# Biologically Inspired Intra-Uterine Nanofluid Flow under the Suspension of Magnetized Gold (Au) Nanoparticles: Applications in Nanomedicine

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Modeling of Two-Dimensional Intra-Uterine Nanofluid Flow

## 3. Series Solutions Via Perturbation Approach

#### 3.1. Zeroth-Order System

#### 3.2. First-Order System

#### 3.3. Second-Order System

## 4. Graphical Outcomes and Discussion

#### 4.1. Velocity Mechanism

#### 4.2. Pressure Rise Profile

#### 4.3. Temperature Distribution

#### 4.4. Trapping Phenomena

## 5. Conclusions

- (i)
- The presence of a magnetic field substantially opposes the flow in the central zone of the channel. At the same time, closer to the walls, the behavior seems to be negligible or very small.
- (ii)
- The fluid parameter, particle volume fraction, and thermal Grashof number show a reduction in the fluid motion when $Y<0.1$, whereas a significant increment is observed when $Y>0.1$.
- (iii)
- The pressure rise reveals an increasing behavior against the thermal Grashof number and particle volume fraction in the retrograde and peristaltic pumping zones. In contrast, the fluid parameter and Hartmann number show a converse process in both regions.
- (iv)
- Temperature profile remarkably rises due to strengthening in the magnetic field and Brinkmann number, while the thermal radiation opposes the increment of the temperature profile.
- (v)
- We can see that the magnetic field tends to diminish the free eddies, while the thermal Grashof number significantly affects the magnitude and number of free eddies.
- (vi)
- We also found that the particle volume fraction and fluid parameter markedly change the shape and the number of free eddies.

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 2.**Velocity curves against multiple values of different parameters. (

**a**) $Ha$, (

**b**) ${\omega}_{1}$, (

**c**) ${T}_{g}$, (

**d**) $\vartheta $.

**Figure 3.**Pressure rise versus volumetric flow rate against multiple values of different parameters. (

**a**) $Ha$, (

**b**) ${\omega}_{1}$, (

**c**) ${T}_{g}$, (

**d**) $\vartheta $.

**Figure 4.**Temperature curves against multiple values of different parameters. (

**a**) $Ha$, (

**b**) ${B}_{r}$, (

**c**) ${T}_{r}$.

Physical Properties | ${\mathit{c}}_{\mathit{p}}$ (J/Kg·K) | $\mathit{\rho}$ (Kg/m^{3}) | $\mathit{\kappa}$ (W/mK) | $\mathit{\sigma}$ (S/m) |
---|---|---|---|---|

Blood | 1050 | 3617 | 0.52 | 1.33 |

Gold (Au) | 129.1 | 19300 | 320 | 4.5 × 10${}^{7}$ |

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Bhatti, M.M.
Biologically Inspired Intra-Uterine Nanofluid Flow under the Suspension of Magnetized Gold (Au) Nanoparticles: Applications in Nanomedicine. *Inventions* **2021**, *6*, 28.
https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6020028

**AMA Style**

Bhatti MM.
Biologically Inspired Intra-Uterine Nanofluid Flow under the Suspension of Magnetized Gold (Au) Nanoparticles: Applications in Nanomedicine. *Inventions*. 2021; 6(2):28.
https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6020028

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Bhatti, Muhammad Mubashir.
2021. "Biologically Inspired Intra-Uterine Nanofluid Flow under the Suspension of Magnetized Gold (Au) Nanoparticles: Applications in Nanomedicine" *Inventions* 6, no. 2: 28.
https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6020028