A Review of Energy Storage Participation for Ancillary Services in a Microgrid Environment
2. Generation and Storage Options
- Ensure the grid energy balance,
- Provide fault ride-through (FRT) capability under dynamic variations, and
- In MGs, assist the smooth transition from islanded mode to normal modes.
3. Services in Electric Power Industry
3.1. System Services
3.2. Ancillary Services
3.3. Classification of Ancillary Services
- Frequency control services,
- Network control services, or
- System restart services.
3.3.1. Frequency Control Services
Levels of Frequency Control
- Time control.
- Primary control is initiated within seconds as a collective action by all concerned parties or transmission system operators (TSOs).
- Secondary control replaces the primary control over minutes and is enforced by the responsible parties/TSOs.
- Tertiary control partly completes the secondary control and then replaces it with rescheduling generation and is enforced by responsible parties/TSOs.
- Time control corrects the global synchronous time deviations as a joint action by all parties on a long-term basis.
- Frequency Control for Primary
- Frequency Control for Secondary
- Frequency Control for Tertiary
- Time Control
- Spinning Reserves/Reliability Reserves
- Supplementary Reserves
- Backup Reserves
3.3.2. Ancillary Services for Voltage Control
Requirements for Voltage Control
- The equipment of voltage supply should be in its design bounds for safe process and excessive implementation.
- The system voltage varies then creates the changes in reactive power that widely affect the system losses.
- Voltages may also limit the system’s transfer capability.
- Reactive power injection and absorption are also important for maintaining system stability, especially to avoid contingencies, which can lead to voltage collapse. Reactive power must have sufficient capacity to meet the required demands and the margin of reserve for possible outcomes. Local voltage regulation is a consumer service designed to meet consumer reactive power requirements and monitor each consumer’s impact on network voltage and system failure. Therefore, power factor problems at a customer site do not affect power quality elsewhere in the grid.
Stages of Voltage Control
- Primary voltage control can be local automatic control, which saves the voltage at the generating bus at a set of points. The task is fulfilled by an automatic voltage regulator (AVR) .
- The voltage control of the secondary is an integrated control that is automatic to shorten the actions of local controllers. Hence, it is compact for the addition of reactive power inside a local power network.
- Tertiary voltage control refers to the standard optimization of reactive power flow to the power system.
Cost of Voltage Management
3.3.3. Capability of Black Start
- It can shut its circuit breaker for dead bus based on demand.
- It must be able to keep the frequency under various loads.
- It is capable of having a voltage supply for unstable loads.
- It is optimal to have an output rate within the given time as chosen by the system operator.
3.3.4. Inertia Response for RES
3.3.5. FRT and Reactive Power Support
3.3.6. ESS in Congestion Management and Economical Scheduling
- Efficient national CMS and integrated with international CMS to get complete utilization of current transmission capacity.
- Combined distribution of global transmission capability, for the flexible usage of transmission capacity where it is more required at a day-ahead level.
- The day-ahead energy market integrated with transmission allocation is the ability to make complete usage of low-cost distribution possibilities.
- The flexible operation across the power system, improvement in RES forecasts such as solar/wind, and other uncertainties in a day is possible with the integration of transmission distribution with the day-ahead energy market.
3.3.7. Energy Management System
3.4. Global Prospects on Ancillary Services
4. Drivers Involved in MG Development and Deployment
4.1. Functions of MG
4.2. Factors Responsible for MG Development
- Energy safety measures,
- Economic gains, and
- Clean energy integration.
4.3. Application of MG
Conflicts of Interest
|RES||Renewable Energy Sources|
|DER||Distributed Energy Resources|
|ESS||Energy Storage System|
|DSO||Distribution System Operator|
|SGSC||Series Grid Side Converter|
|FERC||Federal Energy Regulatory Commission|
|NERC||North American Electric Reliability Corporation|
|CIGRE||International Council on Large Electric Systems|
|UCTE||Union for the Coordination of Transmission of Electricity|
|MSDBR||Modulated Series Dynamic Breaking Resistor|
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|Reference||Category||Storage Options Employed||Benefits||Drawbacks|
|||Generation||Diesel and Spark Ignition (SI) reciprocating internal combustion engines||Easily dispatchable in nature.|
Faster start-up and load-following.
