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Inventions, Volume 6, Issue 2 (June 2021) – 23 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a disorder that affects motile cilia in the airway, and confirmation of a diagnosis commonly relies on the assessment of ciliary ultrastructure by transmission electron microscopy. Heavy metal staining is required to provide contrast when imaging cilia, and one of the most used stains is uranyl acetate. Uranyl acetate is radioactive and, due to growing safety concerns and restrictions, we show that UA zero provides a high contrast and is a suitable replacement for the diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia. View this paper
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17 pages, 1345 KiB  
Article
Mathematical Modelling of Conveyor-Belt Dryers with Tangential Flow for Food Drying up to Final Moisture Content below the Critical Value
by Dario Friso
Inventions 2021, 6(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6020043 - 13 Jun 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3062
Abstract
This work presents the mathematical modeling of the conveyor-belt dryer with tangential flow operating in co-current, which has the advantage of improving the preservation of the organoleptic and nutritional qualities of the dried food. On the one hand, it is a more cumbersome [...] Read more.
This work presents the mathematical modeling of the conveyor-belt dryer with tangential flow operating in co-current, which has the advantage of improving the preservation of the organoleptic and nutritional qualities of the dried food. On the one hand, it is a more cumbersome dryer than the perforated cross flow belt dryer but, on the other hand, it has a low air temperature in the final section where the product has a low moisture content and, therefore, it is more heat sensitive. The results of the mathematical modeling allowed a series of guidelines to be developed for a rational design of the conveyor-belt dryer with tangential flow for the specific case of the moisture content of the final product XF lower than the critical one XC (XF < XC). In fact, this work follows a precedent in which a mathematical model was developed through the differentiation of the drying rate equation along the dryer belt with the hypothesis that the final moisture content XF of the product was higher than the critical one XC. The relationships between the extensive quantities (air flow rate and product flow rate), the intensive quantities (temperatures, moisture content and enthalpies) and the dimensional ones (length and width of the belt) were then obtained. Finally, based on these relationships, the rules for an optimized design for XF < XC were obtained. Full article
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14 pages, 4562 KiB  
Article
Development of a Raspberry Pi-Based Sensor System for Automated In-Field Monitoring to Support Crop Breeding Programs
by Worasit Sangjan, Arron H. Carter, Michael O. Pumphrey, Vadim Jitkov and Sindhuja Sankaran
Inventions 2021, 6(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6020042 - 10 Jun 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 8734
Abstract
Sensor applications for plant phenotyping can advance and strengthen crop breeding programs. One of the powerful sensing options is the automated sensor system, which can be customized and applied for plant science research. The system can provide high spatial and temporal resolution data [...] Read more.
Sensor applications for plant phenotyping can advance and strengthen crop breeding programs. One of the powerful sensing options is the automated sensor system, which can be customized and applied for plant science research. The system can provide high spatial and temporal resolution data to delineate crop interaction with weather changes in a diverse environment. Such a system can be integrated with the internet to enable the internet of things (IoT)-based sensor system development for real-time crop monitoring and management. In this study, the Raspberry Pi-based sensor (imaging) system was fabricated and integrated with a microclimate sensor to evaluate crop growth in a spring wheat breeding trial for automated phenotyping applications. Such an in-field sensor system will increase the reproducibility of measurements and improve the selection efficiency by investigating dynamic crop responses as well as identifying key growth stages (e.g., heading), assisting in the development of high-performing crop varieties. In the low-cost system developed here-in, a Raspberry Pi computer and multiple cameras (RGB and multispectral) were the main components. The system was programmed to automatically capture and manage the crop image data at user-defined time points throughout the season. The acquired images were suitable for extracting quantifiable plant traits, and the images were automatically processed through a Python script (an open-source programming language) to extract vegetation indices, representing crop growth and overall health. Ongoing efforts are conducted towards integrating the sensor system for real-time data monitoring via the internet that will allow plant breeders to monitor multiple trials for timely crop management and decision making. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Robotics and Automation in Agriculture)
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17 pages, 9635 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Wind Energy Potential along the Romanian Coastal Zone
by Alina Girleanu, Florin Onea and Eugen Rusu
Inventions 2021, 6(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6020041 - 04 Jun 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2976
Abstract
The present work aims to provide a comprehensive picture of the wind energy potential that characterizes the Romanian coastal environment using in situ measurements and reanalysis of wind data (ERA5) that cover a 42–year time interval (1979–2020). A total of 16 reference points [...] Read more.
