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Magnetochemistry, Volume 8, Issue 5 (May 2022) – 12 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Several experimental investigations on spin-crossover (SCO) materials conducted by Mössbauer spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and Brillouin scattering have shown that the Debye temperature in the low-spin (LS) state is higher than that of the high-spin (HS). These results suggest stronger (resp. weaker) interactions between LS-LS (resp. HS-HS) sites due to the volume contraction accompanying the spin transition from HS to LS. The present theoretical contribution is based on an Ising-like description of this phenomenon accounting for spin-state-dependent interaction parameters, which are denoted as JHS-HS, JHS-LS, and JLS-LS. Usually, this quantity is considered to be constant in HS and LS. We analyze the effects of this approach on the equilibrium temperature as well as on the thermal hysteresis width’s, which is defined as the difference between the switching temperatures Tup and Tdown. View this paper
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15 pages, 2051 KiB  
Article
The Role of Magnetic Dipole—Dipole Coupling in Quantum Single-Molecule Toroics
Magnetochemistry 2022, 8(5), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry8050058 - 23 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2618
Abstract
For single-molecule toroics (SMTs) based on noncollinear Ising spins, intramolecular magnetic dipole–dipole coupling favours a head-to-tail vortex arrangement of the semi-classical magnetic moments associated with a toroidal ground state. However, to what extent does this effect survive beyond the semi-classical Ising limit? Here, [...] Read more.
For single-molecule toroics (SMTs) based on noncollinear Ising spins, intramolecular magnetic dipole–dipole coupling favours a head-to-tail vortex arrangement of the semi-classical magnetic moments associated with a toroidal ground state. However, to what extent does this effect survive beyond the semi-classical Ising limit? Here, we theoretically investigate the role of dipolar interactions in stabilising ground-state toroidal moments in quantum Heisenberg rings with and without on-site magnetic anisotropy. For the prototypical triangular SMT with strong on-site magnetic anisotropy, we illustrate that, together with noncollinear exchange, intramolecular magnetic dipole–dipole coupling serves to preserve ground-state toroidicity. In addition, we investigate the effect on quantum tunnelling of the toroidal moment in Kramers and non-Kramers systems. In the weak anisotropy limit, we find that, within some critical ion–ion distances, intramolecular magnetic dipole–dipole interactions, diagonalised over the entire Hilbert space of the quantum system, recover ground-state toroidicity in ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic odd-membered rings with up to seven sites, and are further stabilised by Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya coupling. Full article
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13 pages, 3333 KiB  
Article
Research on Electromagnetic Radiation Characteristics of Energetic Materials
Magnetochemistry 2022, 8(5), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry8050057 - 20 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2266
Abstract
During the explosion of energetic materials, electromagnetic interference is generated, which can affect the normal operation of surrounding electronic equipment. Therefore, an electromagnetic radiation measurement device based on a short-wave omnidirectional antenna and ultra-wideband omnidirectional antenna was designed to measure the electromagnetic radiation [...] Read more.
During the explosion of energetic materials, electromagnetic interference is generated, which can affect the normal operation of surrounding electronic equipment. Therefore, an electromagnetic radiation measurement device based on a short-wave omnidirectional antenna and ultra-wideband omnidirectional antenna was designed to measure the electromagnetic radiation generated by the explosion of energetic materials of different masses, and the electromagnetic radiation characteristics were obtained through data processing. The results showed that the electromagnetic signal can still be collected hundreds of milliseconds after the explosive is detonated, and the electromagnetic radiation generated by the explosion is continuous and intermittent, which is a phenomenon that has not been found in this field at present. The mass of the energetic material had a significant effect on the time-domain characteristics of the electromagnetic radiation generated by the explosion: the higher the mass of the energetic material was, the shorter the delay response of the electromagnetic signal was, the longer the duration was, and the earlier the peak appeared. The frequency of electromagnetic radiation signals generated by the explosion of energetic materials was mainly concentrated below 100 MHz, and the energy was most concentrated in the frequency band of 0~50 MHz. The composition of energetic materials had the greatest influence on the spectral distribution, and the spectral distribution of electromagnetic radiation produced by the explosion of explosives with different compositions had obvious specificity. The electromagnetic radiation intensity generated by the explosion of energetic materials had a strong correlation with the distance from the explosion center, and it significantly decreased as the distance increased. The structure and detonation method of energetic materials changed the geometrical motion pattern during the explosion, resulting in the non-uniformity of electromagnetic radiation propagation. Full article
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8 pages, 3023 KiB  
Article
Anomalous Hall Effect and Magneto-Optic Kerr Effect in Pt/Co/Pt Heterostructure
Magnetochemistry 2022, 8(5), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry8050056 - 12 May 2022
Viewed by 2071
Abstract
Magnetic multilayer with large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) has attracted sustained interest owing to its importance to fundamental physics and applications. In this work, the high quality of Pt/Co/Pt heterostructures with large PMA was successfully achieved to exhibit a large anomalous Hall effect [...] Read more.
