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Safety, Volume 8, Issue 2 (June 2022) – 27 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Conventional methods to gather information about pilots’ mental state and skills are typically based on expert supervision and self-reports. These measurements are highly operator-dependent (personal experience and emotional bias), require interrupting the tasks (invasiveness and low temporal resolution), and do not include information related to pilots’ cognitive demand (paucity of user's insights). Thus, clear how these measurements alone cannot be used to properly assess pilots’ state, skills, and ongoing situation. Neurophysiological measures gained momentum in different research and operative contexts and represent an objective, unobtrusive, and a powerful tool to determine users' affective state on the basis of mind-body relations. The computation and combination of different data will therefore radically change the field of mental state monitoring and training tailoring. View this paper
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21 pages, 1073 KiB  
Article
Understanding Factors Underlying Fatigue among Collegiate Aviation Pilots in the United States
by Julius Keller, Flavio Antonio Coimbra Mendonca and Daniel Kwasi Adjekum
Safety 2022, 8(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8020046 - 14 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3899
Abstract
An increase in evidence-based studies into the deleterious effects of fatigue on flight operations has been reported by key aviation groups globally. The collegiate aviation flight training environment has not been researched at the same level when compared to military and airline operations. [...] Read more.
An increase in evidence-based studies into the deleterious effects of fatigue on flight operations has been reported by key aviation groups globally. The collegiate aviation flight training environment has not been researched at the same level when compared to military and airline operations. College aged students are unique in the sense that they are tasked with classwork, studying, participation in student organizations, social activities, and often have part time jobs within and outside of the academic environment. These conditions may cause errors, incidents, accidents, poor academic performance, and undesirable health metrics. The purpose of this study was to understand fatigue as a multi-factorial dimension and to assess potential relationships among these factors using hypothesized measurement models. The research team distributed the Collegiate Aviation Fatigue Inventory II (CAFI-II) to eight small, medium, and large collegiate aviation programs in the United States. The CAFI-II primarily focuses on fatigue awareness, causes and symptoms of fatigue, and lifestyle choices. Four hundred and twenty-two (n = 422) valid responses were obtained. Results suggested a direct predictive relationship between fatigue in collegiate flight training and the perceptions of respondents of conditions that are known to cause fatigue. Findings also suggested that respondents who had a favorable perception of fatigue risk and management programs had a better understanding of the causes of fatigue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aviation Safety 2021)
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11 pages, 827 KiB  
Article
Using a Brain-Inspired Decision-Making System to Model a Real-Time Responsive Risk Assessment of the Dynamic Tasks Involved with Hazardous Materials
by Alireza Asgari and Yvan Beauregard
Safety 2022, 8(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8020045 - 13 Jun 2022
Viewed by 2220
Abstract
Risk assessment of the operations utilized in processing products and services always deals with uncertainties and complexities. The ever-evolving complex and dynamic circumstances make it very difficult to identify and analyze potential events affecting workers’ safety and health. Our first study was on [...] Read more.
Risk assessment of the operations utilized in processing products and services always deals with uncertainties and complexities. The ever-evolving complex and dynamic circumstances make it very difficult to identify and analyze potential events affecting workers’ safety and health. Our first study was on managing the risky situations of a dynamic environment, the transport and storage of residual hazardous materials with high variation in operational times. It showed that the dynamicity of operational functions has a direct relation to the risk of accidents and suggested that such environments require a system to decide whether to perform each new action on a suspected risk condition or not. A practical framework, engaged close to the variable functions involved in potential events, is needed to provide reliable measures for risk assessment. Based on these measures, this framework would help to make decisions at the right time and to take preventive actions. It would support the decision-making process by recognizing the risk-associated features of available information and offer continuously updated alternatives for appropriate actions to prevent unsafe operations. In our second study, we developed a brain-inspired decision-making system for the real-time configuration of dynamic environments. That decision-making system builds knowledge from the least to the most similarities between experienced states to determine the most appropriate action(s) to rapidly reorient risky operations to a safe condition. This paper aims to verify the second study’s proposed system performance in the simulated environment discussed in our first study on residual hazardous materials transportation. We extract information, including the effective factors, from that first study and use it in the decision-making system to prevent risky transportation. This model would be useful in daily risk management as a practical framework for establishing safe operations in today’s industrial environments that involve dangerous chemical or radioactive products. Full article
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19 pages, 1222 KiB  
Article
Temporal Stability Analysis of Lighting Conditions in Traffic Accidents
by Fujin Hou, Chen Lv, Qun Liu, Rui Yue, Huarui Gao, Rendong Pi, Ruirui Cai and Xinming Guo
Safety 2022, 8(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8020044 - 9 Jun 2022
Viewed by 2572
Abstract
Different lighting conditions can result in accidents of different levels of severity. However, current studies lack the consideration of the heterogeneity and temporal stability of accident data under various lighting conditions. Therefore, three years’ worth of data were used to investigate the critical [...] Read more.
Different lighting conditions can result in accidents of different levels of severity. However, current studies lack the consideration of the heterogeneity and temporal stability of accident data under various lighting conditions. Therefore, three years’ worth of data were used to investigate the critical factors of accident severity. The random parameters logit model was employed to investigate the influence of different lighting conditions on temporal stability and heterogeneity. The critical factors affecting injury severity were also identified. The temporal stability and transferability of the models were investigated by a series of likelihood ratio tests. Based on different lighting conditions (daylight conditions, and night-time conditions with street lighting on), six models were established. Three kinds of accident injury severity levels were classified: property damage only (PDO), severe injury (SI), and fatal injury (FI). The estimation results showed contributing factors of accident severity were significantly different between the two kinds of lighting conditions. Additionally, accidents showed temporal instability. The proposed method can provide a guide for infrastructure construction, operation, and maintenance in traffic-safety management. Full article
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18 pages, 352 KiB  
Review
Work-Related Driving of Heavy Goods Vehicles: Factors That Influence Road Safety and the Development of a Framework for Safety Training
by Katrine Grinerud
Safety 2022, 8(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8020043 - 8 Jun 2022
Viewed by 3097
Abstract
Road traffic accidents are a major health concern all over the world. Each year, 1.3 million people die in fatal road traffic accidents. Fatal and serious heavy goods vehicle (HGV) crashes are over-represented in many countries. This paper is a contribution to the [...] Read more.