The present work aims to provide a comprehensive picture of the wind energy potential that characterizes the Romanian coastal environment using in situ measurements and reanalysis of wind data (ERA5) that cover a 42–year time interval (1979–2020). A total of 16 reference points (both land and offshore) equally distributed along the Romanian sector are used to evaluate the local wind energy potential, targeting in this way several sites where a renewable wind project could be established. Compared to the in situ measurements (land points), the ERA5 dataset underestimates the wind speed by at least 11.57%, this value increasing as we approach the coastline. From the analysis of the spatial maps, it is likely that the wind speed steadily increases from onshore to offshore, with a sharp variation near the coastline being reported. Furthermore, the assessment of some state-of-the-art offshore wind turbines was conducted using 12 systems defined by rated capacity ranging from 2 to 10 MW. Some scenarios were proposed to identify sustainable offshore wind projects to be implemented in the Romanian coastal zone based on these results. Full article
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21 pages, 7034 KiB  
Article
A Novel Nonsingular Terminal Sliding Mode Control-Based Double Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Systems: Real-Time Implementation
by Hooman Mohammadi Moghadam, Meysam Gheisarnejad, Maryam Yalsavar, Hossein Foroozan and Mohammad-Hassan Khooban
Inventions 2021, 6(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6020040 - 04 Jun 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2380
Abstract
Extensive use of wind turbine (WT) systems brings remarkable challenges to the stability and safety of the power systems. Due to the difficulty and complexity of modeling such large plants, the model-independent strategies are preferred for the control of the WT plants which [...] Read more.
Extensive use of wind turbine (WT) systems brings remarkable challenges to the stability and safety of the power systems. Due to the difficulty and complexity of modeling such large plants, the model-independent strategies are preferred for the control of the WT plants which eliminates the need to model identification. This current work proposes a novel model-independent control methodology in the rotor side converter (RSC) part to ameliorate low voltage ride through (LVRT) ability especially for the doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) WT. A novel model-independent nonsingular terminal sliding mode control (MINTSMC) was developed based on the principle of the ultra-local pattern. In the suggested controller, the MINTSMC scheme was designed to stabilize the RSC of the DFIG, and a sliding-mode supervisor was adopted to determine the unknown dynamics of the proposed system. An auxiliary dual input interval type 2 fuzzy logic control (DIT2-FLC) was established in a model-independent control structure to remove the estimation error of the sliding mode observer. Real-time examinations have been carried out using a Real-Time Model in Loop (RT-MiL) for validating the applicability of the proposed model-independent control in a real-time platform. To evaluate the usefulness and supremacy of the MINTSMC based DIT2-FLC, the real-time outcomes are compared with outcomes of RSC regulated conventional PI controller and MINTSMC controller. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microgrids: Protection, Cyber Physical Issues, and Control)
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3 pages, 156 KiB  
Editorial
Recent Trends in Nanofluids
by Muhammad Mubashir Bhatti
Inventions 2021, 6(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6020039 - 01 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1768
Abstract
In various industrial technologies, ultrahigh-performance cooling is an essential requirement [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Trends in Nanofluids - II)
25 pages, 84877 KiB  
Article
The Conceptual Synthesis and Development of a Multifunctional Lawnmower
by Chun Quan Kang, Poh Kiat Ng and Kia Wai Liew
Inventions 2021, 6(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6020038 - 28 May 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 6702
Abstract
This study aims to develop a novel, original and multifunctional lawnmower through reviews of patent literature, research literature and variants of existing lawnmowers. After a detailed conceptualisation process, Autodesk Inventor (version 2019) is used for the finalised design drawing and stress simulation. The [...] Read more.
This study aims to develop a novel, original and multifunctional lawnmower through reviews of patent literature, research literature and variants of existing lawnmowers. After a detailed conceptualisation process, Autodesk Inventor (version 2019) is used for the finalised design drawing and stress simulation. The prototype is fabricated and tested through several experiments for usability validation which included tests on sound intensity level, cutting ability, polishing performance and battery power durability. Using Minitab 19, the data for the sound intensity and cutting ability experiments are analysed with two-sample t-tests. The data for the polishing performance and battery power durability experiments are analysed through observations, mean comparisons, and manual calculations. Significant differences are found to exist between the tested and control parameters in the context of each experiment, with the outcomes supporting the usability and performance of the present study’s multifunctional lawnmower. This study showed that the prototype has the potential to solve not only some of the problems in conventional lawnmowers but also a few limitations in existing robotic lawnmowers. The outcome of this study intends to benefit society by advancing innovation in lawn maintenance and improving quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low-Cost Inventions and Patents)
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20 pages, 2134 KiB  
Article
Bayesian Network Analysis of Lysine Biosynthesis Pathway in Rice
by Aditya Lahiri, Khushboo Rastogi, Aniruddha Datta and Endang M. Septiningsih
Inventions 2021, 6(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6020037 - 24 May 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3679
Abstract
Lysine is the first limiting essential amino acid in rice because it is present in the lowest quantity compared to all the other amino acids. Amino acids are the building block of proteins and play an essential role in maintaining the human body’s [...] Read more.
