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J. Fungi, Volume 9, Issue 2 (February 2023) – 152 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Eisosomes are plasma-membrane-associated protein complexes of fungi and algae involved in various cellular processes. The eisosome composition of budding yeast is well-described, but there is limited information on eisosomes in filamentous fungi. We performed systematical investigations of eisosome formation and distribution in different developmental stages of Neurospora crassa. First, N. crassa LSP1 has been confirmed as an eisosomal core protein and therefore a suitable eisosomal marker. Subsequent extensive studies on NcLSP1::tRFP localization have demonstrated structural differences at the cellular level between hyphae germinated from sexual and asexual spores, which is contradictory to the predominant view that recognizes these hyphae as the same type of cells. View this paper
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19 pages, 1963 KiB  
Article
Morphology and Multigene Phylogeny Revealed Three New Species of Helminthosporium (Massarinaceae, Pleosporales) from China
by Ya-Fen Hu, Jing-Wen Liu, Zhao-Huan Xu, Rafael F. Castañeda-Ruíz, Kai Zhang and Jian Ma
J. Fungi 2023, 9(2), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9020280 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1724
Abstract
Saprobic hyphomycetes are highly diverse on plant debris. Over the course of our mycological surveys in southern China, three new Helminthosporium species, H. guanshanense sp. nov., H. jiulianshanense sp. nov. and H. meilingense sp. nov., collected on dead branches of unidentified plants, were [...] Read more.
Saprobic hyphomycetes are highly diverse on plant debris. Over the course of our mycological surveys in southern China, three new Helminthosporium species, H. guanshanense sp. nov., H. jiulianshanense sp. nov. and H. meilingense sp. nov., collected on dead branches of unidentified plants, were introduced by morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses. Multi-loci (ITS, LSU, SSU, RPB2 and TEF1) phylogenetic analyses were performed using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian inference to infer their taxonomic positions within Massarinaceae. Both molecular analyses and morphological data supported H. guanshanense, H. jiulianshanense and H. meilingense as three independent taxa within Helminthosporium. A list of accepted Helminthosporium species with major morphological features, host information, locality and sequence data was provided. This work expands our understanding of the diversity of Helminthosporium-like taxa in Jiangxi Province, China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phylogeny and Taxonomy of Ascomycete Fungi)
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11 pages, 1891 KiB  
Article
First Report on Colletotrichum fructicola Causing Anthracnose in Chinese Sorghum and Its Management Using Phytochemicals
by Wei Zhao, Anlong Hu, Mingjian Ren, Guoyu Wei and Huayang Xu
J. Fungi 2023, 9(2), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9020279 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1967
Abstract
Sorghum bicolor is cultivated worldwide. Leaf spots on sorghum, which lead to leaf lesions and impaired growth, are prevalent and severe in Guizhou Province, Southwest China. In August 2021, new leaf spot symptoms were observed on sorghum plants growing in agricultural fields. We [...] Read more.
Sorghum bicolor is cultivated worldwide. Leaf spots on sorghum, which lead to leaf lesions and impaired growth, are prevalent and severe in Guizhou Province, Southwest China. In August 2021, new leaf spot symptoms were observed on sorghum plants growing in agricultural fields. We used conventional tissue isolation methods and pathogenicity determination tests. Inoculations of sorghum with isolate 022ZW resulted in brown lesions similar to those observed under field conditions. The original inoculated isolates were reisolated and fulfilled Koch’s postulates. Based on the morphological character and phylogenetic analyses of the combined sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the β-tubulin (TUB2) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) genes, we identified the isolated fungus as C. fructicola. This paper is the first to report this fungus-causing disease in sorghum leaves. We studied the sensitivity of the pathogen to various phytochemicals. The sensitivity of C. fructicola to seven phytochemicals was measured using the mycelial growth rate method. Honokiol, magnolol, thymol, and carvacrol displayed good antifungal effects, with EC50 (concentration for 50% of the maximal effect) values of 21.70 ± 0.81, 24.19 ± 0.49, 31.97 ± 0.51, and 31.04 ± 0.891 µg/mL, respectively. We tested the control effect of the seven phytochemicals on the anthracnose caused by C. fructicola: honokiol and magnolol displayed good field efficacy. In this study, we expand the host range of C. fructicola, providing a basis for controlling sorghum leaf diseases caused by C. fructicola. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Plant Pathogens)
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15 pages, 3474 KiB  
Article
Identification of miRNAs Involved in Maize-Induced Systemic Resistance Primed by Trichoderma harzianum T28 against Cochliobolus heterostrophus
by Shaoqing Wang, Xinhua Wang and Jie Chen
J. Fungi 2023, 9(2), 278; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9020278 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1581
Abstract
microRNAs (miRNAs) are known to play important roles in the immune response to pathogen infection in different plants. Further, Trichoderma strains are able to activate plant defense responses against pathogen attacks. However, little is known about the involvement of miRNAs in the defense [...] Read more.
microRNAs (miRNAs) are known to play important roles in the immune response to pathogen infection in different plants. Further, Trichoderma strains are able to activate plant defense responses against pathogen attacks. However, little is known about the involvement of miRNAs in the defense response primed by Trichoderma strains. To explore the miRNAs sensitive to priming by Trichoderma, we studied the small RNAs and transcriptome changes in maize leaves that were systemically induced by seed treatment with Trichoderma harzianum (strain T28) against Cochliobolus heterostrophus (C. heterostrophus) infection in leaves. Through analysis of the sequencing data, 38 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) and 824 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. GO and KEGG analyses of DEGs demonstrated that genes involved in the plant hormone signal transduction pathway and oxidation-reduction process were significantly enriched. In addition, 15 miRNA–mRNA interaction pairs were identified through the combined analysis of DEMs and DEGs. These pairs were supposed to play roles in the maize resistance primed by T. harzianum T28 to C. heterostrophus, in which miR390, miR169j, miR408b, miR395a/p, and novel miRNA (miRn5231) were more involved in the induction of maize resistance. This study provided valuable information for understanding the regulatory role of miRNA in the T. harzianum primed defense response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Fungi in Agriculture and Biotechnology)
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12 pages, 290 KiB  
Article
Yeast Bloodstream Infections in the COVID-19 Patient: A Multicenter Italian Study (FiCoV Study)
by Anna Prigitano, Elisabetta Blasi, Maria Calabrò, Caterina Cavanna, Maria Cornetta, Claudio Farina, Anna Grancini, Patrizia Innocenti, Giuliana Lo Cascio, Lucia Nicola, Laura Trovato, Massimo Cogliati, Maria Carmela Esposto, Anna Maria Tortorano, Luisa Romanò and on behalf of the FiCoV Study Group
J. Fungi 2023, 9(2), 277; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9020277 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2150
Abstract
Fungemia is a co-infection contributing to the worsening of the critically ill COVID-19 patient. The multicenter Italian observational study FiCoV aims to estimate the frequency of yeast bloodstream infections (BSIs), to describe the factors associated with yeast BSIs in COVID-19 patients hospitalized in [...] Read more.