Road traffic accidents are a major health concern all over the world. Each year, 1.3 million people die in fatal road traffic accidents. Fatal and serious heavy goods vehicle (HGV) crashes are over-represented in many countries. This paper is a contribution to the road safety literature and has two aims. First, the study seeks to identify important factors in managing road safety for work-related driving of HGVs. Second, the study proposes an overall framework for how safety training could be executed and its overall content. Methods used were a literature review and a case study. The results show that important factors for management of road safety could be arranged at different levels: governmental level, third-party level, organizational level and driver level. Most important is that a systematic approach to road traffic safety for HGVs is essential. Every party is jointly responsible for road traffic safety, and parties must communicate and work together to increase road traffic safety for work-related driving of HGVs. By developing a safety training program for all parties in the system, the study proposes a method for increased communication, collaboration and cooperation between parties. Full article
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20 pages, 3250 KiB  
Article
Understanding the Factors Associated with the Temporal Variability in Crash Severity before, during, and after the COVID-19 Shelter-in-Place Order
by Emmanuel Kofi Adanu, Sunday Okafor, Praveena Penmetsa and Steven Jones
Safety 2022, 8(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8020042 - 2 Jun 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3123
Abstract
The COVID-19 travel restriction orders have significantly reduced travel and generally lowered the risk of road traffic collisions, but many accounts suggest an increase in risky driving behaviors and consequent fatal crashes during the shelter-in-place period. Risky driving behaviors including failure to wear [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 travel restriction orders have significantly reduced travel and generally lowered the risk of road traffic collisions, but many accounts suggest an increase in risky driving behaviors and consequent fatal crashes during the shelter-in-place period. Risky driving behaviors including failure to wear a seatbelt, speeding, and drunk driving were observed to be the leading contributing factors of the fatalities. Whereas the fatal crashes that characterized the shelter-in-place period has become a topical issue, the high number of crashes that occurred as a result of the panic shopping and increased travel activities in the weeks before the shelter-in-place order have not received much attention. In this study, we investigated the differences and similarities in the effects of the factors that were associated with crash injury severity before, during, and after the shelter-in-place order. The study used crash data from the state of Alabama for the 2020 calendar year. Preliminary data analysis revealed interesting variations in crash trends across the three periods. It was found that the highest weekly crash frequency occurred in the immediate week before the shelter-in-place order, and a higher proportion of crashes that occurred between 6 p.m. and 6 a.m. and those that occurred in residential areas happened during the shelter-in-place period while shopping area crashes, manufacturing/industrial area crashes, rear-end collisions, and crashes involving female drivers occurred mostly before the shelter-in-place period. Three injury severity models were developed using random parameters logit with heterogeneity in means and variances approach. The results showed that major injury crashes occurred mainly in rural areas and occurred due to speeding, fatigue driving, and failure to use a seatbelt. The effects of these factors on crash outcome did not vary across the year, indicating that the shelter-in-place order did not impact the driving behaviors of the driver population that got into major injury crashes. The results further revealed that the effects of some crash factors, such as road type and manner of collision, varied across the periods. The findings of the study provide a deeper, data-driven understanding of how driving behaviors and associated crash outcomes may be affected by extreme events such as the COVID-19 shelter-in-place. Full article
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25 pages, 10915 KiB  
Article
Methodology for Monitoring Work Zones Traffic Operations Using Connected Vehicle Data
by Rahul Suryakant Sakhare, Jairaj Desai, Howell Li, Mischa A. Kachler and Darcy M. Bullock
Safety 2022, 8(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8020041 - 1 Jun 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4525
Abstract
The National Work Zone Safety Information Clearinghouse estimated there were approximately 115,000 work zone crashes with 842 fatalities in 2019. There is broad consensus that it is important for agencies to develop near real-time risk assessment of work zone traffic operations to proactively [...] Read more.
The National Work Zone Safety Information Clearinghouse estimated there were approximately 115,000 work zone crashes with 842 fatalities in 2019. There is broad consensus that it is important for agencies to develop near real-time risk assessment of work zone traffic operations to proactively identify improvement opportunities. Due to the huge spatial distribution and relatively low frequency of crashes, legacy techniques of monitoring crash locations do not scale well for identifying all but the most severe construction zone operational problems. Past research identified hard braking and congestion as strong predictors for crashes in and around work zones. This paper presents scalable methodologies that can be used to systematically analyze hard-braking and speed data obtained from connected vehicles. These techniques have been applied to over 205 billion records in Indiana since 2019. These statewide data analytics are fused into concise graphics to identify work zones with emerging anomalies in congestion and/or hard braking. Weekly screening reports, institutionalized in Indiana for the past two years, provide information for agile agency monitoring and response. Case studies show quantitative changes in work zone performance measures, and corresponding surveillance video images illustrate the significance of these changes. During this period of near real-time monitoring and agile agency response, Indiana interstate crash rates have been reduced by 31% from 2019 to 2021, even though most 2021 interstate traffic volumes have rebounded to pre-pandemic 2019 volumes. Full article
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27 pages, 1073 KiB  
Article
A Focus Group Study to Explore Risky Ridership among Young Motorcyclists in Manipal, India
by Kumar Sumit, Kris Brijs, Veerle Ross, Geert Wets and Robert A. C. Ruiter
Safety 2022, 8(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8020040 - 1 Jun 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 7500
Abstract
Road crash injuries have emerged as a significant public health issue in many low and middle-income countries in recent years. In India, motorized two-wheelers comprise 70% of the vehicle population and are considered the most vulnerable road users. Road crash injury is common [...] Read more.
