Next Issue
Volume 9, April
Previous Issue
Volume 9, February
 
 

Fermentation, Volume 9, Issue 3 (March 2023) – 117 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The influence of S. cerevisiae strains on wine aroma is widely reported on the lab scale, but few studies deal with strain behavior at pilot-scale level. For this purpose, seven wild S. cerevisiae strains, isolated from different Italian grape varieties, were tested in pilot-scale fermentations of Aglianico grape to evaluate their impact on aroma. The strains showed different trends and significant differences for each class of aroma compounds (esters, alcohols, terpenes, aldehydes, acids, ketones). Since the trials were performed at pilot scale, mimicking real working conditions as much as possible, the results can be considered validation of the screened S. cerevisiae strains and a strategy to discriminate in real closed conditions strains able to impart desired wine sensory features. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
14 pages, 1513 KiB  
Article
Delignification of Halophyte Atriplex crassifolia by Green Recyclable Deep Eutectic Solvents for Enhanced Production of Biogas
by Ali Nawaz, Rida Chaudhary, Ikram Ul Haq, Xiaoliang Fu, Rong Huang, Hamid Mukhtar and Kankan Jiang
Fermentation 2023, 9(3), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9030314 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1315
Abstract
Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have upgraded the practices of valorizing lignocellulosic feedstock by lessening biomass recalcitrance through delignification in precise and economical manner. In this study, the influence of a series of deep eutectic mixtures was evaluated on the halophyte Atriplex crassifolia for [...] Read more.
Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have upgraded the practices of valorizing lignocellulosic feedstock by lessening biomass recalcitrance through delignification in precise and economical manner. In this study, the influence of a series of deep eutectic mixtures was evaluated on the halophyte Atriplex crassifolia for achieving elevated biogas production. Initially, the biomass was pretreated via several DESs with varying hydrogen bond donors (HBDs) including carboxylic acids, amine/amide, and polyols/glycols. DES composed of choline chloride (ChCl) and lactic acid (LA) evidenced as the most effective solvent in achieving high lignin removal rates and was further optimized by evaluating the parameters of molar ratio of DES components, solid-to-liquid ratio, and solvent addition. A maximum delignification value of 89.5% was achieved by 15% diluted ChCl: LA (1:2) DES at a biomass loading of 1:15. The solubilization rate of diluted ChCl: LA was also raised up to 38%. FT-IR analysis revealed significant lignin elimination from ChCl: LA pretreated substrates. Moreover, ≥88% of ChCl: LA DES was recovered after up to three pretreatment cycles, retaining ≥85% delignification efficiency. Fresh DES-pretreated Atriplex crassifolia recorded 32.2 mL/g of biogas production yield due to increased cellulosic content. The findings validated Atriplex crassifolia as an efficient feedstock for biogas production and confirmed the affectivity of ChCl: LA pretreatment in eliminating the lignin barrier, ultimately making cellulosic sugars readily biodegradable and highly accessible for anaerobic microorganisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lignocellulosic Biomass Decomposition and Bioconversion)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1911 KiB  
Article
Identification of Molecular Markers for Early Detection of Sluggish Fermentation Associated with Heat Shock during Alcoholic Fermentation
by María Cecilia Lerena, Andrea Susana Vargas-Trinidad, Javier Alonso-del-Real, Maria Cecilia Rojo, Magalí Lucía González, Laura Analía Mercado, Diego Claudio Lijavetzky, Amparo Querol and Mariana Combina
Fermentation 2023, 9(3), 313; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9030313 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1297
Abstract
Problematic fermentations frequently drive economic losses and logistic problems in the winemaking industry. Previous studies have determined thermal conditions leading to problematic fermentations, selecting two contrasting yeast strains for further transcriptomic analysis. Saccharomyces cerevisiae SBB11 showed strong thermosensitivity towards heat shock, while S. [...] Read more.
Problematic fermentations frequently drive economic losses and logistic problems in the winemaking industry. Previous studies have determined thermal conditions leading to problematic fermentations, selecting two contrasting yeast strains for further transcriptomic analysis. Saccharomyces cerevisiae SBB11 showed strong thermosensitivity towards heat shock, while S. cerevisiae PDM was found to be thermotolerant. The aim of this study was to select genes with significantly upregulated expression to be later used as biomarkers for early detection of sluggish fermentation associated with heat shock. Candidate genes were selected from previously obtained RNA-seq data. Alcoholic fermentations were conducted with 4 S. cerevisiae strains SBB11, PDM, M2 and ICV D21. Heat shocks on day 3 of alcoholic fermentation were applied at 36 and 40 °C for 16 h. S. cerevisiae cells were collected at different times after heat shock onset for qPCR analysis of candidate gene expression over time. Three genes showed promising results; SSA1, MGA1 and OPI10 significantly increased expression with respect to the control. The selected genes showed increased expression during the first 9 h post heat shock and are proposed for early detection of sluggish fermentations associated with heat shock. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Applications of Biotechnology in Wine and Beer Production)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1521 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Pectin Oligosaccharides Obtained from Citrus Peel Pectin
by Diana Pasarin, Andra-Ionela Ghizdareanu, Florina Teodorescu, Camelia Rovinaru and Alexandra Banu
Fermentation 2023, 9(3), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9030312 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2724
Abstract
This study aims to characterize the pectic oligosaccharides (POSs) generated from enzymatically hydrolyzed citrus peel pectin using a selected enzyme. Pectinex Ultra AFP was used to depolymerize citrus peel pectin into POSs. The POSs were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid [...] Read more.
This study aims to characterize the pectic oligosaccharides (POSs) generated from enzymatically hydrolyzed citrus peel pectin using a selected enzyme. Pectinex Ultra AFP was used to depolymerize citrus peel pectin into POSs. The POSs were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer (LC/MS) methodology to determine the composition of monosaccharides and the average molar mass distribution based on the retention time. The identified fractions were predominantly neutral sugars (rhamnose, glucose, and galactose) and acidic sugars (galacturonic acid), with corresponding mole percentages of 8.67%, 10.28%, 74.33%, and 6.72%, respectively. The degree of polymerization (DP) was in the range of DP3–DP8, containing three (trimers) to eight (octamers) monomeric units. The low DP indicates an advanced degree of enzymatic hydrolysis of pectin up to the level of pectic POSs. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 1133 KiB  
Review
Recent Progress in Microalgae-Based Technologies for Industrial Wastewater Treatment
by Zubair Hashmi, Muhammad Roil Bilad, Fahrurrozi, Juliana Zaini, Jun Wei Lim and Yusuf Wibisono
Fermentation 2023, 9(3), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9030311 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3838
Abstract
The water resource crisis and concerns with environmental pollution prompt the necessity to upgrade conventional wastewater treatment processes. The microalgae-based wastewater treatment process has shown many advantages that can fulfill the stricter demands for improved wastewater treatment. Microalgae cultivation can be carried out [...] Read more.