Fungemia is a co-infection contributing to the worsening of the critically ill COVID-19 patient. The multicenter Italian observational study FiCoV aims to estimate the frequency of yeast bloodstream infections (BSIs), to describe the factors associated with yeast BSIs in COVID-19 patients hospitalized in 10 hospitals, and to analyze the antifungal susceptibility profiles of the yeasts isolated from blood cultures. The study included all hospitalized adult COVID-19 patients with a yeast BSI; anonymous data was collected from each patient and data about antifungal susceptibility was collected. Yeast BSI occurred in 1.06% of patients, from 0.14% to 3.39% among the 10 participating centers. Patients were mainly admitted to intensive or sub-intensive care units (68.6%), over 60 years of age (73%), with a mean and median time from the hospitalization to fungemia of 29 and 22 days, respectively. Regarding risk factors for fungemia, most patients received corticosteroid therapy during hospitalization (61.8%) and had a comorbidity (25.3% diabetes, 11.5% chronic respiratory disorder, 9.5% cancer, 6% haematological malignancies, 1.4% organ transplantation). Antifungal therapy was administered to 75.6% of patients, mostly echinocandins (64.5%). The fatality rate observed in COVID-19 patients with yeast BSI was significantly higher than that of COVID-19 patients without yeast BSI (45.5% versus 30.5%). Candida parapsilosis (49.8%) and C. albicans (35.2%) were the most fungal species isolated; 72% of C. parapsilosis strains were fluconazole-resistant (range 0–93.2% among the centers). The FiCoV study highlights a high prevalence of Candida BSIs in critically ill COVID-19 patients, especially hospitalized in an intensive care unit, a high fatality rate associated with the fungal co-infection, and the worrying spread of azole-resistant C. parapsilosis. Full article
22 pages, 1567 KiB  
Article
Global Analyses of Multi-Locus Sequence Typing Data Reveal Geographic Differentiation, Hybridization, and Recombination in the Cryptococcus gattii Species Complex
by Megan Hitchcock and Jianping Xu
J. Fungi 2023, 9(2), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9020276 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2241
Abstract
Cryptococcus gattii species complex (CGSC) is a basidiomycete haploid yeast and globally distributed mammalian pathogen. CGSC is comprised of six distinct lineages (VGI, VGII, VGIII, VGIV, VGV, and VGVI); however, the geographical distribution and population structure of these lineages is incompletely described. In [...] Read more.
Cryptococcus gattii species complex (CGSC) is a basidiomycete haploid yeast and globally distributed mammalian pathogen. CGSC is comprised of six distinct lineages (VGI, VGII, VGIII, VGIV, VGV, and VGVI); however, the geographical distribution and population structure of these lineages is incompletely described. In this study, we analyze published multi-locus sequence data at seven loci for 566 previously recorded sequence types (STs) encompassing four distinct lineages (VGI, VGII, VGIII, and VGIV) within the CGSC. We investigate indicators of both clonal dispersal and recombination. Population genetic analyses of the 375 STs representing 1202 isolates with geographic information and 188 STs representing 788 isolates with ecological source data suggested historically differentiated geographic populations with infrequent long-distance gene flow. Phylogenetic analyses of sequences at the individual locus and of the concatenated sequences at all seven loci among all 566 STs revealed distinct clusters largely congruent with four major distinct lineages. However, 23 of the 566 STs (4%) each contained alleles at the seven loci belonging to two or more lineages, consistent with their hybrid origins among lineages. Within each of the four major lineages, phylogenetic incompatibility analyses revealed evidence for recombination. However, linkage disequilibrium analyses rejected the hypothesis of random recombination across all samples. Together, our results suggest evidence for historical geographical differentiation, sexual recombination, hybridization, and both long-distance and localized clonal expansion in the global CGSC population. Full article
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17 pages, 2829 KiB  
Article
The Antidepressant Sertraline Affects Cell Signaling and Metabolism in Trichophyton rubrum
by Flaviane M. Galvão-Rocha, Carlos H. L. Rocha, Maíra P. Martins, Pablo R. Sanches, Tamires A. Bitencourt, Matthew S. Sachs, Nilce M. Martinez-Rossi and Antonio Rossi
J. Fungi 2023, 9(2), 275; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9020275 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2371
Abstract
The dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum is responsible for most human cutaneous infections. Its treatment is complex, mainly because there are only a few structural classes of fungal inhibitors. Therefore, new strategies addressing these problems are essential. The development of new drugs is time-consuming and [...] Read more.
The dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum is responsible for most human cutaneous infections. Its treatment is complex, mainly because there are only a few structural classes of fungal inhibitors. Therefore, new strategies addressing these problems are essential. The development of new drugs is time-consuming and expensive. The repositioning of drugs already used in medical practice has emerged as an alternative to discovering new drugs. The antidepressant sertraline (SRT) kills several important fungal pathogens. Accordingly, we investigated the inhibitory mechanism of SRT in T. rubrum to broaden the knowledge of its impact on eukaryotic microorganisms and to assess its potential for future use in dermatophytosis treatments. We performed next-generation sequencing (RNA-seq) to identify the genes responding to SRT at the transcript level. We identified that a major effect of SRT was to alter expression for genes involved in maintaining fungal cell wall and plasma membrane stability, including ergosterol biosynthetic genes. SRT also altered the expression of genes encoding enzymes related to fungal energy metabolism, cellular detoxification, and defense against oxidative stress. Our findings provide insights into a specific molecular network interaction that maintains metabolic stability and is perturbed by SRT, showing potential targets for its strategic use in dermatophytosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives for Superficial Fungal Infections)
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24 pages, 4480 KiB  
Article
Selection of Autochthonous Yeasts Isolated from the Intestinal Tracts of Cobia Fish (Rachycentron canadum) with Probiotic Potential
by Samira Reinoso, María Soledad Gutiérrez, Cristóbal Domínguez-Borbor, Wilfrido Argüello-Guevara, Milton Bohórquez-Cruz, Stanislaus Sonnenholzner, Daniela Nova-Baza, Claudia Mardones and Paola Navarrete
J. Fungi 2023, 9(2), 274; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9020274 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2216
Abstract
Some yeast strains have been proposed as probiotics to improve the health of cultured fish. Cobia is a tropical benthopelagic fish species with potential for marine aquaculture; however, one of the main limitations to its large-scale production is the high mortality of fish [...] Read more.
