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Inventions, Volume 8, Issue 2 (April 2023) – 14 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In this paper, the authors introduce the reader to the state of the art of metal wire additive manufacturing (MWAM) and provide a comparison between wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM), wire laser additive manufacturing (WLAM), and laser arc hybrid wire deposition (LAHWD) based on their characteristics and potential future applications, since MWAM is expected to have a promising future in various areas, such as aerospace, automotive, biomedical, and energy fields. A detailed discussion of the benefits and drawbacks of each metal wire additive manufacturing process can help to improve our understanding of the unique characteristics of metal wire application. View this paper
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22 pages, 4771 KiB  
Article
Research on the Design of Virtual Reality Online Education Information Presentation Based on Multi-Sensory Cognition
by Wen-Yu Wu, Jia-Yu Guo, Ying-Jing Li and Ying-Liang Sun
Inventions 2023, 8(2), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8020063 - 20 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1974
Abstract
The popularity of the online teaching model increased during the COVID-19, and virtual reality online education is now firmly established as a future trend in educational growth. Human–computer interaction and collaboration between virtual models and physical entities, as well as virtual multi-sensory cognition, [...] Read more.
The popularity of the online teaching model increased during the COVID-19, and virtual reality online education is now firmly established as a future trend in educational growth. Human–computer interaction and collaboration between virtual models and physical entities, as well as virtual multi-sensory cognition, have become the focus of research in the field of online education. In this paper, we analyze the mapping form of teaching information and cue information on users’ cognition through an experimental system and investigate the effects of the presentation form of online virtual teaching information, the length of the material, users’ memory of the information, and the presentation form of information cues on users’ cognitive performance. The experimental results show that different instructional information and cue presentation designs have significant effects on users’ learning performance, with relatively longer instructional content being more effective and users being more likely to mechanically remember the learning materials. By studying the impact of multi-sensory information presentation on users’ cognition, the output design of instructional information can be optimized, cognitive resources can be reasonably allocated, and learning effectiveness can be ensured, which is of great significance for virtual education research in digital twins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Sensing Technology towards Digital Twin in Applications)
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14 pages, 2436 KiB  
Article
The Optimal Daily Dispatch of Ice-Storage Air-Conditioning Systems
by Ching-Jui Tien and Ming-Tang Tsai
Inventions 2023, 8(2), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8020062 - 17 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1162
Abstract
In this paper, the Ant-based Radial Basis Function Network (ARBFN) is proposed to determine the optimal daily dispatch of ice-storage air-conditioning systems. ARBFN is a novel algorithm that is integrated into the Ant Colony Optimization and Radial Basis Function Network. ARBFN is used [...] Read more.
In this paper, the Ant-based Radial Basis Function Network (ARBFN) is proposed to determine the optimal daily dispatch of ice-storage air-conditioning systems. ARBFN is a novel algorithm that is integrated into the Ant Colony Optimization and Radial Basis Function Network. ARBFN is used to construct the function of the cost and operation for each chiller and ice-storage tank and is used to simulate the polynomial function of the cooling load and the cost of power consumption. The best learning rate in the training process is adjusted in ARBFN to improve the accuracy of constructing models for chillers and ice-storage tanks. The electricity savings are thus 4.130% on a summer day and 7.381% on a non-summer day. The results have shown that ARBFN can more accurately calculate the actual power consumption and cooling capability of each chiller and ice-storage tank. Lastly, ACO is used to calculate the daily dispatch of the ice-storage air-conditioning system. The results demonstrated the optimization of energy savings and efficiency for the operation of the ice-storage air-conditioning system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Automatic Control and System Theory and Advanced Applications)
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15 pages, 3351 KiB  
Article
Overcoming Chip Shortages: Low-Cost Open-Source Parametric 3-D Printable Solderless SOIC to DIP Breakout Adapters
by Cameron K. Brooks, Jack E. Peplinski and Joshua M. Pearce
Inventions 2023, 8(2), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8020061 - 10 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2362
