Next Article in Journal
Overexpression of RrGGP2 and RrDHAR Increases Ascorbic Acid Content in Tomato
Next Article in Special Issue
Phytochemical Profile and Antioxidant Activity of Some Open-Field Ancient-Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Genotypes and Promising Breeding Lines
Previous Article in Journal
Unraveling Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Interactions in the Exotic Plant Nicotiana glauca Graham for Enhanced Soil Fertility and Alleviation of Metal Pollution
Previous Article in Special Issue
Diversity of Catechin Content in the Leaves of Persimmon Germplasms
Font Type:
Arial Georgia Verdana
Font Size:
Aa Aa Aa
Line Spacing:
Column Width:

Overview of Melatonin’s Impact on Postharvest Physiology and Quality of Fruits

Syariful Mubarok
Erni Suminar
Adzkia Husnul Abidat
Citra Ayu Setyawati
Erik Setiawan
2 and
Adine Syabina Buswar
Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Padjadjaran, Sumedang 45363, JB, Indonesia
Undergraduate Program of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Padjadjaran, Sumedang 45363, JB, Indonesia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Horticulturae 2023, 9(5), 586;
Submission received: 20 April 2023 / Revised: 11 May 2023 / Accepted: 14 May 2023 / Published: 15 May 2023


Fruits are important horticultural commodities because they provide nutrients that help human health. Fruits are mostly consumed as fresh products; however, there are challenges in retaining the freshness, such as the rapid ripening process that triggers fruit deterioration and reduces fruit quality and nutrient content. The postharvest quality of horticultural crops is affected by pre-and postharvest treatment. Most farmers use chemical compounds and fungicides to prevent postharvest damage; however, this results in health hazards and environmental pollution. Melatonin can be used for maintaining and improving postharvest horticultural crops such as fruits. Melatonin is a new bioactive compound that is a potent free radical scavenger and antioxidant. It has been studied as an alternative to harmful chemicals used commercially in the postharvest management of fresh products. For human health, melatonin plays a regulatory role in circadian and seasonal rhythms, sleep, retinal functions, and the immune system. In plants, melatonin regulates many biological processes, particularly when plants have experienced abiotic stress, germination, aging, and growth. The effect of exogenous melatonin on fruit ripening has focused primarily on the relationship between melatonin and ethylene plant hormones. Many studies in recent years have discussed melatonin’s role in plants, particularly in delaying plant aging as an alternative way of increasing fruit shelf life. This review provides a comprehensive overview of melatonin biosynthesis in plants, factors that affect the content of melatonin in fruit, melatonin mechanisms in fruit ripening, the impact of melatonin on postharvest fruit quality, the effect of melatonin on postharvest quality, and the change in metabolite content of horticultural products, particularly fruits.

1. Introduction

Melatonin is a biomolecule that has pleiotropic effects on living organisms ranging from the smallest microbes (bacteria) to humans, animals, and plants, but most of it is related to the regulation of circadian rhythms and biological cycles in animals and plants [1,2]. Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxy tryptamine) was discovered in plants in 1995 and is structurally similar to indole amine compounds such as tryptophan, auxin, and serotonin [1]. In plants, melatonin functions as a biological signal involved in several plant processes, such as photosynthesis, development, defense, germination, efflorescence, germination, flowering, leaf senescence, membrane integrity, root development, osmoregulation, and plant protection against biotic and abiotic stresses [3,4]. For postharvest purposes, melatonin improves the postharvest quality of horticultural crops [5].
Fruit is a popular horticultural product owing to its good taste and high nutritional content, such as polyphenolic compounds, organic acids, and vitamins [6]. Fruit is mainly consumed as a fresh product. However, several problems were found in fruits, such as perishability and rapid aging during postharvest storage, causing decreased nutritional content and taste quality, and reduced consumer interest [7]. Moreover, undesirable changes occurred during fruit ripening, such as softening, shrinkage, ethylene production, and fruit decay [8,9,10]. Several methods have been studied to prevent postharvest losses of perishable products, such as preventing the ethylene effect at the receptor level using 1-methylcyclopropene as an ethylene inhibitor [11,12,13,14], mutation techniques in ethylene receptor genes [15,16,17,18], modified atmospheres, and applying chemical compounds, such as fungicides, waxing, and nitric oxide [19]. However, applying chemical compounds results in health hazards and environmental pollution; in particular, pesticide residues on fresh fruits and vegetables will be a potential hazard for consumers. Recently, melatonin has been studied as an alternative to harmful chemicals used commercially in the postharvest management of fresh products such as fruits [1].
The postharvest quality of horticultural crops is affected by pre- and postharvest treatment. Unfavorable conditions during growth and storage will be a major problem in reducing and losing postharvest quality. Melatonin is a potential nontoxic chemical compound that can be used for pre- or postharvest treatment. In the field, melatonin increases pathogen/disease resistance, such as Marssonina apple blotch fungal disease against Diplocarpon mali [20], inhibits mycelial growth of Phytophthora infestans in potato [21], increases resistance against Podosphaera xanthii and Phytophthora capsici in cucurbits and watermelon [22], and increases plant growth and reduces plant stresses, such as salinity, cold, heat, drought, and heavy metal [1,23]. Preventing unfavorable conditions during growth and storage will improve the yield, yield quality, and postharvest characteristics of fresh products.
The effect of melatonin on postharvest quality is still being studied in depth because the different effects depend on the species. Several studies have reported that melatonin regulates fruit ripening by regulating ethylene biosynthesis and its roles in harvested products and provide evidence that melatonin is involved in fruit maturation. However, the effect of melatonin on regulating ethylene biosynthesis that affects fruit ripening differs depending on the fruit species. In some species, melatonin improves postharvest quality [24], such as by promoting fruit ripening and improving the fruit quality of tomatoes and grapes [25,26], or by delaying fruit senescence and increasing the chilling tolerance of peaches [27]; however, in some species, it reduces postharvest decay and maintains nutritional quality, such as in strawberries [28]. Previous studies have shown that using melatonin is important in the postharvest handling of several horticultural crop commodities and in improving postharvest quality. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the effect of melatonin on postharvest quality and the change in the metabolite content of horticultural products, particularly fruits.

2. Melatonin Biosynthesis in Plants

Compared to animals, the biosynthetic process of melatonin in plants is more complex. Melatonin biosynthesis typically occurs in chloroplasts but can also in mitochondria [1]. Six enzymes are involved in melatonin biosynthesis: L-tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC), tryptamine 5-hydroxylase (T5H), serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT), acetyl serotonin O-methyltransferase (ASMT), caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (COMT), and putative tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) that has not yet been identified [29].
Figure 1 shows the melatonin biosynthesis. The first step in melatonin biosynthesis process is the conversion of tryptophan, which is the key compound for melatonin biosynthesis, to serotonin through two different pathways, namely the hydroxylation and decarboxylation processes. Decarboxylation occurs more commonly in plants compared to hydroxylation. The first pathway is the decarboxylation of tryptophan to tryptamine with the help of TDC, then tryptamine is hydroxylated at the 5th position of the indole ring to form 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) with the help of tryptamine-5-hydroxylase (T5H); conversely, the second pathway involves the hydroxylation of tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan with the help of TPH, followed by the decarboxylation process of 5-hydroxytryptophan to form serotonin with the help of TDC [29].
The second step in the melatonin biosynthesis process is the process of converting serotonin into melatonin through two different pathways; namely SNATs catalyze serotonin into N-acetyl-serotonin, and then, N-acetyl-serotonin is converted into melatonin with the help of ASMTs. The second pathway is the process of converting serotonin into 5-methoxy tryptamine with the help of ASMTs or COMT, followed by the process of converting 5-methoxy tryptamine into melatonin catalyzed by SNATs or COMT [29,30].

