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J. Fungi, Volume 8, Issue 12 (December 2022) – 82 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) mediated rapid protein turnover influences various cellular functions in eukaryotic cells, including fungi. As a subunit of the SCF (Skp1-Cullin-F-box protein) E3 ligase, F-box protein is a key component of UPS that determines the substrate specificity. In this study, we identified and characterized all 20 F-box proteins in Cryptococcus neoformans, the leading cause of fungal meningoencephalitis. We highlighted the important cellular functions of three F-box proteins in detail, including their roles in fungal mating, stress response, antifungal resistance, and cell size regulation, as well as fungal virulence. Our study leads to a better understanding of the function of fungal SCF E3 ligase-mediated UPS in fungal development and pathogenesis. View this paper
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Article
Lomasomes and Other Fungal Plasma Membrane Macroinvaginations Have a Tubular and Lamellar Genesis
J. Fungi 2022, 8(12), 1316; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8121316 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 995
Abstract
The plasma membrane of filamentous fungi forms large-sized invaginations, which are either tubes or parietal vesicles. Vesicular macroinvaginations at the ultrastructural level correspond to classical lomasomes. There is an assumption that vesicular macroinvaginations/lomasomes may be involved in macrovesicular endocytosis. The original aim of [...] Read more.
The plasma membrane of filamentous fungi forms large-sized invaginations, which are either tubes or parietal vesicles. Vesicular macroinvaginations at the ultrastructural level correspond to classical lomasomes. There is an assumption that vesicular macroinvaginations/lomasomes may be involved in macrovesicular endocytosis. The original aim of this study was to test for the presence of macroendocytosis in xylotrophic basidiomycetes using time-lapse and Z-stacks fluorescent microscopic technologies. However, the results were unexpected since most of the membrane structures labeled by the endocytic tracer (FM4-64 analog) are various types of plasma membrane macroinvaginations and not any endomembranes. All of these macroinvaginations have a tubular or lamellar genesis. Moreover, under specific conditions of a microscopic preparation, the diameter of the tubes forming the macroinvaginations increases with the time of the sample observation. In addition, the morphology and successive formation of the macroinvaginations mimic the endocytic pathway; these invaginations can easily be mistaken for endocytic vesicles, endosomes, and vacuole-lysosomes. The paper analyzes the various macroinvagination types, suggests their biological functions, and discusses some features of fungal endocytosis. This study is a next step toward understanding complex fungal physiology and is a presentation of a new intracellular tubular system in wood-decaying fungi. Full article
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Article
The Sugar Metabolic Model of Aspergillus niger Can Only Be Reliably Transferred to Fungi of Its Phylum
J. Fungi 2022, 8(12), 1315; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8121315 - 17 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2476
Abstract
Fungi play a critical role in the global carbon cycle by degrading plant polysaccharides to small sugars and metabolizing them as carbon and energy sources. We mapped the well-established sugar metabolic network of Aspergillus niger to five taxonomically distant species (Aspergillus nidulans [...] Read more.
Fungi play a critical role in the global carbon cycle by degrading plant polysaccharides to small sugars and metabolizing them as carbon and energy sources. We mapped the well-established sugar metabolic network of Aspergillus niger to five taxonomically distant species (Aspergillus nidulans, Penicillium subrubescens, Trichoderma reesei, Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Dichomitus squalens) using an orthology-based approach. The diversity of sugar metabolism correlates well with the taxonomic distance of the fungi. The pathways are highly conserved between the three studied Eurotiomycetes (A. niger, A. nidulans, P. subrubescens). A higher level of diversity was observed between the T. reesei and A. niger, and even more so for the two Basidiomycetes. These results were confirmed by integrative analysis of transcriptome, proteome and metabolome, as well as growth profiles of the fungi growing on the corresponding sugars. In conclusion, the establishment of sugar pathway models in different fungi revealed the diversity of fungal sugar conversion and provided a valuable resource for the community, which would facilitate rational metabolic engineering of these fungi as microbial cell factories. Full article
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Article
The SsAtg1 Activating Autophagy Is Required for Sclerotia Formation and Pathogenicity in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
J. Fungi 2022, 8(12), 1314; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8121314 - 17 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1000
Abstract
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a necrotrophic phytopathogenic fungus that produces sclerotia. Sclerotia are essential components of the survival and disease cycle of this devastating pathogen. In this study, we analyzed comparative transcriptomics of hyphae and sclerotia. A total of 1959 differentially expressed genes, 919 [...] Read more.