Magnetic multilayer with large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) has attracted sustained interest owing to its importance to fundamental physics and applications. In this work, the high quality of Pt/Co/Pt heterostructures with large PMA was successfully achieved to exhibit a large anomalous Hall effect (AHE) with squared Hall loops. By calculating the proportional relationship between the longitudinal resistivity (ρxx) and the abnormal Hall coefficient (Rs), it is confirmed that the basic mechanism of AHE comes from the external skew scattering (SS) and side jump (SJ), while SS contribution, related to asymmetric scattering from impurities, is dominant in the AHE. Furthermore, the obvious magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) was also observed using the polar MOKE microscopy. The obviously circular magnetic domain can form and propagate in response to the applied out-of-plane magnetic field, resulting in the magnetization reversal of the entire film. This work offers important information in terms of both AHE and MOKE in the ultrathin ferromagnetic films with perpendicular anisotropy, establishing the application foundation for the nonvolatile memories and spintronics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Magnetic Two Dimensional Materials)
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9 pages, 1632 KiB  
Article
Competition of Magnetic Anisotropies in Permalloy Antidot Lattices
Magnetochemistry 2022, 8(5), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry8050055 - 10 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2012
Abstract
Antidot lattices made of magnetic thin films are good candidates to be employed in future magnetic recording media. In this manuscript we present a study on the effect of shape and field-induced magnetic anisotropies on the magnetization reversal of 10 nm and 50 [...] Read more.
Antidot lattices made of magnetic thin films are good candidates to be employed in future magnetic recording media. In this manuscript we present a study on the effect of shape and field-induced magnetic anisotropies on the magnetization reversal of 10 nm and 50 nm thick permalloy antidot lattices. Rounded antidot square lattices were fabricated using a combination of electron beam evaporation and laser interference lithography, covering surfaces of a few cm2. We demonstrate that a magnetic anisotropy induced in the samples, as a consequence of an applied magnetic field during growth, competes with the shape anisotropy that dominates the response of the patterned thin films, and that the effect of the field-induced magnetic anisotropy scales with the thickness of the antidot thin films. Finally, we have quantified the anisotropy constant attributable to the uniaxial field-induced magnetic anisotropy in our antidot lattices. These findings are supported by micromagnetic simulations performed using MuMax3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micromagnetics and Magnetization Processes in Nanomagnetism)
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16 pages, 2460 KiB  
Article
High Drug Capacity Doxorubicin-Loaded Iron Oxide Nanocomposites for Cancer Therapy
Magnetochemistry 2022, 8(5), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry8050054 - 09 May 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2907
Abstract
Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have great potential in the drug delivery area. Iron oxide (Fe3O4) MNPs have demonstrated a promising effect due to their ferrimagnetic properties, large surface area, stability, low cost, easy synthesis, and functionalization. Some coating procedures are [...] Read more.
Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have great potential in the drug delivery area. Iron oxide (Fe3O4) MNPs have demonstrated a promising effect due to their ferrimagnetic properties, large surface area, stability, low cost, easy synthesis, and functionalization. Some coating procedures are required to improve stability, biocompatibility, and decrease toxicity for medical applications. Herein, the co-precipitation synthesis of iron oxide MNPs coated with four types of primary surfactants, polyethylene glycol 2000 (PEG 2000), oleic acid (OA), Tween 20 (Tw20), and Tween 80 (Tw80), were investigated. Dynamic light scattering (DLS), ζ-potential, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were used for morphology, size, charge, and stability analysis. Methylene blue reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection assay and the toxicity experiment on the lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line were conducted. Two loading conditions for anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) on MNPs were proposed. The first one provides high loading efficiency (~90%) with up to 870 μg/mg (DOX/MNPs) drug capacity. The second is perspective for extremely high capacity 1757 μg/mg with drug wasting (DOX loading efficiency ~24%). For the most perspective MNP_OA and MNP_OA_DOX in cell media, pH 7.4, 5, and 3, the stability experiments are also presented. MNP_OA_DOX shows DOX pH-dependent release in the acidic pH and effective inhibition of A549 cancer cell growth. The IC50 values were calculated as 1.13 ± 0.02 mM in terms of doxorubicin and 0.4 ± 0.03 µg/mL in terms of the amount of the nanoparticles. Considering this, the MNP_OA_DOX nano theranostics agent is a highly potential candidate for cancer treatment. Full article
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11 pages, 4458 KiB  
Article
Studying the Effect of Electrode Material and Magnetic Field on Hydrogen Production Efficiency
Magnetochemistry 2022, 8(5), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry8050053 - 07 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2596
Abstract
Water electrolysis is one of the most common methods to produce hydrogen gas with high purity, but its application is limited due to its low energy efficiency. It has been proved that an external magnetic field can reduce energy consumption and increase hydrogen [...] Read more.