3. Factors That Affect the Melatonin Content in Fruits

3.1. Genetic Makeup

Many studies have broadly examined the presence of melatonin in plants, including various vegetables, cereals, fruits, seeds, and medicinal plants [31,32]. The melatonin content of fruits varies depending on the type and variety of the fruit. Several studies have reported endogenous melatonin in different plant families, such as Rosaceae, Vitaceae, and Arecaceae. As shown in Table 1, the concentration of endogenous melatonin varies among species in the same family or in different families, and also according to the quantification method.

3.2. Environment

Another factor that influences the content of melatonin in fruit is the growth environment. Based on the research by Burkhardt et al. [41] on Montmorency tart cherries, no significant difference was noted when planted in different locations. However, this statement was refuted by the research of Arnao and Hernandez-Ruiz [49], who showed that environmental conditions affected melatonin levels, which were observed in several studies of indoor and outdoor tomato cultivation in different environmental conditions.
Melatonin concentration can also be affected by external factors such as stress. Abiotic stresses can stimulate melatonin synthesis in plants. Melatonin can help ease the negative consequences, particularly oxidative stress in plants. Melatonin can efficiently cancel the deleterious effects of toxic oxygen derivatives because of its ability to neutralize them and increase plant resilience against stress [32]. Moreover, melatonin accumulates in plant tissues as a protective molecule in response to different environmental conditions. Ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation increased endogenous melatonin up to 7-fold in Glycyrrhyza uralensis compared with the control [50]. The application of zinc salts, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium chloride in barley and lupin plants resulted in increased endogenous melatonin [36,51]. Salt stress increased endogenous melatonin up to 2- and 6-fold in the roots and cotyledons of sunflower seedlings, respectively [52].

3.3. Fruit Ripening Stages of Development

Fruit ripening is another factor that affects the melatonin content of the fruit. According to research by Murch et al. [53] on berries, the melatonin concentration in all berries decreases with fruit ripening. Vitalini et al. [54] observed that as the fruit ripens, the melatonin content in grape skins decreases but increases in the seeds and fruit flesh. Another study found that cherries with the highest maturity level had the highest melatonin content [42].

4. Melatonin Mechanism in Fruit Ripening

Ripening is a normal process during fruit maturation. Several biochemical and physiological changes occur, such as those involving flavor, color, aroma, and texture, and there are also increases in ethylene production and respiration [16,55]. Ethylene is an important plant hormone for fruit ripening, triggering climacteric fruit ripening [56]. Several studies have reported that melatonin affects ethylene biosynthesis pathways, but it differs among species. Melatonin may induce or inhibit ethylene production during different processes in plants. In tomatoes, melatonin increased ethylene production by upregulating the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid synthase 4 (ACS4) [26]. However, in pears, melatonin reduces ethylene production [57]. In bananas, melatonin can be used to ripen bananas of different varieties, and it can be used for biological control of postharvest fruit ripening and quality [58].
The effect of exogenous melatonin on the fruit ripening stage is related to the relationship between melatonin and plant ethylene hormones. Sun et al. [26] found that exogenous melatonin increased ethylene biosynthesis before and after the climacteric peak by increasing the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthetase along with the ethylene receptor gene. Proteins that are involved in ripening, cell walls, carbohydrates, flavonoids, and fatty acid biosynthesis are affected by melatonin. Proteins are involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis during fruit ripening, showing that exogenous melatonin regulates fruit ripening and fruit senescence [59]. Strawberries treated with 0.1–1.0 mM melatonin within 5 min and then stored later at 4 °C and 90% humidity showed a decrease in spoilage and weight [60]. The aging parameters include color, firmness, total dissolved solid content, titratable acidity, hydrogen peroxide, and malondialdehyde (MDA). In contrast to the increased phenolic and flavonoid content, a higher antioxidant capacity was produced. This exogenous melatonin treatment also increased the expression of endogenous melatonin geosynthetic genes.
Melatonin promotes abscisic acid biosynthesis on various ethylene signaling elements and increases various primary and secondary metabolic steps to accelerate fruit ripening by promoting ethylene and anthocyanin biosynthesis. The effect of melatonin on aging happens in reverse, delaying melatonin through a redox network involving reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (especially NO), lowering ROS levels, and upregulating various antioxidant enzymes and metabolites that delay aging. Furthermore, several aging-related genes are derived from melatonin to improve fruit quality and extend the shelf life. Melatonin treatment has different effects on ethylene biosynthesis. At one time, it can induce 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic (ACC) synthase (ACS) to promote fruit ripening. However, melatonin also downregulates the same enzymes at other times to reduce ethylene formation and promote longer shelf life through delayed aging. In this process, ripening is genetically regulated and characterized by the action of ethylene, whereas aging is an oxidative process involving damage and disruption. These two processes are different but inseparable [24,49].

