saddle pressures”, “pressure mapping”, “saddle design” AND “cycling”. We also searched the bibliographies of the retrieved articles. Saddle pressures are influenced by factors such as sitting time on the bike, pedaling intensity, pedaling frequency, trunk and hand position, handlebars position, saddle design, saddle height, padded shorts, and gender. The jolts of the perineum on the saddle, especially on mountain bikes, generate intermittent pressures, which represent a risk factor for various pathologies of the urogenital system. This review highlights the importance of considering these factors that influence saddle pressures in order to prevent urogenital system injuries in cyclists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Analysis of Human Movement, Sport, and Health Promotion)
12 pages, 1004 KiB  
Article
Muscle Strength and Hamstrings to Quadriceps Ratio in Young Soccer Players: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Athanasios Mandroukas, Yiannis Michailidis and Thomas Metaxas
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(2), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8020070 - 23 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1974
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to examine and compare the concentric isokinetic peak torque of the knee flexors and extensors muscles, as well as their ratio, in young soccer players. Two hundred and sixty-five (n = 265) young soccer players were [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to examine and compare the concentric isokinetic peak torque of the knee flexors and extensors muscles, as well as their ratio, in young soccer players. Two hundred and sixty-five (n = 265) young soccer players were divided into five groups: U-12 (n = 43, mean age 11.5 ± 0.4 yrs), U-14 (n = 63, mean age 13.6 ± 0.3 yrs), U-16 (n = 64, mean age 15.4 ± 0.5 yrs), U-18 (n = 53, mean age 17.5 ± 0.4 yrs) and U-20 (n = 42, mean age 19.3 ± 0.6 yrs). Three maximal voluntary isokinetic leg extensions and flexions at angular velocities of 60, 180, and 300°·s−1, and H:Q strength ratio was determined. The largest H:Q strength ratio for all ages, with the exception of age group U-12, appears at a slow angular velocity of 60°·s−1, and the smallest H:Q ratio at a fast angular velocity of 300°·s−1. In age group U-12, at an angular velocity of 60°·s−1, the strength of the quadriceps muscle was almost twice the strength of the hamstrings. The H:Q strength ratio was smaller in age group U-12 and greater in group U-20. In age group U-12, the greatest H:Q strength ratio appeared at an angular velocity of 180°·s−1, while in the other age groups, it appeared at 60°·s−1. Strength training of hamstring muscles remains inadequate across ages. The small H:Q strength ratio in younger ages and the large H:Q ratio in older ages suggest that high-intensity training may increase the H:Q strength ratio, which, in turn, may protect the knee joint from excessive and burdensome loads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—6th Edition)
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9 pages, 244 KiB  
Article
Inter-Device Reliability of a Three-Dimensional Markerless Motion Capture System Quantifying Elementary Movement Patterns in Humans
by Nicolas M. Philipp, Dimitrije Cabarkapa, Damjana V. Cabarkapa, Drake A. Eserhaut and Andrew C. Fry
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(2), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8020069 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1314
Abstract
With advancements in technology able to quantify wide-ranging features of human movement, the aim of the present study was to investigate the inter-device technological reliability of a three-dimensional markerless motion capture system (3D-MCS), quantifying different movement tasks. A total of 20 healthy individuals [...] Read more.
With advancements in technology able to quantify wide-ranging features of human movement, the aim of the present study was to investigate the inter-device technological reliability of a three-dimensional markerless motion capture system (3D-MCS), quantifying different movement tasks. A total of 20 healthy individuals performed a test battery consisting of 29 different movements, from which 214 different metrics were derived. Two 3D-MCS located in close proximity were utilized to quantify movement characteristics. Independent sample t-tests with selected reliability statistics (i.e., intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), effect sizes, and mean absolute differences) were used to evaluate the agreement between the two systems. The study results suggested that 95.7% of all metrics analyzed revealed negligible or small between-device effect sizes. Further, 91.6% of all metrics analyzed showed moderate or better agreement when looking at the ICC values, while 32.2% of all metrics showed excellent agreement. For metrics measuring joint angles (198 metrics), the mean difference between systems was 2.9 degrees, while for metrics investigating distance measures (16 metrics; e.g., center of mass depth), the mean difference between systems was 0.62 cm. Caution is advised when trying to generalize the study findings beyond the specific technology and software used in this investigation. Given the technological reliability reported in this study, as well as the logistical and time-related limitations associated with marker-based motion capture systems, it may be suggested that 3D-MCS present practitioners with an opportunity to reliably and efficiently measure the movement characteristics of patients and athletes. This has implications for monitoring the health/performance of a broad range of populations. Full article
15 pages, 2141 KiB  
Article
Relation between Photogrammetry and Spinal Mouse for Sagittal Imbalance Assessment in Adolescents with Thoracic Kyphosis
by Guido Belli, Stefania Toselli, Mario Mauro, Pasqualino Maietta Latessa and Luca Russo
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(2), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8020068 - 19 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1743
Abstract
The evaluation of postural alignment in childhood and adolescence is fundamental for sports, health, and daily life activities. Spinal Mouse (SM) and photogrammetry (PG) are two of the most debated tools in postural evaluation because choosing the proper instrument is also important to [...] Read more.
