Replacing Lime with Rice Husk Ash to Reduce Carbon Footprint of Bituminous Mixtures
- Analyze the suitability of HL and RHA individually as fillers by evaluating their essential properties.
- Examine the effect of each filler on the physical and morphological behavior of the resultant bituminous mastics.
- Design dense bituminous macadam mixes using each filler at four percentages (2%, 4%, 6%, and 8%) and compare their mechanical and durability properties at the corresponding optimum bitumen content.
- Analyze the economic viability of each filler by comparing the costs of the prepared mixes.
2. Materials and Methods
2.2. Test for Filler Characterization
2.3. Designing and Testing of Bituminous Mastics and Mixes
2.3.1. Preparation of Mastic Samples
2.3.2. Determination of the Physical Properties of Mastic
2.3.3. Morphological Analysis by Optical Microscopy Test
2.3.4. Marshall and Volumetric Properties
2.3.5. Cracking Resistance
2.3.6. Resistance to Moisture Damage
2.3.7. Creep Resistance
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Filler Characterization
3.2. Mastic Evaluation
3.2.1. Physical Properties of Mastics
3.2.2. Morphological Analysis of Mastic
3.3. Performance of Bituminous Mixes
3.3.1. Marshall and Volumetric Properties
3.3.2. Cracking Resistance
3.3.3. Resistance to Moisture Damage
3.3.4. Creep Resistance
3.4. Cost Analysis
- Mixtures containing RHA (up to 4%) were shown to have enhanced Marshall stabilities and volumetric characteristics compared to those containing HL.
- The mixture containing 4% RHA had the lowest optimum binder content; this can be attributed to RHA’s physiochemical characteristics and particle size distribution.
- Compared to the control mixture containing HL, the mixture containing RHA had a nearly 47% higher resistance to cracking and 40% higher resistance to permanent deformation. This was attributed to the RHA micro-particles containing three-dimensional micro sheets and columnar SiO2 crystals, forming a stable and viscous three-dimensional network with bitumen compared to the control mixture.
- Resistance to moisture damage in mixtures containing RHA was found to be slightly better than that of mixtures containing HL. This can be attributed to the active silica in RHA and physiochemical characteristics of RHA, which can adsorb acidic compounds of bitumen, as shown by prior studies .
- Mixtures containing RHA had lower carbon footprints than mixtures containing HL. In terms of production cost, mixtures containing RHA cost 5% less than the control mixture containing HL.
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Property||Values||Specified Limits |
|Aggregate impact value||17%||max 27%|
|Los Angeles abrasion value||20%||max 35%|
|Water absorption value||1.3%||max 2%|
|Combined Flakiness and Elongation Index||26.3%||max 35%|
|Specific surface area (m2/kg)||431.5||565.8|
|Particle shape and texture (SEM)||Angular particles with uneven texture||Irregular porous particles with very rough texture|
|Loss on ignition (LOI)||21.69||6.15|
|Filler Type||Amount of Filler|
|Marshall Stability (kN)||Flow|
|Requirements (MORTH 2013)||-||9.00|
|Materials||WBPWD Rates||Quantity in 1 m3 of Dense Bituminous Macadam Grade-II (50 to 75 mm) Thickness|
|2% HL||4% HL||2% RHA||4% RHA|
|Coarse Aggregate (m3)||1536.35/m3||0.952||0.948||0.952||0.948|
|Fine Aggregate (m3)||1167.10/m3||0.483||0.452||0.483||0.452|
|Hydrated Lime (kg)||7.50/kg||44||88||0||0|
|Rice Husk Ash (kg)||0||0||0||44||88|
|Cost in (INR/m3)||6389||6659||6005||5777|
|Transportation cost (INR/MT)||84/MT||0||0||3.696||7.392|
|0.5% for processing (INR/m3)||0||0||300||289|
|Total Cost (INR/m3)||6389||6659||6305||6066|
|Percentage saving in cost with respect to conventional mix |
(2% HL) (%)
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Mistry, R.; Roy, T.K.; Aldagari, S.; Fini, E.H. Replacing Lime with Rice Husk Ash to Reduce Carbon Footprint of Bituminous Mixtures. C 2023, 9, 37. https://doi.org/10.3390/c9020037
Mistry R, Roy TK, Aldagari S, Fini EH. Replacing Lime with Rice Husk Ash to Reduce Carbon Footprint of Bituminous Mixtures. C. 2023; 9(2):37. https://doi.org/10.3390/c9020037Chicago/Turabian Style
Mistry, Raja, Tapash Kumar Roy, Sand Aldagari, and Elham H. Fini. 2023. "Replacing Lime with Rice Husk Ash to Reduce Carbon Footprint of Bituminous Mixtures" C 9, no. 2: 37. https://doi.org/10.3390/c9020037