Road crash injuries have emerged as a significant public health issue in many low and middle-income countries in recent years. In India, motorized two-wheelers comprise 70% of the vehicle population and are considered the most vulnerable road users. Road crash injury is common among the young-aged population leading to premature deaths. It is essential to understand risky riding behaviors to develop accurate, evidence-based risk reduction programmes that fit the target population’s characteristics and the intervention setting. The current study aims to improve the understanding of the typical characteristics of motorcycle crashes among young riders in India, primarily focusing on the prevalence and role of risky riding behaviors. Five focus group discussions with eight to ten participants in each group (N = 35) were conducted in Manipal, in the Karnataka state of Southwestern India. A thematic analysis was completed using MAXQDA software to identify, analyze, and report on themes within the data. Speeding, riding under the influence of alcohol, and the poor maintenance of motorcycles were indicated as leading causes of crashes. Furthermore, using mobile phones while riding, violations of the traffic rules, and helmet non-use were identified as other risky behaviors among young riders. Future research can be taken up in other settings for the target population. Generational awareness with the involvement of young riders, government authorities, university officials, and the Regional Transport Office can be initiated. Engaging young riders, government authorities, university officials, and the Regional Transport Office through behavioral interventions such as persuasive communication techniques, an active experimental approach (such as the use of a simulator), and regulating the licensing procedure can reduce the number of road crashes. Full article
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17 pages, 1150 KiB  
Article
Lack of Agreement between Safety Priorities and Practices in Agricultural Operators: A Challenge for Injury Prevention
by Cheryl L. Beseler and Risto H. Rautiainen
Safety 2022, 8(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8020039 - 23 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2966
Abstract
Despite training and prevention programs, injury rates in agriculture remain high, and safety compliance is a challenge. Our aim was to compare farm operators’ reported safety priorities to related behaviors. Surveys were mailed to 1600 agricultural operators; 326 returned complete data. We asked [...] Read more.
Despite training and prevention programs, injury rates in agriculture remain high, and safety compliance is a challenge. Our aim was to compare farm operators’ reported safety priorities to related behaviors. Surveys were mailed to 1600 agricultural operators; 326 returned complete data. We asked respondents about their safety priorities and practices related to machinery, chemicals, and structures. Kappa statistics, factor analysis, structural equation modeling, and profile analysis were used to understand how practices and priorities were related. Agreement between priorities and practices was low to moderate with high variability. Most discrepancies between the two were found in storing pesticides safely, keeping safety data sheets, using personal protective equipment, grain bin entry, and ladder safety. Machinery questions formed consistent constructs for practices and priorities, where practices predicted priorities more strongly than priorities predicted practices. Younger operators were less frequently exercising safe behaviors compared to older operators. Three safety compliance groups were identified: low compliance (15% of respondents), moderate (61%), and high (24%). Overall, operators reported that safety was a high priority, but their practices suggested otherwise. The promotion of safety culture has been suggested as an underutilized means in agriculture to address the complex issues that lead to unsafe practices, regardless of whether they are tied to limited resources, work organization, working environments, machinery, work habits, or general attention to safety. Effective new ways focusing on operator motivation are needed to bridge the gap between safety priorities and practices. Full article
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17 pages, 2779 KiB  
Article
Air Force Pilot Expertise Assessment during Unusual Attitude Recovery Flight
by Gianluca Borghini, Pietro Aricò, Gianluca Di Flumeri, Vincenzo Ronca, Andrea Giorgi, Nicolina Sciaraffa, Claudio Conca, Simone Stefani, Paola Verde, Angelo Landolfi, Roberto Isabella and Fabio Babiloni
Safety 2022, 8(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8020038 - 13 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3680
Abstract
Pilot training and expertise are key aspects in aviation. A traditional way of evaluating pilot expertise is to measure performance output. However, this approach provides a narrow view of the pilot’s capacity, especially with regard to mental and emotional profile. The aim of [...] Read more.
Pilot training and expertise are key aspects in aviation. A traditional way of evaluating pilot expertise is to measure performance output. However, this approach provides a narrow view of the pilot’s capacity, especially with regard to mental and emotional profile. The aim of this study is hence to investigate whether neurophysiological data can be employed as an additional objective measure to assess the expertise of pilots. In this regard, it has been demonstrated that mental effort can be used as an indirect measure of operator expertise and capacity. An increase in mental effort, for instance, can automatically result in a decrease in the remaining capacity of the operator. To better investigate this aspect, we ask two groups of Italian Air Force pilots, experienced (Experts) and unexperienced (Novices), to undergo unusual attitude recovery flight training simulations. Their behavioral (unusual attitude recovery time), subjective (mental effort demand perception) and neurophysiological data (Electroencephalogram, EEG; Electrocardiogram, ECG) are collected during the entire flight simulations. Although the two groups do not exhibit differences in terms of unusual attitude recovery time and mental effort demand perception, the EEG-based mental effort index shows how Novices request significantly higher mental effort during unusual conditions. Full article
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18 pages, 613 KiB  
Article
Goal Conflicts, Classical Management and Constructivism: How Operators Get Things Done
by Leonie Boskeljon-Horst, Robert J. De Boer, Simone Sillem and Sidney W. A. Dekker
Safety 2022, 8(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8020037 - 7 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3389
Abstract
In this study we identify the differences in goal realisation when applying two conflicting paradigms regarding rule perception and management. We gathered more than 30 scenarios where goal conflicts were apparent in a military operational unit. We found that operators repetitively utilized certain [...] Read more.