The evaluation of postural alignment in childhood and adolescence is fundamental for sports, health, and daily life activities. Spinal Mouse (SM) and photogrammetry (PG) are two of the most debated tools in postural evaluation because choosing the proper instrument is also important to avoid false or misleading data. This research aims to find out the best linear regression models that could relate the analytic kyphosis measurements of the SM with one or more PG parameters of body posture in adolescents with kyphotic posture. Thirty-four adolescents with structural and non-structural kyphosis were analyzed (13.1 ± 1.8 years; 1.59 ± 0.13 m; 47.0 ± 12.2 kg) using SM and PG on the sagittal plane in a standing and forward-bending position, allowing us to measure body vertical inclination, trunk flexion, and sacral inclination and hip position during bending. The stepwise backward procedure was assessed to estimate the variability of the grade of inclination of the spine and thoracic spine curvature with fixed upper and lower limits, evaluated with SM during flexion. In both models, the PG angle between the horizontal line and a line connecting the sacral endplate–C7 spinous process and the PG hip position were the best regressors (adjusted-R2 SM bend = 0.804, p < 0.001; adjusted-R2 SM fixed bending = 0.488, p < 0.001). Several Spinal Mouse and photogrammetry parameters showed significant correlations, especially when the Spinal Mouse measurements were taken when the adolescents were in the forward-bending position. Physicians and kinesiologists may consider photogrammetry as a good method for spinal curve prediction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Analysis of Human Movement, Sport, and Health Promotion)
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11 pages, 2302 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Knee Extensor and Ankle Plantar Flexor Strength on Single-Leg Standing Balance in Older Women
by Weerasak Tapanya, Sinthuporn Maharan, Patchareeya Amput, Noppharath Sangkarit and Boonsita Suwannakul
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(2), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8020067 - 18 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1643
Abstract
Impaired balance is a significant risk factor for falls among older adults. The precise impact of lower-extremity muscles, including the proportion of muscle strength, on the performance of single-leg standing balance tests in older individuals is very interesting. The aim of this study [...] Read more.
Impaired balance is a significant risk factor for falls among older adults. The precise impact of lower-extremity muscles, including the proportion of muscle strength, on the performance of single-leg standing balance tests in older individuals is very interesting. The aim of this study is to examine the correlation between the knee extensor (KE), ankle plantar flexor (AP) muscle strength, and performance in single-leg standing balance tests in older females. Additionally, it aims to evaluate the combined proportion of KE and AP muscle strength in maintaining balance during single-leg standing. A total of 90 older females (mean age 67.83 ± 8.00 years) were recruited. All participants underwent maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) testing of the KE and AP muscles, as well as single-leg standing balance tests with eyes open (SSEO) and eyes closed (SSEC). To examine the influence of KE and AP muscle strength on balance performance, multiple regression analysis was conducted. Low correlations were found between SSEO and MVIC of KE and AP muscles, but moderate correlations were found with percentage of MVIC to body weight ratio (%MVIC/BW). The best model for SSEO included 0.99 times of the %MVIC/BW of AP and 0.66 times that of KE muscles as independent predictor variables (r = 0.682). In conclusion, AP muscle strength was found to have a greater impact on single-leg standing balance compared with KE muscle strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Movement and Balance)
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9 pages, 836 KiB  
Brief Report
Assessing the Subjective Effectiveness of Sensorimotor Insoles (SMIs) in Reducing Pain: A Descriptive Multicenter Pilot Study
by Stephan Becker, Steven Simon, Jan Mühlen, Carlo Dindorf and Michael Fröhlich
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(2), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8020066 - 18 May 2023
Viewed by 1300
Abstract
This pilot study aimed to investigate the use of sensorimotor insoles in pain reduction, different orthopedic indications, and the wearing duration effects on the development of pain. Three hundred and forty patients were asked about their pain perception using a visual analog scale [...] Read more.