5. The Effects of Melatonin on Postharvest Damages

Plants need external agents such as melatonin to grow properly from pre- to postharvest. During postharvest, plants are susceptible to pest and disease attacks, which will result in a decrease in plant quality. Melatonin protects the plants from pests and diseases. It was reported that the increase in disease resistance might be due to the effects of increasing endogenous melatonin, inducing salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathways associated with ROS burst and pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs), activating phenylpropanoid pathways, and increasing the content of lignin, phenolic compounds, and flavonoids in plants. Therefore, applying postharvest melatonin is highly recommended because it can be a natural and economical elicitor in controlling postharvest spoilage; for example, in tomatoes [59] and strawberries [60] as a valuable approach to increasing fruit quality, and in bananas [58] and pears [57].
Melatonin treatment increases disease resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. on Arabidopsis [61] and against Marssonina blotch (Diplocarpon mali) on apples [33], against the leaf pathogen Podosphaera xanthii (powdery mildew), and the soil-borne oomycete Phytophthora capsici in watermelon and other Cucurbita [22]. This result was associated with increased NO production, which then arranged gene transcription related to SA, activated cell wall invertase-dependent pathogen defense pathways, maintained intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations, and mediated defense signaling.
Another study also mentioned that melatonin is involved in several plants’ responses to biotic and abiotic stress. For instance, Lee et al. [62] reported that knockout of serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT), a rate-limiting enzyme in the melatonin biosynthetic pathway in Arabidopsis, results in decreased melatonin and SA, which are associated with greater susceptibility to pathogens. Recently, several studies have indicated that the effect of melatonin treatment on increasing endogenous melatonin levels is associated with the increased biosynthetic expression of melatonin genes, thereby contributing to the quality care of fresh strawberries or the inhibition of browning in longan fruit [60,63].
The presence of melatonin inhibits the development of pathogens such as gray mold during postharvest. The effect of melatonin on plants makes them resistant to decay and disease. Endogenous melatonin given to plants receives a burst of ROS, which has relevance for the upregulation of several genes involved in melatonin biosynthesis. This ROS burst is induced by chemical elicitors and triggers the activation of a H2O2-fueled defense response, which is highly correlated with lower susceptibility to Trichothecium roseum in muskmelons [64], Penicillium expansum in apples [65], or Colletotrichum musae infection in bananas [66]. In addition, SA, as an important endogenous immune signal, triggers resistance that can be obtained through the systematic induction of a response to the disease resistance in fruits [67].
Several studies showed that melatonin treatment increased ROS in cherries due to the formation of O2, whereas the H2O2 content increased significantly with melatonin treatment. Furthermore, melatonin treatment significantly increased endogenous SA content and the levels of PRs such as CHI and GLU. Moreover, NO is considered an important regulatory molecule in the response of plants to pathogen infection in synergy with ROS [68]. NO interacts with H2O2 in resistance responses, for example, in tomatoes against Rhizopus nigricans [69], in peaches against Monilinia fructicola [70], and in oranges against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides during postharvest [71]. However, not all plants immediately respond to melatonin postharvest. Likewise, the effect of melatonin application in regulating fruit development or ripening differs by dose or fruit type or cultivar [72]. Thus, the effect of melatonin treatment on regulating ROS signaling to activate the SA signaling pathway may be involved in the disease resistance induced in tomato fruit during postharvest.
Moreover, melatonin has other effects as observed in Fuji apples in cold storage, which showed that melatonin can reduce ethylene production compared to the control treatment. Respiration rates immediately decreased in cold storage. The rate of CO2 production gradually decreased from 21 to 35 days of storage, followed by a steady rate of CO2 production toward the end of storage. The respiration rate pattern of the control and melatonin treatments was similar, except that at the end of storage, if melatonin was not given, ethylene production increased rapidly compared to the melatonin treatment, so it suppressed ethylene production to a relatively lower level than the fruit control. The physical impact of receiving melatonin treatment on the study of Fuji apples showed that after 56 days of fruit storage, the fruit retained its skin appearance as it did during harvest season compared with the control fruit that had black necrotic spots on the skin. The underlying metabolic changes between control and melatonin-treated fruit at 56 days of storage were investigated by UPLC-Q-TOF MS-based metabolic profiles. The results showed that 40 metabolites, including amino acids, sugars, organic acids, and phenols were expressed differently in the melatonin-treated samples compared with controls. Most importantly, the results showed that applying exogenous melatonin increased internal melatonin levels in apples. Several other metabolites such as phloretin, (+)-catechin, isoquercitrin, and procyanidins were also influenced by melatonin treatment, which might positively affect the cold storage of apples [73].

6. Melatonin Effects on Fruits

Many studies have proven that melatonin can effectively influence changes in fruit metabolite content, such as increasing and maintaining ascorbic acid, phenol, and flavonoids [63]. The application of melatonin changes the physiological index during ripening and postharvest fruit storage, such as increased phenol, flavonoid, amino acid, fatty acid, and anthocyanin [74,75,76].
Subsequently, melatonin has also been reported as an inducer of nonenzymatic antioxidant accumulation, including phenolics, ascorbic acid, flavonoids, and anthocyanins [77,78,79,80]. Melatonin can increase the total phenol and flavonoid content by regulating the cinnamic acid-4-hydroxylase (C4H) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activities in the phenylpropanoid metabolic pathway, which regulates flavonoid synthesis and other metabolites [78]. Melatonin can increase C4H activity during initial storage but decrease it during final storage [78]. This also occurs in PAL activities, where melatonin causes a significant increase in activity during final storage [78].
In general, during the storage of ascorbic acid, the content decreases due to the change of L-ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic acid due to the ascorbic acid oxidase process [81]. However, current research indicates that melatonin treatment can change the ascorbic acid content in fruit, resulting in a higher level of resistance to oxidative stress during fruit ripening [19,27,82]. Table 2 shows the different responses that may occur when applying melatonin to fruit due to differences in species, stages of fruit maturity, and treatment concentrations.
In papayas, applying melatonin can increase flavonoid and phenolic total content and ascorbic acid during fruit ripening to increase the accumulation of metabolite content [85]. In guava, melatonin treatment resulted in increased ascorbic acid content accumulation. Melatonin has the effect of increasing the respiration rate of fruit during final storage, so this impacts the secondary metabolite content accumulation of guava.
Melatonin application on strawberries can reduce malondialdehyde (MDA) and H2O2 concentrations while increasing phenolic and flavonoid total content, thereby contributing to the fruit’s potential for high antioxidant content [60]. However, melatonin treatment on strawberries resulted in lower ascorbic acid content. The response differed from that of melatonin treatment in peaches, which showed that it maintained its ascorbic acid content [27,60]. This may be due to differences in species, fruit conditions, and melatonin concentrations.
Melatonin treatment of cold-stored fruits with adequate supplies of intercellular NADPH can result in higher metabolite content. In addition to melatonin treatment in pomegranates, these conditions activate the ROS prevention system and increase phenylpropanoid metabolic pathway activity, resulting in a higher accumulation of phenols and anthocyanins [28]. PAL activity increased in cherry tomatoes due to melatonin application; this response positively impacted fruit phenolic and flavonoid total and lignin content during storage [99]. In addition, changes in metabolite content have also increased in several other fruits that have been studied, such as plums [77], mangoes [19,84], and kiwis [83].

7. Conclusions

The primary function of melatonin in fruit is its ability to induce parthenocarpy. It also promotes ripening and aging of fruits by upregulating and downregulating many gene elements related to ethylene, anthocyanins, flavonoids, cell wall enzymes, senescence, carbohydrate metabolism. Melatonin has the potential to serve as a natural postharvest alternative for enhancing postharvest quality, reducing the incidence of spoilage, and increasing the antioxidant potential of fruits by either increasing or maintaining bioactive compounds.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, S.M. and E.S. (Erni Suminar); methodology, S.M., A.H.A., C.A.S., E.S. (Erik Setiawan) and A.S.B.; validation, S.M.; investigation, A.H.A., C.A.S., E.S. (Erik Setiawan) and A.S.B.; resources, S.M., A.H.A., C.A.S., E.S. (Erik Setiawan) and A.S.B.; writing—original draft preparation, S.M., A.H.A., C.A.S., E.S. (Erik Setiawan) and A.S.B.; writing—review and editing, S.M. and E.S. (Erni Suminar); visualization, S.M.; supervision, S.M.; project administration, S.M.; funding acquisition, S.M. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


This research received no external funding.

Data Availability Statement

The data are included in the article.