In this study we identify the differences in goal realisation when applying two conflicting paradigms regarding rule perception and management. We gathered more than 30 scenarios where goal conflicts were apparent in a military operational unit. We found that operators repetitively utilized certain routines in executing their tasks in an effort to realize several conflicting goals. These routines were not originally intended nor designed into the rules and not explicitly included in documentation. They were not necessarily at odds with the literal wording and/or the intent of rules and regulations, although we did find examples of this. Our data showed that local ingenuity was created innovatively within the frame of existing rules or kept invisible to those outside the unit. The routines were introduced and passed on informally, and we found no evidence of testing for the introduction of new risks, no migration into the knowledge base of the organisation, and no dissemination as new best practices. An explanation for this phenomenon was found in the fact that the military organisation was applying a top-down, classical, rational approach to rules. In contrast, the routines were generated by adopting a constructivist view of rules as dynamic, local, situated constructions with operators as experts. The results of this study suggest that organisations are more effective in solving goal conflicts and creating transparency on local ingenuity if they adopt a constructivist paradigm instead of, or together with, a classical paradigm. Full article
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20 pages, 1317 KiB  
Article
Estimating Safety Outcomes of Increased Organisational Safety Management in Trucking Companies
by Tor-Olav Nævestad, Ross Phillips, Inger Beate Hovi, Guri Natalie Jordbakke and Rune Elvik
Safety 2022, 8(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8020036 - 6 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2926
Abstract
The present study investigated possible consequences for the number of killed and seriously injured (KSI) in traffic if trucking companies in Norway introduced the organisational safety management (OSM) measures in the stepwise approach called the “Safety Ladder” for road goods transport. The aim [...] Read more.
The present study investigated possible consequences for the number of killed and seriously injured (KSI) in traffic if trucking companies in Norway introduced the organisational safety management (OSM) measures in the stepwise approach called the “Safety Ladder” for road goods transport. The aim of the paper was to estimate the potential of OSM to prevent KSIs involving HGV drivers in Norwegian companies, given the current prevalence and effect. On the basis of these analytical steps, the present study concluded that OSM measures seem to provide an efficient approach to reduce the number of KSIs involving HGVs, especially as previous research indicates low implementation. The estimates in the example calculations varied between 7 and 52 KSI, which potentially can be avoided per year (retrospectively). Thus, OSM measures may reduce KSIs with a share of up to 51% of the total number of KSIs involving HGVs in Norway, when taking into consideration the known effects in robust studies and current prevalence of OSM. Full article
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17 pages, 992 KiB  
Article
Prioritizing the Potential Smartification Measures by Using an Integrated Decision Support System with Sustainable Development Goals (a Case Study in Southern Italy)
by Giuseppe Guido, Sina Shaffiee Haghshenas, Sami Shaffiee Haghshenas, Alessandro Vitale, Vincenzo Gallelli and Vittorio Astarita
Safety 2022, 8(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8020035 - 5 May 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2753
Abstract
With the increasing population of cities, expanding roads as one of the essential urban infrastructures is a necessary task; therefore, adverse effects such as increased fuel consumption, pollution, noise, and road accidents are inevitable. One of the most efficient ways to mitigate congestion-related [...] Read more.
With the increasing population of cities, expanding roads as one of the essential urban infrastructures is a necessary task; therefore, adverse effects such as increased fuel consumption, pollution, noise, and road accidents are inevitable. One of the most efficient ways to mitigate congestion-related adverse effects is to introduce effective intelligent transportation systems (ITS), using advanced technologies and mobile communication protocols to make roads smarter and reduce negative impacts such as improvement in fuel consumption and pollution, and reduction of road accidents, which leads to improving quality of life. Smart roads might play a growing role in the improved safety of road transportation networks. This study aims to evaluate and rank the potential smartification measures for the road network in Calabria, in southern Italy, with sustainable development goals. For this purpose, some potential smartification measures were selected. Experts in the field were consulted using an advanced procedure: four criteria were considered for evaluating these smartification measures. The Integrated fuzzy decision support system (FDSS), namely the fuzzy Delphi analytic hierarchy process (FDAHP) with the fuzzy technique for order performance by similarity to ideal solution (FTOPSIS) were used for evaluating and ranking the potential smartification measures. The results demonstrated that the repetition of signals in the vehicle has the highest rank, and photovoltaic systems spread along the road axis has the lowest rank to use as smartification measures in the roads of the case study. Full article
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12 pages, 1103 KiB  
Article
Non-Driving-Related Task Engagement: The Role of Speed
by Sean Seaman, Pnina Gershon, Linda Angell, Bruce Mehler and Bryan Reimer
Safety 2022, 8(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8020034 - 3 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2933
Abstract
Non-driving-related tasks (NDRTs) have the potential to affect safety in a number of ways, but the conditions under which drivers choose to engage in NDRTs has not been extensively studied. This analysis considers naturalistic driving data in which drivers were recorded driving and [...] Read more.
Non-driving-related tasks (NDRTs) have the potential to affect safety in a number of ways, but the conditions under which drivers choose to engage in NDRTs has not been extensively studied. This analysis considers naturalistic driving data in which drivers were recorded driving and engaging in NDRTs at will for several weeks. Using human-annotated video captured from vehicle cabins, we examined the probabilities with which drivers engaged in NDRTs, and we examined the relationship between vehicle speed and NDRT probability, with the goal of modeling NDRT probability as a function of speed and type of NDRT observed. We found that tasks that contain significant visual and manual components, such as phone manipulation, show strong sensitivity to vehicle speed, while other tasks, such as phone conversation, show no effects of vehicle speed. These results suggest that there are systematic relationships between NDRT patterns and vehicle speed, and that the nature of these relationships is sensitive to the demands of the NDRT. The relationship between speed and NDRT probability has implications for understanding the effects of NDRTs on safety, but also for understanding how drivers may differ in terms of the strategies they employ to modulate their NDRT behaviors based upon driving demands. Full article
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18 pages, 3329 KiB  
Article
Ergonomic Design of Apron Bus with Consideration for Passengers with Mobility Constraints
by Ma. Janice J. Gumasing, Yogi Tri Prasetyo, Ardvin Kester S. Ong, Maria Rebeka Isabel M. Carcellar, John Brixter J. Aliado, Reny Nadlifatin and Satria Fadil Persada
Safety 2022, 8(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8020033 - 3 May 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 6268
Abstract
Passengers in an apron bus are usually subjected to a standing position because of its limited seats and capacity. Due to this, passengers, especially those with mobility constraints, may expose themselves to musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) risks such as body pain, discomfort, and non-collision [...] Read more.