Used for combined heat and power (CHP).
|Particulate and Nitrogen oxide emissions.|
Likely emission of greenhouse gases.
Generation of noise.
Multiple fuel options.
A lower degree of emissions.
Simplicity under mechanical aspects.
|The maintenance cost is high.|
Cooling is necessary, even if heat retrieved is not reusable.
|[28,29]||FCs (including molten-carbonate, solid oxide, alkaline, and phosphoric acid, low-temperature PEM)||Dispatchable.|
Zero on-site pollution.
Greater efficiency available versus micro turbines.
|Comparatively, they are expensive.|
Limitations of mechanical strength and fatigue.
It is less mature than chemical batteries.
The current cost is too high to make them commercially competitive.
|[27,29]||Renewable generation (solar PV cells, small wind turbines, and mini-hydro)||Cost effective in terms of fuel generation.|
Maintenance requirements are lower than traditional fuel sources.
|The upfront cost is higher.|
Need a capable load-following generator.
Lack the much-needed efficiency.
Variable and regarded as uncontrollable in nature.
|[30,31]||Storage||Batteries (including lead-acid, sodium-sulfur, lithium-ion, and nickel-cadmium)||A long history of|
R & D.
Round-trip efficiency is between 75–90%.
High performance and lower maintenance.
|A limited number of charge–discharge cycles.|
Complications in terms of waste discharge.
Battery degradation costs.
|||Flow batteries (FBs) referred to as regenerative FCs (Comprised Zn-Br, polysulphide bromide, vanadium redox)||Decouple power and energy storage.|
Round-trip efficiency is up to 75%.
Ability to support continuous operation under maximum load.
Total discharge is possible without any risk of damage.
|Relatively under the early stage in terms of deployment.|
Lower power density.
Components and chemicals used in the flow batteries are still comparably expensive.
|||Hydrogen from hydrolysis||Clean.|
Can store for a long period.
|Relatively low end-to-end efficiency.|
Challenges concerned with hydrogen storage.
Components’ cost is high.
|||Kinetic energy storage (flywheels)||Fast response.|
Overall costs are low.
High in terms of charge–discharge cycles.
Round-trip efficiency is 85%.
|Discharge time is limited.|
High standing losses.
Maintenance is required.
|||Pumped Hydro Energy Storage (PHES)||Free from environmental impacts.|
Sources are plentiful, clear, and reliable.
No reserve shortfalls.
Very long lifetime.
Round-trip efficiency is 70–80% based on the distance and gradient between upper and lower reservoirs.
|Expensive to build.|
Construction period is longer.
Maintenance is required.
Uncertainty of ease of use of water; if the water is not available, difficulty in producing the electricity.
|||Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES)||Energy storage capacity is high|
Cost/kWh is low.
The need for power electronic converters is less.
|The necessity for fuel and underground cavities.|
Investment cost is high.
Efficiency is low.
|||SC||High power and energy density compared to normal capacitors.|
Highest round-trip efficiency up to 96%.
Speed charging ability and faster response time.
|The self-discharge rate is high and low energy density compared to batteries.|
It cannot be utilized in AC and high-level frequency circuits.
|||Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES)||Power capability is high.|
95% round-trip efficiency.
No environmental impacts.
Faster response time.
Capable of part and deep discharges.
|Lower energy density.|
Raw materials, operation, and manufacturing processes are expensive.
|ESS Facility||Projects||Capacity||Application Area|
|FES||Beacon power company|
Boeing Phantom Works
Piller power system Ltd.
|20 MW/5 MWh plant|
100 kW/5 kWh
|Frequency regulation, voltage support, and power quality.|
Power quality, peak shaving.