We thank all of the members of our laboratory for helpful discussions throughout the work. We also thank Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia, for supporting the APC.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


  1. Jayarajan, S.; Sharma, R.R. Melatonin: A blooming biomolecule for postharvest management of perishable fruits and vegetables. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 2021, 116, 318–328. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  2. Stehle, J.H.; Saade, A.; Rawashdeh, O.; Ackermann, K.; Jilg, A.; Sebesterny, T.; Maronde, E. A survey of molecular details in the human pineal gland in light of phylogeny, structure, function and chronobiological diseases. J. Pineal Res. 2011, 51, 17–43. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Hattori, A.; Migitaka, H.; Iigo, M.; Toh, M.I.; Yamamoto, K.; Ohtani-Kaneko, R.; Hara, M.; Suzuki, T.; Reiter, R.J. Identification of melatonin in plants and its effects on plasma melatonin levels and binding to melatonin receptors in vertebrates. Biochem. Mol. Biol. Int. 1995, 35, 627–634. [Google Scholar] [PubMed]
  4. Sharma, A.; Zheng, B. Melatonin mediated regulation ff drought stress: Physiological and molecular aspects. Plants 2019, 8, 190. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Madebo, M.P.; Zheng, Y.; Jin, P. Melatonin-mediated postharvest quality and antioxidant properties of fresh fruits: A comprehensive meta-analysis. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. 2022, 21, 3205–3226. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  6. Zhang, W.; Jiang, W. UV treatment improved the quality of postharvest fruits and vegetables by inducing resistance. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 2019, 92, 71–80. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  7. Kerch, G. Chitosan films and coatings prevent losses of fresh fruit nutritional quality: A review. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 2015, 46, 159–166. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  8. Mubarok, S.; Okabe, Y.; Fukuda, N.; Ariizumi, T.; Ezura, H. Favorable effects of the weak ethylene receptor mutation Sletr1-2 on postharvest fruit quality changes in tomatoes. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 2016, 120, 1–9. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  9. Mubarok, S.; Okabe, Y.; Fukuda, N.; Ariizumi, T.; Ezura, H. Potential use of a weak ethylene receptor mutant, Sletr1-2, as breeding material to extend fruit shelf life of tomato. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2015, 63, 7995–8007. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  10. Mubarok, S.; Qonit, M.A.H.; Rahmat, B.P.N.; Budiarto, R.; Suminar, E.; Nuraini, A. An overview of ethylene insensitive tomato mutants: Advantages and disadvantages for postharvest fruit shelf-life and future perspective. Front. Plant Sci. 2023, 14, 1079052. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Mubarok, S.; Maulida Rahman, I.; Nuraniya Kamaluddin, N.; Solihin, E. Impact of 1-Methylcyclopropene combined with chitosan on postharvest quality of tropical banana ‘Lady Finger’. Int. J. Food Prop. 2022, 25, 1171–1185. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  12. Mubarok, S.; Fauzi, A.A.; Nuraini, A.; Rufaidah, F.; Qonit, M.A.H. Effect of benzyl amino purine and 1-methylcyclopropene in maintaining rooting quality of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat cv.‘White Fiji’) cuttings. Res. Crops 2020, 21, 141–150. [Google Scholar]
  13. Mubarok, S.; Suminar, E.; Kamaluddin, N.N. Ethylene inhibition using 1-methylcyclopropene and future perspective for tropical ornamental plants. Asian J. Plant Sci. 2019, 18, 1–8. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  14. Mubarok, S.; Maunah, M.; Rufaidah, F.; Suminar, E.; Rismayanti, A.Y. Dataset on the combination effects of 1-methylcyclopropene and salicylic acid on postharvest quality of cut roses ‘Peach Avalanche’and ‘Sexy Red’. Data Brief 2020, 33, 106600. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  15. Mubarok, S.; Hoshikawa, K.; Okabe, Y.; Yano, R.; Tri, M.D.; Ariizumi, T.; Ezura, H. Evidence of the functional role of the ethylene receptor genes SlETR4 and SlETR5 in ethylene signal transduction in tomato. Mol. Genet. Genom. 2019, 294, 301–313. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  16. Mubarok, S.; Ezura, H.; Qonit, M.A.H.; Prayudha, E.; Suwali, N.; Kurnia, D. Alteration of nutritional and antioxidant level of ethylene receptor tomato mutants, Sletr1-1 and Sletr1-2. Sci. Hortic. 2019, 256, 108546. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  17. Anas, A.; Wiguna, G.; Damayanti, F.; Mubarok, S.; Setyorini, D.; Ezura, H. Effect of Ethylene Sletr1-2 Receptor Allele on Flowering, Fruit Phenotype, Yield, and Shelf-Life of Four F1 Generations of Tropical Tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Horticulturae 2022, 8, 1098. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  18. Wiguna, G.; Damayanti, F.; Mubarok, S.; Ezura, H.; Anas, A.N.A.S. Genetic control of fruit shelf life and yield in crossbreeding of Sletr1-2 mutant with Indonesian tropical tomatoes: Combining Ability of Sletr1-2 mutant. Biodiversitas J. Biol. Divers. 2021, 22, 4671–4675. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  19. Rastegar, S.; Khankahdani, H.H.; Rahimzadeh, M. Effects of melatonin treatment on the biochemical changes and antioxidant enzyme activity of mango fruit during storage. Sci. Hortic. 2020, 259, 108835. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  20. Yin, L.; Wang, P.; Li, M.; Ke, X.; Li, C.; Liang, D.; Wu, S.; Ma, X.; Li, C.; Zou, Y. Exogenous melatonin improves M alus resistance to M arssonina apple blotch. J. Pineal Res. 2013, 54, 426–434. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. Zhang, S.; Zheng, X.; Reiter, R.J.; Feng, S.; Wang, Y.; Liu, S.; Jin, L.; Li, Z.; Datla, R.; Ren, M. Melatonin attenuates potato late blight by disrupting cell growth, stress tolerance, fungicide susceptibility and homeostasis of gene expression in Phytophthora infestans. Front. Plant Sci. 2017, 8, 1993. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  22. Mandal, M.K.; Suren, H.; Ward, B.; Boroujerdi, A.; Kousik, C. Differential roles of melatonin in plant-host resistance and pathogen suppression in cucurbits. J. Pineal Res. 2018, 65, e125054. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. Nawaz, M.A.; Jiao, Y.; Chen, C.; Shireen, F.; Zheng, Z.; Imtiaz, M.; Bie, Z.; Huang, Y. Melatonin pretreatment improves vanadium stress tolerance of watermelon seedlings by reducing vanadium concentration in the leaves and regulating melatonin biosynthesis and antioxidant-related gene expression. J. Plant Physiol. 2018, 220, 115–127. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  24. Xu, T.; Chen, Y.; Kang, H. Melatonin is a potential target for improving post-harvest preservation of fruits and vegetables. Front. Plant Sci. 2019, 10, 1388. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. Xu, L.; Yue, Q.; Xiang, G.; Bian, F.E.; Yao, Y. Melatonin promotes ripening of grape berry via increasing the levels of ABA, H2O2, and particularly ethylene. Hortic. Res. 2018, 5, 41. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  26. Sun, Q.; Zhang, N.; Wang, J.; Zhang, H.; Li, D.; Shi, J.; Li, R.; Weeda, S.; Zhao, B.; Ren, S.; et al. Melatonin promotes ripening and improves quality of tomato fruit during postharvest life. J. Exp. Bot. 2015, 66, 657–668. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. Gao, H.; Zhang, Z.K.; Chai, H.K.; Cheng, N.; Yang, Y.; Wang, D.N.; Yang, T.; Cao, W. Melatonin Treatment Delays Postharvest Senescence and Regulates Reactive Oxygen Species Metabolism in Peach Fruit. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 2016, 118, 103–110. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  28. Aghdam, M.S.; Luo, Z.; Li, L.; Jannatizadeh, A.; Fard, J.R.; Pirzad, F. Melatonin treatment maintains nutraceutical properties of pomegranate fruits during cold storage. Food Chem. 2020, 303, 125385. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. Mannino, G.; Pernici, C.; Serio, G.; Gentile, C.; Bertea, C.M. Melatonin and phytomelatonin: Chemistry, biosynthesis, metabolism, distribution and bioactivity in plants and animals—An overview. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 9996. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. Tan, D.X.; Manchester, L.C.; Liu, X.; Rosales-Corral, S.A.; Acuna-Castroviejo, D.; Reiter, R.J. Mitochondria and chloroplasts as the original sites of melatonin synthesis: A hypothesis related to melatonin’s primary function and evolution in eukaryotes. J. Pineal Res. 2013, 54, 127–138. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. Posmyk, M.M.; Janas, K.M. Melatonin in plants. Acta Physiol. Plant. 2009, 31, 1–11. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  32. Reiter, R.J.; Tan, D.X.; Zhou, Z.; Cruz, M.H.C.; Fuentes-Broto, L.; Galano, A. Phytomelatonin: Assisting plants to survive and thrive. Molecules 2015, 20, 7396–7437. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  33. Johns, N.P.; Johns, J.; Porasuphatana, S.; Plaimee, P.; Sae-Teaw, M. Dietary intake of melatonin from tropical fruit altered urinary excretion of 6- sulfatoxy- melatonin in healthy volunteers. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2013, 61, 913–919. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  34. Verde, A.; Miguez, J.M.; Gallardo, M. Melatonin and related bioactive compounds in commercialized date palm fruits (Phoenix dactylifera L.): Correlation with some antioxidant parameters. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 2019, 245, 51–59. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  35. Badria, F.A. Melatonin, serotonin, and tryptamine in some Egyptian food and medicinal plants. J. Med. Food 2002, 5, 153–157. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. Arnao, M.B.; Hernandez-Ruiz, J. Growth conditions deter- mine different melatonin levels in Lupinus albus L. J. Pineal Res. 2013, 55, 149–155. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  37. Paroni, R.; Dei Cas, M.; Rizzo, J.; Ghidoni, J.; Montagna, M.T.; Rubino, F.M.; Iriti, M. Bioactive phytochemicals of tree nuts. Determination of the melatonin and sphingolipid content in almonds and pistachios. J. Food Compos. Anal. 2019, 82, 103227. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  38. Caniato, R.; Filippini, R.; Piovan, A.; Puricelli, L.; Borsarini, A.; Cappelletti, E.M. Melatonin in plants. Dev. Tryptophan Serotonin Metab. 2003, 527, 593–597. [Google Scholar]
  39. Reiter, R.J.; Manchester, L.C.; Tan, D.X. Melatonin in walnuts: Influence on levels of melatonin and total antioxidant capacity of blood. Nutrition 2005, 21, 920–924. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. Dubbels, R.; Reiter, R.J.; Klenke, E.; Goebel, A.; Schnakenberg, E.; Ehlers, C. Melatonin in edible plants identified by radioimmunoassay and by high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. J. Pineal Res. 1995, 18, 28–31. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  41. Burkhardt, S.; Tan, D.X.; Manchester, L.C.; Hardeland, R.; Reiter, R.J. Detection and quantification of the antioxidant melatonin in montmorency and balaton tart cherries (Prunus cerasus). J. Agric. Food Chem. 2001, 49, 4898–4902. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. González-Gómez, D.; Lozano, M.; Fernández-León, M.F.; Ayuso, M.C.; Bernalte, M.J.; Rodríguez, A.B. Detection and Quantification Of Melatonin And Serotonin In Eight Sweet Cherry Cultivars (Prunus avium L.). Eur. Food Res. Technol. 2009, 229, 223–229. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  43. Kirakosyan, A.; Seymour, E.M.; Urcuyo Llanes, D.E.; Kaufman, P.B.; Bolling, S.F. Chemical profile and antioxidant capacities of tart cherry products. Food Chem. 2009, 115, 20–25. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  44. Stürtz, M.; Cerezo, A.B.; Cantos-Villar, E.; Garcia-Parrilla, M.C. Determination of the melatonin content of different varieties of tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) and strawberries (Fragaria ananassa). Food Chem. 2011, 127, 1329–1334. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  45. Riga, P.; Medina, S.; Garcia-Flores, L.A.; Gil-Izquierdo, A. Melatonin content of pepper and tomato fruits: Effects of cultivar and solar radiation. Food Chem. 2014, 156, 347–352. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  46. Okazaki, M.; Ezura, H. Profiling of melatonin in the model tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivar Micro-Tom. J. Pineal Res. 2009, 46, 338–343. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  47. Iriti, M.; Rossoni, M.; Faoro, F. Melatonin content in grape: Myth or panacea? J. Sci. Food Agric. 2006, 86, 1432–1438. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  48. Mercolini, L.; Mandrioli, R.; Raggi, M.A. Content of melatonin and other antioxidants in grape-related foodstuffs: Measurement using a MEPS-HPLC-F method. J. Pineal Res. 2012, 53, 21–28. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  49. Arnao, M.B.; Hernández-Ruiz, J. Melatonin and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species: A model for the plant redox network. Melatonin Res. 2019, 2, 152–168. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  50. Afreen, F.; Zobayed, S.M.A.; Kozai, T. Melatonin in Glyc- yrrhiza uralensis: Response of plant roots to spectral quality of light and UV-B radiation. J. Pineal Res. 2006, 41, 108–115. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  51. Arnao, M.B.; Hernandez-Ruiz, J. Chemical stress by differ- ent agents affects the melatonin content of barley roots. J. Pineal Res. 2009, 46, 295–299. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  52. Kostopoulou, Z.; Therios, I.; Roumeliotis, E.; Kanellis, A.K.; Molassiotis, A. Melatonin combined with ascorbic acid provides salt adaptation in Citrus aurantium L. seedlings. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 2015, 86, 155–165. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  53. Murch, S.J.; Hall, B.A.; Le, C.H.; Saxena, P.K. Changes in the levels of indoleamine phytochemicals during véraison and ripening of wine grapes. J. Pineal Res. 2010, 49, 95–100. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  54. Vitalini, S.; Gardana, C.; Zanzotto, A.; Simonetti, P.; Faoro, F.; Fico, G.; Iriti, M. The presence of melatonin in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) berry tissues. J. Pineal Res. 2011, 51, 331–337. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  55. Mubarok, S.; Ezura, H.; Rostini, N.; Suminar, E.; Wiguna, G. Impacts of Sletr1-1 and Sletr1-2 mutations on the hybrid seed quality of tomatoes. J. Integr. Agric. 2019, 18, 1170–1176. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  56. Mubarok, S.; Dahlania, S.; Suwali, N. Dataset on the change of postharvest quality of Physalis peruviana L. as an effect of ethylene inhibitor. Data Brief 2019, 24, 103849. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  57. Zhai, R.; Liu, J.; Liu, F.; Zhao, Y.; Liu, L.; Fang, C.; Xu, L. Melatonin limited ethylene production, softening and reduced physiology disorder in pear (Pyrus communis L.) fruit during senescence. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 2018, 139, 38–46. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  58. Li, T.; Wu, Q.; Zhu, H.; Zhou, Y.; Jiang, Y.; Gao, H.; Yun, Z. Comparative transcriptomic and metabolic analysis reveals the effect of melatonin on delaying anthracnose incidence upon postharvest banana fruit peel. BMC Plant Biol. 2019, 19, 1–15. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  59. Sun, Q.; Zhang, N.; Wang, J.; Cao, Y.; Li, X.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, L.; Tan, D.X.; Guo, Y.D. A label-free differential proteomics analysis reveals the effect of melatonin on promoting fruit ripening and anthocyanin accumulation upon postharvest in tomato. J. Pineal Res. 2016, 61, 138–153. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  60. Liu, C.; Zheng, H.; Sheng, K.; Liu, W.; Zheng, L. Effects of melatonin treatment on the postharvest quality of strawberry fruit. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 2018, 139, 47–55. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  61. Zhao, H.; Xu, L.; Su, T.; Jiang, Y.; Hu, L.; Ma, F. Melatonin regulates carbohydrate metabolism and defenses against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC 3000 infection in Arabidopsis thaliana. J. Pineal Res. 2015, 59, 109–119. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  62. Lee, H.Y.; Lee, K.; Back, K. Knockout of Arabidopsis serotonin N-acetyltransferase-2 reduces melatonin levels and delays flowering. Biomolecules 2019, 9, 712. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  63. Zhang, W.; Cao, J.; Fan, X.; Jiang, W. Applications of nitric oxide and melatonin in improving postharvest fruit quality and the separate and crosstalk biochemical mechanisms. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 2020, 99, 531–541. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  64. Ge, Y.; Deng, H.; Bi, Y.; Li, C.; Liu, Y.; Dong, B. Postharvest ASM dipping and DPI pre-treatment regulated reactive oxygen species metabolism in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) fruit. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 2015, 99, 160–167. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  65. Fan, Y.; Canying, L.; Yihan, L.; Rui, H.; Mi, G.; Jiaxin, L.; Tong, S.; Yonghong, G. Postharvest melatonin dipping maintains quality of apples by mediating sucrose metabolism. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 2022, 174, 43–50. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  66. Vilaplana, R.; Pazmiño, L.; Valencia-Chamorro, S. Control of anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum musae, on postharvest organic banana by thyme oil. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 2018, 138, 56–63. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  67. Hussain, M.; Hamid, M.I.; Ghazanfar, M.U. Salicylic acid induced resistance in fruits to combat against postharvest pathogens: A review. Arch. Phytopathol. Plant Prot. 2015, 48, 34–42. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  68. Asai, S.; Yoshioka, H. Nitric oxide as a partner of reactive oxygen species participates in disease resistance to necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea in Nicotiana benthamiana. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 2009, 22, 619–629. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  69. Fan, B.; Shen, L.; Liu, K.; Zhao, D.; Yu, M.; Sheng, J. Interaction between nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide in postharvest tomato resistance response to Rhizopus nigricans. J. Sci. Food Agric. 2008, 88, 1238–1244. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  70. Shi, H.; Qian, Y.; Tan, D.X.; Reiter, R.J.; He, C. Melatonin induces the transcripts of CBF/DREB1s and their involvement in both abiotic and biotic stresses in Arabidopsis. J. Pineal Res. 2015, 59, 334–342. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  71. Zhou, Y.; Zhang, L.; Zeng, K. Efficacy of Pichia membranaefaciens combined with chitosan against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in citrus fruits and possible modes of action. Biol. Control 2016, 96, 39–47. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  72. Pérez-Llorca, M.; Muñoz, P.; Müller, M.; Munné-Bosch, S. Biosynthesis, metabolism and function of auxin, salicylic acid and melatonin in climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. Front. Plant Sci. 2019, 10, 136. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  73. Cao, S.; Song, C.; Shao, J.; Bian, K.; Chen, W.; Yang, Z. Exogenous melatonin treatment increases chilling tolerance and induces defense response in harvested peach fruit during cold storage. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2016, 64, 5215–5222. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  74. Pang, L.; Wu, Y.; Pan, Y.; Ban, Z.; Li, L.; Li, X. Insights into exogenous melatonin associated with phenylalanine metabolism in postharvest strawberry. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 2020, 168, 111244. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  75. Wang, T.; Hu, M.; Yuan, D.; Yun, Z.; Gao, Z.; Su, Z.; Zhang, Z. Melatonin alleviates pericarp browning in litchi fruit by regulating membrane lipid and energy metabolisms. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 2020, 160, 111066. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  76. Xia, H.; Shen, Y.; Shen, T.; Wang, X.; Zhang, X.; Hu, P.; Liang, D.; Lin, L.; Deng, H.; Wang, J.; et al. Melatonin accumulation in sweet cherry and its influence on fruit quality and antioxidant properties. Molecules 2020, 25, 753. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  77. Bal, E. Physicochemical changes in ‘Santa Rosa’ plum fruit treated with melatonin during cold storage. J. Food Meas. Charact. 2019, 13, 1713–1720. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  78. Fan, S.; Xiong, T.; Lei, Q.; Tan, Q.; Cai, J.; Song, Z.; Yang, M.; Chen, W.; Li, X.; Zhu, X. Melatonin treatment improves postharvest preservation and resistance of guava fruit (Psidium guajava L.). Foods 2022, 11, 262. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  79. Wu, X.; Ren, J.; Huang, X.; Zheng, X.; Tian, Y.; Shi, L.; Dong, P.; Li, Z. Melatonin: Biosynthesis, content, and function in horticultural plants and potential application. Sci. Hortic. 2021, 288, 110392. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  80. Ze, Y.; Gao, H.; Li, T.; Yang, B.; Jiang, Y. Insights into the roles of melatonin in maintaining quality and extending shelf life of postharvest fruits. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 2021, 109, 569–578. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  81. Choudhary, M.L.; Dikshit, S.N.; Shukla, N.; Saxena, R.R. Evaluation of guava (Psidium guajava L.) varieties and standardization of recipe for nectar preparation. J. Hortic. Sci. 2016, 3, 161–163. [Google Scholar]
  82. Galano, A.; Tan, D.X.; Reiter, R.J. Melatonin as a natural ally against oxidative stress: A physicochemical examination. J. Pineal Res. 2011, 51, 1–16. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  83. Wang, X.; Liang, D.; Xie, Y.; Lv, X.L.; Wang, J.; Xia, H. Melatonin application increases accumulation of phenol substances in kiwifruit during storage. Emir. J. Food Agric. 2019, 31, 361–367. [Google Scholar]