Some yeast strains have been proposed as probiotics to improve the health of cultured fish. Cobia is a tropical benthopelagic fish species with potential for marine aquaculture; however, one of the main limitations to its large-scale production is the high mortality of fish larvae. In this study, we evaluated the probiotic potential of autochthonous yeasts from the intestines of cobia. Thirty-nine yeast isolates were recovered from the intestinal mucosa of 37 adult healthy cobia by culture methods. Yeasts were identified by sequencing of the ITS and D1/D2 regions of the 28S rRNA gene and typed by RAPD-PCR using the M13 primer. Yeast strains with unique RAPD patterns were characterized in terms of their cell biomass production ability; anti-Vibrio, enzymatic, and hemolytic activity; biofilm production; hydrophobicity; autoaggregation; polyamine production; safety; and protection of cobia larvae against saline stress. Candida haemuloni C27 and Debaryomyces hansenii C10 and C28 were selected as potential probiotics. They did not affect the survival of larvae and showed biomass production >1 g L−1, hydrophobicity >41.47%, hemolytic activity γ, and activity in more than 8 hydrolytic enzymes. The results suggest that the selected yeast strains could be considered as potential probiotic candidates and should be evaluated in cobia larvae. Full article
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12 pages, 1102 KiB  
Article
What Are the Effects of Moso Bamboo Expansion into Japanese Cedar on Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi: Altering the Community Composition Rather than the Diversity
by Guiwu Zou, Binsheng Wu, Baodong Chen, Yaying Yang, Yan Feng, Jiahui Huang, Yuanqiu Liu, Philip J. Murray and Wei Liu
J. Fungi 2023, 9(2), 273; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9020273 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1649
Abstract
The unbridled expansion of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) occurs throughout the world and has a series of consequences. However, the effect of bamboo expansion on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is still poorly understood. We assessed the changes in the AMF community [...] Read more.
The unbridled expansion of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) occurs throughout the world and has a series of consequences. However, the effect of bamboo expansion on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is still poorly understood. We assessed the changes in the AMF community during bamboo expansion into Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) forests by analyzing AMF in three forest types—Japanese cedar (JC), bamboo-cedar mixed (BC) and moso bamboo (MB)—using 454 pyrosequencing technology. We found that the AMF community composition differed significantly among forest types. The relative abundance of Glomerales decreased from 74.0% in JC to 61.8% in BC and 42.5% in MB, whereas the relative abundance of Rhizophagus increased from 24.9% in JC to 35.9% in BC and 56.7% in MB. Further analysis showed that soil characteristics explained only 19.2% of the AMF community variation among forest types. Hence, vegetation is presumably the main driver of the alteration of the AMF community. The α diversity of AMF was similar between JC and MB, although it was higher in BC. Overall, this research sheds more light on AMF community dynamics during moso bamboo expansion. Our results highlight that the consequences of bamboo expansion in monoculture forests differ from those in mixed forests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Diversity in Various Environments)
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17 pages, 1328 KiB  
Article
Invasive Fungal Breakthrough Infections under Targeted Echinocandin Prophylaxis in High-Risk Liver Transplant Recipients
by Robert Breitkopf, Benedikt Treml, Thomas Senoner, Zoran Bukumirić and Sasa Rajsic
J. Fungi 2023, 9(2), 272; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9020272 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1810
Abstract
Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are frequent and outcome-relevant complications in the early postoperative period after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Recent guidelines recommend targeted antimycotic prophylaxis (TAP) for high-risk liver transplant recipients (HR-LTRs). However, the choice of antimycotic agent is still a subject of [...] Read more.
Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are frequent and outcome-relevant complications in the early postoperative period after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Recent guidelines recommend targeted antimycotic prophylaxis (TAP) for high-risk liver transplant recipients (HR-LTRs). However, the choice of antimycotic agent is still a subject of discussion. Echinocandins are increasingly being used due to their advantageous safety profile and the increasing number of non-albicans Candida infections. However, the evidence justifying their use remains rather sparse. Recently published data on breakthrough IFI (b-IFI) raise concerns about echinocandin efficacy, especially in the case of intra-abdominal candidiasis (IAC), which is the most common infection site after OLT. In this retrospective study, we analyzed 100 adult HR-LTRs undergoing first-time OLT and receiving echinocandin prophylaxis between 2017 and 2020 in a tertiary university hospital. We found a breakthrough incidence of 16%, having a significant impact on postoperative complications, graft survival, and mortality. The reasons for this may be multifactorial. Among the pathogen-related factors, we identified the breakthrough of Candida parapsilosis in 11% of patients and one case of persistent IFI due to the development of a secondary echinocandin resistance of an IAC caused by Candida glabrata. Consequently, the efficacy of echinocandin prophylaxis in liver transplantation should be questioned. Further studies are necessary to clarify the matter of breakthrough infections under echinocandin prophylaxis. Full article
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27 pages, 8599 KiB  
Article
The Potential Fungal Pathogens of Euonymus japonicus in Beijing, China
by Lu Lin, Meng Pan, Hong Gao, Chengming Tian and Xinlei Fan
J. Fungi 2023, 9(2), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9020271 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2284
Abstract
Euonymus japonicus tolerates the dry and frigid climate of Beijing, China, and effectively filters out particles during the winter. However, fungal infestation frequently causes extreme illness and can even lead to shrub death. In this study, 104 diseased E. japonicus specimens were collected [...] Read more.
Euonymus japonicus tolerates the dry and frigid climate of Beijing, China, and effectively filters out particles during the winter. However, fungal infestation frequently causes extreme illness and can even lead to shrub death. In this study, 104 diseased E. japonicus specimens were collected from seven districts in Beijing. Seventy-nine isolates were identified as 22 fungal species in seven genera. The species were Aplosporella hesperidica, A. javeedii, A. prunicola, Botryosphaeria dothidea, Colletotrichum aenigma, Co. euonymi, Co. euonymicola, Co. gloeosporioides, Cytospora ailanthicola, C. albodisca, C. diopuiensis, C. discotoma, C. elaeagni, C. euonymicola, C. euonymina, C. haidianensis, C. leucostoma, C. sophorae, C. zhaitangensis, Diaporthe eres, Dothiorella acericola, and Pestalotiopsis chaoyangensis. On the basis of morphological and phylogenetic analyses, Colletotrichum euonymi, Co. euonymicola, Cytospora zhaitangensis, and Pestalotiopsis chaoyangensis were introduced as novel species. Colletotrichum euonymi, Co. euonymicola, and Pestalotiopsis chaoyangensis were subsequently confirmed as pathogens of E. japonicus leaves by pathogenicity testing. This study provides an important assessment of the fungi associated with diseases of E. japonicus in Beijing, China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Taxonomy, Systematics and Evolution of Forestry Fungi)
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10 pages, 256 KiB  
Article
Multifaceted Evaluation of Antibiotic Therapy as a Factor Associated with Candidemia in Non-Neutropenic Patients
by Si-Ho Kim, Seok Jun Mun, Jin Suk Kang, Chisook Moon, Hyoung-Tae Kim and Ho Young Lee
J. Fungi 2023, 9(2), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9020270 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1589
Abstract
We aimed to evaluate various aspects of antibiotic therapy as factors associated with candidemia in non-neutropenic patients. A retrospective, matched, case-control study was conducted in two teaching hospitals. Patients with candidemia (cases) were compared to patients without candidemia (controls), matched by age, intensive [...] Read more.
