This study was performed to assess the value of SPECT/CT radiomics parameters in differentiating enchondroma and atypical cartilaginous tumors (ACTs) located in the long bones. Quantitative HDP SPECT/CT data of 49 patients with enchondromas or ACTs in the long bones were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were randomly split into training (n
= 32) and test (n
= 17) data, and SPECT/CT radiomics parameters were extracted. In training data, LASSO was employed for feature reduction. Selected parameters were compared with classic quantitative parameters for the prediction of diagnosis. Significant parameters from training data were again tested in the test data. A total of 12 (37.5%) and 6 (35.2%) patients were diagnosed as ACTs in training and test data, respectively. LASSO regression selected two radiomics features, zone-length non-uniformity for zone (ZLNUGLZLM
) and coarseness for neighborhood grey-level difference (CoarsenessNGLDM
). Multivariate analysis revealed higher ZLNUGLZLM
as the only significant independent factor for the prediction of ACTs, with sensitivity and specificity of 85.0% and 58.3%, respectively, with a cut-off value of 191.26. In test data, higher ZLNUGLZLM
was again associated with the diagnosis of ACTs, with sensitivity and specificity of 83.3% and 90.9%, respectively. HDP SPECT/CT radiomics may provide added value for differentiating between enchondromas and ACTs.