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a necrotrophic phytopathogenic fungus that produces sclerotia. Sclerotia are essential components of the survival and disease cycle of this devastating pathogen. In this study, we analyzed comparative transcriptomics of hyphae and sclerotia. A total of 1959 differentially expressed genes, 919 down-regulated and 1040 up-regulated, were identified. Transcriptomes data provide the possibility to precisely comprehend the sclerotia development. We further analyzed the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in sclerotia to explore the molecular mechanism of sclerotia development, which include ribosome biogenesis and translation, melanin biosynthesis, autophagy and reactivate oxygen metabolism. Among these, the autophagy-related gene SsAtg1 was up-regulated in sclerotia. Atg1 homologs play critical roles in autophagy, a ubiquitous and evolutionarily highly conserved cellular mechanism for turnover of intracellular materials in eukaryotes. Therefore, we investigated the function of SsAtg1 to explore the function of the autophagy pathway in S. sclerotiorum. Deficiency of SsAtg1 inhibited autophagosome accumulation in the vacuoles of nitrogen-starved cells. Notably, ΔSsAtg1 was unable to form sclerotia and displayed defects in vegetative growth under conditions of nutrient restriction. Furthermore, the development and penetration of the compound appressoria in ΔSsAtg1 was abnormal. Pathogenicity analysis showed that SsAtg1 was required for full virulence of S. sclerotiorum. Taken together, these results indicate that SsAtg1 is a core autophagy-related gene that has vital functions in nutrient utilization, sclerotia development and pathogenicity in S. sclerotiorum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Fungal Pathogenesis and Disease Control)
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Article
Phenylalanine Promotes Biofilm Formation of Meyerozyma caribbica to Improve Biocontrol Efficacy against Jujube Black Spot Rot
J. Fungi 2022, 8(12), 1313; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8121313 - 17 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 915
Abstract
During storage and transportation after harvest, the jujube fruit is susceptible to black spot rot, which is caused by Alternaria alternata. The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the yeast Meyerozyma caribbica in controlling A. alternata in postharvest jujube fruits, [...] Read more.
During storage and transportation after harvest, the jujube fruit is susceptible to black spot rot, which is caused by Alternaria alternata. The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the yeast Meyerozyma caribbica in controlling A. alternata in postharvest jujube fruits, and to explore the biofilm formation mechanism. The results showed that M. caribbica treatment significantly reduced the A. alternata decay in jujube fruits. M. caribbica could rapidly colonize jujube fruit wounds, adhering tightly to hyphae of A. alternata, and accompanied by the production of extracellular secretions. In in vitro experiments, we identified that M. caribbica adhered to polystyrene plates, indicating a strong biofilm-forming ability. Furthermore, we demonstrated that M. caribbica can secrete phenylethanol, a quorum sensing molecule which can affect biofilm development. Phenylalanine (a precursor substance for phenylethanol synthesis) enhanced the secretion of phenylethanol and promoted the formation of M. caribbica biofilms. Meanwhile, phenylalanine enhanced the biological control performance of M. caribbica against jujube black spot rot. Our study provided new insights that enhance the biological control performance of antagonistic yeast. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isolation and Control of Fruit and Vegetable Rot Fungi)
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Article
Inhibition of Dopamine Activity and Response of Rhipicephalus microplus Challenged with Metarhizium anisopliae
J. Fungi 2022, 8(12), 1312; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8121312 - 17 Dec 2022
Viewed by 945
Abstract
Dopamine modulates ticks and insect hemocytes and links these arthropods’ nervous and immune systems. For the first time, the present study analyzed the effect of a dopamine receptor antagonist on the survival, biological parameters, phagocytic index, and dopamine detection in the hemocytes of [...] Read more.