FRT capability, backup power.
PREPA, Puerto Rico
Abu Dhabi Island, UAE
PacifiCorp VRB facility, Utah, U.S.
SEI VRB ESS facility, Japan
|8.5 MW/8.5 MWh|
20 MW/14 MWh
10 MW/40 MWh
250 kW/2 MWh
1.5 MW/3 MWh
500 kW/5 MWh
|Spinning reserve, frequency control.|
Spinning reserve, load levelling.
Voltage support, load shifting.
Voltage support, peak shaving.
|3.5–12 V, 0.01–6.5 F|
5.7 Wh, 2600 F
Smoothing power output.
|SMES||Nosoo power station, Japan|
Upper Wisconsin, USA
Chubu Electric Power Co. (Company), Japan
3 MW/0.83 kWh
|Power quality, system stability.|
Reactive power support.
|FC||FC Power Plant, California|
Naval Air Warfare Center, California
Ongoing projects: IdealHy, Netherlands; Sapphire, Norway; RE4CELL, Spain; SmartCat, France
|DG, electric utility.|
Power quality, backup power, and small DGs.
|TES||Highview Power Storage Co., UK|
Torresol Energy, Spain
|300 kW/2.5 MWh|
|Load Shifting, managing DG and DS with large-scale penetration.|
|CAES||LAES pilot plant, Birmingham,|
Advanced adiabatic-CAES plant, China
|350 kW/2.5 MWh|
|Frequency and voltage control, peak shaving, load shifting, and intermittent RES.|
|PHES||Rochy river PHS plant, US|
Okinanawa Yanbaru plant, Japan
Ikaria Island HPS, Greece
|EMS in fields of time shifting, supply reserve, frequency control, and nonspinning reserve.|
|[46,47,48,49,50,51,52]||CIGRE/FERC/Power System Economics and other Authors||Frequency and voltage control services|
Scheduling and dispatch
Financial trade enforcement
Reactive power control
|Terminology||Primary control reserve|
Secondary control reserve
Tertiary control reserve
|Frequency responsive reserve|
|Regulating||UCTE recommends a secondary reserve control requirement based on the statistical equation and mainly based on load variability.|
However, both contingencies and normal variations are subject to secondary reserves. Compliance measures are not available.
|CPS enforcement provisions are imposed by the NERC but do not have a regulation on the amount of the current reserve regulating requirements.|
The requirements of the CPS are based mainly on the time of day and season.
|Following||No UCTE requirements.|
Used to minimize ACE for slower normal variations in a control area.
|NERC does not provide any standard or direction.|
|The DCS criterion is identical.|
Return ACE in 15 min to zero.
Sufficient of these reserves should be provided to support the most significant contingency.
|DCS would return ACE to zero or its pre-disruption point in 15 min, if negative. Sufficient contingency reserves needed to recover the largest contingency.|
For many regions, at least 50 percent of the spin is required.
|Primary||Complete response at 200 mHz.|
Characteristics of response based on UFLS relay setting and safety margin of 200 mHz
Peak insensitivity of 20 mHz.
|Only a requirement for frequency bias as a part of 1% peak ACE calculation.|
The dead bands of governors usually settled at 36 mHz and dropped
|Ramping||No UCTE requirement for the ramping reserve.||No constraints.|
Used for rare severe events that do not take place immediately.
|Secondary||The UCTE policy recommends that the secondary reserve be initiated within a maximum of 30 s after the disturbance and returned to the initial ACE within a maximum of 15 min.||The Contingency reserve and the Ramping reserve are used as a secondary reserve to restore the frequency to its nominal value and to reduce the ACE back to zero.|
|Tertiary||The need for tertiary control reserves is greater than the largest contingency.|
It is not necessary to replace reserves as long as possible.
|No quantifiable requirement, but the contingency reserve has replaced within 105 min of contingency.|
|Without||Solar||Deloading||Additional element is not required.|
Inertia and frequency regulation are provided.