The water resource crisis and concerns with environmental pollution prompt the necessity to upgrade conventional wastewater treatment processes. The microalgae-based wastewater treatment process has shown many advantages that can fulfill the stricter demands for improved wastewater treatment. Microalgae cultivation can be carried out in different photobioreactors and under different operational conditions. The cultivation of the microalgae biomass provides the bioremediation of some targeted pollutants through uptake/digestion or biosorption, resulting in treated effluent and the production of biomass. This paper reviews the progress in microalgae-biotechnology for industrial wastewater treatment. A brief overview of microalga types/classification, the cultivation photobioreactors type, and conditions was first provided. Next, a comprehensive review of the bioremediation of industrial wastewater, including distillery, heavy metals, textiles, and emerging contaminants, was provided. Finally, perspectives on the potential scale-up of the technology and some critical considerations were also discussed. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 2901 KiB  
Article
Combined Ensiling of Tropical Beans and Sugarcane Stalks: Effects on Their Secondary Metabolites
by Einar Artiles-Ortega, Verónica Andrade-Yucailla, Beatriz Medina-López, Pedro Yoelvys de la Fe-Rodríguez, Néstor Acosta-Lozano, Veerle Fievez and Raciel Lima-Orozco
Fermentation 2023, 9(3), 310; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9030310 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1218
Abstract
In this study, the effect of mixed silage on the chemical composition, ensilability, in vitro cellulase digestibility and some of their plant secondary metabolites (PSM) were assessed. The lab-scale silage mixes were made in triplicate from sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) stalk and Canavalia [...] Read more.
In this study, the effect of mixed silage on the chemical composition, ensilability, in vitro cellulase digestibility and some of their plant secondary metabolites (PSM) were assessed. The lab-scale silage mixes were made in triplicate from sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) stalk and Canavalia ensiformis or Mucuna pruriens beans (Santa Clara, Cuba). Sugarcane stalks and beans were mixed at a ratio of 40:60 (on DM basis), respectively, in combination with a mixture of microbial inoculants (Lactobacillus acidophilus, and two Kluyveromyces fragilis strains, 4 × 105 colony forming units (CFU)/g of fresh matter). Before and after ensiling, the chemical composition, ensilability and contents of some PSM (trypsin inhibitor, L-canavanine, total tannins, L-dopa and phytic acid) were determined. A complete factorial design to assess the effect of the ensiling time (30, 60 or 90 days), the legume type (LT) and their interactions on the assessed parameters were performed. A better silage fermentation quality of the M. pruriens–sugarcane mixed material [e.g., lower (p < 0.05) pH and ammonia N content and higher (p < 0.05) concentration of lactic acid] was observed as compared with the C. ensiformis–sugarcane mixed material. The ensiling process reduced (p < 0.001) the studied PSM, being higher (p < 0.001) in the M. pruriens–sugarcane silages than in the C. ensiformis–sugarcane silages [trypsin inhibitor (86 vs. 76%); L-canavanine (70 vs. 53%); total tannins (54 vs. 50%); L-Dopa (89 vs. 86%)], except for phytic acid (65 vs. 68%), respectively]. It was concluded that ensiling enhances the quality of the feeds by predigestive reduction of the amount of secondary plant metabolites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Industrial Fermentation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 4728 KiB  
Article
Structural Properties of a Heteropolysaccharide Released from Isaria cicadae Miq. Solid-State Fermented Wheat Bran
by Rui Liu, Ruixin Liu, Xuebing Yan, Ningjie Li, Ming Li, Zijian Zhi, Boli Guo and Min Zhang
Fermentation 2023, 9(3), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9030309 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1374
Abstract
The work aimed to improve the extraction efficiency of wheat bran polysaccharide by solid-state fermentation using the bioactive fungus Isaria cicadae Miq. and identify the structural properties of fermented wheat bran polysaccharide (IC-FWBP). The polysaccharide fraction of IC-FWBP was isolated with an [...] Read more.
The work aimed to improve the extraction efficiency of wheat bran polysaccharide by solid-state fermentation using the bioactive fungus Isaria cicadae Miq. and identify the structural properties of fermented wheat bran polysaccharide (IC-FWBP). The polysaccharide fraction of IC-FWBP was isolated with an extraction yield of 2.88% and an average molecular weight of 3.31 × 106 Da. The IC-FWBP was comprised of mannose, glucose, and galactose. The methylation, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and Congo red analysis results suggested that IC-FWBP contained glycosidic linkages of T-β-D-Glcf, 1→2-α-D-Manp, 1→5,6-β-D-Galf, 1→2,3,4-α-D-Galp and 1→2,3,4-β-D-Manp, with triple-helix conformations. The morphological observation showed that IC-FWBP was composed of rod-like and spherical particles. These investigations on the structural properties of IC-FWBP will be beneficial to further research on the functional properties of wheat bran polysaccharides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Products from Edible and Medicinal Fungi by Fermentation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 7937 KiB  
Article
Comparative Compositions and Activities of Flavonoids from Nine Sanghuang Strains Based on Solid-State Fermentation and In Vitro Assays
by Tian Li, Yuxia Mei, Ji Li, Wendi Yang, Fanfan He, Jiaxin Ge, Fei Chen, Yicheng Yang, Aowen Xie, Yangyang Liu and Yunxiang Liang
Fermentation 2023, 9(3), 308; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9030308 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1400
Abstract
Sanghuang, a traditional Chinese medicinal herb obtained from numerous related fungal species in the genus Sanghuangporus, contains many bioactive substances that display a variety of beneficial pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, antitumor, and antidiabetic. We collected wild fruiting bodies from various Chinese localities, [...] Read more.
Sanghuang, a traditional Chinese medicinal herb obtained from numerous related fungal species in the genus Sanghuangporus, contains many bioactive substances that display a variety of beneficial pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, antitumor, and antidiabetic. We collected wild fruiting bodies from various Chinese localities, obtained nine pure sanghuang strains (termed S1 to S9), cultured the strains by solid-state fermentation, extracted and purified sanghuang flavonoids (termed SHFs) from mycelia, and analyzed their antioxidant abilities and α-amylase inhibitory (α-AI) activities. SHFs from strains S2, S6, S7, and S9 displayed strong DPPH radical scavenging abilities and iron reducing abilities, while SHFs from S1, S3, S5, and S8 had strong α-AI activities. SHF components were analyzed by HPLC in combination with a Chinese medicine fingerprint similarity evaluation system and statistical analyses. SHFs from the nine strains showed high fingerprint similarity. Fifteen peaks in the chromatograms (termed 1–15) were subjected to cluster analysis, which revealed that differences in SHF composition were related to geographic origin and host species. The strains with strong antioxidant activities had relatively large peak 5 and peak 9 areas, while those with strong α-AI activities had relatively large peak 13 areas. Such variation in SHF activities is attributable to differences in their components. Our findings indicate that careful selection of SHFs based on these activities will strengthen their potential development as antioxidant and antidiabetic agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbial Metabolism, Physiology & Genetics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 3390 KiB  
Article
Feasible Utilization of Waste Limestone as a Calcium Source for Microbially Induced Carbonate Precipitation (MICP)
by Qian Feng, Yuqi Song, Chuanwei Lu, Hao Fang, Yuxin Huang, Liuxia Chen and Xiangyang Song
Fermentation 2023, 9(3), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9030307 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2174
Abstract
Microbial-induced CaCO3 precipitation (MICP) is an innovative and rapidly developing technology for sand solidification. The idea for this research project was built based on the concept of sustainable development and environmental protection. The specific material used for solidification was soluble calcium ions [...] Read more.