Dopamine modulates ticks and insect hemocytes and links these arthropods’ nervous and immune systems. For the first time, the present study analyzed the effect of a dopamine receptor antagonist on the survival, biological parameters, phagocytic index, and dopamine detection in the hemocytes of ticks challenged by Metarhizium anisopliae. The survival and egg production index of Rhipicephalus microplus were negatively impacted when ticks were inoculated with the antagonist and fungus. Five days after the treatment, the survival of ticks treated only with fungus was 2.2 times higher than ticks treated with the antagonist (highest concentration) and fungus. A reduction in the phagocytic index of hemocytes of 68.4% was observed in the group inoculated with the highest concentration of the antagonist and fungus compared to ticks treated only with fungus. No changes were detected in the R. microplus levels of intrahemocytic dopamine or hemocytic quantification. Our results support the hypothesis that dopamine is crucial for tick immune defense, changing the phagocytic capacity of hemocytes and the susceptibility of ticks to entomopathogenic fungi. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives on Entomopathogenic and Nematode-Trapping Fungi)
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Article
Prevalence of Carbendazin Resistance in Field Populations of the Rice False Smut Pathogen Ustilaginoidea virens from Jiangsu, China, Molecular Mechanisms, and Fitness Stability
J. Fungi 2022, 8(12), 1311; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8121311 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 904
Abstract
Rice false smut (RFS), caused by Ustilaginoidea virens, is an important fungal disease of rice. In China, Methyl Benzimidazole Carbamates (MBCs), including carbendazim, are common fungicides used to control RFS and other rice diseases. In this study, resistance of U. virens to [...] Read more.
Rice false smut (RFS), caused by Ustilaginoidea virens, is an important fungal disease of rice. In China, Methyl Benzimidazole Carbamates (MBCs), including carbendazim, are common fungicides used to control RFS and other rice diseases. In this study, resistance of U. virens to carbendazim was monitored for three consecutive years during 2018 to 2020. A total of 321 U. virens isolates collected from Jiangsu Province of China were tested for their sensitivity to carbendazim on PSA. The concentration at which mycelial growth is inhibited by 50% (EC50) of the carbendazim-sensitive isolates was 0.11 to 1.38 µg/mL, with a mean EC50 value of 0.66 μg/mL. High level of resistance to carbendazim was detected in 14 out of 321 isolates. The resistance was stable but associated with a fitness penalty. There was a statistically significant and moderate negative correlation (r= −0.74, p < 0.001) in sensitivity between carbendazim and diethofencarb. Analysis of the U. virens genome revealed two potential MBC targets, Uvβ1Tub and Uvβ2Tub, that putatively encode β-tubulin gene. The two β-tubulin genes in U. virens share 78% amino acid sequence identity, but their function in MBC sensitivity has been unclear. Both genes were identified and sequenced from U. virens sensitive and resistant isolates. It is known that mutations in the β2-tubulin gene have been shown to confer resistance to carbendazim in other fungi. However, no mutation was found in the Uvβ2Tub gene in either resistant or sensitive isolates. Variations including point mutations, non-sense mutations, codon mutations, and frameshift mutations were found in the Uvβ1Tub gene from the 14 carbendazim-resistant isolates, which have not been reported in other fungi before. Thus, these results indicated that variations of Uvβ1Tub result in the resistance to carbendazim in field isolates of Ustilaginoidea virens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smut Fungi 2.0)
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Article
Natural Product Citronellal can Significantly Disturb Chitin Synthesis and Cell Wall Integrity in Magnaporthe oryzae
J. Fungi 2022, 8(12), 1310; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8121310 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1132
Abstract
Background: Natural products are often favored in the study of crop pests and diseases. Previous studies have shown that citronellal has a strong inhibition effect on Magnaporthe oryzae. The objective of this study was to clarify its mechanism of action against M. [...] Read more.
Background: Natural products are often favored in the study of crop pests and diseases. Previous studies have shown that citronellal has a strong inhibition effect on Magnaporthe oryzae. The objective of this study was to clarify its mechanism of action against M. oryzae. Results: Firstly, the biological activity of citronellal against M. oryzae was determined by direct and indirect methods, and the results show that citronellal had a strong inhibition effect on M. oryzae with EC50 values of 134.00 mg/L and 70.48 μL/L air, respectively. Additionally, a preliminary study on its mechanism of action was studied. After citronellal treatment, electron microscopy revealed that the mycelium became thin and broken; scanning electron microscopy revealed that the mycelium was wrinkled and distorted; and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the mycelium cell wall was invaginated, the mass wall of mycelium was separated, and the organelles were blurred. The mycelium was further stained with CFW, and the nodes were blurred, while the mycelium was almost non-fluorescent after PI staining, and there was no significant difference in the relative conductivity of mycelium. In addition, chitinase was significantly enhanced, and the expression of chitin synthesis-related genes was 17.47-fold upregulated. Finally, we found that the efficacy of citronellal against the rice blast was as high as 82.14% according to indoor efficacy tests. Conclusion: These results indicate that citronellal can affect the synthesis of chitin in M. oryzae and damage its cell wall, thereby inhibiting the growth of mycelium and effectively protecting rice from rice blasts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Fungal Cell Biology, Metabolism and Physiology)
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Article
A Novel Gammapartitivirus That Causes Changes in Fungal Development and Multi-Stress Tolerance to Important Medicinal Fungus Cordyceps chanhua
J. Fungi 2022, 8(12), 1309; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8121309 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 739
Abstract
Cicada flower, scientifically named Cordyceps chanhua, is an important and well-known Chinese cordycipitoid medicinal mushroom. Although most mycoviruses seem to induce latent infections, some mycoviruses cause host effects. However, the effects of mycovirus on the fungal development and stress tolerance of C. [...] Read more.