Passengers in an apron bus are usually subjected to a standing position because of its limited seats and capacity. Due to this, passengers, especially those with mobility constraints, may expose themselves to musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) risks such as body pain, discomfort, and non-collision injuries. The purpose of this study is to design an ergonomic apron bus to aid the musculoskeletal discomfort experienced by passengers with mobility constraints, specifically the elderly, pregnant women, mothers carrying infants, and persons needing wheelchair assistance. A total of 149 participants are involved in the study. Corlett’s and Bishop’s body discomfort questionnaires and Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) are utilized to evaluate the respondent’s experience of discomfort in different regions of their body. The results show that passengers with mobility constraints experience body discomfort during the apron bus ride. The prevalence of body discomfort is evident in the lower back, knee, thigh, arm, shoulder, and middle back. Finally, principles of anthropometry are used in the study along with quality function deployment (QFD), failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA), and cost-benefit analysis to evaluate the feasibility of the recommended ergonomic design of the apron bus. To meet the requirements of people with disabilities, the ergonomic design of an apron bus is created to minimize the risk of exposure of passengers to certain musculoskeletal discomfort, maximize the space, minimize the delay time of the airlines, and be able to prioritize passengers who require mobility assistance. Full article
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20 pages, 3189 KiB  
Article
A Qualitative and Quantitative Occupational Exposure Risk Assessment to Hazardous Substances during Powder-Bed Fusion Processes in Metal-Additive Manufacturing
by Stefano Dugheri, Giovanni Cappelli, Lucia Trevisani, Simon Kemble, Fabrizio Paone, Massimiliano Rigacci, Elisabetta Bucaletti, Donato Squillaci, Nicola Mucci and Giulio Arcangeli
Safety 2022, 8(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8020032 - 20 Apr 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4516
Abstract
Metal-additive manufacturing (AM), particularly the powder-bed fusion (PBF) technique, is undergoing a transition from the short-run production of components to higher-volume manufacturing. The industry’s increased production efficiency is paired with a growing awareness of the risks related to the inhalation of very fine [...] Read more.
Metal-additive manufacturing (AM), particularly the powder-bed fusion (PBF) technique, is undergoing a transition from the short-run production of components to higher-volume manufacturing. The industry’s increased production efficiency is paired with a growing awareness of the risks related to the inhalation of very fine metal powders during PBF and AM processes, and there is a pressing need for a ready-to-use approach to assess the risks and the occupational exposure to these very final metal powders. This article presents a study conducted in an AM facility, which was conducted with the aim to propose a solution to monitor incidental airborne particle emissions during metal AM by setting up an analytical network for a tailored approach to risk assessment. Quantitative data about the respirable and inhalable particle and metal content were obtained by gravimetric and ICP-MS analyses. In addition, the concentrations of airborne particles (10–300 nm) were investigated using a direct reading instrument. A qualitative approach for risk assessment was fulfilled using control banding Nanotool v2.0. The results show that the operations in the AM facility are in line with exposure limit levels for both micron-sized and nano-sized particles. The particulate observed in the working area contains metals, such as chromium, cobalt, and nickel; thus, biological monitoring is recommended. To manage the risk level observed for all of the tasks during the AM process, containment and the supervision of an occupational safety expert are recommended to manage the risk. This study represents a useful tool that can be used to carry out a static evaluation of the risk and exposure to potentially harmful very fine metal powders in AM; however, due to the continuous innovations in this field, a dynamic approach could represent an interesting future perspective for occupational safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Industrial Safety)
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10 pages, 970 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Self-Reported Neighborhood Safety and Happiness and Life Satisfaction among Women in Low-Middle Income Countries
by Bishwajit Ghose and Josephine Etowa
Safety 2022, 8(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8020031 - 12 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3782
Abstract
Measures related to subjective well-being such as perceived happiness and life satisfaction are becoming increasingly popular among health researchers due to their strong correlation with longevity and all-cause mortality. Previous studies have focused on the role of environmental safety on female empowerment. However, [...] Read more.
Measures related to subjective well-being such as perceived happiness and life satisfaction are becoming increasingly popular among health researchers due to their strong correlation with longevity and all-cause mortality. Previous studies have focused on the role of environmental safety on female empowerment. However, not much is known about the impact of environmental risk factors such as perceived safety on subjective well-being, especially in the low-middle-income countries (LMICs). The present study aims to investigate the association between self-reported safety and self-reported happiness and life satisfaction among women in selected LMICs in Asia and Africa. Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional data from eleven countries on 186,388 women aged 15–49 years from the sixth round of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey. The outcome measures were self-reported happiness and life satisfaction, and their associations with the safety indicators (i.e., feeling unsafe in the neighborhood and at home) were calculated using generalized ordered logit models by adjusting for relevant sociodemographic factors. Results: The highest percentage of feeling very unsafe both in the neighborhood (39.3%) and at home (26.5%) was reported in Iraq, while Tonga had the highest percentage of reporting both feeling very safe in the neighborhood (55.3%) and at home (54.9%). The odds of self-reported worsening life satisfaction were higher among women who reported feeling very unsafe in the neighborhood [OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.36,1.50] and at home [OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.08,1.19]. Feeling of being very unsafe in the neighborhood [OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.10,1.22] and at home [OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.57,1.74] also showed strong positive association with self-reported unhappiness. Conclusions: Our findings from eleven LMICs across Asia and Africa indicate that lack of environmental safety may negatively impact subjective well-being among women. Further research is necessary to explore the root causes of insecurity and design intervention programs aiming to promote women’s psychosocial health and well-being. Full article
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13 pages, 1731 KiB  
Article
Effects of Automation and Fatigue on Drivers from Various Age Groups
by Sadegh Arefnezhad, Arno Eichberger and Ioana Victoria Koglbauer
Safety 2022, 8(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8020030 - 11 Apr 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3427
Abstract
This study explores how drivers are affected by automation when driving in rested and fatigued conditions. Eighty-nine drivers (45 females, 44 males) aged between 20 and 85 years attended driving experiments on separate days, once in a rested and once in a fatigued [...] Read more.
