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Horticulturae, Volume 3, Issue 4 (December 2017) – 4 articles

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1096 KiB  
Review
Agronomic Management for Enhancing Plant Tolerance to Abiotic Stresses—Drought, Salinity, Hypoxia, and Lodging
by Luigi Mariani and Antonio Ferrante
Horticulturae 2017, 3(4), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae3040052 - 1 Dec 2017
Cited by 86 | Viewed by 10053
Abstract
Abiotic stresses are currently responsible for significant losses in quantity and reduction in quality of global crop productions. In consequence, resilience against such stresses is one of the key aims of farmers and is attained by adopting both suitable genotypes and management practices. [...] Read more.
Abiotic stresses are currently responsible for significant losses in quantity and reduction in quality of global crop productions. In consequence, resilience against such stresses is one of the key aims of farmers and is attained by adopting both suitable genotypes and management practices. This latter aspect was reviewed from an agronomic point of view, taking into account stresses due to drought, water excess, salinity, and lodging. For example, drought tolerance may be enhanced by using lower plant density, anticipating the sowing or transplant as much as possible, using grafting with tolerant rootstocks, and optimizing the control of weeds. Water excess or hypoxic conditions during winter and spring can be treated with nitrate fertilizers, which increase survival rate. Salinity stress of sensitive crops may be alleviated by maintaining water content close to the field capacity by frequent and low-volume irrigation. Lodging can be prevented by installing shelterbelts against dominant winds, adopting equilibrated nitrogen fertilization, choosing a suitable plant density, and optimizing the management of pests and biotic diseases harmful to the stability and mechanic resistance of stems and roots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress Effects on Performance of Horticultural Crops)
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3585 KiB  
Article
Monitoring of Fluorescence Characteristics of Satsuma Mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) during the Maturation Period
by Muharfiza, Dimas Firmanda Al Riza, Yoshito Saito, Kenta Itakura, Yasushi Kohno, Tetsuhito Suzuki, Makoto Kuramoto and Naoshi Kondo
Horticulturae 2017, 3(4), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae3040051 - 25 Oct 2017
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 8082
Abstract
Monitoring the maturation process of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) by determining the soluble solids (SS) and acid content non-destructively is needed. Fluorescence components potentially offer such means of accessing fruit maturity characteristics in the orchard. The aim of this study was [...] Read more.
Monitoring the maturation process of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) by determining the soluble solids (SS) and acid content non-destructively is needed. Fluorescence components potentially offer such means of accessing fruit maturity characteristics in the orchard. The aim of this study was to determine the potential of fluorescence spectroscopy for monitoring the stage of citrus maturity. Four major fluorescent components in peel and/or flesh were found including chlorophyll-a (excitation (Ex) 410 nm, emission (Em) 675 nm) and chlorophyll-b (Ex 460 nm, Em 650 nm),polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) (Ex 260 nm and 370 nm, Em 540 nm), coumarin (Ex 330 nm, Em 400 nm), and a tryptophan-like compound (Ex 260 nm, Em 330 nm). Our results indicated a significant (R2 = 0.9554) logarithmic ratio between tryptophan-like compoundsExEm and chlorophyll-aExEm with the SS:acid ratio. Also, the log of the ratio of PMFs from the peel (ExExEm was significantly correlated with the SS:acid ratio (R2 = 0.8207). While the latter correlation was not as strong as the former, it does demonstrate the opportunity to develop a non-destructive field measurement of fluorescent peel compounds as an indirect index of fruit maturity. Full article
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6411 KiB  
Article
Response of Eustoma Leaf Phenotype and Photosynthetic Performance to LED Light Quality
by Md Zohurul Kadir Roni, Md Saiful Islam and Kazuhiko Shimasaki
Horticulturae 2017, 3(4), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae3040050 - 20 Oct 2017
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 6700
Abstract
In a controlled environment, light from light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has been associated with affecting the leaf characteristics of Eustoma. LEDs help plant growth and development, yet little is known about photosynthetic performance and related anatomical features in the early growth stage of [...] Read more.
In a controlled environment, light from light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has been associated with affecting the leaf characteristics of Eustoma. LEDs help plant growth and development, yet little is known about photosynthetic performance and related anatomical features in the early growth stage of Eustoma leaves. In this study, we examined the effects of blue (B), red (R), and white (W) LEDs on the photosynthetic performance of Eustoma leaves, as well as leaf morphology and anatomy including epidermal layer thickness, palisade cells, and stomatal characteristics. Leaves grown under B LEDs were thicker and had a higher chlorophyll content than those grown under the R and W LEDs. Leaves under B LEDs had greater net photosynthetic rates (A), stomatal conductance (gs), and transpiration rates (E), especially at a higher photon flux density (PPFD), that resulted in a decrease in the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), than leaves under the W and R LEDs. B LEDs resulted in greater abaxial epidermal layer thickness and palisade cell length and width than the R and W LED treatments. The palisade cells also developed a more cylindrical shape in response to the B LEDs. B LED leaves also showed greater guard cell length, breadth, and area, and stomatal density, than W or R LEDs, which may contribute to increased A, gs and E at higher PPFDs. Full article
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6917 KiB  
Short Note
Accessible Morphological and Genetic Markers for Identification of Taioba and Taro, Two Forgotten Human Foods
by María Del Pilar Sepúlveda-Nieto, Fernando Bonifacio-Anacleto, Cairo Faleiros de Figueiredo, Rômulo M. De Moraes-Filho and Ana Lilia Alzate-Marin
Horticulturae 2017, 3(4), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae3040049 - 13 Oct 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 6238
Abstract
Some tropical species—such as the domesticated Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott (Taioba) and Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (Taro)—have similar phenotypic characteristics, especially in the shape and color of the leaves and petioles which generate uncertainty in their identification for use in human food. This [...] Read more.
Some tropical species—such as the domesticated Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott (Taioba) and Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (Taro)—have similar phenotypic characteristics, especially in the shape and color of the leaves and petioles which generate uncertainty in their identification for use in human food. This study aimed to analyze the morphological and molecular characteristics of X. sagittifolium and C. esculenta that may help in the popular and scientific identification of these species. The principal morphological characteristics of X. sagittifolium were as follows: leaves with subcoriaceous textures, basal insertion of the petiole, green pseudo-stem in the basal portion with exudate being white and the presence of two collector veins. Distinctive morphological characteristics of C. esculenta were as follows: leaves with velvety textures, peltate insertion of the petiole, pink pseudo-stem in the basal portion with pink exudate and presence of one collector vein. The morphological characteristics that can be used to distinguish Taioba from Taro are the basal petiole insertion of the first, against the petiole insertion near the center of the blade of the latter. Molecular analyses using eight Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) molecular markers simultaneously showed distinctive fingerprints for each of the species. These results contribute to the proper identification of the species used as a food source. Full article
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