|It loses some energy |
It depends on the
conditions of the
|Wind||Inertial Response||Power obtained from the |
|The second drop in |
occur in losses.
|Deloading||Primary frequency control is provided.||It loses some energy |
|The system is highly effective.|
Removes instabilities in power.
|Higher cost due to the price of the battery and lose some energy.|
If the battery is fully charged, it fails to absorb power
|Wind||Inertial response||The technique is highly reliable.||Compared to the above techniques, the value is quite higher.|
High battery price and energy costs.
|||Crowbar||Activated in the event of failures and prevents RSC from overload.||When crowbar is applied, RSC control is lost.|
|||SGSC||Damping synchronous stator frame flux oscillations and allowing the stator flux variable to be handled directly.||Weaknesses in preserving the power balance of the DC-link.|
|||ESS||Improves DFIG’s transient dynamics and power systems’ transient stability.|
DFIG’s steady-state active power output is regulated.
|Battery unit operation and maintenance issues.|
Loss of stored energy in the form of self-discharges when not in use.
|||MSDBR||This method prevents the use of both the crowbar and the DC chopper.|
Series compensation system and includes power evacuation.
|The injection efficiency of reactive energy is not yet studied.|
Compared to the above techniques, the value is quite higher.
|MG Components||Ancillary Services To Main Grid|
|All DERs, WTGs, PV systems, hydro power plants, and loads with ESSs units but not thermal-driven CHP||Frequency regulation|
|Inverter and SG coupled DG/ESS units and loads but not IG coupled DG||Voltage control, CMS, Optimization of grid losses|
|WT’s coupled with inverters, SGs, PV with inverter, Micro-hydro with inverter/SG and ESS||Black start|
|WT’s with DFIG/Inverter, PV with Inverter, Micro-hydro with Inverter, CHP with inverter, ESS||FRT Capability|
|Application Area||Summary||Characteristics and Specifications||ESS Technology Options|
|Power quality||The issue of Power Quality (PQ) is one of MG’s major technical challenges. The PQ level of the MG network must be analyzed and quantified to provide a better PQ of the energy provision.|
In both the on grid and off grid mode of MG operation, voltage and frequency variation are analyzed under different generation and load conditions.
In order to achieve a better quality of power supply in the MG system, the level of PQ impact in the MG network must be quantified in various scenarios.
Response time: ~ms,
Discharge period: ms to s
|Exp: FES, BES, SMES SCs;|
|RES power integration||The intermittent generation of renewables can be backed up, stabilized, or supported by integration with ESS.||~100 kW–40 MW < 1 MW,|
Response time: ~s to min,
Discharge period: up to days
|Exp: FES, BES;|
Pro: PHES, CAES, FCs
|Frequency control||Based on active power control by controlling the DER output.|
Generation is adjusted to load minute by minute to maintain a specific system frequency in the control area.
The micro-sources (DGs) of MG connected to the grid and located close to the load pockets are an effective way of delivering this service.
|Up to MW level |
Response time: ~s,
Discharge period: s to min
|Exp: BES, FBs, CAES|
Pro: FES, SCs
|Voltage control||EPSs dynamically respond to changes in active and reactive power, thereby influencing the voltage profile and magnitude of the networks.|
Dynamic voltage behavior control can be improved with the functions of ESS facilities.
Various ESS technologies can be used effectively for voltage control solutions.
|Up to few MW level,|
Response time: mins Discharge period: Up to mins
|Exp: BES, FBs;|
Pro: SMES, FES, SCs
|Spinning reserve||ESSs have spinning reserve functions if the generation (or load decrease) increases rapidly enough to lead to contingency.|
ESS units should be able to react immediately and to keep outputs up to a few hours.
|Up to MW level,|
Response time: s
Discharge period: 30 min to few hrs
Pro: FCs, FBs, FES, CAES, SMES
|Load levelling||Load-levelling is a way to balance large fluctuations in electricity demand.|
Traditional batteries and FBs should reduce overall costs and improve cycling time with peak shaving applications as well as in load following and time-shifting.