This pilot study aimed to investigate the use of sensorimotor insoles in pain reduction, different orthopedic indications, and the wearing duration effects on the development of pain. Three hundred and forty patients were asked about their pain perception using a visual analog scale (VAS) in a pre–post analysis. Three main intervention durations were defined: VAS_post: up to 3 months, 3 to 6 months, and more than 6 months. The results show significant differences for the within-subject factor “time of measurement”, as well as for the between-subject factor indication (p < 0.001) and worn duration (p < 0.001). No interaction was found between indication and time of measurements (model A) or between worn duration and time of measurements (model B). The results of this pilot study must be cautiously and critically interpreted, but may support the hypothesis that sensorimotor insoles could be a helpful tool for subjective pain reduction. The missing control group and the lack of confounding variables such as methodological weaknesses, natural healing processes, and complementary therapies must be taken into account. Based on these experiences and findings, a RCT and systematic review will follow. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Kinesiology and Biomechanics)
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11 pages, 273 KiB  
Article
Effects of Age and Popularity of Sport on Differences among Wrestlers’ Parental Support: An Exploratory Study
by Ivica Biletic, Hrvoje Karnincic and Mario Baic
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(2), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8020065 - 15 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 917
Abstract
No research was previously performed on wrestling related to parental support. It is not known whether there are differences in support between younger and older children. The popularity of a sport can be reflected in parental support, and parents may be more inclined [...] Read more.
No research was previously performed on wrestling related to parental support. It is not known whether there are differences in support between younger and older children. The popularity of a sport can be reflected in parental support, and parents may be more inclined towards popular sports. The aim of this research was to examine differences in parental support among wrestlers of different age categories and between those coming from communities in which wrestling is a popular sport versus communities in which it is less popular. The sample of participants consisted of 172 wrestlers. The Parental Support Scale for Children in Sports was applied. Parental willingness to set an example was lower. As far as age is concerned, the period of entry into specialisation is sensitive. At this age, children perceive less parental support (p = 0.04) and lower parental belief in the benefits of sports (p = 0.01). The popularity of the sport is related to parental support. In environments in which wrestling is popular, parents know the sport better and can participate; therefore, children perceive more parental support. The findings of this study may help coaches to better understand athlete–parent relationships. Full article
17 pages, 1721 KiB  
Article
Oxygen Uptake and Bilaterally Measured Vastus Lateralis Muscle Oxygen Desaturation Kinetics in Well-Trained Endurance Cyclists
by Karmen Reinpõld and Indrek Rannama
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(2), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8020064 - 13 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1171
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to compare and analyse the relationships between pulmonary oxygen uptake and vastus lateralis (VL) muscle oxygen desaturation kinetics measured bilaterally with Moxy NIRS sensors in trained endurance athletes. To this end, 18 trained athletes (age: 42.4 [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to compare and analyse the relationships between pulmonary oxygen uptake and vastus lateralis (VL) muscle oxygen desaturation kinetics measured bilaterally with Moxy NIRS sensors in trained endurance athletes. To this end, 18 trained athletes (age: 42.4 ± 7.2 years, height: 1.837 ± 0.053 m, body mass: 82.4 ± 5.7 kg) visited the laboratory on two consecutive days. On the first day, an incremental test was performed to determine the power values for the gas exchange threshold, the ventilatory threshold (VT), and V̇O2max levels from pulmonary ventilation. On the second day, the athletes performed a constant work rate (CWR) test at the power corresponding to the VT. During the CWR test, the pulmonary ventilation characteristics, left and right VL muscle O2 desaturation (DeSmO2), and pedalling power were continuously recorded, and the average signal of both legs’ DeSmO2 was computed. Statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. The relative response amplitudes of the primary and slow components of VL desaturation and pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics did not differ, and the primary amplitude of muscle desaturation kinetics was strongly associated with the initial response rate of oxygen uptake. Compared with pulmonary O2 kinetics, the primary response time of the muscle desaturation kinetics was shorter, and the slow component started earlier. There was good agreement between the time delays of the slow components describing global and local metabolic processes. Nevertheless, there was a low level of agreement between contralateral desaturation kinetic variables. The averaged DeSmO2 signal of the two sides of the body represented the oxygen kinetics more precisely than the right- or left-leg signals separately. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Athletic Training and Human Performance)
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11 pages, 1639 KiB  
Article
New Specific Kinesthetic Differentiation Tests for Female Volleyball Players: Reliability, Discriminative Ability, and Usefulness
by Karla Đolo, Zoran Grgantov and Goran Kuvačić
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(2), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8020063 - 12 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1398
Abstract
This study aimed to determine the test-retest reliability and discriminative ability of five sport-specific kinesthetic differentiation ability tests in female volleyball players. The sample of participants consisted of 98 female volleyball players aged 15.20 ± 1 years from six clubs in Bosnia and [...] Read more.