Lysine is the first limiting essential amino acid in rice because it is present in the lowest quantity compared to all the other amino acids. Amino acids are the building block of proteins and play an essential role in maintaining the human body’s healthy functioning. Rice is a staple food for more than half of the global population; thus, increasing the lysine content in rice will help improve global health. In this paper, we studied the lysine biosynthesis pathway in rice (Oryza sativa) to identify the regulators of the lysine reporter gene LYSA (LOC_Os02g24354). Genetically intervening at the regulators has the potential to increase the overall lysine content in rice. We modeled the lysine biosynthesis pathway in rice seedlings under normal and saline (NaCl) stress conditions using Bayesian networks. We estimated the model parameters using experimental data and identified the gene DAPF(LOC_Os12g37960) as a positive regulator of the lysine reporter gene LYSA under both normal and saline stress conditions. Based on this analysis, we conclude that the gene DAPF is a potent candidate for genetic intervention. Upregulating DAPF using methods such as CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing strategy has the potential to upregulate the lysine reporter gene LYSA and increase the overall lysine content in rice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Robotics and Automation in Agriculture)
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17 pages, 3650 KiB  
Article
A Portable Low-Cost Ultrasound Measurement Device for Concrete Monitoring
by Daniel Fontoura Barroso, Niklas Epple and Ernst Niederleithinger
Inventions 2021, 6(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6020036 - 20 May 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3187
Abstract
This paper describes a new ultrasonic measuring device called “W-Box”. It was developed based on the requirements of the DFG Forschergruppe (research unit) CoDA for a portable device for monitoring of concrete specimens, models and actual structures using embedded ultrasonic transducers as well [...] Read more.
This paper describes a new ultrasonic measuring device called “W-Box”. It was developed based on the requirements of the DFG Forschergruppe (research unit) CoDA for a portable device for monitoring of concrete specimens, models and actual structures using embedded ultrasonic transducers as well as temperature and humidity sensors. The W-Box can send ultrasonic pulses with a variable frequency of 50–100 kHz to one selectable transducer and records signals from up to 75 multiplexed channels with a sample rate of 1 MHz and a resolution of 14 bits. In addition, it measures temperature and humidity with high accuracy, adjustable amplification, restarts automatically after a power failure and can be fully controlled remotely. The measured data are automatically stored locally on-site data quality checks and transferred to remote servers. The comparison of the W-Box with a laboratory setup using commercial devices proves that it is equally reliable and precise, at much lower cost. The W-Box also shows that their measurement capacities, with the used embedded ultrasonic transducers, can reach above 6 m in concrete. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low-Cost Inventions and Patents)
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28 pages, 44869 KiB  
Article
The Design and Development of a Foldable Wheelchair Stretcher
by Shao Hng Lim and Poh Kiat Ng
Inventions 2021, 6(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6020035 - 17 May 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 5421
Abstract
This study extends a previous research that conceptualised a foldable wheelchair stretcher (FWS) by furthering its design and development process. The material and component selections are accounted for in this study. Simulations are done using different loads to analyse the stress, displacement and [...] Read more.
This study extends a previous research that conceptualised a foldable wheelchair stretcher (FWS) by furthering its design and development process. The material and component selections are accounted for in this study. Simulations are done using different loads to analyse the stress, displacement and safety factor of the stretcher design. Bending and maximum load analyses are used to inspect possibilities of deformation. The usability tests evaluated the (1) regular, (2) folding and (3) alternate functions of the stretcher. The data for tests 1 and 2 are analysed using t-tests, while test 3 data are analysed using an observational checklist. The FWS performed its regular function significantly slower than the normal stretcher by about 2 s due to its heavier weight. Its performance can still be considered akin to a regular stretcher’s performance. The FWS’s folding function performed significantly faster than the normal stretcher due to its simpler design. The angle increment test could not be executed due to technical constraints and the wheelchair function is tested without a seated user. However, the manoeuvrability of the FWS as a wheelchair was successfully verified. Finally, a cost analysis concluded that a commercial-ready FWS can be sold at 600 MYR, which is relatively cheaper compared to its competitors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Innovation Papers)
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8 pages, 1095 KiB  
Article
Roller Profiling for Generating the Screw of a Pump with Progressive Cavities
by Nicuşor Baroiu, Georgiana-Alexandra Moroşanu, Virgil-Gabriel Teodor and Nicolae Oancea
Inventions 2021, 6(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6020034 - 14 May 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2448
Abstract
Progressive cavity pumps are used in industry for the circulation of high viscosity fluids, such as crude oil and petroleum products, sewage sludge, oils, salt water, and wastewater. Also known as single screw pumps, these pumps are composed of a single rotor which [...] Read more.