Cicada flower, scientifically named Cordyceps chanhua, is an important and well-known Chinese cordycipitoid medicinal mushroom. Although most mycoviruses seem to induce latent infections, some mycoviruses cause host effects. However, the effects of mycovirus on the fungal development and stress tolerance of C. chanhua remain unknown. In this study, we report a novel mycovirus designated Cordyceps chanhua partitivirus 1 (CchPV1) from C. chanhua isolate RCEF5997. The CchPV1 genome comprises dsRNA 1 and dsRNA 2, 1784 and 1563 bp in length, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis using the aa sequences of RdRp revealed that CchPV1 grouped with members of the genus Gammapartitivirus in the family Partitiviridae. We further co-cultivated on PDA donor strain RCEF5997 and recipient C. chanhua strain RCEF5833 (Vf) for 7 days, and we successfully obtained an isogenic line of strain RCEF5833 with CchPV1 (Vi) through single-spore isolation, along with ISSR marker and dsRNA extraction. The biological comparison revealed that CchPV1 infection slows the growth rate of the host, but increases the conidiation and formation of fruiting bodies of the host. Furthermore, the assessment of fungal tolerance demonstrated that CchPV1 weakens the multi-stress tolerance of the host. Thus, CchPV1 infection cause changes in fungal development and multi-stress tolerance of the host C. chanhua. The findings of this study elucidate the effects of gammapartitivirus on host entomogenous fungi and provide a novel strategy for producing high-quality fruiting bodies of C. chanhua. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycoviruses: Emerging Investigations on Virus-Fungal Host Interaction)
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Article
Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Alters Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Defense Enzyme Activities and Volatile Organic Compound Contents in Response to Pea Aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) Infestation
J. Fungi 2022, 8(12), 1308; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8121308 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1027
Abstract
Pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) infestation leads to withering, reduced yield, and lower quality of the host plant. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have been found to enhance their host plants’ nutrient uptake, growth, and resistance to biotic stresses, including pathogen infection and [...] Read more.
Pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) infestation leads to withering, reduced yield, and lower quality of the host plant. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have been found to enhance their host plants’ nutrient uptake, growth, and resistance to biotic stresses, including pathogen infection and insect pest infestation. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of AM fungus Rhizophagus intraradices on alfalfa defense responses to pea aphid infestation. Aphid infestation did not affect the colonization of AM fungus. The inoculation of AM fungus, on average, enhanced alfalfa catalase and the contents of salicylic acid and trypsin inhibitor by 101, 9.05, and 7.89% compared with non-mycorrhizal alfalfa, respectively. In addition, polyphenol oxidase activities significantly increased by six-fold after aphid infestation in mycorrhizal alfalfa. Moreover, the fungus significantly (p < 0.05) improved alfalfa shoot N content, net photosynthetic and transpiration rates, and shoot dry weight in aphid infected treatment. The aphid infestation changed the total volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in alfalfa, while AM fungus enhanced the contents of methyl salicylate (MeSA). The co-expression network analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed VOCs analysis showed that three DEGs, namely MS.gene23894, MS.gene003889, and MS.gene012415, positively correlated with MeSA both in aphid and AM fungus groups. In conclusion, AM fungus increased alfalfa’s growth, defense enzyme activities, hormones, and VOCs content and up-regulated VOC-related genes to enhance the alfalfa’s resistance following aphid infestation. Full article
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Review
The Use of Host Biomarkers for the Management of Invasive Fungal Disease
J. Fungi 2022, 8(12), 1307; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8121307 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1526
Abstract
Invasive fungal disease (IFD) causes severe morbidity and mortality, and the number of IFD cases is increasing. Exposure to opportunistic fungal pathogens is inevitable, but not all patients with underlying diseases increasing susceptibility to IFD, develop it. IFD diagnosis currently uses fungal biomarkers [...] Read more.