We aimed to evaluate various aspects of antibiotic therapy as factors associated with candidemia in non-neutropenic patients. A retrospective, matched, case-control study was conducted in two teaching hospitals. Patients with candidemia (cases) were compared to patients without candidemia (controls), matched by age, intensive care unit admission, duration of hospitalization, and type of surgery. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with candidemia. A total of 246 patients were included in the study. Of 123 candidemia patients, 36% had catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs). Independent factors in the whole population included immunosuppression (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.195; p = 0.036), total parenteral nutrition (aOR = 3.642; p < 0.001), and anti-methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) therapy for ≥11 days (aOR = 5.151; p = 0.004). The antibiotic factor in the non-CRBSI population was anti-pseudomonal beta-lactam treatment duration of ≥3 days (aOR = 5.260; p = 0.008). The antibiotic factors in the CRBSI population included anti-MRSA therapy for ≥11 days (aOR = 10.031; p = 0.019). Antimicrobial stewardship that reduces exposure to these antibacterial spectra could help prevent the development of candidemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives for Candidiasis 2.0)
19 pages, 2993 KiB  
Article
Seaweed Extracts to Control Postharvest Phytopathogenic Fungi in Rocha Pear
by Eloísa Toledo, Carina Félix, Tânia F. L. Vicente, Ana Augusto, Rafael Félix, Bernardo Toledo, Joana Silva, Carina Trindade, Délio Raimundo and Marco F. L. Lemos
J. Fungi 2023, 9(2), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9020269 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2390
Abstract
Fungal infections cause losses amounting to between 20 and 25% of the fruit industry’s total outcome, with an escalating impact on agriculture in the last decades. As seaweeds have long demonstrated relevant antimicrobial properties against a wide variety of microorganisms, extracts from Asparagopsis [...] Read more.
Fungal infections cause losses amounting to between 20 and 25% of the fruit industry’s total outcome, with an escalating impact on agriculture in the last decades. As seaweeds have long demonstrated relevant antimicrobial properties against a wide variety of microorganisms, extracts from Asparagopsis armata, Codium sp., Fucus vesiculosus, and Sargassum muticum were used to find sustainable, ecofriendly, and safe solutions against Rocha pear postharvest fungal infections. Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum, and Penicillium expansum mycelial growth and spore germination inhibition activities were tested in vitro with five different extracts of each seaweed (n-hexane, ethyl acetate, aqueous, ethanolic, and hydroethanolic). An in vivo assay was then performed using the aqueous extracts against B. cinerea and F. oxysporum in Rocha pear. The n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanolic extracts from A. armata showed the best in vitro inhibitory activity against B. cinerea, F. oxysporum, and P. expansum, and promising in vivo results against B. cinerea using S. muticum aqueous extract were also found. The present work highlights the contribution of seaweeds to tackle agricultural problems, namely postharvest phytopathogenic fungal diseases, contributing to a greener and more sustainable bioeconomy from the sea to the farm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Protection: New Green Antifungal Agents)
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13 pages, 3762 KiB  
Article
Vacuole Proteins with Optimized Microtubule Assembly Is Required for Fum1 Protein Localization and Fumonisin Biosynthesis in Mycotoxigenic Fungus Fusarium verticillioides
by Huijuan Yan, Zehua Zhou, Huan Zhang and Won Bo Shim
J. Fungi 2023, 9(2), 268; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9020268 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1356
Abstract
Fumonisin contamination of corn caused by Fusarium verticillioides is a major concern worldwide. While key genes involved in fumonisin biosynthesis are known, the location within the fungal cell where this process occurs has yet to be fully characterized. In this study, three key [...] Read more.
Fumonisin contamination of corn caused by Fusarium verticillioides is a major concern worldwide. While key genes involved in fumonisin biosynthesis are known, the location within the fungal cell where this process occurs has yet to be fully characterized. In this study, three key enzymes, i.e., Fum1, Fum8, and Fum6, associated with early steps of fumonisin biosynthesis pathway, were tagged with GFP, and we examined their cellular localization. Results showed that these three proteins co-localized with the vacuole. To further understand the role of the vacuole in fumonisin B1 (FB1) biosynthesis, we disrupted two predicted vacuole associated proteins, FvRab7 and FvVam7, resulting in a significant reduction of FB1 biosynthesis and a lack of Fum1-GFP fluorescence signal. Furthermore, we used the microtubule-targeting drug carbendazim to show that proper microtubule assembly is critical for proper Fum1 protein localization and FB1 biosynthesis. Additionally, we found that α1 tubulin is a negative regulator in FB1 biosynthesis. We concluded that vacuole proteins with optimized microtubule assembly play a crucial role in proper Fum1 protein localization and fumonisin production in F. verticillioides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Food: Biosynthesis, Detection, and Control)
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11 pages, 1601 KiB  
Article
Fast and Accurate Identification of Candida auris by High Resolution Mass Spectrometry
by Azadeh Jamalian, Joanna Freeke, Anuradha Chowdhary, G. Sybren de Hoog, J. Benjamin Stielow and Jacques F. Meis
J. Fungi 2023, 9(2), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9020267 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2170
Abstract
The emerging pathogen Candida auris has been associated with nosocomial outbreaks on six continents. Genetic analysis indicates simultaneous and independent emergence of separate clades of the species in different geographical locations. Both invasive infection and colonization have been observed, warranting attention due to [...] Read more.
The emerging pathogen Candida auris has been associated with nosocomial outbreaks on six continents. Genetic analysis indicates simultaneous and independent emergence of separate clades of the species in different geographical locations. Both invasive infection and colonization have been observed, warranting attention due to variable antifungal resistance profiles and hospital transmission. MALDI-TOF based identification methods have become routine in hospitals and research institutes. However, identification of the newly emerging lineages of C. auris yet remains a diagnostic challenge. In this study an innovative liquid chromatography (LC)—high resolution OrbitrapTM mass spectrometry method was used for identification of C. auris from axenic microbial cultures. A set of 102 strains from all five clades and different body locations were investigated. The results revealed correct identification of all C. auris strains within the sample cohort, with an identification accuracy of 99.6% from plate culture, in a time-efficient manner. Furthermore, application of the applied mass spectrometry technology provided the species identification down to clade level, thus potentially providing the possibility for epidemiological surveillance to track pathogen spread. Identification beyond species level is required specially to differentiate between nosocomial transmission and repeated introduction to a hospital. Full article
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15 pages, 2946 KiB  
Article
Whole Genome Sequence of an Edible Mushroom Oudemansiella raphanipes (Changgengu)
by Liping Zhu, Xia Gao, Meihua Zhang, Chunhui Hu, Wujie Yang, Lizhong Guo, Song Yang, Hailong Yu and Hao Yu
J. Fungi 2023, 9(2), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9020266 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2542
Abstract
Oudemansiella raphanipes, considered as a well-known culinary edible mushroom with a high content of natural bioactive substances, is widely cultivated in China with the commercial name Changgengu. However, due to the lack of genomic data, molecular and genetic study on O. raphanipes [...] Read more.