Progressive cavity pumps are used in industry for the circulation of high viscosity fluids, such as crude oil and petroleum products, sewage sludge, oils, salt water, and wastewater. Also known as single screw pumps, these pumps are composed of a single rotor which has the shape of a rounded screw, which moves inside a rubber stator. The stator has an double helical internal surface which, together with the helical surface of the rotor, creates a cavity that moves along the rotor. The movement effect of the cavity inside the stator is the movement of the fluid with a constant flow and high pressure. In this paper, an algorithm for profiling the rollers for generating the helical surface of the pump rotor with progressive cavities is proposed. These rollers are constituted as tools for the plastic deformation of the blank (in case the pump rotor is obtained by volumetric deformation) or for its superficial hardening. Full article
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24 pages, 36879 KiB  
Article
The Expected Impact of Marine Energy Farms Operating in Island Environments with Mild Wave Energy Resources—A Case Study in the Mediterranean Sea
by Liliana Rusu, Florin Onea and Eugen Rusu
Inventions 2021, 6(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6020033 - 09 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2560
Abstract
A particularity of island areas is that they are subjected to strong sea state conditions that can have a severe impact on the beach stability, while on the other hand, they rely mainly on diesel combustion for electricity production which in the long [...] Read more.
A particularity of island areas is that they are subjected to strong sea state conditions that can have a severe impact on the beach stability, while on the other hand, they rely mainly on diesel combustion for electricity production which in the long run is not a sustainable solution. The aim of this work is to tackle these two issues, by assessing the impact of a hybrid marine energy farm that may operate near the north-western part of Giglio Island in the Mediterranean Sea. As a first step, the most relevant environmental conditions (wind and waves) over a 27-year time interval (January 1992–December 2018) were identified considering data coming from both ERA5 and the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative for Sea State. An overview of the electricity production was made by considering some offshore wind turbines, the results showing that even during the summertime when there is a peak demand (but low wind resources), the demand can be fully covered by five wind turbines defined each by a rated power of 6 MW. The main objective of this work is to assess the coastal impact induced by a marine energy farm, and for this reason, various layouts obtained by varying the number of lines (one or two) and the distance between the devices were proposed. The modelling system considered has been already calibrated in the target area for this type of study while the selected device is defined by a relatively low absorption property. The dynamics of various wave parameters has been analysed, including significant wave height, but also parameters related to the breaking mechanics, and longshore currents. It was noticed that although the target area is naturally protected by the dominant waves that are coming from the south-western sector, it is possible to occur extreme waves coming from the north-west during the wintertime that can be efficiently attenuated by the presence of the marine energy farm. Full article
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18 pages, 94652 KiB  
Article
Simple Design Methodology for R.C. Slabs by Hybrid Reinforcing of Steel Rebars and Uniaxial or Triaxial Geogrids
by Ramy Nasr Abdelmonem Mohamed, Ahmed Mohamed El Sebai and Ahmed Shaban Abdel-Hay Gabr
Inventions 2021, 6(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6020032 - 04 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3381
Abstract
This paper’s objective is to provide simple design relations for the reinforced concrete slabs by a hybrid reinforcing of uniaxial or triaxial geogrids in addition to steel rebars. We hope this can provide guidance for further researchers to estimate the flexural bending capacity [...] Read more.
This paper’s objective is to provide simple design relations for the reinforced concrete slabs by a hybrid reinforcing of uniaxial or triaxial geogrids in addition to steel rebars. We hope this can provide guidance for further researchers to estimate the flexural bending capacity of the concrete slabs, the necessary grade of uniaxial or triaxial geogrids, and the necessary count of uniaxial or triaxial geogrids’ layers by conducting first-principles analytical, quantitative analyses for a previously published concrete slabs’ experimental data of reinforced concrete slabs by hybrid reinforcing of steel rebars and uniaxial or triaxial geogrids. Throughout this paper, simple design relations were added to estimate the concrete slabs’ experimental moment at the post-peak load based on the assumption that the uniaxial or triaxial geogrids’ tensile force (as concrete slab’s reinforcement) is equal to its peak tensile strength (obtained by the experimental axial tensile test). This resulted in a variance that frequently has a range of ±10% when compared with the actual experimental data. For more accuracy, simple design relations were added to estimate the uniaxial or triaxial geogrids’ characteristic tensile force at the post-peak load, which resulted in an estimated concrete slab’s experimental moment at the post-peak load with a variance that frequently has a range of ±5% when compared with the actual experimental data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Inventions and Innovation in Advanced Manufacturing)
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21 pages, 414 KiB  
Review
Microorganisms, the Ultimate Tool for Clean Label Foods?