  84. Bhardwaj, R.; Pareek, S.; Mani, S.; Domínguez-Avila, J.A.; González-Aguilar, G.A. A melatonin treatment delays postharvest senescence, maintains quality, reduces chilling injury, and regulates antioxidant metabolism in mango fruit. J. Food Qual. 2022, 2022, 2379556. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  85. Fan, S.; Li, Q.; Feng, S.; Lei, Q.; Abbas, F.; Yao, Y.; Chen, W.; Li, X.; Zhu, X. Melatonin maintains fruit quality and reduces anthracnose in postharvest papaya via enhancement of antioxidants and inhibition of pathogen development. Antioxidants 2022, 11, 804. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  86. Lin, X.; Wang, L.; Hou, Y.; Zheng, Y.; Jin, P. A combination of melatonin and ethanol treatment improves postharvest quality in bitter melon fruit. Foods 2020, 9, 1376. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  87. Shang, F.; Liu, R.; Wu, W.; Han, Y.; Fang, X.; Chen, H.; Gao, H. Effects of melatonin on the components, quality and antioxidant activities of blueberry fruits. LWT 2021, 147, 111582. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  88. Hu, W.; Yang, H.; Tie, W.W.; Yan, Y.; Ding, Z.H.; Liu, Y.; Wu, C.; Wang, J.; Reiter, R.J.; Tan, D.X.; et al. Natural variation in banana varieties highlights the role of melatonin in post-harvest ripening and quality. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2017, 65, 9987–9994. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  89. Onik, J.C.; Wai, S.C.; Li, A.; Lin, Q.; Sun, Q.; Wang, Z.; Duan, Y. Melatonin treatment reduces ethylene production and maintains fruit quality in apple during postharvest storage. Food Chem. 2021, 337, 127753. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  90. Cao, J.J.; Yu, Z.C.; Zhang, Y.; Li, B.H.; Liang, W.X.; Wang, C.X. Control efficiency of exogenous melatonin against post-harvest apple grey mold and its influence on the activity of defensive enzymes. Plant Physiol. J. 2017, 53, 1760. [Google Scholar]
  91. Bal, E. Effect of melatonin treatments on biochemical quality and postharvest life of nectarines. J. Food Meas. Charact. 2021, 15, 288–295. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  92. Du, H.; Liu, G.; Hua, C.; Liu, D.; He, Y.; Liu, H.; Kurtenbach, R.; Ren, D. Exogenous melatonin alleviated chilling injury in harvested plum fruit via affecting the levels of polyamines conjugated to plasma membrane. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 2021, 179, 111585. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  93. Aghdam, M.S.; Fard, J.R. Melatonin treatment attenuates post-harvest decay and maintains nutritional quality of strawberry fruits (Fragaria × anannasa cv. Selva) by enhancing GABA shunt activity. Food Chem. 2017, 221, 1650–1657. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  94. Sharafi, Y.; Jannatizadeh, A.; Fard, J.R.; Aghdam, M.S. Melatonin treatment delays senescence and improves antioxidant potential of sweet cherry fruits during cold storage. Sci. Hortic. 2021, 288, 110304. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  95. Wang, D.; Chen, Q.; Chen, W.; Guo, Q.; Xia, Y.; Wu, D.; Jing, D.; Liang, G. Melatonin treatment maintains quality and delays lignification in loquat fruit during cold storage. Sci. Hortic. 2021, 284, 110126. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  96. Ma, Q.; Lin, X.; Wei, Q.; Yang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Chen, J. Melatonin treatment delays postharvest senescence and maintains the organoleptic quality of ‘Newhall’ navel orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) by inhibiting respiration and enhancing antioxidant capacity. Sci. Hortic. 2021, 286, 110236. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  97. Deng, B.; Xia, C.; Tian, S.; Shi, H. Melatonin reduces pesticide residue, delays senescence, and improves antioxidant nutrient accumulation in postharvest jujube fruit. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 2021, 173, 111419. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  98. Zhang, Y.; Huber, D.J.; Hu, M.; Jiang, G.; Gao, Z.; Xu, X.; Jiang, Y.; Zhang, Z. Melatonin delays postharvest browning in litchi fruit by enhancing anti- oxidative processes and oxidation repair. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2018, 66, 7475–7484. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  99. Li, S.G.; Xu, Y.H.; Bi, Y.; Zhang, B.; Shen, S.L.; Jiang, T.J.; Zheng, X.L. Melatonin treatment inhibits gray mold and induces disease resistance in cherry tomato fruit during postharvest. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 2019, 157, 110962. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
Figure 1. Biosynthetic pathway of melatonin. Solid lines and dotted lines indicate common and alternative pathways of melatonin biosynthesis, respectively. TDC, L-tryptophan decarboxylase; T5H, tryptamine 5-hydroxylase; TPH, tryptophan hydroxylase; SNAT, serotonin N-acetyltransferase; ASMT, acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase; COMT, caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase.
Figure 1. Biosynthetic pathway of melatonin. Solid lines and dotted lines indicate common and alternative pathways of melatonin biosynthesis, respectively. TDC, L-tryptophan decarboxylase; T5H, tryptamine 5-hydroxylase; TPH, tryptophan hydroxylase; SNAT, serotonin N-acetyltransferase; ASMT, acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase; COMT, caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase.
Horticulturae 09 00586 g001
Table 1. Endogenous melatonin in different fruit families.
Table 1. Endogenous melatonin in different fruit families.
FamilySpeciesConcentration (ng/g)References
ActinidiaceaeActinidia chinensis0.02[3]
AnacardiaceaeMangifera indica0.70[33]
Phoenix dactylifera0.17[34]
ArecaceaePhoenix dactylifera0.17[34]
BromeliaceaeAnanas comosus (L.) Meri. 0.04[3]
Ananas comosus (L.) Meri.0.28[35]
Ananas comosus (L.) Meri.0.30[36]
Ananas comosus (L.) Meri.0.26[37]
Ananas comusus0.04[38]
CaricaceaeCarica papaya0.24[33]
CucurbitaceaeCucumis sativus L.0.03[3]
Cucumis sativus L.0.59[35]
Cucumis sativa0.03[38]
JuglandaceaeJuglans regia L.3.5[39]
LythraceaePunica granatum L.0.17[35]
MusaceaeMusa paradisiaca L.0.47[40]
Musa sapientum L. 0.01[36]
Musa ensete0.66[35]
RosaceaeMalus domestica (Borkh)0.05[3]
Malus domestica (Borkh)0.16[35]
Malus domestica0.05[38]
Prunus cerasus L.18.00[41]
Prunus avium L.0.01–0.22[42]
Prunus avium L.0.01–124.7[35]
Prunus cerasus15.00[41]
Prunus cerasus12.3–22.9[43]
Fragaria ananassa Duch. 0.14[35]
Fragaria ananassa Duch. 0.01[3]
Fragaria ananassa Duch. 5.50–11.26[44]
Fragaria magna0.01[38]
RutaceaeCitrus sinensis Osbeck.0.15[33]
SolanaceaeSolanum lycopersicum0.5[40]
Solanum lycopersicum0.3[35]
Solanum lycopersicum7.5–250[45]
Solanum lycopersicum0.03[38]
Solanum lycopersicum1.2–3.4[46]
Solanum lycopersicum4.1–114.5[44]
VitaceaeVitis vinifera L.0.97[47]
Vitis vinifera L.1.2–1.50[48]
Table 2. Several studies on the effect of exogenous melatonin on the postharvest treatment of fruits.
Table 2. Several studies on the effect of exogenous melatonin on the postharvest treatment of fruits.
FamilySpeciesOptimum Concentration (μM)EffectsApplicationReferences
ActinidiaceaeActinidia deliciosa100Delayed the decline of fruit hardness, reduced the loss of soluble protein, and lowered the accumulation of malondialdehyde; improved total phenolic, total flavonoid and flavanol content, and the antioxidant capacity; and delayed fruit softening.Soaked for 30 min[83]
AnacardiaceaeMangifera indica L.1000Maintained firmness, improved ascorbic acid and phenolic compound content, and antioxidant capacity; controlled the activity of polyphenol oxidase; and increased the activity of the catalase (CAT) and peroxidase enzymes during storage.iImmersed for 10 min[19]
Mangifera indica L.100Reduced respiration rate and ethylene production; increased firmness, titratable acidity, and ascorbic acid content; lowered weight loss, total soluble solids, pH, total soluble solid and acidity ratio; maintained a higher concentration of total phenolics and total flavonoids; increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and CAT; and improved membrane stability.Dipped for 120 min[84]