Oudemansiella raphanipes, considered as a well-known culinary edible mushroom with a high content of natural bioactive substances, is widely cultivated in China with the commercial name Changgengu. However, due to the lack of genomic data, molecular and genetic study on O. raphanipes is rare. To obtain a comprehensive overview of genetic characteristics and enhance the value of O. raphanipes, two mating-compatible monokaryons isolated from the dikaryon were applied for de novo genome sequencing and assembly using Nanopore and /or Illumina sequencing platforms. One of the monokaryons, O. raphanipes CGG-A-s1, was annotated with 21,308 protein-coding genes, of which 56 were predicted to be involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites such as terpene, type I PKS, NRPS, and siderophore. Phylogenetic and comparative analysis of multiple fungi genomes revealed a close evolutionary relationship between O. raphanipes and Mucidula mucid based on single-copy orthologous protein genes. Significant collinearity was detected between O. raphanipes and Flammulina velutipes on the synteny of inter-species genomes. 664 CAZyme genes in CGG-A-s1 were identified with GHs and AAs families significantly elevated when compared with the other 25 sequenced fungi, indicating a strong wood degradation ability. Furthermore, the mating type locus analysis revealed that CGG-A-s1 and CGG-A-s2 were conserved in the gene organization of the mating A locus but various in that of the mating B locus. The genome resource of O. raphanipes will provide new insights into its development of genetic studies and commercial production of high-quality varieties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Genetics and Genomics of Mushroom-Forming Fungi)
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17 pages, 614 KiB  
Review
Small Signals Lead to Big Changes: The Potential of Peptide-Induced Resistance in Plants
by Julia Pastor-Fernández, Paloma Sánchez-Bel, Víctor Flors, Miguel Cerezo and Victoria Pastor
J. Fungi 2023, 9(2), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9020265 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2094
Abstract
The plant immunity system is being revisited more and more and new elements and roles are attributed to participating in the response to biotic stress. The new terminology is also applied in an attempt to identify different players in the whole scenario of [...] Read more.
The plant immunity system is being revisited more and more and new elements and roles are attributed to participating in the response to biotic stress. The new terminology is also applied in an attempt to identify different players in the whole scenario of immunity: Phytocytokines are one of those elements that are gaining more attention due to the characteristics of processing and perception, showing they are part of a big family of compounds that can amplify the immune response. This review aims to highlight the latest findings on the role of phytocytokines in the whole immune response to biotic stress, including basal and adaptive immunity, and expose the complexity of their action in plant perception and signaling events. Full article
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19 pages, 3145 KiB  
Article
Renewing Lost Genetic Variability with a Classical Yeast Genetics Approach
by Ameya Pankaj Gupte, Debora Casagrande Pierantoni, Angela Conti, Leonardo Donati, Marina Basaglia, Sergio Casella, Lorenzo Favaro, Laura Corte and Gianluigi Cardinali
J. Fungi 2023, 9(2), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9020264 - 16 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1541
Abstract
Due to their long domestication time course, many industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains are adopted in numerous processes mostly for historical reasons instead of scientific and technological needs. As such, there is still significant room for improvement for industrial yeast strains relying on yeast [...] Read more.
Due to their long domestication time course, many industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains are adopted in numerous processes mostly for historical reasons instead of scientific and technological needs. As such, there is still significant room for improvement for industrial yeast strains relying on yeast biodiversity. This paper strives to regenerate biodiversity with the innovative application of classic genetic methods to already available yeast strains. Extensive sporulation was indeed applied to three different yeast strains, specifically selected for their different origins as well as backgrounds, with the aim of clarifying how new variability was generated. A novel and easy method to obtain mono-spore colonies was specifically developed, and, to reveal the extent of the generated variability, no selection after sporulation was introduced. The obtained progenies were then tested for their growth in defined mediums with high stressor levels. A considerable and strain-specific increase in both phenotypic and metabolomic variability was assessed, and a few mono-spore colonies were found to be of great interest for their future exploitation in selected industrial processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genomics of Yeast)
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12 pages, 1802 KiB  
Article
Genotypic Analysis of the Population Structure in Malassezia globosa and Malassezia restricta
by Ines Hadrich, Nahed Khemakhem, Amin Ilahi, Houaida Trabelsi, Hayet Sellami, Fattouma Makni, Sourour Neji and Ali Ayadi
J. Fungi 2023, 9(2), 263; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9020263 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1437
Abstract
The molecular characterization of Malassezia spp. isolates from animals and humans has not been thoroughly studied. Although a range of molecular methods has been developed for diagnosing Malassezia species, they have several drawbacks, such as inefficiency in differentiating all the species, high cost [...] Read more.
The molecular characterization of Malassezia spp. isolates from animals and humans has not been thoroughly studied. Although a range of molecular methods has been developed for diagnosing Malassezia species, they have several drawbacks, such as inefficiency in differentiating all the species, high cost and questionable reproducibility. The present study aimed to develop VNTR markers for genotyping Malassezia isolated from clinical and animal samples. A total of 44 M. globosa and 24 M. restricta isolates were analyzed. Twelve VNTR markers were selected on seven different chromosomes (I, II, III, IV, V, VII and IX), six for each Malassezia species. The highest discriminatory power for a single locus was obtained with the STR-MG1 marker (0.829) and STR-MR2 marker (0.818) for M. globosa and M. restricta, respectively. After the analysis of multiple loci, 24 genotypes were noted among 44 isolates in M. globosa, with a discrimination index D of 0.943 and 15 genotypes were noted among 24 isolates in M. restricta, with a discrimination index D of 0.967. An endogenous infection was detected in two patients. Different genotypes of M. globosa strains colonized one patient. Interestingly, VNTR markers analysis revealed a carriage between a breeder and his dog in three cases for M. globosa and two for M. restricta. The FST (0.018 to 0.057) values indicate a low differentiation between the three populations of M. globosa. These results suggest a dominant clonal mode of reproduction in M. globosa. The typing of M. restricta showed a genotypic diversity of the strains, which can cause various skin pathologies. However, patient five was colonized with strains having the same genotype collected from different body parts (back, shoulder). VNTR analysis was capable of identifying species with high accuracy and reliability. More importantly, the method would facilitate monitoring Malassezia colonization in domestic animals and humans. It was shown that the patterns are stable and the method is discriminant, making it a powerful tool for epidemiological purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Markers for Fungal Detection and Identification)
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14 pages, 5467 KiB  
Article
Divergent Physiological Functions of Four Atg22-like Proteins in Conidial Germination, Development, and Virulence of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana
by Jin-Li Ding, Hao Zhang, Ming-Guang Feng and Sheng-Hua Ying
J. Fungi 2023, 9(2), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9020262 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1423
Abstract
In yeast, Atg22 functions as a vacuolar efflux transporter to release the nutrients from the vacuole to the cytosol after the degradation of autophagic bodies. There are more than one Atg22 domain-containing proteins in filamentous fungi, but their physiological roles are largely unknown. [...] Read more.