Microbial-induced CaCO3 precipitation (MICP) is an innovative and rapidly developing technology for sand solidification. The idea for this research project was built based on the concept of sustainable development and environmental protection. The specific material used for solidification was soluble calcium ions generated by the reaction of limestone waste, a kind of calcium-rich industrial waste from a quarry, and acetic acid. Using Ca(CH3COO)2 (prepared from limestone waste) as a calcium source resulted in a 31.87% lower MICP cost compared to using CaCl2. An unconfined compressive strength (UCS) test was conducted to characterize the macroscopic mechanical properties of bio-cured sand columns. The mineral composition and the microstructure of sand columns were examined by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). After response surface optimization, the optimal conditions for the reaction of limestone and CH3COOH were determined, and the calcium acetate yield was up to 96.81%. The UCS of sand samples treated with limestone/acetic acid was 10.61% higher than that of samples treated with calcium chloride. This research confirmed the feasibility of cheap limestone waste and soluble calcium ions generated by acetic acid as a calcium source, instead of calcium chloride, for solidifying sand columns in the MICP process. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

15 pages, 2309 KiB  
Article
Two-Stage Process for Energy Valorization of Cheese Whey through Bio-Electrochemical Hydrogen Production Coupled with Microbial Fuel Cell
by Tatiana Zonfa, Theofilos Kamperidis, Marica Falzarano, Gerasimos Lyberatos, Alessandra Polettini, Raffaella Pomi, Andreina Rossi and Asimina Tremouli
Fermentation 2023, 9(3), 306; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9030306 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1527
Abstract
The present work investigates a two-stage process scheme for cheese whey valorization through energy recovery in different forms by means of bio-electrochemical systems. The first stage consisted of an integrated bio-electrochemical process for H2 and electricity production. This combined dark fermentation with [...] Read more.
The present work investigates a two-stage process scheme for cheese whey valorization through energy recovery in different forms by means of bio-electrochemical systems. The first stage consisted of an integrated bio-electrochemical process for H2 and electricity production. This combined dark fermentation with an electrochemical system with the aim of overcoming the typical thermodynamic/biochemical limitations of fermentation and enhancing H2 recovery. The second treatment stage involved a single-chamber microbial fuel cell, featuring an innovative configuration consisting of four air cathodes with fly ash as the oxygen reduction catalyst. The bio-electrochemical process performed in the first stage achieved promising results, displaying a three-times higher H2 production yield compared to conventional dark fermentation. In addition, the experiments using the MFC in the second stage were found to successfully exploit the effluent from the first stage, with COD removal yields of 86% ± 8% and energy recovery with a maximum current output of 1.6 mA and a maximum power density of 1.2 W/m3. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1704 KiB  
Article
Fruit Beer with the Bisucciu Sardinian Apricot Cultivar (Prunus armeniaca L.): A Technological and Analytical Approach
by Antonio Valentoni, Riccardo Melis, Manuela Sanna, Maria Cristina Porcu, Margherita Rodolfi, Angela Braca, Angela Bianco, Giacomo Zara, Marilena Budroni, Roberto Anedda, Daniela Piras and Luca Pretti
Fermentation 2023, 9(3), 305; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9030305 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1758
Abstract
The aim of this work was to test native microbial strains and fruits for brewing, with a multidisciplinary approach for a sustainable production linked to the territory. Pediococcus acidilactici B5 and Hanseniaspora uvarum L2 strains were isolated from apricot Bisucciu fruits, a Sardinian [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to test native microbial strains and fruits for brewing, with a multidisciplinary approach for a sustainable production linked to the territory. Pediococcus acidilactici B5 and Hanseniaspora uvarum L2 strains were isolated from apricot Bisucciu fruits, a Sardinian local variety (Prunus armeniaca L.), and P. acidilactici B5 was used to ferment a sterile apricot Bisucciu puree, which was then added to a malt wort. The H. uvarum L2 strain and the industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae US-05 were used sequentially to ferment a portion of this wort (M2); a control was carried out with an industrial yeast, S. cerevisiae T-58 (T58). Beer standard quality parameters were studied and a sensorial analysis performed in the beers obtained from the two fermentations. Intermediate and end molecular products were characterized by proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) for glucidic, organic acids and amino acids and by Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (SPME/GC/MS) for volatile profiles. M2 and T58 samples showed differences in color, foam stability and in the carbohydrates, acids and amino acids profiles. The highest concentrations of ethyl acetate were found in M2, whereas a high concentration of 3-methylbutan-1-ol characterized T58. Sensory analysis highlighted differences in flavor, astringency and balance between the two beers studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Fermentation for Food and Beverages)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

2 pages, 1135 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Pei et al. Structural Characteristics and the Antioxidant and Hypoglycemic Activities of a Polysaccharide from Lonicera caerulea L. Pomace. Fermentation 2022, 8, 422
by Fangyi Pei, Yuze Lv, Xinbo Cao, Xuemeng Wang, Yanxin Ren and Jingping Ge
Fermentation 2023, 9(3), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9030304 - 21 Mar 2023
Viewed by 832
Abstract
In the original publication [...] Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 2108 KiB  
Article
Effects of Mixed Fermentation on the Aroma Compounds of ‘Italian Riesling’ Dry White Wine in Eastern Foothill of Helan Mountain
by Hongchuan Xia, Zhong Zhang, Lijun Sun, Qingchen Zhang and Junxiang Zhang
Fermentation 2023, 9(3), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9030303 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1209
Abstract
To study the effect of mixed fermentation of non-Saccharomyces strains and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the aroma quality of ‘Italian Riesling’ wine in the eastern foothill of Helan Mountain and to determine the most optimum process of mixed fermentation, two selected non-Saccharomyces [...] Read more.
To study the effect of mixed fermentation of non-Saccharomyces strains and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the aroma quality of ‘Italian Riesling’ wine in the eastern foothill of Helan Mountain and to determine the most optimum process of mixed fermentation, two selected non-Saccharomyces strains, including Hanseniaspora uvarum YUN268 and Pichia fermentans Z9Y-3, were inoculated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae in different proportions (10:1 or 1:1) and different stages (48 h in advance or simultaneously at the beginning) to ferment ‘Italian Riesling’ dry white wine. The oenological parameters and aroma indexes of the wine samples were evaluated. The results showed mixed fermentation can not only reduce the alcohol content of wine 0.24~0.71% vol but also increase the glycerol content to improve the taste of wine. The mixed fermentation effect of Pichia fermentans Z9Y-3 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in improvements, especially the high proportion (10:1) sequential inoculation and simultaneous inoculation of wine samples (WSP10 and WCP10), which not only produced more volatile aroma substances and glycerol content but also increased the total amount of ester substances by 49.4% and 56.5%, respectively, compared with the control. The sensory evaluation scores of WSP10 and WCP10 were significantly higher than the control (89.3 and 88.1 points, respectively). At the same time, it can also enhance the aroma of lemon, cream, almond, and others and increase the aroma complexity of wine. Therefore, these two methods of mixed fermentation inoculation are more suitable for the production of Italian Riesling wine in the eastern foothill of Helan Mountain. In conclusion, the mixed fermentation of Pichia fermentans Z9Y-3 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae 10:1 (simultaneous or sequential) inoculation is suitable for the production of Italian Riesling dry white wine in the eastern foothill of Helan Mountain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Fermentation for Food and Beverages)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 4182 KiB  
Article
Metschnikowia pulcherrima in Cold Clarification: Biocontrol Activity and Aroma Enhancement in Verdicchio Wine
by Alice Agarbati, Laura Canonico, Maurizio Ciani and Francesca Comitini
Fermentation 2023, 9(3), 302; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9030302 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1400
Abstract
Non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts are not only proposed to improve the sensory profile of wine but also for several distinctive promising features. Among them, biocontrol action at different steps of the wine production chain could be a suitable strategy to reduce the use [...] Read more.