by Giorgia Perpetuini, Pumnat Chuenchomrat, Valentin Pereyron, Maxime Haure, Da Lorn, Le-Ha Quan, Phu-Ha Ho, Tien-Thanh Nguyen, Thi-Yen Do, Quyet-Tien Phi, Thi Kim Chi Nguyen, Hélène Licandro, Son Chu-Ky, Rosanna Tofalo, Warissara Kasikonsunthonchai, Saowalak Adunphatcharaphon, Awanwee Petchkongkaew and Yves Waché
Inventions 2021, 6(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6020031 - 30 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3563
Abstract
Clean label is an important trend in the food industry. It aims at washing foods of chemicals perceived as unhealthy by consumers. Microorganisms are present in many foods (usually fermented), they exhibit a diversity of metabolism and some can bring probiotic properties. They [...] Read more.
Clean label is an important trend in the food industry. It aims at washing foods of chemicals perceived as unhealthy by consumers. Microorganisms are present in many foods (usually fermented), they exhibit a diversity of metabolism and some can bring probiotic properties. They are usually well considered by consumers and, with progresses in the knowledge of their physiology and behavior, they can become very precise tools to produce or degrade specific compounds. They are thus an interesting means to obtain clean label foods. In this review, we propose to discuss some current research to use microorganisms to produce clean label foods with examples improving sensorial, textural, health and nutritional properties. Full article
20 pages, 14542 KiB  
Article
Intelligent Wavelet Based Pre-Filtering Method for Ultrasonic Sensor Fusion Inverse Algorithm Performance Optimization
by György Kovács and Szilvia Nagy
Inventions 2021, 6(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6020030 - 28 Apr 2021
Viewed by 2503
Abstract
Certain obstacle mapping applications require the live evaluation of the measured data to prevent collision with obstacles. The fusion of different or similar sensors usually has a high calculation demand, which increases significantly with the area to be evaluated and the number of [...] Read more.
Certain obstacle mapping applications require the live evaluation of the measured data to prevent collision with obstacles. The fusion of different or similar sensors usually has a high calculation demand, which increases significantly with the area to be evaluated and the number of sensors. In the present considerations, we propose a wavelet-based adaptive optimization method, which can greatly decrease the number of grid points to be evaluated, and thus the necessary computation time. The basis of the method is to use the fact that the areas to be evaluated mostly face a rather small number of obstacles, which cover a smaller percentage of the whole environment. The first step in a pre-filtering process is the determination of the zones where no obstacles are present. This step can already result in a considerable decrease in the computation time, however with the transformation to polar coordinates, the method will not only be more fitted to the problem to be solved, but the area of the evaluation can also be increased with the same number of grid points. As a last step, we applied wavelet transformation to identify the regions of interest, where the application of a refined raster is necessary, and thus further decreasing the number of grid points where the calculation has to be carried out. We used our previously developed probability-based ultrasonic sensor fusion inverse algorithm to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Innovation Papers)
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47 pages, 1648 KiB  
Article
Sensing Methodologies in Agriculture for Monitoring Biotic Stress in Plants Due to Pathogens and Pests
by Bhuwan Kashyap and Ratnesh Kumar
Inventions 2021, 6(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6020029 - 22 Apr 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 6218
Abstract
Reducing agricultural losses is an effective way to sustainably increase agricultural output efficiency to meet our present and future needs for food, fiber, fodder, and fuel. Our ever-improving understanding of the ways in which plants respond to stress, biotic and abiotic, has led [...] Read more.