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic exposed the vulnerability of global supply chains of many products. One area that requires improved supply chain resilience and that is of particular importance to electronic designers is the shortage of basic dual in-line package (DIP) electronic components commonly used [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic exposed the vulnerability of global supply chains of many products. One area that requires improved supply chain resilience and that is of particular importance to electronic designers is the shortage of basic dual in-line package (DIP) electronic components commonly used for prototyping. This anecdotal observation was investigated as a case study of using additive manufacturing to enforce contact between premade, off-the-shelf conductors to allow for electrical continuity between two arbitrary points by examining data relating to the stock quantity of electronic components, extracted from Digi-Key Electronics. This study applies this concept using an open hardware approach for the design, testing, and use of a simple, parametric, 3-D printable invention that allows for small outline integrated circuit (SOIC) components to be used in DIP package circuits (i.e., breadboards, protoboards, etc.). The additive manufacture breakout board (AMBB) design was developed using two different open-source modelers, OpenSCAD and FreeCAD, to provide reliable and consistent electrical contact between the component and the rest of the circuit and was demonstrated with reusable 8-SOIC to DIP breakout adapters. The three-part design was optimized for manufacturing with RepRap-class fused filament 3-D printers, making the AMBB a prime candidate for use in distributed manufacturing models. The AMBB offers increased flexibility during circuit prototyping by allowing arbitrary connections between the component and prototyping interface as well as superior organization through the ability to color-code different component types. The cost of the AMBB is CAD $0.066/unit, which is a 94% saving compared to conventional PCB-based breakout boards. Use of the AMBB device can provide electronics designers with an increased selection of components for through-hole use by more than a factor of seven. Future development of AMBB devices to allow for low-cost conversion between arbitrary package types provides a path towards more accessible and inclusive electronics design as well as faster prototyping and technical innovation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations in 3D Printing 3.0)
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27 pages, 17857 KiB  
Article
Application of Semi-Circular Double-Skin Facades in Auditoriums in Winter Conditions
by Maria Inês Conceição, Eusébio Conceição, Maria Manuela Lúcio, João Gomes and Hazim Awbi
Inventions 2023, 8(2), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8020060 - 30 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1217
Abstract
The DSF (double-skin facade) system is an important element in building design and is used in adjacent spaces to control the inlet solar radiation, heat the air, reduce energy consumption, decrease the acoustics levels, and produce photovoltaic energy, among other improvements. The DSF [...] Read more.
The DSF (double-skin facade) system is an important element in building design and is used in adjacent spaces to control the inlet solar radiation, heat the air, reduce energy consumption, decrease the acoustics levels, and produce photovoltaic energy, among other improvements. The DSF system can, for example, be used in winter conditions to heat the air, which is then transported to non-adjacent spaces to improve the thermal comfort level and the indoor air quality that the occupants are subjected to. Smooth DSF systems, which are a focus in the literature, are subjected to higher solar radiation levels at a specific hour of the day. The semi-circular DSF system used in this work, which was built from a group of smooth DSF systems with different orientations, guarantees the reception of the highest incident solar radiation throughout the entire day. This work presents a numerical study of a new DSF system, called the semi-circular DSF. The DSF system consists of a set of 25 smooth DSFs with different orientations, each one consisting of an outer glazed surface and an inner surface provided by the outer facade of the auditorium, both separated by an air channel. In this work, the influence of the radius of the semi-circular DSF system and the opening angle of the DSF system on the thermal response of the auditorium was analysed. Thus, six auditoriums were considered: two sets of three auditoriums with radii of 5 m and 15 m, with each of the auditoriums having a different DSF opening angle (45°, 90°, and 180°). It was found that the greater the radius of the semi-circular DSF and the opening angle of the DSF system, the greater the area of its glazed surface and, consequently, the greater the availability of solar heating power. Therefore, during the occupation period, only the set of auditoriums with the largest semi-circular DSF radius managed to present acceptable levels of thermal comfort, which were verified from mid-morning until late afternoon. As for the opening angle of the DSF system, the influence was not very significant, although slight improvements in thermal comfort were noted when the value of this angle was reduced (see Case F as an example) due to the corresponding decrease in the volume of indoor air to be heated. In all auditoriums (see Case A to Case F), it was verified that the indoor air quality was acceptable for the occupants, so the airflow rate was adequately promoted by the ventilation system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Innovation Papers)