Non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts are not only proposed to improve the sensory profile of wine but also for several distinctive promising features. Among them, biocontrol action at different steps of the wine production chain could be a suitable strategy to reduce the use of sulfur dioxide. In this work, the activity of a selected strain of Metschnikowia pulcherrima was evaluated as inoculum in cold clarification with the aim to reduce SO2 and improve the aromatic profile of the wine. Fermentation processes were carried out at the winery level for two consecutive vintages using a pied de cuve as the starter inoculum coming from indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. M. pulcherrima revealed an effective bio-protectant action during the pre-fermentative stage even if the timely and appropriate starter inoculum in the two years permitted the effective control of wild yeasts during the fermentation also in the control trials. In general, the main oenological characters did not show differences if compared with an un-inoculated trial, while the inoculum of M. pucherrima in cold clarification determined an enhancement of ethyl hexanoate, isobutanol, acetaldehyde, and geraniol even if they are considered in different amounts for each year. Indeed, the analytical and sensory profiles of wines were also influenced by the vintage and variation pied the cuve population. Nonetheless, the overall results indicated that M. pulcherrima led to biocontrol action and an improvement of the aromatic and sensory profile of the wine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aroma Compound Evolution during Fermentation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 2641 KiB  
Article
Fermentation Dynamics of Naturally Fermented Palm Beverages of West Bengal and Jharkhand in India
by Souvik Das and Jyoti Prakash Tamang
Fermentation 2023, 9(3), 301; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9030301 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3358
Abstract
The term ‘toddy’ represents a group of different varieties of mild-alcoholic palm beverages of coastal and inland India, produced from the fresh saps of various palm trees through uncontrolled natural fermentation. In this study, we analysed the successional changes of microbial [...] Read more.
The term ‘toddy’ represents a group of different varieties of mild-alcoholic palm beverages of coastal and inland India, produced from the fresh saps of various palm trees through uncontrolled natural fermentation. In this study, we analysed the successional changes of microbial abundances and various physico-chemical parameters during natural fermentation (0 h to 48 h) of taal toddy, prepared from Palmyra palm, and khejur toddy, prepared from date palm of West Bengal and Jharkhand in India. Microorganisms from different successional levels were isolated and grouped using repetitive element sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) technique and identified by the sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and D1-D2 region of 26S rRNA gene for bacteria and yeasts, respectively. Enterococcus faecalis, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum, Lacticaseibacillus paracasei and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were identified during natural fermentation of toddy. During the natural fermentation, the average pH and total sugar content in the samples of both taal and khejur toddy decreased, whereas a gradual rise was observed in the contents of acidity, total alcohol, total ester and total protein. Bio-active potential (presence of phenolics and flavonoids) of toddy was also analysed (0 h to 48 h), where contents of total phenolics, flavonoids and resulting anti-oxidant activity were found higher in the end-product than the fresh palm sap, indicating toddy as a functional low-alcoholic drink. Lastly, it can be concluded that the inter-variable dynamics and microbial interrelation, which in turn depend on a number of local factors, regulate the overall fermentation dynamics and determine the product quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Perspectives on Microbiota of Fermented Foods)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 1888 KiB  
Brief Report
Metabolome Analysis of the Effects of Sake Lees on Adipocyte Differentiation and Lipid Accumulation
by Yuki Motono, Shin Nishiumi, Masaru Yoshida and Motoko Takaoka
Fermentation 2023, 9(3), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9030300 - 19 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1112
Abstract
Obesity, along with hypertension and hyperlipidemia, is one of the leading factors of metabolic syndrome, which increases the risk of diabetes. However, controlling obesity is a global challenge. Sake lees, or Japanese rice wine lees, is a by-product of sake fermentation and has [...] Read more.
Obesity, along with hypertension and hyperlipidemia, is one of the leading factors of metabolic syndrome, which increases the risk of diabetes. However, controlling obesity is a global challenge. Sake lees, or Japanese rice wine lees, is a by-product of sake fermentation and has been consumed in Japan for a long time. Sake lees contains an abundance of amino acids, peptides, dietary fiber, and micronutrients, which make it highly nutritional. Additionally, sake lees has been reported to have multiple interesting effects when ingested and may aid in combating obesity. In this study, we investigated the effects of sake lees materials on preadipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation in preadipocyte cells (3T3-L1) and analyzed it with a metabolome analysis. We found that compared to the control group, lipid accumulation was suppressed by 80.9% when the 100 °C extract of indigestible sake lees component (ISLCs) was added to 1 mg/mL. Additionally, the metabolome analysis revealed various other differences between the control group and the group treated with ISLCs, especially in amino acids concentrations. Based on the above findings, we demonstrate that ISLCs affect the amino acid metabolic pathways, which in turn affect differentiation and lipid accumulation in adipocytes. Therefore, we suggest that sake lees may aid in combating obesity and addressing metabolic syndromes, both of which can be considered as global issues. The limitation of this research is sake lee is a general non-direct edible raw material and it is difficult to add as a regular diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Fermentation for Food and Beverages)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 5053 KiB  
Article
New Online Monitoring Approaches to Describe and Understand the Kinetics of Acetaldehyde Concentration during Wine Alcoholic Fermentation: Access to Production Balances
by Charlie Guittin, Faïza Maçna, Christian Picou, Marc Perez, Adeline Barreau, Xavier Poitou, Jean-Marie Sablayrolles, Jean-Roch Mouret and Vincent Farines
Fermentation 2023, 9(3), 299; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9030299 - 18 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3129
Abstract
The compound acetaldehyde has complex synthesis kinetics since it accumulates during the growth phase and is consumed by yeast during the stationary phase, as well as evaporating (low boiling point) throughout the process. One recurrent question about this molecule is: can temperature both [...] Read more.