This study aimed to determine the test-retest reliability and discriminative ability of five sport-specific kinesthetic differentiation ability tests in female volleyball players. The sample of participants consisted of 98 female volleyball players aged 15.20 ± 1 years from six clubs in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Kinesthetic differentiation ability was determined by the overhead passing test, forearm passing test, float service with a net test, float service without a net test, and float service 6 m from the net test. To estimate test-retest reliability, a sub-sample of 13 players performed all tests on two testing occasions. Furthermore, the discriminative ability of the tests was determined by analyzing the performance between players of different playing positions and situational performances. Parameters of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were excellent (0.87–0.78) in all tests except for the float service with the net test, whose reliability was good (0.66). For the absolute reliability estimates, the SEM was higher than SWC (0.2) for all variables except the float service 6 m from the net test, and the SEM was lower than SWC (0.6, 1.2). One-way ANOVA detected no statistically significant inter-positional differences in all five tests (p > 0.05). A significant difference was found between less and more successful players (p < 0.01) for all applied tests. The results of this study show that a specific battery test is a reliable and valid measure and can be used to monitor kinesthetic differentiation ability in young female volleyball players. Full article
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12 pages, 797 KiB  
Article
Isokinetic Dynamometer Leg Extensor Peak Torque Measurement: A Time-Delayed Reliability and Score Selection Analysis Study
by Brennan J. Thompson and Jennifer Xu
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(2), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8020062 - 12 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2612
Abstract
The reliability of isokinetic peak torque (PT) has been reported mostly using a short-term (<~10 day) inter-trial testing time frame. However, many studies and programs utilize a long-term (several weeks to months) inter-trial testing period. Additionally, the methods by which the PT value [...] Read more.
The reliability of isokinetic peak torque (PT) has been reported mostly using a short-term (<~10 day) inter-trial testing time frame. However, many studies and programs utilize a long-term (several weeks to months) inter-trial testing period. Additionally, the methods by which the PT value is selected and reported from a multiple rep testing scheme have not been well investigated for both reliability and PT absolute performance comparisons. The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term reliability of isokinetic and isometric PT of the leg extensors with an emphasis on the differences among several PT score selection methods. Thirteen men and women (age = 19.5 years) underwent two testing trials separated by 28.8 (±1.8) days. Testing included maximal voluntary contractions of three sets of three reps for two isokinetic contraction conditions of 60 (Isok60) and 240 (Isok240) deg/s velocities, and three sets of one rep of isometric contractions for the leg extensors. The PT score was derived from seven different methods (see text for descriptions). Reliability as assessed from intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) varied widely across contraction conditions and PT score selection parameters. The Isok60 velocity overall had lower reliability (ICCs = 0.48–0.81) than Isok240 (0.77–0.87) across the conditions whereas the isometric PT variables showed moderate reliability (0.71–0.73). Overall the set 1 PT score selection parameters were generally lower (p ≤ 0.05) than those that involved sets two and three. Systematic error (p ≤ 0.05) was shown for 6 out of the 17 PT selection variables. On a subjective interpretation basis, when taking everything into account the best overall combination of time/trial efficiency, reliability, best/highest PT score parameter, and reduced risk of systematic bias appears to be the PT variable that uses the average of the highest two reps of the first two sets of three reps—i.e., averaging the highest two values of the six total reps from the first two sets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Movement Analysis 4.0)
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10 pages, 2494 KiB  
Article
Countermovement, Hurdle, and Box Jumps: Data-Driven Exercise Selection
by M. Tino Janikov, Jan Pádecký, Valentin Doguet and James J. Tufano
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(2), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8020061 - 11 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1887
Abstract
Apart from squat jumps, countermovement jumps (CMJ), and drop jumps, differences among other jump variations are not as well researched, making data-driven exercise selection difficult. To address this gap, this study compared selected concentric and eccentric jump parameters of maximal effort CMJ, hurdle [...] Read more.