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13 pages, 1598 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Extraction Parameters of Anthocyanin Compounds and Antioxidant Properties from Red Grape (Băbească neagră) Peels
by Daniela Serea, Oana Emilia Constantin, Georgiana Horincar, Nicoleta Stănciuc, Iuliana Aprodu, Gabriela Elena Bahrim and Gabriela Râpeanu
Inventions 2023, 8(2), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8020059 - 27 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1476
Abstract
Using a Central Composite Design, the extraction of bioactive compounds from red grape Băbească neagră peels was optimized by applying a conventional solvent extraction. On the anthocyanin content, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity (using the DPPH method), the effects of extraction factors, [...] Read more.
Using a Central Composite Design, the extraction of bioactive compounds from red grape Băbească neagră peels was optimized by applying a conventional solvent extraction. On the anthocyanin content, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity (using the DPPH method), the effects of extraction factors, including ethanol and citric acid concentrations, extraction temperature, and duration, were investigated. For each of the investigated parameters, a quadratic model was suggested. The maximum and minimum variables investigated in the coded form of the experimental plan are the concentrations of citric acid (0.10–2.64%), ethanol (38.06–96.93%), operating temperature (13.06–71.90 °C), and extraction time (11.36–78.63 min). The optimal mixture for recovering the most significant amount of polyphenol content and antioxidant activity was 85% ethanol, 0.85% citric acid, 52.14 min, and 57 °C. Based on the experimental approach, the anthocyanin content ranged from 1.71 to 2.74 mg C3G/g DW, the total phenolic content ranged from 24.67 to 43.97 mg/g, and the antioxidant activity ranged from 15.95 to 20.98 mM TE/g DW. Overall, it should be stressed that establishing operating factors to maximize model responses can improve the extraction process and the obtaining of red grape peel value-added extracts for creating functional food products. Full article
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27 pages, 9187 KiB  
Article
CFD Investigation for Sonar Dome with Bulbous Bow Effect
by Ping-Chen Wu, Jiun-Yu Chen, Chen-I Wu and Jiun-Ting Lin
Inventions 2023, 8(2), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8020058 - 23 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1872
Abstract
The objective of this study is to design a hull-mounted sonar dome of a ship using OpenFOAM with a bulbous bow effect at cruise speed in calm water. Verification and validation for the original sonar dome simulation are conducted. Next, the 1.44 million [...] Read more.
The objective of this study is to design a hull-mounted sonar dome of a ship using OpenFOAM with a bulbous bow effect at cruise speed in calm water. Verification and validation for the original sonar dome simulation are conducted. Next, the 1.44 million grid size is selected to study different dome lengths. By protruding the dome forward 7.5% of the ship’s length, the optimal 17% resistance reduction is achieved and is mainly caused by the pressure resistance decrease. The optimal sonar dome not only functions in the same way as a bulbous bow, but the viscous flow behaviors are also improved. The protrusion corresponding to 90 deg phase lag reduces the bow wave amplitude. The flow acceleration outside the boundary layer and ship wake velocity are higher coinciding with the much lower total resistance. A smaller flow separation and thinner boundary layer are also observed behind the sonar dome because its back slope is less steep. The high pressure covers a smaller area around the bow, and the smaller bow wave crest does not hit the ship’s flare to form high pressure. Consequently, the lower high pressure on the dome front and higher low pressure on the dome back result in the decreases in pressure resistance. The vortical structures are also improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Fluid Mechanics and Transport Phenomena)
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12 pages, 1829 KiB  
Article
Classification of Tree Species in the Process of Timber-Harvesting Operations Using Machine-Learning Methods
by Fedor Svoikin, Kirill Zhuk, Vladimir Svoikin, Sergey Ugryumov, Ivan Bacherikov, Daniela Veas Iniesta and Anatoly Ryapukhin
Inventions 2023, 8(2), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8020057 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1235
Abstract
This article presents the constraining factors that limit the increase in the efficiency of logging production by modern multi-operation machines operating on the Scandinavian cut-to-length technology in the felling phase, namely the selection and registration of wood species. The factors for creating a [...] Read more.