Water electrolysis is one of the most common methods to produce hydrogen gas with high purity, but its application is limited due to its low energy efficiency. It has been proved that an external magnetic field can reduce energy consumption and increase hydrogen production efficiency in water electrolysis. In this study, electrodes with different magnetism were subjected to a perpendicular magnetic field for use in hydrogen production by water electrolysis. Gas bubbles that evolve from the surface of a horizontal electrode detach faster than the bubbles from a vertical electrode. The locomotion of the bubbles is facilitated if the horizontal electrode faces a magnet, which induces the revolution of bubbles between the electrodes. However, the magnetic field does not increase the current density effectively if the electrodes are more than 5 cm apart. A paramagnetic (platinum) electrode has a more significant effect on bubble locomotion than a diamagnetic (graphite) material and is able to increase the efficiency of electrolysis more effectively when a perpendicular magnetic field is applied. The conductivity of platinum electrodes that face a magnet increases if the distance between the electrodes is less than 4 cm, but the conductivity of graphite electrodes does not increase until the inter-electrode distance is reduced to 2 cm. On the other hand, horizontal graphite electrodes that are subjected to a perpendicular magnetic field will generate a higher gas production rate than a platinum electrode without a magnetic field if the inter-electrode distance is less than 1 cm. Full article
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35 pages, 22248 KiB  
Review
The Structure of Biologically Active Functionalized Azoles: NMR Spectroscopy and Quantum Chemistry
Magnetochemistry 2022, 8(5), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry8050052 - 06 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1942
Abstract
This review summarizes the data on the stereochemical structure of functionalized azoles (pyrazoles, imidazoles, triazoles, thiazoles, and benzazoles) and related compounds obtained by multipulse and multinuclear 1H, 13C, 15N NMR spectroscopy and quantum chemistry. The stereochemistry of functionalized azoles is [...] Read more.
This review summarizes the data on the stereochemical structure of functionalized azoles (pyrazoles, imidazoles, triazoles, thiazoles, and benzazoles) and related compounds obtained by multipulse and multinuclear 1H, 13C, 15N NMR spectroscopy and quantum chemistry. The stereochemistry of functionalized azoles is a challenging topic of theoretical research, as the correct interpretation of their chemical behavior and biological activity depends on understanding the factors that determine the stereochemical features and relative stability of their tautomers. NMR spectroscopy, in combination with quantum chemical calculations, is the most convenient and reliable approach to the evaluation of the stereochemical behavior of, in particular, nitrogen-containing heteroaromatic and heterocyclic compounds. Over the last decade, 15N NMR spectroscopy has become almost an express method for the determination of the structure of nitrogen-containing heterocycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Chemistry in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance)
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13 pages, 4954 KiB  
Article
Structure, Spectra, Morphology, and Magnetic Properties of Nb5+ Ion-Substituted Sr Hexaferrites
Magnetochemistry 2022, 8(5), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry8050051 - 06 May 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1627
Abstract
SrFe12−xNbxO19 (x = 0.00–0.15) was here synthesized by a conventional solid-state reaction method. Thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry curves revealed the sample reactions at four temperature ranges, and the optimal reaction stability was obtained at 1240 °C. A [...] Read more.
SrFe12−xNbxO19 (x = 0.00–0.15) was here synthesized by a conventional solid-state reaction method. Thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry curves revealed the sample reactions at four temperature ranges, and the optimal reaction stability was obtained at 1240 °C. A single-phase polycrystalline form of SrFe12O19 was obtained until the substitution reached 0.09, and the average crystallite size was found to be in the range of 44.21–60.02 nm. According to Fourier-transform infrared spectra, the formation of Fe–O bonds occurred at 69 and 450 cm−1 in the M-type ferrite, while Raman spectra revealed that all the peaks in the sample corresponded to Raman vibration modes and M-type structures. Through the shift of the peaks, it is speculated that Nb5+ enters into the lattice. The hysteresis loops of the samples were measured by vibrating-sample magnetometry, and the calculated results demonstrated that the coercivity increased with increases in the doping amount (686.3 Oe). At the same time, the saturation magnetization remained at a large value (>72.49 emu/g), which has rarely been reported. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hexagonal Ferrites: Synthesis, Structure and Properties)
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72 pages, 1677 KiB  
Review
Quantum Chemical Approaches to the Calculation of NMR Parameters: From Fundamentals to Recent Advances
Magnetochemistry 2022, 8(5), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry8050050 - 05 May 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2963
Abstract
Quantum chemical methods for the calculation of indirect NMR spin–spin coupling constants and chemical shifts are always in progress. They never stay the same due to permanently developing computational facilities, which open new perspectives and create new challenges every now and then. This [...] Read more.