Reducing agricultural losses is an effective way to sustainably increase agricultural output efficiency to meet our present and future needs for food, fiber, fodder, and fuel. Our ever-improving understanding of the ways in which plants respond to stress, biotic and abiotic, has led to the development of innovative sensing technologies for detecting crop stresses/stressors and deploying efficient measures. This article aims to present the current state of the methodologies applied in the field of agriculture towards the detection of biotic stress in crops. Key sensing methodologies for plant pathogen (or phytopathogen), as well as herbivorous insects/pests are presented, where the working principles are described, and key recent works discussed. The detection methods overviewed for phytopathogen-related stress identification include nucleic acid-based methods, immunological methods, imaging-based techniques, spectroscopic methods, phytohormone biosensing methods, monitoring methods for plant volatiles, and active remote sensing technologies. Whereas the pest-related sensing techniques include machine-vision-based methods, pest acoustic-emission sensors, and volatile organic compound-based stress monitoring methods. Additionally, Comparisons have been made between different sensing techniques as well as recently reported works, where the strengths and limitations are identified. Finally, the prospective future directions for monitoring biotic stress in crops are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Robotics and Automation in Agriculture)
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13 pages, 2143 KiB  
Article
Biologically Inspired Intra-Uterine Nanofluid Flow under the Suspension of Magnetized Gold (Au) Nanoparticles: Applications in Nanomedicine
by Muhammad Mubashir Bhatti
Inventions 2021, 6(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6020028 - 15 Apr 2021
Cited by 41 | Viewed by 2281
Abstract
The present analysis deals with the intra-uterine nanofluid flow of a Jeffrey fluid through a finite asymmetric channel filled with gold nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles are helpful in biomedicine to treat various diseases and locate blood flow motion through tiny vessels. The governing fluid [...] Read more.
The present analysis deals with the intra-uterine nanofluid flow of a Jeffrey fluid through a finite asymmetric channel filled with gold nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles are helpful in biomedicine to treat various diseases and locate blood flow motion through tiny vessels. The governing fluid is electrically conducting due to the presence of an extrinsic magnetic field while the magnetic Reynolds number is small; therefore, the induced magnetic effects are neglected. The thermal radiation and viscous dissipation effects are also contemplated with the energy equation. The lubrication approach has been utilized by taking a long wavelength and ignoring the inertial forces. The formulated equations are coupled and nonlinear; therefore, a perturbation approach is used to derive the series results. The results are obtained up to the second-order and plotted against various parameters for velocity mechanism, trapping profile, pressure rise, and temperature profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Trends in Nanofluids - II)
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23 pages, 46862 KiB  
Article
A Non-Invasive Photonics-Based Device for Monitoring of Diabetic Foot Ulcers: Architectural/Sensorial Components & Technical Specifications
by Anastasios Doulamis, Nikolaos Doulamis, Aikaterini Angeli, Andreas Lazaris, Siri Luthman, Murali Jayapala, Günther Silbernagel, Adriane Napp, Ioannis Lazarou, Alexandros Karalis, Richelle Hoveling, Panagiotis Terzopoulos, Athanasios Yamas, Panagiotis Georgiadis, Richard Maulini and Antoine Muller
Inventions 2021, 6(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6020027 - 12 Apr 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4003
Abstract
This paper proposes a new photonic-based non-invasive device for managing of Diabetic Foot Ulcers (DFUs) for people suffering from diabetes. DFUs are one of the main severe complications of diabetes, which may lead to major disabilities, such as foot amputation, or even to [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a new photonic-based non-invasive device for managing of Diabetic Foot Ulcers (DFUs) for people suffering from diabetes. DFUs are one of the main severe complications of diabetes, which may lead to major disabilities, such as foot amputation, or even to the death. The proposed device exploits hyperspectral (HSI) and thermal imaging to measure the status of an ulcer, in contrast to the current practice where invasive biopsies are often applied. In particular, these two photonic-based imaging techniques can estimate the biomarkers of oxyhaemoglobin (HbO2) and deoxyhaemoglobin (Hb), through which the Peripheral Oxygen Saturation (SpO2) and Tissue Oxygen Saturation (StO2) is computed. These factors are very important for the early prediction and prognosis of a DFU. The device is implemented at two editions: the in-home edition suitable for patients and the PRO (professional) edition for the medical staff. The latter is equipped with active photonic tools, such as tuneable diodes, to permit detailed diagnosis and treatment of an ulcer and its progress. The device is enriched with embedding signal processing tools for noise removal and enhancing pixel accuracy using super resolution schemes. In addition, a machine learning framework is adopted, through deep learning structures, to assist the doctors and the patients in understanding the effect of the biomarkers on DFU. The device is to be validated at large scales at three European hospitals (Charité–University Hospital in Berlin, Germany; Attikon in Athens, Greece, and Victor Babes in Timisoara, Romania) for its efficiency and performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Control Theory and Applications)
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13 pages, 918 KiB  
Article
Mathematical Analysis of Two Phase Saturated Nanofluid Influenced by Magnetic Field Gradient
by Farhan Khan and Xiaodong Yang
Inventions 2021, 6(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6020026 - 07 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2010
Abstract
Nanofluids are composed of nano-sized particles dispersed in a carrier liquid. The present investigation’s aim is to examine theoretically the magneto-thermomechanical coupling phenomena of a heated nanofluid on a stretched surface in the presence of magnetic dipole impact. Fourier’s law of heat conduction [...] Read more.
Nanofluids are composed of nano-sized particles dispersed in a carrier liquid. The present investigation’s aim is to examine theoretically the magneto-thermomechanical coupling phenomena of a heated nanofluid on a stretched surface in the presence of magnetic dipole impact. Fourier’s law of heat conduction is used to evaluate the heat transmission rate of the carrier fluids ethylene glycol and water along with suspended nanoparticles of a cobalt–chromium–tungsten–nickel alloy and magnetite ferrite. A set of partial differential equations is transformed into a set of non-linear ordinary differential equations via a similarity approach. The computation is performed in Matlab by employing the shooting technique. The effect of the magneto-thermomechanical interaction on the velocity and temperature boundary layer profiles with the attendant effect on the skin friction and heat transfer is analyzed. The maximum and minimum thermal energy transfer rates are computed for the H2O-Fe3O4 and C2H6O2-CoCr20W15Ni magnetic nanofluids. Finally, the study’s results are compared with the previously available data and are found to be in good agreement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Trends in Nanofluids - II)
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24 pages, 9379 KiB  
Article
Agriculture Model Comparison Framework and MyGeoHub Hosting: Case of Soil Nitrogen
by Anupam Bhar, Benjamin Feddersen, Robert Malone and Ratnesh Kumar
Inventions 2021, 6(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6020025 - 29 Mar 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3110
Abstract
To be able to compare many agricultural models, a general framework for model comparison when field data may limit direct comparison of models is proposed, developed, and also demonstrated. The framework first calibrates the benchmark model against the field data, and next it [...] Read more.
To be able to compare many agricultural models, a general framework for model comparison when field data may limit direct comparison of models is proposed, developed, and also demonstrated. The framework first calibrates the benchmark model against the field data, and next it calibrates the test model against the data generated by the calibrated benchmark model. The framework is validated for the modeling of the soil nutrient nitrogen (N), a critical component in the overall agriculture system modeling effort. The nitrogen dynamics and related carbon (C) dynamics, as captured in advanced agricultural modeling such as RZWQM, are highly complex, involving numerous states (pools) and parameters. Calibrating many parameters requires more time and data to avoid underfitting. The execution time of a complex model is higher as well. A study of tradeoff among modeling complexities vs. speed-up, and the corresponding impact on modeling accuracy, is desirable. This paper surveys soil nitrogen models and lists those by their complexity in terms of the number of parameters, and C-N pools. This paper also examines a lean soil N and C dynamics model and compares it with an advanced model, RZWQM. Since nitrate and ammonia are not directly measured in this study, we first calibrate RZWQM using the available data from an experimental field in Greeley, CO, and next use the daily nitrate and ammonia data generated from RZWQM as ground truth, against which the lean model’s N dynamics parameters are calibrated. In both cases, the crop growth was removed to zero out the plant uptake, to compare only the soil N-dynamics. The comparison results showed good accuracy with a coefficient of determination (R2) match of 0.99 and 0.62 for nitrate and ammonia, respectively, while affording significant speed-up in simulation time. The lean model is also hosted in MyGeoHub cyberinfrastructure for universal online access. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Robotics and Automation in Agriculture)
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20 pages, 566 KiB  
Perspective
Towards Privacy Paradigm Shift Due to the Pandemic: A Brief Perspective
by Abdul Majeed and Sungchang Lee
Inventions 2021, 6(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6020024 - 28 Mar 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 5832 | Correction
Abstract
With the advent of the pandemic (e.g., novel corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19)), a tremendous amount of data about individuals are collected by the health authorities on daily basis for curbing the disease’s spread. The individuals’ data collection/processing at a massive scale for [...] Read more.
With the advent of the pandemic (e.g., novel corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19)), a tremendous amount of data about individuals are collected by the health authorities on daily basis for curbing the disease’s spread. The individuals’ data collection/processing at a massive scale for community well-being with the help of digital solutions (e.g., mobile apps for mobility and proximity analysis, contact tracing through credit card usage history, facial recognition through cameras, and crowd analysis using cellular networks data etc.) raise several privacy concerns. Furthermore, the privacy concerns that are arising mainly due to the fine-grained data collection has hindered the response to tackle this pandemic in many countries. Hence, acquiring/handling individuals data with privacy protection has become a vibrant area of research in these pandemic times. This paper explains the shift in privacy paradigm due to the pandemic (e.g., COVID-19) which involves more and detailed data collection about individuals including locations and demographics. We explain technical factors due to which the people’s privacy is at higher risk in the COVID-19 time. In addition, we discuss privacy concerns in different epidemic control measures (ECMs) (e.g., contact tracing, quarantine monitoring, and symptoms reporting etc.) employed by the health authorities to tackle this disease. Further, we provide an insight on the data management in the ECMs with privacy protection. Finally, the future prospects of the research in this area tacking into account the emerging technologies are discussed. Through this brief article, we aim to provide insights about the vulnerability to user’s privacy in pandemic times, likely privacy issues in different ECMs adopted by most countries around the world, how to preserve user’s privacy effectively in all phases of the ECMs considering relevant data in loop, and conceptual foundations of ECMs to fight with future pandemics in a privacy preserving manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Innovation Papers)
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3 pages, 158 KiB  
Editorial
Emerging Technologies for the Energy Systems of the Future
by Amjad Anvari-Moghaddam, Vahid Vahidinasab, Behnam Mohammadi-Ivatloo, Reza Razzaghi and Fazel Mohammadi
Inventions 2021, 6(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6020023 - 27 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2099
Abstract
The way the world gets its energy is undergoing a rapid transition, driven by both the increased urgency of decarbonizing energy systems and the plummeting costs of renewable energy technologies [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Technologies for the Energy Systems of the Future)
27 pages, 12762 KiB  
Article
Application of IDeS (Industrial Design Structure) to Sustainable Mobility: Case Study of an Innovative Bicycle
by Leonardo Frizziero, Alfredo Liverani, Giampiero Donnici, Ilaria Giuliano, Maria Grazia Picciariello, Maria Luigia Tucci, Donald Reimer and Ahad Ali
Inventions 2021, 6(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6020022 - 26 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3544
Abstract
The present study aims to validate a new research method called IDeS (industrial design structure) through the design of an electric bicycle for everyday city life. IDeS is the latest evolution of a combination of innovative and advanced systematic approaches that are used [...] Read more.
The present study aims to validate a new research method called IDeS (industrial design structure) through the design of an electric bicycle for everyday city life. IDeS is the latest evolution of a combination of innovative and advanced systematic approaches that are used to set a new industrial project. The IDeS methodology is sequentially composed of quality function deployment (QFD), benchmarking (BM), top-flop analysis (TFA), stylistic design engineering (SDE), design for X, prototyping and testing, budgeting, and planning. The present work illustrates how to integrate the abovementioned design methods and achieve a convincing result. In going through the IDeS method step by step, we compare the different solutions on the market in order to understand which are the best performing products and to understand what is missing on the market. This method allowed us to design a bicycle that is as close as possible to the “ideal bike”, obtained with the top/flop analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Innovation Papers)
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14 pages, 16398 KiB  
Article
A Robust Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Controller for Variable Speed Wind Turbines Based on a Doubly Fed Induction Generator
by Ahmed Vall Hemeyine, Ahmed Abbou, Anass Bakouri, Mohcine Mokhlis and Sidi Mohamed ould Mohamed El Moustapha
Inventions 2021, 6(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6020021 - 24 Mar 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2803
Abstract
This paper presents an implementation of a new robust control strategy based on an interval type-2 fuzzy logic controller (IT2-FLC) applied to the wind energy conversion system (WECS). The wind generator used was a variable speed wind turbine based on a doubly fed [...] Read more.
This paper presents an implementation of a new robust control strategy based on an interval type-2 fuzzy logic controller (IT2-FLC) applied to the wind energy conversion system (WECS). The wind generator used was a variable speed wind turbine based on a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG). Fuzzy logic concepts have been applied with great success in many applications worldwide. So far, the vast majority of systems have used type-1 fuzzy logic controllers. However, T1-FLC cannot handle the high level of uncertainty in systems (complex and non-linear systems). The amount of uncertainty in a system could be reduced by using type-2 fuzzy logic since it offers better capabilities to handle linguistic uncertainties by modeling vagueness and unreliability of information. A new concept based on an interval type-2 fuzzy logic controller (IT-2 FLC) was developed because of its uncertainty management capabilities. Both these control strategies were designed and their performances compared for the purpose of showing the control most efficient in terms of reference tracking and robustness. We made a comparison between the performance of the type-1 fuzzy logic controller (T1-FLC) and interval type-2 fuzzy logic controller (IT2-FLC). The simulation results clearly manifest the height robustness of the interval type-2 fuzzy logic controller in comparison to the T1-FLC in terms of rise time, settling time, and overshoot value. The simulations were realized by MATLAB/Simulink software. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances and Challenges in Wind Energy Extraction II)
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