This study explores how drivers are affected by automation when driving in rested and fatigued conditions. Eighty-nine drivers (45 females, 44 males) aged between 20 and 85 years attended driving experiments on separate days, once in a rested and once in a fatigued condition, in a counterbalanced order. The results show an overall effect of automation to significantly reduce drivers’ workload and effort. The automation had different effects, depending on the drivers’ conditions. Differences between the manual and automated mode were larger for the perceived time pressure and effort in the fatigued condition as compared to the rested condition. Frustration was higher during manual driving when fatigued, but also higher during automated driving when rested. Subjective fatigue and the percentage of eye closure (PERCLOS) were higher in the automated mode compared to manual driving mode. PERCLOS differences between the automated and manual mode were higher in the fatigued condition than in the rested condition. There was a significant interaction effect of age and automation on drivers’ PERCLOS. These results are important for the development of driver-centered automation because they show different benefits for drivers of different ages, depending on their condition (fatigued or rested). Full article
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16 pages, 826 KiB  
Article
Assessing School Travel Safety in Scotland: An Empirical Analysis of Injury Severities for Accidents in the School Commute
by Grigorios Fountas, Adebola Olowosegun and Socrates Basbas
Safety 2022, 8(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8020029 - 11 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3611
Abstract
School travel has been a significant source of safety concerns for children, parents, and public authorities. It will continue to be a source of concerns as long as severe accidents continue to emerge during pupils’ commute to school. This study provides an empirical [...] Read more.
School travel has been a significant source of safety concerns for children, parents, and public authorities. It will continue to be a source of concerns as long as severe accidents continue to emerge during pupils’ commute to school. This study provides an empirical analysis of the factors influencing the injury severities of the accidents that occurred on trips to or from school in Scotland. Using 9-year data from the STATS19 public database, random parameter binary logit models with allowances for heterogeneity in the means were estimated in order to investigate injury severities in urban and rural areas. The results suggested that factors such as the road type, lighting conditions, vehicle type, and age of the driver or casualty constitute the common determinants of injury severities in both urban and rural areas. Single carriageways and vehicles running on heavy oil engines were found to induce opposite effects in urban and rural areas, whereas the involvement of a passenger car in the accident decomposed various layers of unobserved heterogeneity for both area types. The findings of this study can inform future policy interventions with a focus on traffic calming in the proximity of schools. Full article
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23 pages, 2196 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Contributing Factors Affecting Number of Vehicles Involved in Crashes Using Machine Learning Techniques in Rural Roads of Cosenza, Italy
by Giuseppe Guido, Sina Shaffiee Haghshenas, Sami Shaffiee Haghshenas, Alessandro Vitale, Vittorio Astarita, Yongjin Park and Zong Woo Geem
Safety 2022, 8(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8020028 - 8 Apr 2022
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 4399
Abstract
The evaluation of road safety is a critical issue having to be conducted for successful safety management in road transport systems, whereas safety management is considered in road transportation systems as a challenging task according to the dynamic of this issue and the [...] Read more.
The evaluation of road safety is a critical issue having to be conducted for successful safety management in road transport systems, whereas safety management is considered in road transportation systems as a challenging task according to the dynamic of this issue and the presence of a large number of effective parameters on road safety. Therefore, the evaluation and analysis of important contributing factors affecting the number of vehicles involved in crashes play a key role in increasing the efficiency of road safety. For this purpose, in this research work, two machine learning algorithms, including the group method of data handling (GMDH)-type neural network and a combination of support vector machine (SVM) and the grasshopper optimization algorithm (GOA), are employed. Hence, the number of vehicles involved in an accident is considered to be the output, and the seven factors affecting transport safety, including Daylight (DL), Weekday (W), Type of accident (TA), Location (L), Speed limit (SL), Average speed (AS), and Annual average daily traffic (AADT) of rural roads in Cosenza, southern Italy, are selected as the inputs. In this study, 564 data sets from rural areas were investigated, and the relevant, effective parameters were measured. In the next stage, several models were developed to investigate the parameters affecting the safety management of road transportation in rural areas. The results obtained demonstrated that the “Type of accident” has the highest level and “Location” has the lowest importance in the investigated rural area. Finally, although the results of both algorithms were the same, the GOA-SVM model showed a better degree of accuracy and robustness than the GMDH model. Full article
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27 pages, 617 KiB  
Article
Should We Cut the Cards? Assessing the Influence of “Take 5” Pre-Task Risk Assessments on Safety
by Jop Havinga, Mohammed Ibrahim Shire and Andrew Rae
Safety 2022, 8(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8020027 - 8 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 11628
Abstract
This paper describes and analyses a particular safety practice, the written pre-task risk assessment, commonly referred to as a “Take 5”. The paper draws on data from a trial at a major infrastructure construction project. We conducted interviews and field observations during alternating [...] Read more.