Quantum chemical methods for the calculation of indirect NMR spin–spin coupling constants and chemical shifts are always in progress. They never stay the same due to permanently developing computational facilities, which open new perspectives and create new challenges every now and then. This review starts from the fundamentals of the nonrelativistic and relativistic theory of nuclear magnetic resonance parameters, and gradually moves towards the discussion of the most popular common and newly developed methodologies for quantum chemical modeling of NMR spectra. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Chemistry in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance)
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13 pages, 2704 KiB  
Article
A Generalized Ising-like Model for Spin Crossover Nanoparticles
Magnetochemistry 2022, 8(5), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry8050049 - 04 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1463
Abstract
Cooperative spin crossover (SCO) materials exhibit first-order phase transitions in the solid state, between the high-spin (HS) and low-spin (LS) states. Elastic long-range interactions are the basic mechanism for this particular behavior and are described well by the Ising-like model, which allows the [...] Read more.
Cooperative spin crossover (SCO) materials exhibit first-order phase transitions in the solid state, between the high-spin (HS) and low-spin (LS) states. Elastic long-range interactions are the basic mechanism for this particular behavior and are described well by the Ising-like model, which allows the reproduction of most of the experimental results in the literature. Until now, this model has been applied with an interaction parameter between the molecules, which is considered to be independent of the states. In this contribution, we extend the Ising-like model to include interaction energy that depends on the spin states and apply it to study SCO nanoparticles. Our research shows that following this new hypothesis, the equilibrium temperature shifts toward higher values. Full article
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14 pages, 3331 KiB  
Article
Heterometallic Chain Compounds of Tetrakis(µ-carboxylato)diruthenium and Tetracyanidoaurate
Magnetochemistry 2022, 8(5), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry8050048 - 02 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1512
Abstract
Heterometallic complexes of tetrakis(µ-carboxylato)diruthenium(II,III) with tetracyanidoaurate(III) [Ru2(RCOO)4Au(CN)4]n (R = CH3 (1), C2H5 (2), i-C3H7 (3), and t-C4H9 ( [...] Read more.
Heterometallic complexes of tetrakis(µ-carboxylato)diruthenium(II,III) with tetracyanidoaurate(III) [Ru2(RCOO)4Au(CN)4]n (R = CH3 (1), C2H5 (2), i-C3H7 (3), and t-C4H9 (4)) were synthesized and characterized by C,H,N-elemental analysis and infrared spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The molecular structures were determined by a single-crystal X-ray diffraction method. A polymeric arrangement with the Ru2(RCOO)4+ units alternately linked by Au(CN)4 units is formed in these complexes. The trans-bridging mode of the Au(CN)4 unit for connecting the two Ru2(RCOO)4+ units was observed for 1 and 4, while the cis-bridging mode of the Au(CN)4 unit was observed for 2 and 3. Magnetic susceptibility data with variable temperature were modeled with a zero-field splitting model (D = 75 cm−1) and the presence of weak antiferromagnetic coupling between the RuIIRuIII units (zJ = −0.15~−0.10 cm−1) was estimated. N2-adsorption isotherms showed Type II curves with SBET of 0.728–2.91 m2 g−1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterization of Coordination Compounds)
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15 pages, 1858 KiB  
Article
Extending NMR Quantum Computation Systems by Employing Compounds with Several Heavy Metals as Qubits
Magnetochemistry 2022, 8(5), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry8050047 - 21 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2455
Abstract
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a spectroscopic method that can be applied to several areas. Currently, this technique is also being used as an experimental quantum simulator, where nuclear spins are employed as quantum bits or qubits. The present work is devoted to [...] Read more.
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a spectroscopic method that can be applied to several areas. Currently, this technique is also being used as an experimental quantum simulator, where nuclear spins are employed as quantum bits or qubits. The present work is devoted to studying heavy metal complexes as possible candidates to act as qubit molecules. Nuclei such 113Cd, 199Hg, 125Te, and 77Se assembled with the most common employed nuclei in NMR-QIP implementations (1H, 13C, 19F, 29Si, and 31P) could potentially be used in heteronuclear systems for NMR-QIP implementations. Hence, aiming to contribute to the development of future scalable heteronuclear spin systems, we specially designed four complexes, based on the auspicious qubit systems proposed in our previous work, which will be explored by quantum chemical calculations of their NMR parameters and proposed as suitable qubit molecules. Chemical shifts and spin–spin coupling constants in four complexes were examined using the spin–orbit zeroth-order regular approximation (ZORA) at the density functional theory (DFT) level, as well as the relaxation parameters (T1 and T2). Examining the required spectral properties of NMR-QIP, all the designed complexes were found to be promising candidates for qubit molecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Chemistry in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance)
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