In yeast, Atg22 functions as a vacuolar efflux transporter to release the nutrients from the vacuole to the cytosol after the degradation of autophagic bodies. There are more than one Atg22 domain-containing proteins in filamentous fungi, but their physiological roles are largely unknown. In this study, four Atg22-like proteins (BbAtg22A through D) were functionally characterized in the filamentous entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. These Atg22-like proteins exhibit different sub-cellular distributions. BbAtg22A localizes in lipid droplets. BbAtg22B and BbAtg22C are completely distributed in the vacuole, and BbAtg22D has an additional association with the cytomembrane. The ablation of Atg22-like proteins did not block autophagy. Four Atg22-like proteins systematically contribute to the fungal response to starvation and virulence in B. bassiana. With the exception of ∆Bbatg22C, the other three proteins contribute to dimorphic transmission. Additionally, BbAtg22A and BbAtg22D are required for cytomembrane integrity. Meanwhile, four Atg22-like proteins contribute to conidiation. Therefore, Atg22-like proteins link distinct sub-cellular structures for the development and virulence in B. bassiana. Our findings provide a novel insight into the non-autophagic roles of autophagy-related genes in filamentous fungi. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives on Entomopathogenic and Nematode-Trapping Fungi)
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24 pages, 8303 KiB  
Review
Polyketides as Secondary Metabolites from the Genus Aspergillus
by Xuelian Bai, Yue Sheng, Zhenxing Tang, Jingyi Pan, Shigui Wang, Bin Tang, Ting Zhou, Lu’e Shi and Huawei Zhang
J. Fungi 2023, 9(2), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9020261 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3096
Abstract
Polyketides are an important class of structurally diverse natural products derived from a precursor molecule consisting of a chain of alternating ketone and methylene groups. These compounds have attracted the worldwide attention of pharmaceutical researchers since they are endowed with a wide array [...] Read more.
Polyketides are an important class of structurally diverse natural products derived from a precursor molecule consisting of a chain of alternating ketone and methylene groups. These compounds have attracted the worldwide attention of pharmaceutical researchers since they are endowed with a wide array of biological properties. As one of the most common filamentous fungi in nature, Aspergillus spp. is well known as an excellent producer of polyketide compounds with therapeutic potential. By extensive literature search and data analysis, this review comprehensively summarizes Aspergillus-derived polyketides for the first time, regarding their occurrences, chemical structures and bioactivities as well as biosynthetic logics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Investigators in Bioactive Fungal Metabolites)
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15 pages, 6243 KiB  
Article
Co-Application of Silver Nanoparticles and Symbiotic Fungus Piriformospora indica Improves Secondary Metabolite Production in Black Rice
by Shikha Solanki, G. B. V. S. Lakshmi, Tarun Dhiman, Samta Gupta, Pratima R. Solanki, Rupam Kapoor and Ajit Varma
J. Fungi 2023, 9(2), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9020260 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2168
Abstract
In the current research, unique Nano-Embedded Fungus (NEF), made by the synergic association of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and endophytic fungus (Piriformospora indica), is studied, and the impact of NEF on black rice secondary metabolites is reported. AgNPs were synthesized by chemical [...] Read more.
In the current research, unique Nano-Embedded Fungus (NEF), made by the synergic association of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and endophytic fungus (Piriformospora indica), is studied, and the impact of NEF on black rice secondary metabolites is reported. AgNPs were synthesized by chemical reduction process using the temperature-dependent method and characterized for morphological and structural features through UV visible absorption spectroscopy, zeta potential, XRD, SEM-EDX, and FTIR spectroscopy. The NEF, prepared by optimizing the AgNPs concentration (300 ppm) in agar and broth media, showed better fungal biomass, colony diameter, spore count, and spore size than the control P. indica. Treatment with AgNPs, P. indica, and NEF resulted in growth enhancement in black rice. NEF and AgNPs stimulated the production of secondary metabolites in its leaves. The concentrations of chlorophyll, carotenoids, flavonoids, and terpenoids were increased in plants inoculated with P. indica and AgNPs. The findings of the study highlight the synergistic effect of AgNPs and the fungal symbionts in augmenting the secondary metabolites in leaves of black rice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Nanotechnology 2.0)
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17 pages, 1389 KiB  
Article
Kojic Acid Gene Clusters and the Transcriptional Activation Mechanism of Aspergillus flavus KojR on Expression of Clustered Genes
by Perng-Kuang Chang, Leslie L. Scharfenstein, Noreen Mahoney and Qing Kong
J. Fungi 2023, 9(2), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9020259 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1814
Abstract
Kojic acid (KA) is a fungal metabolite and has a variety of applications in the cosmetics and food industries. Aspergillus oryzae is a well-known producer of KA, and its KA biosynthesis gene cluster has been identified. In this study, we showed that nearly [...] Read more.
Kojic acid (KA) is a fungal metabolite and has a variety of applications in the cosmetics and food industries. Aspergillus oryzae is a well-known producer of KA, and its KA biosynthesis gene cluster has been identified. In this study, we showed that nearly all section Flavi aspergilli except for A. avenaceus had complete KA gene clusters, and only one Penicillium species, P. nordicum, contained a partial KA gene cluster. Phylogenetic inference based on KA gene cluster sequences consistently grouped section Flavi aspergilli into clades as prior studies. The Zn(II)2Cys6 zinc cluster regulator KojR transcriptionally activated clustered genes of kojA and kojT in Aspergillus flavus. This was evidenced by the time-course expression of both genes in kojR-overexpressing strains whose kojR expression was driven by a heterologous Aspergillus nidulans gpdA promoter or a homologous A. flavus gpiA promoter. Using sequences from the kojA and kojT promoter regions of section Flavi aspergilli for motif analyses, we identified a consensus KojR-binding motif to be an 11-bp palindromic sequence of 5′-CGRCTWAGYCG-3′ (R = A/G, W = A/T, Y = C/T). A CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene-targeting technique showed that the motif sequence, 5′-CGACTTTGCCG-3′, in the kojA promoter was critical for KA biosynthesis in A. flavus. Our findings may facilitate strain improvement and benefit future kojic acid production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genomics Analysis of Fungi)
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17 pages, 3403 KiB  
Article
Entomopathogenic Fungi-Mediated Solubilization and Induction of Fe Related Genes in Melon and Cucumber Plants
by Fabián García-Espinoza, Enrique Quesada-Moraga, María José García del Rosal and Meelad Yousef-Yousef
J. Fungi 2023, 9(2), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9020258 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2383
Abstract
Endophytic insect pathogenic fungi have a multifunctional lifestyle; in addition to its well-known function as biocontrol agents, it may also help plants respond to other biotic and abiotic stresses, such as iron (Fe) deficiency. This study explores M. brunneum EAMa 01/58-Su strain attributes [...] Read more.
Endophytic insect pathogenic fungi have a multifunctional lifestyle; in addition to its well-known function as biocontrol agents, it may also help plants respond to other biotic and abiotic stresses, such as iron (Fe) deficiency. This study explores M. brunneum EAMa 01/58-Su strain attributes for Fe acquisition. Firstly, direct attributes include siderophore exudation (in vitro assay) and Fe content in shoots and in the substrate (in vivo assay) were evaluated for three strains of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium bruneum. The M. brunneum EAMa 01/58-Su strain showed a great ability to exudate iron siderophores (58.4% surface siderophores exudation) and provided higher Fe content in both dry matter and substrate compared to the control and was therefore selected for further research to unravel the possible induction of Fe deficiency responses, Ferric Reductase Activity (FRA), and relative expression of Fe acquisition genes by qRT-PCR in melon and cucumber plants.. In addition, root priming by M. brunneum EAMa 01/58-Su strain elicited Fe deficiency responses at transcriptional level. Our results show an early up-regulation (24, 48 or 72 h post inoculation) of the Fe acquisition genes FRO1, FRO2, IRT1, HA1, and FIT as well as the FRA. These results highlight the mechanisms involved in the Fe acquisition as mediated by IPF M. brunneum EAMa 01/58-Su strain. Full article
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13 pages, 3253 KiB  
Article
Antifungal Activity of Perillaldehyde on Fusarium solani and Its Control Effect on Postharvest Decay of Sweet Potatoes
by Chao Pan, Kunlong Yang, Famous Erhunmwunsee, Bo Wang, Dongjing Yang, Guoquan Lu, Man Liu, Yongxin Li and Jun Tian
J. Fungi 2023, 9(2), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9020257 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1894
Abstract
Root rot caused by Fusarium solani is one of the major postharvest diseases limiting sweet potato production. Here, antifungal activity and the action mode of perillaldehyde (PAE) against F. solani were investigated. A PAE concentration of 0.15 mL/L in air (mL/L air) markedly [...] Read more.
Root rot caused by Fusarium solani is one of the major postharvest diseases limiting sweet potato production. Here, antifungal activity and the action mode of perillaldehyde (PAE) against F. solani were investigated. A PAE concentration of 0.15 mL/L in air (mL/L air) markedly inhibited the mycelial growth, spore reproduction and spore viability of F. solani. A PAE vapor of 0.25 mL/L in air could control the F. solani development in sweet potatoes during storage for 9 days at 28 °C. Moreover, the results of a flow cytometer demonstrated that PAE drove an increase in cell membrane permeability, reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in F. solani spores. Subsequently, a fluorescence microscopy assay demonstrated that PAE caused serious damage to the cell nuclei in F. solani by inducing chromatin condensation. Further, the spread plate method showed that the spore survival rate was negatively correlated with the level of ROS and nuclear damage, of which the results indicated that PAE-driven ROS accumulation plays a critical role in contributing to cell death in F. solani. In all, the results revealed a specific antifungal mechanism of PAE against F. solani, and suggest that PAE could be a useful fumigant for controlling the postharvest diseases of sweet potatoes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isolation and Control of Fruit and Vegetable Rot Fungi)
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15 pages, 2096 KiB  
Article
The New GPI-Anchored Protein, SwgA, Is Involved in Nitrogen Metabolism in the Pathogenic Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus
by Marketa Samalova, Patricia Flamant, Rémi Beau, Mike Bromley, Maryse Moya-Nilges, Thierry Fontaine, Jean-Paul Latgé and Isabelle Mouyna
J. Fungi 2023, 9(2), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9020256 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1951
Abstract
GPI-anchored proteins display very diverse biological (biochemical and immunological) functions. An in silico analysis has revealed that the genome of Aspergillus fumigatus contains 86 genes coding for putative GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs). Past research has demonstrated the involvement of GPI-APs in cell wall remodeling, [...] Read more.
GPI-anchored proteins display very diverse biological (biochemical and immunological) functions. An in silico analysis has revealed that the genome of Aspergillus fumigatus contains 86 genes coding for putative GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs). Past research has demonstrated the involvement of GPI-APs in cell wall remodeling, virulence, and adhesion. We analyzed a new GPI-anchored protein called SwgA. We showed that this protein is mainly present in the Clavati of Aspergillus and is absent from yeasts and other molds. The protein, localized in the membrane of A. fumigatus, is involved in germination, growth, and morphogenesis, and is associated with nitrogen metabolism and thermosensitivity. swgA is controlled by the nitrogen regulator AreA. This current study indicates that GPI-APs have more general functions in fungal metabolism than cell wall biosynthesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Fungal Cell Biology, Metabolism and Physiology)
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12 pages, 1183 KiB  
Review
Invasive Aspergillosis after Renal Transplantation
by Liyanage Shamithra Madhumali Sigera and David W. Denning
J. Fungi 2023, 9(2), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9020255 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2909
Abstract
Over 95,000 renal transplantation procedures were completed in 2021. Invasive aspergillosis (IA) affects about 1 in 250 to 1 in 43 renal transplant recipients. About 50% of cases occur in the first 6 months after transplantation; the median time of onset is nearly [...] Read more.
Over 95,000 renal transplantation procedures were completed in 2021. Invasive aspergillosis (IA) affects about 1 in 250 to 1 in 43 renal transplant recipients. About 50% of cases occur in the first 6 months after transplantation; the median time of onset is nearly 3 years. Major risk factors for IA include old age, diabetes mellitus (especially if prior diabetic nephropathy), delayed graft function, acute graft rejection, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cytomegalovirus disease, and neutropenia. Hospital construction, demolition activities, and residential refurbishments also increase the risk. Parenchymal pulmonary infection is the most common (~75%), and bronchial, sinus, cerebral, and disseminated disease are less common. Typical pulmonary features of fever, dyspnea, cough, and hemoptysis are seen in most patients, but 20% have non-specific general features of illness. Non-specific infiltrates and pulmonary nodules are the commonest radiological features, with bilateral disease carrying a worse prognosis. Bronchoscopy for direct microscopy, fungal culture, and Aspergillus antigen are the fastest means of establishing the diagnosis; a positive serum Aspergillus antigen presages a worse outcome. Standard therapy includes voriconazole, isavuconazole, or posaconazole, with great attention necessary to assess likely drug–drug interactions. Liposomal amphotericin B and echinocandins are less effective. A reduction in or stopping immunosuppression needs careful consideration, given the overall mortality of IA in renal-transplanted patients; continuing corticosteroid after the diagnosis of IA increases mortality by 2.5 times. Surgical resection or the addition of a gamma interferon should also be considered. Full article
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29 pages, 1837 KiB  
Review
Diversity, Lifestyle, Genomics, and Their Functional Role of Cochliobolus, Bipolaris, and Curvularia Species in Environmental Remediation and Plant Growth Promotion under Biotic and Abiotic Stressors
by Nasir Ali Khan, Sajjad Asaf, Waqar Ahmad, Rahmatullah Jan, Saqib Bilal, Ibrahim Khan, Abdul Latif Khan, Kyung-Min Kim and Ahmed Al-Harrasi
J. Fungi 2023, 9(2), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9020254 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2979
Abstract
Cochliobolus, Bipolaris, and Curvularia genera contain various devastating plant pathogens that cause severe crop losses worldwide. The species belonging to these genera also perform a variety of diverse functions, including the remediation of environmental contaminations, beneficial phytohormone production, and maintaining their [...] Read more.
Cochliobolus, Bipolaris, and Curvularia genera contain various devastating plant pathogens that cause severe crop losses worldwide. The species belonging to these genera also perform a variety of diverse functions, including the remediation of environmental contaminations, beneficial phytohormone production, and maintaining their lifestyle as epiphytes, endophytes, and saprophytes. Recent research has revealed that despite their pathogenic nature, these fungi also play an intriguing role in agriculture. They act as phosphate solubilizers and produce phytohormones, such as indole acetic acid (IAA) and gibberellic acid (GAs), to accelerate the growth of various plants. Some species have also been reported to play a significant role in plant growth promotion during abiotic stresses, such as salinity stress, drought stress, heat stress, and heavy metal stress, as well as act as a biocontrol agent and a potential mycoherbicide. Similarly, these species have been reported in numerous industrial applications to produce different types of secondary metabolites and biotechnological products and possess a variety of biological properties, such as antibacterial, antileishmanial, cytotoxic, phytotoxic, and antioxidant activities. Additionally, some of the species have been utilized in the production of numerous valuable industrial enzymes and biotransformation, which has an impact on the growth of crops all over the world. However, the current literature is dispersed, and some of the key areas, such as taxonomy, phylogeny, genome sequencing, phytohormonal analysis, and diversity, are still being neglected in terms of the elucidation of its mechanisms, plant growth promotion, stress tolerance, and bioremediation. In this review, we highlighted the potential role, function, and diversity of Cochliobolus, Curvularia, and Bipolaris for improved utilization during environmental biotechnology. Full article
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9 pages, 1594 KiB  
Communication
Survey on Dermatophytes Isolated from Animals in Switzerland in the Context of the Prevention of Zoonotic Dermatophytosis
by Marina Fratti, Olympia Bontems, Karine Salamin, Emmanuella Guenova and Michel Monod
J. Fungi 2023, 9(2), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9020253 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1782
Abstract
Most inflammatory dermatophytoses in humans are caused by zoophilic and geophilic dermatophytes. Knowledge of the epidemiology of these fungi in animals facilitates the prevention of dermatophytosis of animal origin in humans. We studied the prevalence of dermatophyte species in domestic animals in Switzerland [...] Read more.
Most inflammatory dermatophytoses in humans are caused by zoophilic and geophilic dermatophytes. Knowledge of the epidemiology of these fungi in animals facilitates the prevention of dermatophytosis of animal origin in humans. We studied the prevalence of dermatophyte species in domestic animals in Switzerland and examined the effectiveness of direct mycological examination (DME) for their detection compared to mycological cultures. In total, 3515 hair and skin samples, collected between 2008 and 2022 by practicing veterinarians, were subjected to direct fluorescence microscopy and fungal culture. Overall, 611 dermatophytes were isolated, of which 547 (89.5%) were from DME-positive samples. Cats and dogs were the main reservoirs of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis, whereas Trichophyton benhamiae was predominantly found in guinea pigs. Cultures with M. canis significantly (p < 0.001) outnumbered those with T. mentagrophytes in DME-negative samples (19.3% versus 6.8%), possibly because M. canis can be asymptomatic in cats and dogs, unlike T. mentagrophytes, which is always infectious. Our data confirm DME as a reliable, quick, and easy method to identify the presence of dermatophytes in animals. A positive DME in an animal hair or skin sample should alert people in contact with the animal to the risk of contracting dermatophytosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dermatophytes and Dermatophytoses)
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12 pages, 4046 KiB  
Article
Molecular Dissection of Crz1 and Its Dynamic Subcellular Localization in Cryptococcus neoformans
by Benjamin J. Chadwick, Brittain Elizabeth Ross and Xiaorong Lin
J. Fungi 2023, 9(2), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9020252 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1669
Abstract
Across lower eukaryotes, the transcription factor Crz1 is dephosphorylated by calcineurin, which facilitates Crz1 translocation to the nucleus to regulate gene expression. In the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, calcineurin–Crz1 signaling maintains calcium homeostasis, thermotolerance, cell wall integrity, and morphogenesis. How Crz1 distinguishes [...] Read more.
Across lower eukaryotes, the transcription factor Crz1 is dephosphorylated by calcineurin, which facilitates Crz1 translocation to the nucleus to regulate gene expression. In the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, calcineurin–Crz1 signaling maintains calcium homeostasis, thermotolerance, cell wall integrity, and morphogenesis. How Crz1 distinguishes different stressors and differentially regulates cellular responses is poorly understood. Through monitoring Crz1 subcellular localization over time, we found that Crz1 transiently localizes to granules after exposure to high temperature or calcium. These granules also host the phosphatase calcineurin and Pub1, a ribonucleoprotein stress granule marker, suggesting a role of stress granules in modulating calcineurin–Crz1 signaling. Additionally, we constructed and analyzed an array of Crz1 truncation mutants. We identified the intrinsically disordered regions in Crz1 contribute to proper stress granule localization, nuclear localization, and function. Our results provide the groundwork for further determination of the mechanisms behind the complex regulation of Crz1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women in Mycology)
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27 pages, 31267 KiB  
Article
Seven New Species of the Genus Geastrum (Geastrales, Geastraceae) in China
by Xin Wang and Tolgor Bau
J. Fungi 2023, 9(2), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9020251 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2645
Abstract
Geastrum belongs to Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes, Geastrales, and Geastraceae. The genus Geastrum exoperidium normally splits at maturity into a characteristic star-like structure. It is a saprophytic fungus with great research significance. Based on morphological observation combined with phylogenetic analysis through ITS and LSU, seven [...] Read more.
Geastrum belongs to Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes, Geastrales, and Geastraceae. The genus Geastrum exoperidium normally splits at maturity into a characteristic star-like structure. It is a saprophytic fungus with great research significance. Based on morphological observation combined with phylogenetic analysis through ITS and LSU, seven new species of Geastrum belong to four sections, viz., Sect. Myceliostroma, Geastrum laneum; Sect. Exareolata, Geastrum litchi, Geastrum mongolicum; Sect. Corollina, Geastrum pseudosaccatum, Geastrum melanorhynchum, Geastrum oxysepalum; and Sect. Campestria, Geastrum microphole. Illustrated descriptions and the ecological habits of the novel species are provided. Full article
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