|Several hundreds of MW level,|
Response time: mins Discharge period:
~12 h and even more
|Exp: BES, PHES, CAES;|
Pro: FCs, FBs, TES
|FRT capability||There has been much interest in the concept of MGs recently. As the power capacity of MGs increase, EPS can deliver significant power from DGs. During power grid interruptions, a high-powered MG disconnect can lead to power grid instability.|
New grid codes that address stringent requirements. However, broadly linking MGs through distribution networks requires a change in their philosophy of connecting them to the utility grid.
Grid-connected MG requires FRT capabilities and ancillary services during abnormal grid operations.
|~100 kW–100 MW|
Up to ~s,
Discharge period: s to mins and even hrs
|Exp: BES, FBs, CAES;|
Pro: FCs, FES, SCs
|Transmission and distribution stabilization||To control power quality, reduce congestion, and/or ensure that the system operates under normal working conditions, ESS can be used to synchronize the operation of a power transmission line or parts of a distribution unit.|
Such applications require immediate response and a relatively large grid demand power capacity.
|Up to 100 MW level,|
Response time: ~ms Discharge period: ms to s
|Exp: BES, SMES;|
Pro: FBs, FES, SCs
|Black-start||ESS can deliver a system from a shutdown condition to its start-up without using electricity from the grid.||Up to ̴ 40 MW level,|
Discharge period: s to hrs
|Exp: BES, CAES, FBs;|
Pro: FCs, TES
|Standing reserve||ESS facilities serve as temporary additional generating units in the middle to large scale grid to balance power supply and demand at a certain time.|
The standing reserve can be used to meet current demand that is higher than future demand and/or plant failure.
|1–100 MW level,|
Response time: <10 min,
Pro: FCs, FBs, PHES, CAES
|Load following||ESS installations can support subsequent electricity demand load changes.|
The Irvine Smart Grid Demonstration test project with advanced batteries offers load follow-up and voltage support services in California.
|Up to hundreds of MW level,|
up to ~1 s,
Discharge period: min to few hours
|Exp: FBs, BES, SMES;|
|EMS||In EMS, ESS plays an important role in optimizing the use of energy, and decoupling generation time and energy consumption.|
Typical EMS applications are time-shifting and peak shaving.
|>100 MW for large scale,|
~1–100 MW for medium/small scale
Response time: mins,
Discharge period: hrs to days
|Exp: Large—HS, CAES, TES; Smal—BES, FBs, TES|
Pro: FCs, FES
|Time-shifting||It can be attained by stored electrical energy when it is cheaper, and the stored energy used or sold during periods of high demand.||~1–100 MW & even more|
Response time: mins,
|Exp: PHS, CAES, BES;|
Pro: FBs, FCs, TES
|Peak shaving||Peak shaving is the use of stored energy during off-peak periods to offset energy generation over maximum power demand periods.|
The ESS function offers economic benefits by reducing the need to use high-cost electricity generation.
|~100 kW–100 MW & even more|
Response time: mins,
Discharge period: hr level, ~<10 h
|Exp: PHS, CAES, BES|
Pro: FCs, TES
|Network stability||Some grid/network power electronic, information and communication systems are highly vulnerable to fluctuations in power.|
ESS installations can provide the protective function for these systems, requiring high ramp power and high cycling time capabilities with a rapid response time.