The compound acetaldehyde has complex synthesis kinetics since it accumulates during the growth phase and is consumed by yeast during the stationary phase, as well as evaporating (low boiling point) throughout the process. One recurrent question about this molecule is: can temperature both increase and decrease the consumption of the molecule by yeast or does it only promote its evaporation? Therefore, the main objective of this study was to describe and analyze the evolution of acetaldehyde and shed light on the effect of temperature, the main parameter that impacts fermentation kinetics and the dynamics of acetaldehyde synthesis. Thanks to new online monitoring approaches, anisothermal temperature management and associated mathematical methods, complete acetaldehyde production balances during fermentation made it possible to dissociate biological consumption from physical evaporation. From a biological point of view, the high fermentation temperatures led to important production of acetaldehyde at the end of the growth phase but also allowed better consumption of the molecule by yeast. Physical evaporation was more important at high temperatures, reinforcing the final decrease in acetaldehyde concentration. Thanks to the use of production balances, it was possible to determine that the decrease in acetaldehyde concentration during the stationary phase was mainly due to yeast consumption, which was explained by the metabolic links found between acetaldehyde and markers of metabolism, such as organic acids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aroma Compound Evolution during Fermentation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1487 KiB  
Article
Isolation and Characterization of Lignocellulolytic Bacteria from Municipal Solid Waste Landfill for Identification of Potential Hydrolytic Enzyme
by Ogechukwu Bose Chukwuma, Mohd Rafatullah, Riti Thapar Kapoor, Husnul Azan Tajarudin, Norli Ismail, Masoom Raza Siddiqui and Mahboob Alam
Fermentation 2023, 9(3), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9030298 - 18 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2639
Abstract
The utilization of lignocellulose biomass as an alternative source of renewable energy production via green technology is becoming important, and is in line with sustainable development goal initiatives. Lignocellulolytic bacteria, such as Bacillus spp., can break down biomass by producing hydrolytic enzymes, which [...] Read more.
The utilization of lignocellulose biomass as an alternative source of renewable energy production via green technology is becoming important, and is in line with sustainable development goal initiatives. Lignocellulolytic bacteria, such as Bacillus spp., can break down biomass by producing hydrolytic enzymes, which are crucial in the successful conversion of biomass or lignocellulosic material into renewable energy. This information gave rise to this study, where municipal solid waste sediments of a sanitary municipal solid waste landfill were sampled and screened, and lignocellulolytic bacteria were isolated and characterized. Samples were taken from four different locations at the Pulau Burung landfill site in Malaysia. Lignin and starch were used as sources of carbon to identify potential bacteria that exhibit multi-enzymatic activity. The growth rate and doubling time of bacterial isolates in lignin and starch were taken as the criteria for selection. Eleven bacterial isolates were screened for cellulase activity using iodine and Congo red dyes. The cellulase activity of these isolates ranged from 0.8 to 1.7 U/mL. We carried out 16S rRNA gene sequencing to identify the phyla of the selected bacterial isolates. Phylogenetic analysis was also conducted based on the 16S rRNA sequences of the bacterial isolates and related Bacillus species, and a tree was generated using the Neighbor-Joining method. In this study, Bacillus proteolyticus, Bacillus Sanguinis, Bacillus spizizenii, Bacillus paramycoides, Bacillus paranthracis and Neobacillus fumarioli were identified as promising bacteria capable of expressing lignocellulolytic enzymes and degrading the lignocellulosic biomass present in municipal solid waste. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes in Biorefinery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2767 KiB  
Article
Kinetic Study of Anaerobic Digestion of Compost Leachate from Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste
by Carlo Limonti, Giulia Maria Curcio, Alessio Siciliano, Adolfo Le Pera and Goksel N. Demirer
Fermentation 2023, 9(3), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9030297 - 18 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1587
Abstract
The anaerobic digestion (AD) of compost leachate has been scarcely investigated and, to the best of our knowledge, no previous work has analyzed the kinetics of the process in completely stirred tank reactors (CSTR). To overcome this lack of knowledge, the present work [...] Read more.
The anaerobic digestion (AD) of compost leachate has been scarcely investigated and, to the best of our knowledge, no previous work has analyzed the kinetics of the process in completely stirred tank reactors (CSTR). To overcome this lack of knowledge, the present work aimed to deepen the study of the AD of compost leachate in CSTR and to identify the kinetics that can represent the process evolution under different operating conditions. In this regard, an experimental investigation was carried out on a laboratory anaerobic pilot plant that worked in semi-continuous mode under mesophilic conditions. After the start-up phase, the digester was fed with organic loading rates (OLR) between 4 and 30 gCOD/Ld. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal ranged between 80 and 85% for OLR values up to 20 gCOD/Ld and, then, it was observed as 54% at 30 gCOD/Ld. The deterioration of process performance was caused by an excessive generation of volatile fatty acids leading to a decrease of methane production yield from 0.32–0.36 LCH4/gCODremoved at 20 gCOD/Ld, to 0.23–0.26 LCH4/gCODremoved at 30 gCOD/Ld. Using kinetic analysis, the Monod model was shown to be quite accurate in modelling the trends of COD degradation rates for OLR values up to 20 gCOD/Ld. On the other hand, a better fit was achieved with the Haldane model at 30 gCOD/Ld. The conducted modelling allowed to identify the kinetic parameters for each model. The detected results could help in the management and design of the digesters for the treatment of compost leachate. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 2951 KiB  
Article
Microencapsulation of Bifidobacterium breve to Enhance Microbial Cell Viability in Green Soybean Yogurt
by Kanokorn Naklong, Phatthanaphong Therdtatha, Nutsuda Sumonsiri, Noppol Leksawasdi, Charin Techapun, Pornchai Rachtanapun, Siraphat Taesuwan, Rojarej Nunta and Julaluk Khemacheewakul
Fermentation 2023, 9(3), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9030296 - 18 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1959
Abstract
Bifidobacteria, a major bacterial group, have several beneficial impacts on health, such as enhancing the intestinal flora by limiting the colonization of pathogenic microorganisms and stimulating the immune system. As a result, bifidobacteria have been extensively included in various food products. In [...] Read more.
Bifidobacteria, a major bacterial group, have several beneficial impacts on health, such as enhancing the intestinal flora by limiting the colonization of pathogenic microorganisms and stimulating the immune system. As a result, bifidobacteria have been extensively included in various food products. In this study, Bifidobacterium breve TISTR 2130 was microencapsulated using an emulsion technique with sodium alginate and calcium lactate in green soybean milk as wall materials. This study found that microbeads prepared with 2.0% (w/v) sodium alginate and 2.0% (w/v) calcium lactate had the highest microencapsulation efficiency (MEE) of 99.8% ± 0.07%. In addition, the viability of microencapsulated B. breve TISTR 2130 and free cells was evaluated following a simulated gastrointestinal treatment. Microencapsulated B. breve TISTR 2130 showed higher cell viability than free cells under the simulated gastrointestinal conditions. The viability reduction of free cells dropped substantially to zero after 1 h of incubation in simulated gastrointestinal juice (SIJ), while the viable cell count of microencapsulated B. breve TISTR 2130 remained greater than 5 log CFU/mL and the survival rate was greater than 64% at the end of the sequential digestion. During refrigerated storage of green soybean yogurt (GSY) fortified with microencapsulated B. breve, the viability of B. breve TISTR 2130, syneresis, and acidity decreased, while the pH and viscosity increased. Microencapsulated B. breve TISTR 2130 has the potential to be used as a probiotic fortification in GSY since the viability remained above the recommended minimal limit of 6 log CFU/mL for 10 days during refrigerated storage. The present study demonstrated that the optimized microencapsulated B. breve TISTR 2130 sodium alginate matrix could survive the human gastrointestinal tract to provide health benefits and the possibility of incorporation into functional foods. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 2214 KiB  
Article
Camellia oleifera Shell Biochar as a Robust Adsorbent for Aqueous Mercury Removal
by Fenglin Chen, Nianfang Ma, Guo Peng, Weiting Xu, Yanlei Zhang, Fei Meng, Qinghua Huang, Biao Hu, Qingfu Wang, Xinhong Guo, Peng Cheng and Liqun Jiang
Fermentation 2023, 9(3), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9030295 - 18 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1379
Abstract
Camellia oleifera fruit shell (COS) is an agricultural waste product generated in large quantities by the seed oil extraction industry. Due to its hierarchical thickness structure, COS shows huge potential in constructing porous carbon materials after thermal chemical modification. Herein, a series of [...] Read more.