This paper describes and analyses a particular safety practice, the written pre-task risk assessment, commonly referred to as a “Take 5”. The paper draws on data from a trial at a major infrastructure construction project. We conducted interviews and field observations during alternating periods of enforced Take 5 usage, optional Take 5 usage, and banned Take 5 usage. These data, along with evidence from other field studies, were analysed using the method of Functional Interrogation. We found no evidence to support any of the purported mechanisms by which Take 5 might be effective in reducing the risk of workplace accidents. Take 5 does not improve the planning of work, enhance worker heedfulness while conducting work, educate workers about hazards, or assist with organisational awareness and management of hazards. Whilst some workers believe that Take 5 may sometimes be effective, this belief is subject to the “Not for Me” effect, where Take 5 is always believed to be helpful for someone else, at some other time. The adoption and use of Take 5 is most likely to be an adaptive response by individuals and organisations to existing structural pressures. Take 5 provides a social defence, creating an auditable trail of safety work that may reduce anxiety in the present, and deflect blame in the future. Take 5 also serves a signalling function, allowing workers and companies to appear diligent about safety. Full article
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18 pages, 18689 KiB  
Review
A Review of Vehicle-to-Vulnerable Road User Collisions on Limited-Access Highways to Support the Development of Automated Vehicle Safety Assessments
by Husam Muslim and Jacobo Antona-Makoshi
Safety 2022, 8(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8020026 - 6 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4330
Abstract
This study aims to provide evidence to support the development of automated vehicle (AV) safety assessments that consider the possible presence of non-motorized vulnerable road-users (VRUs) on limited-access highways. Although limited-access highways are designed to accommodate high-speed motor vehicles, collisions involving VRUs on [...] Read more.
This study aims to provide evidence to support the development of automated vehicle (AV) safety assessments that consider the possible presence of non-motorized vulnerable road-users (VRUs) on limited-access highways. Although limited-access highways are designed to accommodate high-speed motor vehicles, collisions involving VRUs on such roadways are frequently reported. A narrative review is conducted, covering the epidemiology of VRUs crashes on limited-access highways to identify typical crash patterns considering collisions severity and the underlying reasons for the VRUs to use the highway. The review results show that occupants alighting from a disabled or crashed vehicle, people seeking help or helping others, highway maintenance zones, police stops, and people crossing a highway should be given priority to ensure VRU safety on limited-access highways. The results are summarized in figures with schematic models to generate test scenarios for AV safety assessment. Additionally, the results are discussed using two examples of traffic situations relevant to the potential AV-VRU crashes on highways and the current performance of autonomous emergency braking and autonomous emergency steering systems. These findings have important implications for producing scenarios in which AV may not produce crashes lest it performs worse than human drivers in the proposed scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transportation System Design)
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10 pages, 523 KiB  
Article
Resilient Safety Culture and Safety Performance: Examining the Effect in Malaysian Paramedic Training Institute through Importance-Performance Map Analysis (IPMA)
by Intan Suraya Noor Arzahan, Zaliha Ismail and Siti Munira Yasin
Safety 2022, 8(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8020025 - 5 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3726
Abstract
An increasing number of studies have shown that safety culture factors have a substantial influence on safety performance in a variety of industrial sectors. These factors’ impact on safety performance are unclear, especially at public service and statutory authorities. On the other hand, [...] Read more.
An increasing number of studies have shown that safety culture factors have a substantial influence on safety performance in a variety of industrial sectors. These factors’ impact on safety performance are unclear, especially at public service and statutory authorities. On the other hand, the understanding of indicators for safety performance in every working sector in Malaysia is continuing to progress. Hence, this study’s contribution is to explore the influence of safety culture factors (i.e., management commitment and supervision in safety, safety system) and safety competence on safety performance in government paramedic training institutes. Importance-performance map analysis (IPMA) is a technique used in Smart PLS to determine the significance and performance of each of these factors. The study was conducted via an online survey and involved 258 safety and health committee members in the Ministry of Health paramedic training institute. As a matter of relevance, the IPMA’s empirical data study revealed that management commitment and supervision in safety were the predominant factors in determining safety performance. Meanwhile, for performance, the findings showed that worker involvement, safety system, and safety competence perform well in determining safety performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilient Safety Culture)
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22 pages, 2750 KiB  
Article
Safety Engagement in the Workplace: Text Mining Analysis
by Hyun Jeong Seo and Ah Jeong Hong
Safety 2022, 8(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8020024 - 1 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4898
Abstract
In order to derive safety engagement factors in the workplace and analyze the characteristics of the factors, we collected literature data to be analyzed by a systematic literature review and text mining analysis. We used safety, industrial, occupational, corporate, commitment, engagement, interaction, and [...] Read more.
In order to derive safety engagement factors in the workplace and analyze the characteristics of the factors, we collected literature data to be analyzed by a systematic literature review and text mining analysis. We used safety, industrial, occupational, corporate, commitment, engagement, interaction, and participation as key search terms for literature selection and used 143 literature datasets for analysis. We divided the factors of workplace safety engagement into the organizational level and the individual level. In studies after 2005, texts at the individual psychological level appeared in large numbers. Although individual factors have been studied as subfactors at the organizational level, we confirmed that the two types of factors must interact for safety engagement in the workplace. We classified safety engagement factors into cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and relational factors. In particular, relational factors were mainly composed of factors that negatively affected engagement. In the follow-up study, we identified the maturity level among safety engagement factors as divided into four dimensions needed to create a safe workplace environment and to suggest a direction for employees to engage themselves in safety. Full article
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24 pages, 1615 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Aircraft Engine Blade Inspection Performance Using Attribute Agreement Analysis
by Jonas Aust and Dirk Pons
Safety 2022, 8(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8020023 - 29 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 5022
Abstract
Background—Visual inspection is an important element of aircraft engine maintenance to assure flight safety. Predominantly performed by human operators, those maintenance activities are prone to human error. While false negatives imply a risk to aviation safety, false positives can lead to increased maintenance [...] Read more.