Invasive fungal disease (IFD) causes severe morbidity and mortality, and the number of IFD cases is increasing. Exposure to opportunistic fungal pathogens is inevitable, but not all patients with underlying diseases increasing susceptibility to IFD, develop it. IFD diagnosis currently uses fungal biomarkers and clinical risk/presentation to stratify high-risk patients and classifies them into possible, probable, and proven IFD. However, the fungal species responsible for IFD are highly diverse and present numerous diagnostic challenges, which culminates in the empirical anti-fungal treatment of patients at risk of IFD. Recent studies have focussed on host-derived biomarkers that may mediate IFD risk and can be used to predict, and even identify IFD. The identification of novel host genetic variants, host gene expression changes, and host protein expression (cytokines and chemokines) associated with increased risk of IFD has enhanced our understanding of why only some patients at risk of IFD actually develop disease. Furthermore, these host biomarkers when incorporated into predictive models alongside conventional diagnostic techniques enhance predictive and diagnostic results. Once validated in larger studies, host biomarkers associated with IFD may optimize the clinical management of populations at risk of IFD. This review will summarise the latest developments in the identification of host biomarkers for IFD, their use in predictive modelling and their potential application/usefulness for informing clinical decisions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Technologies for Diagnosis of Fungal Infection)
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Article
Cryptococcus neoformans Causing Meningoencephalitis in Adults and a Child from Lima, Peru: Genotypic Diversity and Antifungal Susceptibility
J. Fungi 2022, 8(12), 1306; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8121306 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1162
Abstract
Cryptococcosis, caused predominantly by Cryptococcus neoformans, is a potentially fatal, opportunistic infection that commonly affects the central nervous system of immunocompromised patients. Globally, this mycosis is responsible for almost 20% of AIDS-related deaths, and in countries like Peru, its incidence remains high, [...] Read more.
Cryptococcosis, caused predominantly by Cryptococcus neoformans, is a potentially fatal, opportunistic infection that commonly affects the central nervous system of immunocompromised patients. Globally, this mycosis is responsible for almost 20% of AIDS-related deaths, and in countries like Peru, its incidence remains high, mostly due to the annual increase in new cases of HIV infection. This study aimed to establish the genotypic diversity and antifungal susceptibility of C. neoformans isolates causing meningoencephalitis in 25 adults and a 9-year-old girl with HIV and other risk factors from Lima, Peru. To identify the genotype of the isolates, multilocus sequence typing was applied, and to establish the susceptibility of the isolates to six antifungals, a YeastOne® broth microdilution was used. From the isolates, 19 were identified as molecular type VNI, and seven as VNII, grouped in eight and three sequence types, respectively, which shows that the studied population was highly diverse. Most isolates were susceptible to all antifungals tested. However, VNI isolates were less susceptible to fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole than VNII isolates (p < 0.05). This study contributes data on the molecular epidemiology and the antifungal susceptibility profile of the most common etiological agent of cryptococcosis, highlighting a pediatric case, something which is rare among cryptococcal infection. Full article
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Article
Mycorrhizal Effects on Growth and Expressions of Stress-Responsive Genes (aquaporins and SOSs) of Tomato under Salt Stress
J. Fungi 2022, 8(12), 1305; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8121305 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1275
Abstract
Environmentally friendly arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the soil can alleviate host damage from abiotic stresses, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Paraglomus occultum, on plant growth, [...] Read more.