Camellia oleifera fruit shell (COS) is an agricultural waste product generated in large quantities by the seed oil extraction industry. Due to its hierarchical thickness structure, COS shows huge potential in constructing porous carbon materials after thermal chemical modification. Herein, a series of COS biochars were synthesized by a carbonization-activation process and achieved excellent mercury removal performance in an aqueous environment. High-temperature carbonization was found to facilitate lignin removal and porosity generation, while retaining hydroxyl and carbonyl groups available for mercury adsorption. A volume of micropores of 594 × 10−3 cm−3/g with average pore diameter of 1.7 nm was achieved in activated COS biochar. At 550 °C, an adsorption capacity of 57.6 mg/g was realized in 1 mg/L Hg2+ solution under different pH environments. This work provides an alternative adsorbent for removing hazardous materials using sustainable bioresources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose Valorization in Biorefinery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2112 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Geraniol Biotransformation by Commercial Saccharomyces Yeast Strains by Two Headspace Techniques: Solid-Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS) and Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS)
by Rebecca Roberts, Iuliia Khomenko, Graham T. Eyres, Phil Bremer, Patrick Silcock, Emanuela Betta and Franco Biasioli
Fermentation 2023, 9(3), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9030294 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2532
Abstract
Hop-derived volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their transformation products significantly impact beer flavour and aroma. Geraniol, a key monoterpene alcohol in hops, has been reported to undergo yeast-modulated biotransformation into various terpenoids during fermentation, which impacts the citrus and floral aromas of the [...] Read more.
Hop-derived volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their transformation products significantly impact beer flavour and aroma. Geraniol, a key monoterpene alcohol in hops, has been reported to undergo yeast-modulated biotransformation into various terpenoids during fermentation, which impacts the citrus and floral aromas of the finished beer. This study monitored the evolution of geraniol and its transformation products throughout fermentation to provide insight into differences as a function of yeast species and strain. The headspace concentration of VOCs produced during fermentation in model wort was measured using Solid-Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS) and Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS). In the absence of yeast, only geraniol was detected, and no terpenoid compounds were detected in geraniol-free ferments. During fermentation, the depletion of geraniol was closely followed by the detection of citronellol, citronellyl acetate and geranyl acetate. The concentration of the products and formation behaviour was yeast strain dependent. SPME-GC/MS provided confidence in compound identification. PTR-ToF-MS allowed online monitoring of these transformation products, showing when formation differed between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces pastorianus yeasts. A better understanding of the ability of different yeast to biotransform hop terpenes will help brewers predict, control, and optimize the aroma of the finished beer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aroma Compound Evolution during Fermentation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 4162 KiB  
Article
Fermented Wheat Bran Polysaccharides Improved Intestinal Health of Zebrafish in Terms of Intestinal Motility and Barrier Function
by Qiuyan Chen, Jinju Mao, Yuan Wang, Na Yin, Na Liu, Yue Zheng, Xiaoping An, Jingwei Qi, Ruifang Wang and Yanping Yang
Fermentation 2023, 9(3), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9030293 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1552
Abstract
Intestinal barrier dysfunction and gut microbiota disorders have been associated with various intestinal and extraintestinal diseases. Fermented wheat bran polysaccharides (FWBP) are promising natural products for enhancing the growth performance and antioxidant function of zebrafish. The present study was conducted, in order to [...] Read more.
Intestinal barrier dysfunction and gut microbiota disorders have been associated with various intestinal and extraintestinal diseases. Fermented wheat bran polysaccharides (FWBP) are promising natural products for enhancing the growth performance and antioxidant function of zebrafish. The present study was conducted, in order to investigate the effects of FWBP on the intestinal motility and barrier function of zebrafish, which could provide evidence for the further potential of using FWBP as a functional food ingredient in the consideration of gut health. In Experiment 1, the normal or loperamide hydrochloride-induced constipation zebrafish larvae were treated with three concentrations of FWBP (10, 20, 40 μg/mL). In Experiment 2, 180 one month-old healthy zebrafish were randomly divided into three groups (six replicates/group and 10 zebrafish/tank) and fed with a basal diet, 0.05% FWBP, or 0.10% FWBP for eight weeks. The results showed that FWBP treatment for 6 h can reduce the fluorescence intensity and alleviate constipation, thereby promoting the gastrointestinal motility of zebrafish. When compared with control group, zebrafish fed diets containing FWBP showed an increased villus height (p < 0.05), an up-regulated mRNA expression of the tight junction protein 1α, muc2.1, muc5.1, matrix metalloproteinases 9 and defensin1 (p < 0.05), an increased abundance of the phylum Firmicutes (p < 0.05), and a decreased abundance of the phylum Proteobacteria, family Aeromonadaceae, and genus Aeromonas (p < 0.05). In addition, 0.05% FWBP supplementation up-regulated the intestinal mRNA expression of IL-10 and Occludin1 (p < 0.05), enhanced the Shannon and Chao1 indexes (p < 0.05), and increased the abundance of Bacteroidota and Actinobacteriota at the phylum level (p < 0.05). Additionally, 0.1% FWBP supplementation significantly improved the villus height to crypt depth ratio (p < 0.05) and increased the mRNA expression of IL-17 (p < 0.05). These findings reveal that FWBP can promote the intestinal motility and enhance the intestinal barrier function, thus improving the intestinal health of zebrafish. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 1419 KiB  
Article
Populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Vineyards: Biodiversity and Persistence Associated with Terroir
by Magalí Lucía González, Selva Valeria Chimeno, María Elena Sturm, Lucía Maribel Becerra, María Cecilia Lerena, María Cecilia Rojo, Mariana Combina and Laura Analía Mercado
Fermentation 2023, 9(3), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9030292 - 17 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1179
Abstract
The origin terroir provides distinctive characteristics for wines, in relation to soil, climate, oenological practices, etc. Hence, the characterization of each wine region by multiple aspects would allow differentiation of its wines. Several approaches at different scales have studied terroir microbiological fingerprints: from [...] Read more.