|Up to MW level,|
Response time: ms,
Discharge period: Up to ms
|Exp: BES FES, SCs, SMES;|
|||Energy Security||Severe weather||It is a known fact that weather might be a greater disruption, especially in countries like the United States. This is the reason that climate change will result in a need to address the resilience of the grids. Thus, MGs could offer power to major services and groups through their spread generation assets if the main drop.||Costs levied on-grid outage concerning weather-related issues in the U.S. alone between 2003–12 ranging around $18B–$33B in a year due to poor output and wages disposal, also from spoiling inventory, delayed production followed by losses from the electric grid .|
|[32,116]||Outages||Electrical grids of critical capacity remained a mild issue in a system that can result in a domino effect that takes down a complete electrical grid . MGs reduce this risk by dividing the grid into minor functional units, which can be isolated and operated independently whenever needed.||The U.S. Northeast Blackout of August 2003 made nearly 50 million people suffer because of 61,800 MW of load reduction .|
|[117,118,119,120,121,122,123,124,125]||Physical and Cyber outbreaks||Today, the grid depends on progressive information and communications technologies, thus making it susceptible to cyber-attack . The central grid network involves larger components, which are rather costly and difficult to exchange whenever they get damaged. MGs, with the decentralized design, are less susceptible to outbreaks on distinct sections of generation or transmission power supplies, natural [118,119], artificial, or electromagnetic pulse incidents might also under disastrous results [120,121].||Ukrainian cyber-attacks  in 2015 and Israel in 2016 were effectively eliminated .|
Larger transformers were confronted at a major California substation in 2013 [124,125].
|[126,127,128]||Saving the cost of infrastructural facilities||U.S. electricity grid systems were not able to keep up with the generation pace. Consequently, the capacity of the grid is inhibited in several zones, and components are relatively old, with 70% transmission lines and transformers now moving forward to 25 years. The age of the power plant is over 30 years old . It has the capability of avoiding or deferring investments for replacement.||The deferred construction over $1B substation from Queens and the Brooklyn area of NY .|
Costs levied $40,000–$100,000 per mile, relying based on prominent factors like terrain, design, and cost of labor of building new primary distribution systems .
|[129,130]||Fuel Savings||MGs provide various efficiency types, including minimizing losses in the line, the combination of heat, cooling, and power losses, along with the shift to distribution systems of direct current to remove unnecessary DC-AC conversions. When absorption cooling technology with the combination of heat and power applications might aid in addressing the peak electricity demand that usually occurs in the summer season .||The losses from wastage in transmission and distribution are about 5% & 10% over a gross electricity generation .|
When appropriately used, the effectiveness of heat and power systems can reach 80–90% , which is found to be much higher than the average efficiency of the U.S. grid that is currently (only ~30–40%) used [129,130].
|[131,132,133,134,135]||Ancillary Services||Conventional ancillary services consist of relief from congestions, regulation of frequency & load, black start, controlling both reactive power & voltage along with spinning supplies. This is because of their capability to provide the same inertia as that of a conventional power generation system, non-spinning, and additional reserves [131,132]. Also, all the individual operations should be included in the list .||Current rulings under 755 & 784 of U.S. FERC necessitate the fast-reacting reserves that are employed in MGs that needs to be compensated as per their speediness and accurateness, options for the possibility of new revenue system [134,135].|
|[136,137,138,139,140,141]||Integration of the clean energy system||Need to secure inconstant and|
|Significant sources for clean energy sources for addressing climate change such as solar PV and wind are variable and non-controllable that could result in challenges such as excessive generation , steep ramping [137,138] and voltage control [139,140] MGs are designed for handling variable generation by making use of storage technologies for locally balancing the generation of loads.||In Texas, California, and Germany, the cost of electricity is relatively high, which reflects the imbalance found between demand and supply [140,141].|
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Kumar, G.V.B.; Palanisamy, K. A Review of Energy Storage Participation for Ancillary Services in a Microgrid Environment. Inventions 2020, 5, 63. https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions5040063
Kumar GVB, Palanisamy K. A Review of Energy Storage Participation for Ancillary Services in a Microgrid Environment. Inventions. 2020; 5(4):63. https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions5040063Chicago/Turabian Style
Kumar, G V Brahmendra, and K Palanisamy. 2020. "A Review of Energy Storage Participation for Ancillary Services in a Microgrid Environment" Inventions 5, no. 4: 63. https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions5040063