This article presents the constraining factors that limit the increase in the efficiency of logging production by modern multi-operation machines operating on the Scandinavian cut-to-length technology in the felling phase, namely the selection and registration of wood species. The factors for creating a complete architecture of a fully connected neural network (NN) are given. The dependence of the prediction accuracy of a fully connected NN on a test sample on the size of the training dataset, and an image of the dependence of the prediction accuracy on the number of trees in the random forest method for image classification is shown. For a fully connected NN, a sufficient number of images and a test sample size were established for training, using tree-trunk breed-class labels as target values. A selected list of trees was given, with the size of the training sample of images presenting a problem for the classification of tree trunks using the random forest method. The aim was the discovery of the optimal number of trees necessary to achieve prediction accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Intelligence in Agriculture and Natural Resources)
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15 pages, 3408 KiB  
Article
Machine Learning Systems Detecting Illicit Drugs Based on Their ATR-FTIR Spectra
by Iulia-Florentina Darie, Stefan Razvan Anton and Mirela Praisler
Inventions 2023, 8(2), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8020056 - 13 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2309
Abstract
We present a comparative study aiming to determine the most efficient multivariate model screening for the main drugs of abuse based on their ATR-FTIR spectra. A preliminary statistical analysis of selected spectra data extracted from the public SWGDRUG IR Library was first performed. [...] Read more.
We present a comparative study aiming to determine the most efficient multivariate model screening for the main drugs of abuse based on their ATR-FTIR spectra. A preliminary statistical analysis of selected spectra data extracted from the public SWGDRUG IR Library was first performed. The results corroborated those of an exploratory analysis that was based on several dimensionality reduction methods, i.e., Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Independent Component Analysis (ICA), and autoencoders. Then, several machine learning methods, i.e., Support Vector Machines (SVM), eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGB), Random Forest, Gradient Boosting, and K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), were used to assign the drug class membership. In order to account for the stochastic nature of these machine learning methods, both models were evaluated 10 times on a randomly distributed subset of the whole SWGDRUG IR Library, and the results were compared in detail. Finally, their performance in assigning the class identity of three classes of drugs of abuse, i.e., hallucinogenic (2C-x, DOx, and NBOMe) amphetamines, cannabinoids, and opioids, were compared based on confusion matrices and various classification parameters, such as balanced accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The advantages of each of the illicit drug-detecting systems and their potential as forensic screening tools used in field scenarios are also discussed. Full article
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15 pages, 2438 KiB  
Article
Integral Equations of the First Kind for Calculating Electro- and Magnetostatic Fields Perturbed by Conductors and Ferro-Magnets
by Yurij Plugatar, Dmitriy Filippov, Vladimir Chabanov, Anatoliy Kazak, Vadim Korzin, Nikolay Oleinikov, Angela Mayorova and Dmitry Nekhaychuk
Inventions 2023, 8(2), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8020055 - 10 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1174
Abstract
The aim of the study was to develop a methodology for calculating and optimizing devices for the magnetic exploration of fossils containing materials with a high magnetic permeability. The proposed technique is based on the calculation of electrostatic fields perturbed by conducting bodies [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to develop a methodology for calculating and optimizing devices for the magnetic exploration of fossils containing materials with a high magnetic permeability. The proposed technique is based on the calculation of electrostatic fields perturbed by conducting bodies and of magnetic fields perturbed by ferromagnets with a high magnetic permeability. It uses an integral equation of the first kind. This technique is preferable to the technique consisting in the use of an integral equation of the second kind, since in the situation under consideration, the latter does not have a unique solution and requires transformation. Prospects for the development of this area allow one to bring geophysical services to the service market on a new scientific and technical production level; reduce the environmental burden on nature by replacing magnetometric measurements with energy-saving, environmentally safe technology; and ensure the export potential of magnetometric equipment. Full article