The origin terroir provides distinctive characteristics for wines, in relation to soil, climate, oenological practices, etc. Hence, the characterization of each wine region by multiple aspects would allow differentiation of its wines. Several approaches at different scales have studied terroir microbiological fingerprints: from global microbiome analysis up to intraspecific Saccharomyces biodiversity. Mature grapes are the primary source of yeasts, and S. cerevisiae is a key wine fermentative species. Malbec is the emblematic Argentinean variety and is mainly cultivated in the “Zona Alta del Rio Mendoza” (ZARM). In this work, the diversity of S. cerevisiae grape populations was studied at three vintages in two Malbec vineyards of the ZARM, to evaluate their annual diversity and behavior in different vintages. Rarefaction of classical ecological indices was applied for a statistically adequate biodiversity analysis. A total of 654 S. cerevisiae isolates were differentiated by Interdelta-PCR. Each yeast grape population showed a unique composition of S. cerevisiae strains; however, a narrow genetic relationship was found in each vineyard. A slight increase in the initial diversity and a stabilization in the diversity of S. cerevisiae populations were confirmed. These results add to the discussion about the contribution of yeasts to the terroir microbiological concept, and its limitations and stability over the time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Applications of Biotechnology in Wine and Beer Production)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 5079 KiB  
Article
Enhancing the Chemical Composition of Kombucha Fermentation by Adding Indian Gooseberry as a Substrate
by Tharinee Klawpiyapamornkun, Toungporn Uttarotai, Sunanta Wangkarn, Panee Sirisa-ard, Suwalee Kiatkarun, Yingmanee Tragoolpua and Sakunnee Bovonsombut
Fermentation 2023, 9(3), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9030291 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2633
Abstract
Kombucha is a fermented tea beverage obtained by the symbiosis of yeast, acetic acid bacteria and some lactic acid bacteria, and it has many health benefits. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of adding Indian gooseberry as a substrate [...] Read more.
Kombucha is a fermented tea beverage obtained by the symbiosis of yeast, acetic acid bacteria and some lactic acid bacteria, and it has many health benefits. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of adding Indian gooseberry as a substrate to enhance the chemical properties of kombucha. In this study, traditional kombucha made from green tea was compared to kombucha made from green tea blended with various forms of Indian gooseberry, including whole fruit, dried fruit and juice. The fermentation was performed for 21 days and samples were collected every 3 days to enumerate the total number of yeast and bacteria. Physical and chemical properties, including total soluble solids, alcohol content, pH, acetic acid content, total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant activity and organic acids, were analyzed. The results revealed that the dried Indian gooseberry kombucha (DIGK) demonstrated significantly high total phenolic content and total flavonoid content. In addition, DIGK had the highest D-Saccharic acid-1,4 lactone (DSL) on the 9th day of fermentation. This discovery suggests that dried Indian gooseberry can be used as an alternative substrate for kombucha fermentation to create a new type of kombucha beverage with enhanced chemical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Antioxidant Compounds in Fermented Foods)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 4682 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Inhibitory Activity of Selected Lactic Acid Bacteria against Bread Rope Spoilage Agents
by Giovanna Iosca, Joanna Ivy Irorita Fugaban, Süleyman Özmerih, Anders Peter Wätjen, Rolf Sommer Kaas, Quốc Hà, Radhakrishna Shetty, Andrea Pulvirenti, Luciana De Vero and Claus Heiner Bang-Berthelsen
Fermentation 2023, 9(3), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9030290 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1952
Abstract
In this study, a wide pool of lactic acid bacteria strains deposited in two recognized culture collections was tested against ropy bread spoilage bacteria, specifically belonging to Bacillus spp., Paenibacillus spp., and Lysinibacillus spp. High-throughput and ex vivo screening assays were performed to [...] Read more.
In this study, a wide pool of lactic acid bacteria strains deposited in two recognized culture collections was tested against ropy bread spoilage bacteria, specifically belonging to Bacillus spp., Paenibacillus spp., and Lysinibacillus spp. High-throughput and ex vivo screening assays were performed to select the best candidates. They were further investigated to detect the production of active antimicrobial metabolites and bacteriocins. Moreover, technological and safety features were assessed to value their suitability as biocontrol agents for the production of clean-label bakery products. The most prominent inhibitory activities were shown by four strains of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum (NFICC19, NFICC 72, NFICC163, and NFICC 293), two strains of Pediococcus pentosaceus (NFICC10 and NFICC341), and Leuconostoc citreum NFICC28. Moreover, the whole genome sequencing of the selected LAB strains and the in silico analysis showed that some of the strains contain operons for bacteriocins; however, no significant evidence was observed phenotypically. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development and Application of Starter Cultures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 3356 KiB  
Article
Valorization of Delonix regia Pods for Bioethanol Production
by Zafar Iqbal, Adarsh Siddiqua, Zahid Anwar and Muhammad Munir
Fermentation 2023, 9(3), 289; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9030289 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1546
Abstract
Delonix regia (common name: Flame tree) pods, an inexpensive lignocellulosic waste matrix, were successfully used to produce value-added bioethanol. Initially, the potentiality of D. regia pods as a lignocellulosic biomass was assessed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), which revealed the presence of several [...] Read more.
Delonix regia (common name: Flame tree) pods, an inexpensive lignocellulosic waste matrix, were successfully used to produce value-added bioethanol. Initially, the potentiality of D. regia pods as a lignocellulosic biomass was assessed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), which revealed the presence of several functional groups belonging to cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, implying that D. regia pods could serve as an excellent lignocellulosic biomass. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Central Composite Design (CCD) were used to optimize pretreatment conditions of incubation time (10–70 min), H2SO4 concentration (0.5–3%), amount of substrate (0.02–0.22 g), and temperature (45–100 °C). Then, RSM-suggested 30 trials of pretreatment conditions experimented in the laboratory, and a trial using 0.16 g substrate, 3% H2SO4, 70 min incubation at 90 °C, yielded the highest amount of glucose (0.296 mg·mL−1), and xylose (0.477 mg·mL−1). Subsequently, the same trial conditions were chosen in the downstream process, and pretreated D. regia pods were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis with 5 mL of indigenously produced cellulase enzyme (74 filter per unit [FPU]) at 50 °C for 72 h to augment the yield of fermentable sugars, yielding up to 55.57 mg·mL−1 of glucose. Finally, the released sugars were fermented to ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, yielding a maximum of 7.771% ethanol after 72 h of incubation at 30 °C. Conclusively, this study entails the successful valorization of D. regia pods for bioethanol production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lignocellulosic Biomass to Value-Added Products)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2061 KiB  
Article
Conversion of Biomass-Derived Levulinic Acid into γ-Valerolactone Using Methanesulfonic Acid: An Optimization Study Using Response Surface Methodology
by Lethiwe Debra Mthembu, Rishi Gupta, Farai Dziike, David Lokhat and Nirmala Deenadayalu
Fermentation 2023, 9(3), 288; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9030288 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1529
Abstract
γ-Valerolactone (GVL) is a platform chemical for the synthesis of both biofuels and biochemicals. The LA production from depithed sugarcane bagasse (DSB) resulted in a 55% LA yield, and the resulting LA was used to produce GVL. The effect of process parameters, namely, [...] Read more.