Mangifera indica1000Improved postharvest quality; maintained firmness; improved bioactive compounds; increased phenolic content; and increased the activity of CAT and peroxidase (POD).Immersed for 10 min[19]
CaricaceaeCarica papaya400Delayed fruit softening; reduced anthracnose incidence; enhanced antioxidant activity; and decreased fruit oxidative injury; induced total phenol, total flavonoid, and ascorbic acid accumulation; increased CAT, ascorbate peroxidase, NADH oxidase, glutathione reductase, polyphenol oxidase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidase activity; enhanced the activity of defense-related enzymes, such as chitinase, 4-coumaric acid-CoA-ligase, and phenylalanine ammonia lyase; repressed lipid metabolism.Immersed for 2 h[85]
CucurbitaceaeMomordica charantia L.120Increased chlorophyll, total soluble solids (TSS), soluble sugar, soluble protein, and ascorbic acid (AsA); promoted the synthesis of total phenols and flavonoids.Immersed for 10 min[86]
EricaceaeVaccinium spp.50Maintained the contents of AsA, anthocyanin, and total
phenol; reduced the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and membrane lipid peroxidation; and promoted the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione S-transferase, and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL).
MusaceaeMusa paradisiaca L.200–500Inhibited the ripening process.Soaked for 2 h[88]
MyrtaceaePsidium guajava L.600Maintained postharvest quality, delayed fruit softening, and reduced the incidence of anthracnose; enhanced the antioxidant capacity and reduced the oxidative damage; enhanced the activities of CAT, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase; and maintained total flavonoids and AsA.Soaked for 2 h[78]
RosaceaeMalus domestica Borkh1000Reduced ethylene production and weight loss; maintained skin structure; increased the activity of three enzymes, including POD, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and CAT.Sprayed[89]
Malus domestica Borkh200Inhibited gray mold diseases.Immersed[90]
Prunus persica100Reduced weight loss, decay incidence, and respiration rate; maintained firmness, TSS, and AsA contents; enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase, CAT, peroxidase, and ascorbate peroxidase; decreased the activity of lipoxygenase, levels of superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide, and malondialdehyde content.Dipped for 10 min[27]
Prunus persica100Reduced chilling injury; increased extractable juice rate and TSS; enhanced expression of PpADC, PpODC, and PpGAD; increased polyamines and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) contents.Immersed for 2 h[73]
Prunus persica1000Melatonin-treated nectarines exhibited higher total antioxidant activ-
ity than controls, which was correlated primarily to the increase in the levels of total phenolics and to a decrease in the loss to AsA and
flavonoids contents. These results demonstrated that melatonin treatment could be a good practice for extending postharvest
life of nectarine fruits, maintaining the appearance and nutrient value, and reducing the loss of health-promoting compounds.
Immersed for 30 min[91]
Prunus salicina1000Reduced weight loss and maintaining greater firmness; increased AsA content, total phenolic content, and antioxidant; reduced decay rate.Immersed[77]
Prunus salicina100Enhanced S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase and TGase activities.Immersed for 100 min[92]
Fragaria × ananassa, Duch.100 or 1000Reduced decay and weight loss of fruit; delayed senescence; reduced the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA); increased the total phenolics and flavonoid contents resulting in the higher antioxidant capacity, extending the postharvest life, and improving the fruit quality; enhanced the expression of melatonin biosynthetic genes including FaTDC, FaT5H, FaSNAT, and FaASMT; and increased the content of endogenous melatonin.Immersed for 5 min[60]
Fragaria × ananassa, Duch100Increased the acumulation of H2O2; increased the activity of SOD; reduced the activity of CAT and APX; and decreased the fruit decay.Immersed for 2 h[93]
Prunus avium L.100Reduced flesh browning and decay incidence; increased phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins accumulation, and antioxidant potential; maintained the membrane integrity.Dipped for 5 min[94]
Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.50Inhibited weight loss and firmness; increased sugar, acid, and phytochemical content; decreased MDA content; improved antioxidant capacity; and reduced lignin content.Immersed for 30 min[95]
Pyrus communis L.100Delayed the ethylene production; increased fruit firmness; increased antioxidant; and delayed the senescene process.Immersed for 12 h[57]
RutaceaeCitrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck200Decreased respiration and weight loss rates; increase fruit firmness, TSS, soluble sugar content, titratable acidity, and citrus color index; impeded the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde; inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and oxidative damage; increased the activity and expressions of CAT, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase; and delayed postharvest senescence.Dipped for 5 min[96]
RhamnaceaeZiziphus jujuba Mill.100Enhanced degradation of pesticides, such as chlorothalonil, malathion, and glyphosate; delayed fruit senescence by reduced weight loss, decay incidence, and firmness.Sprayed[97]
SapindaceaeLitchi chinensis Sonn.400Delayed the development of pericarp browning, inhibited lipid degradation, and maintained membrane integrity and energy status.Immersed for 5 min[75]
Litchi chinensis Sonn.400Inhibited pericarp browning; reduced discoloration during storage; decreased membrane relative leakage rate.Immersed for 5 min[98]
SolanaceaeSolanum lycopersicum100Increased the content of total flavonoids, total phenolics, and lignin; inhibited gray mold development, induced a ROS burst, increased endogenous melatonin and salicylic acid (SA); enhanced activities of chitinase (CHI) and β-1,3-glucanase (GLU); increased the activities of PAL, 4-coumarate-coenzyme A ligase (4CL), and POD; and increased total phenols, flavonoids, and lignin in tomato.Dipped 60 min[99]
Solanum lycopersicum50Increased lycopene and water loss; enhanced fruit softening; increased water-soluble pectin and decreased protopectin; increased ethylene production, accelerated the climacteric phase, enhanced fruit ripening, and improved quality of tomatoes.Immersed for 2 h[26]
Disclaimer/Publisher’s Note: The statements, opinions and data contained in all publications are solely those of the individual author(s) and contributor(s) and not of MDPI and/or the editor(s). MDPI and/or the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to people or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content.

Share and Cite

MDPI and ACS Style

Mubarok, S.; Suminar, E.; Abidat, A.H.; Setyawati, C.A.; Setiawan, E.; Buswar, A.S. Overview of Melatonin’s Impact on Postharvest Physiology and Quality of Fruits. Horticulturae 2023, 9, 586.

AMA Style

Mubarok S, Suminar E, Abidat AH, Setyawati CA, Setiawan E, Buswar AS. Overview of Melatonin’s Impact on Postharvest Physiology and Quality of Fruits. Horticulturae. 2023; 9(5):586.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mubarok, Syariful, Erni Suminar, Adzkia Husnul Abidat, Citra Ayu Setyawati, Erik Setiawan, and Adine Syabina Buswar. 2023. "Overview of Melatonin’s Impact on Postharvest Physiology and Quality of Fruits" Horticulturae 9, no. 5: 586.

Note that from the first issue of 2016, this journal uses article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Back to TopTop