This study explores the application of computer vision for enhancing the selection of rootstock-graft combinations and detecting diseases in grape seedlings. Computer vision has various applications in viticulture, but publications and research have not reported the use of computer vision in rootstock-graft selection,
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This study explores the application of computer vision for enhancing the selection of rootstock-graft combinations and detecting diseases in grape seedlings. Computer vision has various applications in viticulture, but publications and research have not reported the use of computer vision in rootstock-graft selection, which defines the novelty of this research. This paper presents elements of the technology for applying computer vision to rootstock-graft combinations and includes an analysis of grape seedling cuttings. This analysis allows for a more accurate determination of the compatibility between rootstock and graft, as well as the detection of potential seedling diseases. The utilization of computer vision to automate the grafting process of grape cuttings offers significant benefits in terms of increased efficiency, improved quality, and reduced costs. This technology can replace manual labor and ensure economic efficiency and reliability, among other advantages. It also facilitates monitoring the development of seedlings to determine the appropriate planting time. Image processing algorithms play a vital role in automatically determining seedling characteristics such as trunk diameter and the presence of any damage. Furthermore, computer vision can aid in the identification of diseases and defects in seedlings, which is crucial for assessing their overall quality. The automation of these processes offers several advantages, including increased efficiency, improved quality, and reduced costs through the reduction of manual labor and waste. To fulfill these objectives, a unique robotic assembly line is planned for the grafting of grape cuttings. This line will be equipped with two conveyor belts, a delta robot, and a computer vision system. The use of computer vision in automating the grafting process for grape cuttings offers significant benefits in terms of efficiency, quality improvement, and cost reduction. By incorporating image processing algorithms and advanced robotics, this technology has the potential to revolutionize the viticulture industry. Thanks to training a computer vision system to analyze data on rootstock and graft grape varieties, it is possible to reduce the number of defects by half. The implementation of a semi-automated computer vision system can improve crossbreeding efficiency by 90%. Reducing the time spent on pairing selection is also a significant advantage. While manual selection takes between 1 and 2 min, reducing the time to 30 s using the semi-automated system, and the prospect of further automation reducing the time to 10–15 s, will significantly increase the productivity and efficiency of the process. In addition to the aforementioned benefits, the integration of computer vision technology in grape grafting processes brings several other advantages. One notable advantage is the increased accuracy and precision in pairing selection. Computer vision algorithms can analyze a wide range of factors, including size, shape, color, and structural characteristics, to make more informed decisions when matching rootstock and graft varieties. This can lead to better compatibility and improved overall grafting success rates.