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14 pages, 5801 KiB  
Article
Classification of Different Recycled Rubber-Epoxy Composite Based on Their Hardness Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) with Comparison Machine Learning Algorithms
by Vadi Su Yılmaz, Kemal Efe Eseller, Ozgur Aslan and Emin Bayraktar
Inventions 2023, 8(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8020054 - 08 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1576
Abstract
This paper aims toward the successful detection of harmful materials in a substance by integrating machine learning (ML) into laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). LIBS is used to distinguish five different synthetic polymers where eight different heavy material contents are also detected by LIBS. [...] Read more.
This paper aims toward the successful detection of harmful materials in a substance by integrating machine learning (ML) into laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). LIBS is used to distinguish five different synthetic polymers where eight different heavy material contents are also detected by LIBS. Each material intensity-wavelength graph is obtained and the dataset is constructed for classification by a machine learning (ML) algorithm. Seven popular machine learning algorithms are applied to the dataset which include eight different substances with their wavelength-intensity value. Machine learning algorithms are used to train the dataset, results are discussed and which classification algorithm is appropriate for this dataset is determined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Innovation Papers)
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24 pages, 3908 KiB  
Review
Patent Landscape Review on Ankle Sprain Prevention Method: Technology Updates
by Natrisha Francis, Aziz Ong, Hazwani Suhaimi and Pg Emeroylariffion Abas
Inventions 2023, 8(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8020053 - 07 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2223
Abstract
Ankle sprains are among the most prevalent musculoskeletal system injuries. Prevention of ankle sprains is important, given the frequency of occurrence of an ankle sprain, the risk of reinjury, and its long-term effects. A systematic patent review using the World Intellectual Property Organization [...] Read more.
Ankle sprains are among the most prevalent musculoskeletal system injuries. Prevention of ankle sprains is important, given the frequency of occurrence of an ankle sprain, the risk of reinjury, and its long-term effects. A systematic patent review using the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)’s PATENTSCOPE database has been performed to study the current development of ankle sprain prevention methods. Using the PRISMA statement as a basis, a total of 426 patent documents have been selected for review, consisting of 150 granted patents and 276 patent applications. In the past decade, China and the United States of America (43% and 29% of the patent applications, respectively) have shown great interest in developing ankle sprain prevention methods. Approximately 49% (or 74) of the patents from the 150 granted are associated with braces, 46% (or 68) are related to orthosis, 3% (or 5) are related to tape, and the remaining 2% (or 3) are associated with other types of ankle sprain prevention methods. This patent review shows that inventors are leaning towards braces and orthosis as the main prevention methods for ankle sprains, with greater interest in orthosis in recent years. Additionally, patents on smart wearable devices suggest initial commercial interest in the development of smart wearable devices as an ankle sprain prevention method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Innovation Papers)
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22 pages, 5669 KiB  
Perspective
Metal Wire Additive Manufacturing: A Comparison between Arc Laser and Laser/Arc Heat Sources
by Giuseppe Casalino, Mojtaba Karamimoghadam and Nicola Contuzzi
Inventions 2023, 8(2), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8020052 - 01 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4243
Abstract
In this paper, the authors introduce the reader to the state of the art of Metal Wire Additive Manufacturing (MWAM) and provide a comparison between Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM), Wire Laser Additive Manufacturing (WLAM), and Laser Arc Hybrid Wire Deposition (LAHWD) based [...] Read more.
In this paper, the authors introduce the reader to the state of the art of Metal Wire Additive Manufacturing (MWAM) and provide a comparison between Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM), Wire Laser Additive Manufacturing (WLAM), and Laser Arc Hybrid Wire Deposition (LAHWD) based on their characteristics and potential future applications, since MWAM is expected to have a promising future in various areas, such as aerospace, automotive, biomedical, and energy fields. A detailed discussion of the benefits and drawbacks of each Metal Wire Additive Manufacturing process can help to improve our understanding of the unique characteristics of metal wire application. Therefore, this paper offers a comprehensive analysis that can serve as a reference for upcoming industrial projects and research initiatives, with the aim of helping industries choose the most appropriate WAM technique for their specific applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Innovation Papers)
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12 pages, 7981 KiB  
Article
An Efficient Ring-Shaped Electromagnetic Thruster
by Daniele Funaro and Alessandro Chiolerio
Inventions 2023, 8(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8020051 - 24 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2746
Abstract
An electromagnetic thruster is proposed and successfully tested. Its design is inspired by theoretical considerations whose qualitative predictions are well matched with the experimental results. The efficiency is higher than any other device so far reported in the literature, producing a directional thrust [...] Read more.
An electromagnetic thruster is proposed and successfully tested. Its design is inspired by theoretical considerations whose qualitative predictions are well matched with the experimental results. The efficiency is higher than any other device so far reported in the literature, producing a directional thrust of approximately 2.7×106m, where m is the mass of the thruster itself, with a nominal power injected of approximately 10 Watts. The prototype has the shape of a ring and is powered by both radio frequency signals and a stationary high voltage. Improvements and generalizations can be easily devised by adjusting the geometry of the device. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Innovation Papers)
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15 pages, 8367 KiB  
Article
Low-Cost Systematic Methodology for Rapidly Constructing a Physiological Monitoring Interface in ICU
by Ke-Feng Lin, Shih-Sung Lin and Ping-Nan Chen
Inventions 2023, 8(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8020050 - 22 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1176
Abstract
During the COVID-19 pandemic, which emerged in 2020, many patients were treated in isolation wards because of the high infectivity and long incubation period of COVID-19. Therefore, monitoring systems have become critical to patient care and to safeguard medical professional safety. The user [...] Read more.
During the COVID-19 pandemic, which emerged in 2020, many patients were treated in isolation wards because of the high infectivity and long incubation period of COVID-19. Therefore, monitoring systems have become critical to patient care and to safeguard medical professional safety. The user interface is very important to the surveillance system; therefore, we used web technology to develop a system that can create an interface based on user needs. When the surveillance scene needs to be changed, the surveillance location can be changed at any time, effectively reducing the costs and time required, so that patients can achieve timely and appropriate goals of treatment. ZigBee was employed to develop a monitoring system for intensive care units (ICUs). Unlike conventional GUIs, the proposed GUI enables the monitoring of various aspects of a patient, and the monitoring interface can be modified according to the user needs. A simulated ICU environment monitoring system was designed to test the effectiveness of the system. The simulated environment and monitoring nodes were set up at positions consistent with the actual clinical environments to measure the time required to switch between the monitoring scenes or targets on the GUI. A novel system that can construct ZigBee-simulated graphical monitoring interfaces on demand was proposed in this study. The locations of the ZigBee monitoring nodes in the user interface can be changed at any time. The time required to deploy the monitoring system developed in this study was 4 min on average, which is much shorter than the time required for conventional methods (131 min). The system can effectively overcome the limitations of the conventional design methods for monitoring interfaces. This system can be used to simultaneously monitor the basic physiological data of numerous patients, enabling nursing professionals to instantly determine patient status and provide appropriate treatments. The proposed monitoring system can be applied to remote medical care after official adoption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Sensing Technology towards Digital Twin in Applications)
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