Background—Visual inspection is an important element of aircraft engine maintenance to assure flight safety. Predominantly performed by human operators, those maintenance activities are prone to human error. While false negatives imply a risk to aviation safety, false positives can lead to increased maintenance cost. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the human performance in visual inspection of aero engine blades, specifically the operators’ consistency, accuracy, and reproducibility, as well as the system reliability. Methods—Photographs of 26 blades were presented to 50 industry practitioners of three skill levels to assess their performance. Each image was shown to each operator twice in random order, leading to N = 2600 observations. The data were statistically analysed using Attribute Agreement Analysis (AAA) and Kappa analysis. Results—The results show that operators were on average 82.5% consistent with their serviceability decision, while achieving an inspection accuracy of 67.7%. The operators’ reproducibility was 15.4%, as was the accuracy of all operators with the ground truth. Subsequently, the false-positive and false-negative rates were analysed separately to the overall inspection accuracy, showing that 20 operators (40%) achieved acceptable performances, thus meeting the required standard. Conclusions—In aviation maintenance the false-negative rate of <5% as per Aerospace Standard AS13100 is arguably the single most important metric since it determines the safety outcomes. The results of this study show acceptable false-negative performance in 60% of appraisers. Thus, there is the desirability to seek ways to improve the performance. Some suggestions are given in this regard. Full article
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23 pages, 1195 KiB  
Review
Factors Influencing Attenuating Skill Decay in High-Risk Industries: A Scoping Review
by Marina Klostermann, Stephanie Conein, Thomas Felkl and Annette Kluge
Safety 2022, 8(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8020022 - 28 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 5768
Abstract
The infrequent use of skills relevant in non-routine situations in highly automated and high-risk industries is a major safety issue. The infrequent use of skills can lead to skill decay. Research on skill decay has a long history, but not much is known [...] Read more.
The infrequent use of skills relevant in non-routine situations in highly automated and high-risk industries is a major safety issue. The infrequent use of skills can lead to skill decay. Research on skill decay has a long history, but not much is known about the relevant factors and refresher interventions to attenuate skill decay in highly automated environments. In the present study, a scoping review was conducted to determine whether the well-known factors in skill decay research are also relevant for complex cognitive skill decay and to identify refresher interventions that are deemed effective for attenuating decay. A scoping review aims at identifying, summarizing, and mapping the body of literature on a given topic. Searches in electronic databases, including PsycArticles, PsyINFO, and Psyndex, via EBSCOhost and Web of Science and Google Scholar were conducted, and documents were analyzed regarding the research question, which resulted in n = 58 studies. The findings demonstrate the relevance of task characteristics and method-related (cognitive-based, behavioral-based training) and person-related factors (e.g., cognitive ability, experience, motivation) to mitigate decay. Additionally, the results demonstrate that minor refresher interventions are effective at attenuating complex cognitive skill decay. Implications for industry and training providers that aim to implement training and refresher interventions to attenuate skill decay in high-risk industries are provided. Researchers may use the information about the influences of person- and method-related factors, task characteristics, and refresher interventions presented in this scoping review as a starting point to conduct further empirical research by taking skill acquisition, retention, and transfer into account. Full article
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15 pages, 1751 KiB  
Article
Risky Decision Making Due to Goal Conflicts in Firefighting—Debriefing as a Countermeasure to Enhance Safety Behavior
by Vera Hagemann, Lena Heinemann, Corinna Peifer, Fabienne Aust and Maik Holtz
Safety 2022, 8(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8020021 - 25 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4322
Abstract
Firefighters act within extreme environments, work under threatening conditions and are often exposed to goal conflicts (e.g., self-protection vs. mission objective) during their missions. However, what are the consequences of these safety and task goal conflicts, and what countermeasures could help to reduce [...] Read more.
Firefighters act within extreme environments, work under threatening conditions and are often exposed to goal conflicts (e.g., self-protection vs. mission objective) during their missions. However, what are the consequences of these safety and task goal conflicts, and what countermeasures could help to reduce their occurrence? In an online survey, 340 firefighters were asked about goal conflicts, risky decision making, debriefings and the frequency of difficulties in teamwork during firefighting. Associations between the survey variables were determined by multivariate regression and mediation analyses. Data show that goal conflicts were associated with risky decision making and unsafe acts. Furthermore, debriefings were associated with fewer goal conflicts, as mediated by less-frequent difficulties with teamwork (communication, leadership and shared mental models). Though limited by the cross-sectional design of our study, the results provide evidence that debriefing is a valuable tool to reduce difficulties experienced with teamwork on missions and therefore reduce the occurrence of conflicting goals. Fewer goal conflicts are associated with a decrease in unsafe decisions and, thus, a safer working environment for firefighters. Accordingly, it is recommended to conduct debriefings, with an increased focus on team aspects. Full article
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26 pages, 1256 KiB  
Project Report
Assessing and Advancing Safety Management in Aviation
by Sybert Stroeve, Job Smeltink and Barry Kirwan
Safety 2022, 8(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8020020 - 22 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 9718
Abstract
A safety management system (SMS) is the overall set of procedures, documentation, and knowledge systems as well as the processes using them, which are employed within an organisation to control and improve its safety performance. Safety management systems are often observed as being [...] Read more.
A safety management system (SMS) is the overall set of procedures, documentation, and knowledge systems as well as the processes using them, which are employed within an organisation to control and improve its safety performance. Safety management systems are often observed as being bureaucratic, distinct from actual operations, and being too much focused on the prevention of deviations from procedures rather than on the effective support of safety in the real operational context. The soft parts of advancing safety in organisations, such as the multitude of interrelations and the informal aspects in an organisation that influence safety, are often only considered to a limited extent. As a way forward, this paper presents two coupled approaches. Firstly, a generic tool for assessing the maturity of safety management of aviation organisations is presented, which accounts for recent insights in effectively incorporating human factors. This assessment tool provides insight into the strong and weak topics of an organisation’s SMS. Secondly, an overview is given of a range of approaches that aim to improve the safety of aviation organisations by strengthening relevant organisational processes and structures, with a focus on human factors. The relations of these approaches with SMS are discussed, and the links with topics of the SMS maturity assessment tool are highlighted. Full article
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