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Non-Coding RNA, Volume 10, Issue 3 (June 2024) – 4 articles

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19 pages, 4074 KiB  
Article
MEF2C Directly Interacts with Pre-miRNAs and Distinct RNPs to Post-Transcriptionally Regulate miR-23a-miR-27a-miR-24-2 microRNA Cluster Member Expression
by Estefanía Lozano-Velasco, Carlos Garcia-Padilla, Miguel Carmona-Garcia, Alba Gonzalez-Diaz, Angela Arequipa-Rendon, Amelia E. Aranega and Diego Franco
Non-Coding RNA 2024, 10(3), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna10030032 - 17 May 2024
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Abstract
Transcriptional regulation constitutes a key step in gene expression regulation. Myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C) is a transcription factor of the MADS box family involved in the early development of several cell types, including muscle cells. Over the last decade, a novel layer [...] Read more.
Transcriptional regulation constitutes a key step in gene expression regulation. Myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C) is a transcription factor of the MADS box family involved in the early development of several cell types, including muscle cells. Over the last decade, a novel layer of complexity modulating gene regulation has emerged as non-coding RNAs have been identified, impacting both transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. microRNAs represent the most studied and abundantly expressed subtype of small non-coding RNAs, and their functional roles have been widely documented. On the other hand, our knowledge of the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that drive microRNA expression is still incipient. We recently demonstrated that MEF2C is able to transactivate the long, but not short, regulatory element upstream of the miR-23a-miR-27a-miR-24-2 transcriptional start site. However, MEF2C over-expression and silencing, respectively, displayed distinct effects on each of the miR-23a-miR-27a-miR-24-2 mature cluster members without affecting pri-miRNA expression levels, thus supporting additional MEF2C-driven regulatory mechanisms. Within this study, we demonstrated a complex post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism directed by MEF2C in the regulation of miR-23a-miR-27a-miR-24-2 cluster members, distinctly involving different domains of the MEF2C transcription factor and the physical interaction with pre-miRNAs and Ksrp, HnRNPa3 and Ddx17 transcripts. Full article
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18 pages, 2669 KiB  
Article
The RNAi Machinery in the Fungus Fusarium fujikuroi Is Not Very Active in Synthetic Medium and Is Related to Transposable Elements
by Javier Pardo-Medina, Tim A. Dahlmann, Minou Nowrousian, M. Carmen Limón and Javier Avalos
Non-Coding RNA 2024, 10(3), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna10030031 - 16 May 2024
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Abstract
Small RNAS (sRNAs) participate in regulatory RNA interference (RNAi) mechanisms in a wide range of eukaryotic organisms, including fungi. The fungus Fusarium fujikuroi, a model for the study of secondary metabolism, contains a complete set of genes for RNAi pathways. We have [...] Read more.
Small RNAS (sRNAs) participate in regulatory RNA interference (RNAi) mechanisms in a wide range of eukaryotic organisms, including fungi. The fungus Fusarium fujikuroi, a model for the study of secondary metabolism, contains a complete set of genes for RNAi pathways. We have analyzed by high-throughput sequencing the content of sRNAs in total RNA samples of F. fujikuroi grown in synthetic medium in the dark or after 1 h of illumination, using libraries below 150 nt, covering sRNAs and their precursors. For comparison, a parallel analysis with Fusarium oxysporum was carried out. The sRNA reads showed a higher proportion of 5′ uracil in the RNA samples of the expected sizes in both species, indicating the occurrence of genuine sRNAs, and putative miRNA-like sRNAs (milRNAS) were identified with prediction software. F. fujikuroi carries at least one transcriptionally expressed Ty1/copia-like retrotransposable element, in which sRNAs were found in both sense and antisense DNA strands, while in F. oxysporum skippy-like elements also show sRNA formation. The finding of sRNA in these mobile elements indicates an active sRNA-based RNAi pathway. Targeted deletion of dcl2, the only F. fujikuroi Dicer gene with significant expression under the conditions tested, did not produce appreciable phenotypic or transcriptomic alterations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Small Non-Coding RNA)
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26 pages, 5343 KiB  
Systematic Review
A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of microRNA Profiling Studies in Chronic Kidney Diseases
by Gantsetseg Garmaa, Stefania Bunduc, Tamás Kói, Péter Hegyi, Dezső Csupor, Dariimaa Ganbat, Fanni Dembrovszky, Fanni Adél Meznerics, Ailar Nasirzadeh, Cristina Barbagallo and Gábor Kökény
Non-Coding RNA 2024, 10(3), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna10030030 - 3 May 2024
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Abstract
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) represents an increasing health burden. Evidence suggests the importance of miRNA in diagnosing CKD, yet the reports are inconsistent. This study aimed to determine novel miRNA biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets from hypothesis-free miRNA profiling studies in human and [...] Read more.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) represents an increasing health burden. Evidence suggests the importance of miRNA in diagnosing CKD, yet the reports are inconsistent. This study aimed to determine novel miRNA biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets from hypothesis-free miRNA profiling studies in human and murine CKDs. Comprehensive literature searches were conducted on five databases. Subgroup analyses of kidney diseases, sample types, disease stages, and species were conducted. A total of 38 human and 12 murine eligible studies were analyzed using Robust Rank Aggregation (RRA) and vote-counting analyses. Gene set enrichment analyses of miRNA signatures in each kidney disease were conducted using DIANA-miRPath v4.0 and MIENTURNET. As a result, top target genes, Gene Ontology terms, the interaction network between miRNA and target genes, and molecular pathways in each kidney disease were identified. According to vote-counting analysis, 145 miRNAs were dysregulated in human kidney diseases, and 32 were dysregulated in murine CKD models. By RRA, miR-26a-5p was significantly reduced in the kidney tissue of Lupus nephritis (LN), while miR-107 was decreased in LN patients’ blood samples. In both species, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, Notch, mTOR signaling, apoptosis, G2/M checkpoint, and hypoxia were the most enriched pathways. These miRNA signatures and their target genes must be validated in large patient cohort studies. Full article
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22 pages, 3119 KiB  
Article
Dysregulation of a Subset of Circulating and Vesicle-Associated miRNA in Pancreatic Cancer
by Giulia Girolimetti, Iulia Andreea Pelisenco, Leonardo Henry Eusebi, Claudio Ricci, Beatrice Cavina, Ivana Kurelac, Tiziano Verri, Matteo Calcagnile, Pietro Alifano, Alessandro Salvi, Cecilia Bucci and Flora Guerra
Non-Coding RNA 2024, 10(3), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna10030029 - 1 May 2024
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Abstract
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most aggressive neoplasia, characterized by early metastasis, low diagnostic rates at early stages, resistance to drugs, and poor prognosis. There is an urgent need to better characterize this disease in order to identify efficient diagnostic/prognostic [...] Read more.
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most aggressive neoplasia, characterized by early metastasis, low diagnostic rates at early stages, resistance to drugs, and poor prognosis. There is an urgent need to better characterize this disease in order to identify efficient diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers. Since microRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to oncogenesis and metastasis formation in PDAC, they are considered potential candidates for fulfilling this task. In this work, the levels of two miRNA subsets (involved in chemoresistance or with oncogenic/tumor suppressing functions) were investigated in a panel of PDAC cell lines and liquid biopsies of a small cohort of patients. We used RT-qPCR and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to measure the amounts of cellular- and vesicle-associated, and circulating miRNAs. We found that both PDAC cell lines, also after gemcitabine treatment, and patients showed low amounts of cellular-and vesicle-associated miR-155-5p, compared to controls. Interestingly, we did not find any differences when we analyzed circulating miR-155-5p. Furthermore, vesicle-related miR-27a-3p increased in cancer patients compared to the controls, while circulating let-7a-5p, miR-221-3p, miR-23b-3p and miR-193a-3p presented as dysregulated in patients compared to healthy individuals. Our results highlight the potential clinical significance of these analyzed miRNAs as non-invasive diagnostic molecular tools to characterize PDAC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Vesicles and ncRNA)
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