Apart from squat jumps, countermovement jumps (CMJ), and drop jumps, differences among other jump variations are not as well researched, making data-driven exercise selection difficult. To address this gap, this study compared selected concentric and eccentric jump parameters of maximal effort CMJ, hurdle jumps over 50 cm hurdle (HJ), and box jumps onto a 50 cm box (BJ). Twenty recreationally trained men (25.2 ± 3.5 years) performed 3 repetitions of CMJs, HJs, and BJs, each on separate days. The data were collected using force platforms and a linear position transducer. The mean of 3 trials of each jump variation was analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and Cohen’s d. Countermovement depth was significantly greater (p ≤ 0.05) and peak horizontal force significantly lower during CMJ compared to HJ and BJ. However, there were no differences in peak velocity, peak vertical and resultant force, and total impulsion time. Finally, BJ significantly decreased peak impact force by ~51% compared to CMJ and HJ. Therefore, the propulsive parameters of HJ and BJ seem to be similar to CMJ, despite CMJ having a greater countermovement depth. Furthermore, overall training load can be decreased dramatically by using BJ, which reduced peak impact force by approximately half. Full article
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10 pages, 15491 KiB  
Article
Immediate Effects of Isolated Lumbar Extension Resistance Exercise (ILEX) on Spine Posture and Mobility Measured with the IDIAG Spinal Mouse System
by Bruno Domokos, Lisa Beer, Stefanie Reuther, Christoph Raschka and Christoph Spang
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(2), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8020060 - 08 May 2023
Viewed by 1648
Abstract
Posture and mobility are important aspects for spinal health. In the context of low back pain, strategies to alter postural anomalies (e.g., hyper/hypolordosis, hyper/hypokyphosis) and mobility deficits (e.g., bending restrictions) have been of interest to researchers and clinicians. Machine-based isolated lumbar extension resistance [...] Read more.
Posture and mobility are important aspects for spinal health. In the context of low back pain, strategies to alter postural anomalies (e.g., hyper/hypolordosis, hyper/hypokyphosis) and mobility deficits (e.g., bending restrictions) have been of interest to researchers and clinicians. Machine-based isolated lumbar extension resistance exercise (ILEX) has been used successfully for rehabilitation of patients suffering from low back pain. The aim of this study was to analyse the immediate effects of ILEX on spinal posture and mobility. In this interventional cohort study, the posture and mobility measures of 33 healthy individuals (m = 17, f = 16; mean age 30.0 years) were taken using the surface-based Spinal Mouse system (IDIAG M360©, Fehraltdorf, Switzerland). Individuals performed one exercise set to full exhaustion with an ILEX-device (Powerspine, Wuerzburg, Germany) in a standardized setup, including uniform range of motion and time under tension. Scans were made immediately before and after the exercise. There was an immediate significant decrease in standing lumbar lordosis and thoracic kyphosis. No change could be observed in standing pelvic tilt. Mobility measures showed a significant decrease in the lumbar spine and an increase in the sacrum. The results show that ILEX alters spine posture and mobility in the short-term, which may benefit certain patient groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Exercise for Health Promotion)
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14 pages, 1112 KiB  
Review
Alterations in Measures of Body Composition, Neuromuscular Performance, Hormonal Levels, Physiological Adaptations, and Psychometric Outcomes during Preparation for Physique Competition: A Systematic Review of Case Studies
by Brad J. Schoenfeld, Patroklos Androulakis-Korakakis, Alec Piñero, Ryan Burke, Max Coleman, Adam E. Mohan, Guillermo Escalante, Alexa Rukstela, Bill Campbell and Eric Helms
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(2), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8020059 - 08 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 5353
Abstract
The present paper aimed to systematically review case studies on physique athletes to evaluate longitudinal changes in measures of body composition, neuromuscular performance, chronic hormonal levels, physiological adaptations, and psychometric outcomes during pre-contest preparation. We included studies that (1) were classified as case [...] Read more.
The present paper aimed to systematically review case studies on physique athletes to evaluate longitudinal changes in measures of body composition, neuromuscular performance, chronic hormonal levels, physiological adaptations, and psychometric outcomes during pre-contest preparation. We included studies that (1) were classified as case studies involving physique athletes during the pre-contest phase of their competitive cycle; (2) involved adults (18+ years of age) as participants; (3) were published in an English-language peer-reviewed journal; (4) had a pre-contest duration of at least 3 months; (5) reported changes across contest preparation relating to measures of body composition (fat mass, lean mass, and bone mineral density), neuromuscular performance (strength and power), chronic hormonal levels (testosterone, estrogen, cortisol, leptin, and ghrelin), physiological adaptations (maximal aerobic capacity, resting energy expenditure, heart rate, blood pressure, menstrual function, and sleep quality), and/or psychometric outcomes (mood states and food desire). Our review ultimately included 11 case studies comprising 15 ostensibly drug-free athletes (male = 8, female = 7) who competed in various physique-oriented divisions including bodybuilding, figure, and bikini. The results indicated marked alterations across the array of analyzed outcomes, sometimes with high inter-individual variability and divergent sex-specific responses. The complexities and implications of these findings are discussed herein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Sports-Related Health Issues)
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12 pages, 2377 KiB  
Case Report
CrossFit Motivates a 41-Year-Old Obese Man to Change His Lifestyle and Achieve Long-Term Health Improvements: A Case Report
by Tom Brandt, Timo Schinköthe and Annette Schmidt
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(2), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8020058 - 08 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1910
Abstract
The purpose of this case report was to demonstrate how CrossFit (CF) as a workplace health intervention (WHI) led to long-term lifestyle changes and health improvements in an inactive, sedentary individual. Therefore, we analysed the case of a 41-year-old obese man (BMI: 41.3 [...] Read more.
The purpose of this case report was to demonstrate how CrossFit (CF) as a workplace health intervention (WHI) led to long-term lifestyle changes and health improvements in an inactive, sedentary individual. Therefore, we analysed the case of a 41-year-old obese man (BMI: 41.3 kg/m2) with elevated blood pressure and poor fitness. To evaluate the factors that facilitated his behavioural change, we collected quantitative and qualitative data (from 2015 to 2022) and analysed it based on the COM-B framework. Given the already great training opportunities at his workplace, we assumed that improvements in capability and motivation led to behavioural change and maintenance. Essential for this behavioural change was the fact that CF combined health-promoting training with intrinsically motivating aspects which are typical for classic sports such as challenge, a feeling of competence, and social interaction. In conjunction with rapid fitness improvements (capability), a positive feedback cycle between capability, motivation, and behaviour developed which enabled physical activity to become habitual. As a result, blood pressure was normalized, BMI (32.9 kg/m2) and resting heart rate decreased (−20 bpm), and mobility (FMS score: +89%), strength (+14 to 71%), and well-being (WHO-5 score: +12%) increased. In conclusion, CF should be considered an effective, efficient, and safe WHI with great potential for behavioural changes and maintenance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Exercise for Health Promotion)
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12 pages, 275 KiB  
Article
Sport-Related Effect on Knee Strength Profile during Puberty: Basketball vs. Soccer
by Vassilis Gerodimos, Konstantina Karatrantou, Christos Batatolis and Panagiotis Ioakimidis
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(2), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8020057 - 08 May 2023
Viewed by 1623
Abstract
The present study examined and compared the isokinetic peak torque and the reciprocal ratios of the knee joint between young basketball and soccer players. An amount of 100 soccer and 100 basketball players took part in this study and were separated into five [...] Read more.
The present study examined and compared the isokinetic peak torque and the reciprocal ratios of the knee joint between young basketball and soccer players. An amount of 100 soccer and 100 basketball players took part in this study and were separated into five equal groups (n = 20), according to their chronological age (12, 13, 14, 15, and 16 years old). The absolute concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) peak torque of the knee flexor and extensor muscles (at 60°/s, 180°/s) were assessed using a Cybex Norm dynamometer, and the relative peak torque (per unit of body mass), as well as the conventional (CON/CON; ECC/ECC) and functional (CON/ECC; ECC/CON) ratios, were calculated. Data analysis indicated that the basketball players had higher absolute peak torque values than the soccer players throughout their developmental ages (p < 0.05). When the isokinetic peak torque values were normalized relative to body mass, no differences were observed between basketball and soccer players in any age group (p > 0.05). Additionally, no differences were observed in conventional and functional ratios between soccer and basketball players (p > 0.05). In conclusion, it appears that, during developmental ages (12–16 years old), the isokinetic strength profile (independent of body mass affecting absolute values) of knee extensor and flexor muscles develops similarly in basketball and soccer players. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Sports-Related Health Issues)
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