Environmentally friendly arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the soil can alleviate host damage from abiotic stresses, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Paraglomus occultum, on plant growth, nitrogen balance index, and expressions of salt overly sensitive genes (SOSs), plasma membrane intrinsic protein genes (PIPs), and tonoplast intrinsic protein genes (TIPs) in leaves of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. var. Huapiqiu) seedlings grown in 0 and 150 mM NaCl stress. NaCl stress severely inhibited plant growth, but P. occultum inoculation significantly improved plant growth. NaCl stress also suppressed the chlorophyll index, accompanied by an increase in the flavonoid index, whereas inoculation with AMF significantly promoted the chlorophyll index as well as reduced the flavonoid index under NaCl conditions, thus leading to an increase in the nitrogen balance index in inoculated plants. NaCl stress regulated the expression of SlPIP1 and SlPIP2 genes in leaves, and five SlPIPs genes were up-regulated after P. occultum colonization under NaCl stress, along with the down-regulation of only SlPIP1;2. Both NaCl stress and P. occultum inoculation induced diverse expression patterns in SlTIPs, coupled with a greater number of up-regulated TIPs in inoculated versus uninoculated plants under NaCl stress. NaCl stress up-regulated SlSOS2 expressions of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants, while P. occultum significantly up-regulated SlSOS1 expressions by 1.13- and 0.45-fold under non-NaCl and NaCl conditions, respectively. It was concluded that P. occultum inoculation enhanced the salt tolerance of the tomato, associated with the nutrient status and stress-responsive gene (aquaporins and SOS1) expressions. Full article
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Article
Cloning and Molecular Characterization of CmOxdc3 Coding for Oxalate Decarboxylase in the Mycoparasite Coniothyrium minitans
J. Fungi 2022, 8(12), 1304; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8121304 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 991
Abstract
Coniothyrium minitans (Cm) is a mycoparasitic fungus of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Ss), the causal agent of Sclerotinia stem rot of oilseed rape. Ss can produce oxalic acid (OA) as a phytotoxin, whereas Cm can degrade OA, thereby nullifying the toxic [...] Read more.
Coniothyrium minitans (Cm) is a mycoparasitic fungus of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Ss), the causal agent of Sclerotinia stem rot of oilseed rape. Ss can produce oxalic acid (OA) as a phytotoxin, whereas Cm can degrade OA, thereby nullifying the toxic effect of OA. Two oxalate decarboxylase (OxDC)-coding genes, CmOxdc1 and CmOxdc2, were cloned, and only CmOxdc1 was found to be partially responsible for OA degradation, implying that other OA-degrading genes may exist in Cm. This study cloned a novel OxDC gene (CmOxdc3) in Cm and its OA-degrading function was characterized by disruption and complementation of CmOxdc3. Sequence analysis indicated that, unlike CmOxdc1, CmOxdc3 does not have the signal peptide sequence, implying that CmOxDC3 may have no secretory capability. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that CmOxdc3 was up-regulated in the presence of OA, malonic acid and hydrochloric acid. Deletion of CmOxdc3 resulted in reduced capability to parasitize sclerotia of Ss. The polypeptide (CmOxDC3) encoded by CmOxdc3 was localized in cytoplasm and gathered in vacuoles in response to the extracellular OA. Taken together, our results demonstrated that CmOxdc3 is a novel gene responsible for OA degradation, which may work in a synergistic manner with CmOxdc1. Full article
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Article
Fungal-Modified Lignin-Enhanced Physicochemical Properties of Collagen-Based Composite Films
J. Fungi 2022, 8(12), 1303; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8121303 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1025
Abstract
Renewable and biodegradable materials have attracted broad attention as alternatives to existing conventional plastics, which have caused serious environmental problems. Collagen is a potential material for developing versatile film due to its biosafety, renewability, and biodegradability. However, it is still critical to overcome [...] Read more.
Renewable and biodegradable materials have attracted broad attention as alternatives to existing conventional plastics, which have caused serious environmental problems. Collagen is a potential material for developing versatile film due to its biosafety, renewability, and biodegradability. However, it is still critical to overcome the low mechanical, antibacterial and antioxidant properties of the collagen film for food packaging applications. To address these limitations, we developed a new technology to prepare composite film by using collagen and fungal-modified APL (alkali pretreatment liquor). In this study, five edible and medical fungi, Cunninghamella echinulata FR3, Pleurotus ostreatus BP3, Ganoderma lucidum EN2, Schizophyllum commune DS1 and Xylariaceae sp. XY were used to modify the APL, and that showed that the modified APL significantly improved the mechanical, antibacterial and antioxidant properties of APL/Collagen composite films. Particularly, the APL modified by BP3, EN2 and XY showed preferable performance in enhancing the properties of the composite films. The tensile strength of the film was increased by 1.5-fold in the presence of the APL modified by EN2. To further understand the effect of fungal-biomodified APL on the properties of the composite films, a correlation analysis between the components of APL and the properties of composite films was conducted and indicated that the content of aromatic functional groups and lignin had a positive correlation with the enhanced mechanical and antioxidant properties of the composite films. In summary, composite films prepared from collagen and fungal biomodified APL showed elevated mechanical, antibacterial and antioxidant properties, and the herein-reported novel technology prospectively possesses great potential application in the food packaging industry. Full article
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Article
Phylogenetic Analyses of Hydnobolites and New Species from China
J. Fungi 2022, 8(12), 1302; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8121302 - 15 Dec 2022
Viewed by 921
Abstract
Hydnobolites is an ectomycorrhizal fungal genus with hypogeous ascomata in the family Pezizaceae (Pezizales). Molecular analyses of Hydnobolites using both single (ITS) and concatenated gene datasets (ITS-nLSU) showed a total of 223 sequences, including 92 newly gained sequences from Chinese specimens. [...] Read more.