γ-Valerolactone (GVL) is a platform chemical for the synthesis of both biofuels and biochemicals. The LA production from depithed sugarcane bagasse (DSB) resulted in a 55% LA yield, and the resulting LA was used to produce GVL. The effect of process parameters, namely, temperature (25–200 °C), time (2–10 h), and catalyst loading (0.5–5 g) were investigated for the GVL production from LA. Thereafter, the optimized conditions were used to produce GVL from LA derived from depithed sugarcane bagasse (DSB) yielded a GVL of 77.6%. The hydrogen required for the reduction of LA to GVL was formed in situ by formic acid and triethylamine in the presence of methanesulfonic acid (MsOH). Different solvents (including water and alcohols) were also tested to determine their effect on GVL yield, and water yielded the highest GVL of 78.6%. Different types of catalysts, which included mineral acids and ionic liquids, were used to determine their effect on GVL yield, and to provide a benchmark against MsOH. The GVL yield from DSB-derived LA is 1.0% lower than the GVL yield from a commercial sample of LA. LA generated from DSB has the potential to replace fossil fuel-derived LA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose Valorization in Biorefinery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2778 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum ZZU203, Cellulase-Producing Bacillus methylotrophicus, and Their Combinations on Alfalfa Silage Quality and Bacterial Community
by Xueying Zhang, Shanshan Zhao, Yanping Wang, Fengyuan Yang, Yuan Wang, Xiaomiao Fan and Changsong Feng
Fermentation 2023, 9(3), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9030287 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1232
Abstract
This study assessed the effects of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum (ZZU203), cellulase-producing Bacillus methylotrophicus (CB), or their combination (ZZU203_CB) on the fermentation parameters of alfalfa after 10 and 60 days of ensiling. Additionally, the bacterial community compositions were analyzed using absolute quantification 16S-seq (AQS). The [...] Read more.
This study assessed the effects of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum (ZZU203), cellulase-producing Bacillus methylotrophicus (CB), or their combination (ZZU203_CB) on the fermentation parameters of alfalfa after 10 and 60 days of ensiling. Additionally, the bacterial community compositions were analyzed using absolute quantification 16S-seq (AQS). The results showed that CB silage displayed a higher lactic acid (LA) concentration at 10 d, a higher abundance of Lactobacillus, and lower abundance of Pediococcus, Enterococcus, and Weissella than those in the control (CK) silage. Compared with CK silage, the ZZU203 silage increased LA concentration, fructose and rhamnose concentrations, and the abundance of Lactobacillus, and decreased pH value, ammoniacal nitrogen, acetic acid, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber concentrations, and the abundance of Pediococcus, Enterococcus, Weissella, Hafnia, and Garciella after 60 days of ensiling. In addition, ZZU203 and ZZU203_CB silage had a similar silage quality and bacterial community, while the inoculation of ZZU203_CB significantly promoted LA accumulation and the numbers of Lactobacillus at 10 d compared with ZZU203 silage. Therefore, ZZU203 or a combination of ZZU203 and CB can be used as potential silage additives to improve the silage quality of alfalfa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbial Metabolism, Physiology & Genetics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 2639 KiB  
Article
Identification of a Novel Dehydrogenase from Gluconobacter oxydans for Degradation of Inhibitors Derived from Lignocellulosic Biomass
by Hongsen Zhang, Jiahui Jiang, Conghui Quan, Guizhong Zhao, Guotao Mao, Hui Xie, Fengqin Wang, Zhimin Wang, Jian Zhang, Pingping Zhou and Andong Song
Fermentation 2023, 9(3), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9030286 - 15 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1279
Abstract
Inhibitors from lignocellulosic biomass have become the bottleneck of biorefinery development. Gluconobacter oxydans DSM2003 showed a high performance of inhibitors degradation, which had a short lag time in non-detoxified corn stover hydrolysate and could convert 90% of aldehyde inhibitors to weaker toxic acids. [...] Read more.
Inhibitors from lignocellulosic biomass have become the bottleneck of biorefinery development. Gluconobacter oxydans DSM2003 showed a high performance of inhibitors degradation, which had a short lag time in non-detoxified corn stover hydrolysate and could convert 90% of aldehyde inhibitors to weaker toxic acids. In this study, an aldehyde dehydrogenase gene W826-RS0111485, which plays an important function in the conversion of aldehyde inhibitors in Gluconobacter oxydans DSM2003, was identified. W826-RS0111485 was found by protein profiling, then a series of enzymatic properties were determined and were heterologously expressed in E. coli. The results indicated that NADP is the most suitable cofactor of the enzyme when aldehyde inhibitor is the substrate, and it had the highest oxidation activity to furfural among several aldehyde inhibitors. Under the optimal reaction conditions (50 °C, pH 7.5), the Km and Vmax of the enzyme under furfural stress were 2.45 and 80.97, respectively, and the Kcat was 232.22 min−1. The biodetoxification performance experiments showed that the recombinant E. coli containing the target gene completely converted 1 g/L furfural to furoic acid within 8 h, while the control E. coli only converted 18% furfural within 8 h. It was further demonstrated that W826-RS0111485 played an important role in the detoxification of furfural. The mining of this inhibitor degradation gene could provide a theoretical basis for rational modification of industrial strains to enhance its capacity of inhibitor degradation in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lignocellulosic Biomass Decomposition and Bioconversion)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 4986 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in the Hydroxylation of Amino Acids and Its Derivatives
by Bangxu Wang, Shujian Xiao, Xingtao Zhao, Liming Zhao, Yin Zhang, Jie Cheng and Jiamin Zhang
Fermentation 2023, 9(3), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9030285 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3081
Abstract
Hydroxy amino acids (HAAs) are of unique value in the chemical and pharmaceutical industry with antiviral, antifungal, antibacterial, and anticancer properties. At present, the hydroxylated amino acids most studied are tryptophan, lysine, aspartic acid, leucine, proline, etc., and some of their derivatives. The [...] Read more.
Hydroxy amino acids (HAAs) are of unique value in the chemical and pharmaceutical industry with antiviral, antifungal, antibacterial, and anticancer properties. At present, the hydroxylated amino acids most studied are tryptophan, lysine, aspartic acid, leucine, proline, etc., and some of their derivatives. The hydroxylation of amino acids is inextricably linked to the catalysis of various biological enzymes, such as tryptophan hydroxylase, L-pipecolic acid trans-4-hydroxylase, lysine hydroxylase, etc. Hydroxylase conspicuously increases the variety of amino acid derivatives. For the manufacture of HAAs, the high regioselectivity biocatalytic synthesis approach is favored over chemical synthesis. Nowadays, the widely used method is to transcribe the hydroxylation pathway of various amino acids, including various catalytic enzymes, into Corynebacterium glutamicum or Escherichia coli for heterologous expression and then produce hydroxyamino acids. In this paper, we systematically reviewed the biosynthetic hydroxylation of aliphatic, heterocyclic, and aromatic amino acids and introduced the basic research and application of HAAs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Amino Acid Biosynthesis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop