SCADA System for Online Electrical Engineering Education
- Basic knowledge of the use and programming of computers, operating systems, databases, and computer programs with engineering applications.
- Knowledge of automatic regulation and control techniques and their application to industrial automation.
- Ability to design industrial automation and control systems
- To integrate renewable, photo-voltaic (PV), and wind generation in a local smart grid.
- To store parameter data for several years.
- To monitor in real-time the production and consumption state neatly and clearly.
- To minimize surplus electrical energy in the system.
- To ensure supply quality by using corrective elements to reduce both the reactive energy of the system and the harmful harmonics of the electrical signal.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Study Site
- Teaching Area. Area for teaching with computer equipment for students.
- High Voltage Area. Location for the laboratory’s LV/MV/HV equipment (transformers, protections, etc.). It contains a power transformer that works as a link between the university campus’ power station and the general low-voltage panel of the laboratory. From this station, two different connections are made to the laboratory. One of them starts from the high voltage area of the transformer station and provides a power of around 100 kW. It goes through the laboratory transformer and is used in case of supply voltage modifications through the transformer taps. It is also used for measuring both the electric supply acquired through the transformer station and the surplus electricity injected into the network. The second connection wires the transformer station directly to the general panel of the installation without passing through the transformer and providing a power of 200 kW. It is used to supply energy for heavy consumption.
- Renewable Energy Area. This area is where the electricity produced by the PV and wind plants is injected/see Figure 2). The first one is composed of 18 poly-crystalline 270 W solar panels, and the wind power plant hosts three 1500 W wind turbines. In this zone, solar and wind charge controllers adapt the voltage of the electricity produced by the renewable generators to a 12 V direct current voltage. Once transformed, this electricity can be directed to the batteries of the laboratory or to the local electrical consumption. In the latter case, the power inverters will transform it again up to 230 V alternating current. The inverters are three single-phase devices that can be combined to supply three-phase currents when required. In this area, there is also a capacitor bank and active filters, both aimed at improving the quality of the power supply.
- Electrical Machine Area. In the fourth zone, there are industrial loads and electrical machine motor type consumption. This is the heaviest consumption of the laboratory.
- Power Quality Area. A household-type consumption zone hosts lighter and, therefore, less critical devices. These are mainly used to test and reproduce power quality events and issues related to harmonic or transient behavior of the device.
- Control Room Area. Finally, the sixth zone is where the main screen of the SCADA system designed in this study is located, as well as the Beckhoff PLC, which manages the input and output information from consumption and production to the SCADA and vice versa. In order to handle all the information that is to be shown on the main screen of the SCADA, decentralized periphery is used. In this case, there are four main spots that group relevant data of each zone of the laboratory under study. Thus, zones 2, 3, 4, and 5 have an EtherCAT Coupler with input and output cards that manage the flow of information from the peripherals to which they are connected. The aim of equipping these zones with their own EtherCAT Coupler is to sort out data by area and minimize the amount of wire used for connections.
2.2. TwinCAT 3 Software
- It comes from the same manufacturer as the PLC, so compatibility is guaranteed. This is an important point due to the myriad of protocols and licenses from different providers that can cause interconnection problems.
- It has high accessibility. One of the objectives of this study is to bring the use of SCADA for energy management closer to students and teachers. Therefore, it is important that the software is accessible to all types of users. This is achieved because TwinCAT 3 is free software, and the only system requirement is to have a Windows operating system, starting from Windows 7.
- It also has a simple and straightforward framework that allows programming in C, C++, and Mat- lab®/Simulink® languages, which are especially familiar to engineering students at the University of Almeria.
- Flexibility and contemporaneity are offered. With this software, it is possible to create a web server to access the SCADA interface from mobile devices or smartphones. Since the SCADA is located on the campus, it is expected to be used by many people. This last option would be of great help in controlling the plant from multiple access devices.
3.1. Communication Map
3.2. SCADA Interface
3.2.2. Quality of Supply
3.2.3. Real-Time Generation and Consumption Data
3.2.4. Wind Production Details
3.2.5. Solar Production Details
3.2.6. Data History
3.2.7. System Status
3.3. User Management
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|SCADA automation system laboratory||Automation, Laboratories, SCADA systems, Electrical equipment industry, Education, Digital control, Drives, System testing, Automatic control, Induction motors|||
|SCADA for development of remote laboratories||Visualization, Reliability, Indexes, Remote laboratories, SCADA systems, Local area networks|||
|Low cost SCADA system for education||Universal Serial Bus, Microcontrollers, Data acquisition, Prototypes, SCADA systems, Engineering education|||
|Development of a SCADA Course for Engineering Undergraduates||Industries, SCADA systems, Software, Smart grids, Sustainable development, Standards, STEM|||
|Incorporating SCADA Cybersecurity in Undergraduate Engineering Technology||Integrated circuits, Knowledge engineering, Industrial control, Education,|
|Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) vs Distributed Control System (DCS)||Tuning, Process control, Electrical engineering, Engineering education, Decentralized control|||
|Laboratory Scale Long Transmission Line||Power transmission lines, Transmission line measurements, Integrated circuit modeling, Engines, Voltage measurement, Current measurement|||
|Monitoring of Wind Turbine Generators||Wind turbines, Generators, Monitoring, Condition monitoring, Wind speed, Temperature distribution, SCADA systems|||
|Monitoring of Wind Turbines||Databases, Condition monitoring, Wind turbines, Testing, SCADA systems, Wind farms, Industrial economics, Discrete event simulation, Laboratories, Frequency|||
|Monitoring of electrical power supply networks||Databases, Condition monitoring, Wind turbines, Testing, SCADA systems, Wind farms, Industrial economics, Discrete event simulation, Laboratories, Frequency|||
|Hybrid AC/DC Laboratory-scale Smart Microgrid||Microgrids, Control systems, Inverters, Field programmable gate arrays, Power harmonic filters, Power supplies, Mathematical model|||
|Monitoring of electrical power supply networks||Circuit faults, Steel, Conductors, SCADA systems, Power supplies, Surges, Remote control|||
|Small System Electricity||Protocols, IEC Standards, Testing, Logic gates, Standards, SCADA systems, Prototypes|||
|Electrical substations||Substations, Software, Protocols, SCADA systems, Redundancy, Synchronization, Computer architecture|||
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Alcayde, A.; Robalo, I.; Montoya, F.G.; Manzano-Agugliaro, F. SCADA System for Online Electrical Engineering Education. Inventions 2022, 7, 115. https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7040115
Alcayde A, Robalo I, Montoya FG, Manzano-Agugliaro F. SCADA System for Online Electrical Engineering Education. Inventions. 2022; 7(4):115. https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7040115Chicago/Turabian Style
Alcayde, Alfredo, Isabel Robalo, Francisco G. Montoya, and Francisco Manzano-Agugliaro. 2022. "SCADA System for Online Electrical Engineering Education" Inventions 7, no. 4: 115. https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7040115