Hydnobolites is an ectomycorrhizal fungal genus with hypogeous ascomata in the family Pezizaceae (Pezizales). Molecular analyses of Hydnobolites using both single (ITS) and concatenated gene datasets (ITS-nLSU) showed a total of 223 sequences, including 92 newly gained sequences from Chinese specimens. Phylogenetic results based on these two datasets revealed seven distinct phylogenetic clades. Among them, the ITS phylogenetic tree confirmed the presence of at least 42 phylogenetic species in Hydnobolites. Combined the morphological observations with molecular analyses, five new species of Hydnobolites translucidus sp. nov., H. subrufus sp. nov., H. lini sp. nov., H. sichuanensis sp. nov. and H. tenuiperidius sp. nov., and one new record species of H. cerebriformis Tul., were illustrated from Southwest China. Macro- and micro-morphological analyses of ascomata revealed a few, but diagnostic differences between the H. cerebriformis complex, while the similarities of the ITS sequences ranged from 94.4 to 97.2% resulting in well-supported clades. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Edible and Medicinal Macrofungi)
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Article
Taxonomy and Multigene Phylogeny of Diaporthales in Guizhou Province, China
J. Fungi 2022, 8(12), 1301; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8121301 - 15 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1227
Abstract
In a study of fungi isolated from plant material in Guizhou Province, China, we identified 23 strains of Diaporthales belonging to nine species. These are identified from multigene phylogenetic analyses of ITS, LSU, rpb2, tef1, and tub2 gene sequence data coupled [...] Read more.
In a study of fungi isolated from plant material in Guizhou Province, China, we identified 23 strains of Diaporthales belonging to nine species. These are identified from multigene phylogenetic analyses of ITS, LSU, rpb2, tef1, and tub2 gene sequence data coupled with morphological studies. The fungi include a new genus (Pseudomastigosporella) in Foliocryphiaceae isolated from Acer palmatum and Hypericum patulum, a new species of Chrysofolia isolated from Coriaria nepalensis, and five new species of Diaporthe isolated from Juglans regia, Eucommia ulmoides, and Hypericum patulum. Gnomoniopsis rosae and Coniella quercicola are newly recorded species for China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphasic Identification of Fungi 2.0)
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Article
Fusarium oxysporum Casein Kinase 1, a Negative Regulator of the Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase Pma1, Is Required for Development and Pathogenicity
J. Fungi 2022, 8(12), 1300; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8121300 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1171
Abstract
Like many hemibiotrophic plant pathogens, the root-infecting vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum induces an increase in the pH of the surrounding host tissue. How alkalinization promotes fungal infection is not fully understood, but recent studies point towards the role of cytosolic pH (pH [...] Read more.
Like many hemibiotrophic plant pathogens, the root-infecting vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum induces an increase in the pH of the surrounding host tissue. How alkalinization promotes fungal infection is not fully understood, but recent studies point towards the role of cytosolic pH (pHc) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. In fungi, pHc is mainly controlled by the essential plasma membrane H+-ATPase Pma1. Here we created mutants of F. oxysporum lacking casein kinase 1 (Ck1), a known negative regulator of Pma1. We found that the ck1Δ mutants have constitutively high Pma1 activity and exhibit reduced alkalinization of the surrounding medium as well as decreased hyphal growth and conidiation. Importantly, the ck1Δ mutants exhibit defects in hyphal chemotropism towards plant roots and in pathogenicity on tomato plants. Thus, Ck1 is a key regulator of the development and virulence of F. oxysporum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Signal Transductions in Fungi 2.0)
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Article
Alumina as an Antifungal Agent for Pinus elliottii Wood
J. Fungi 2022, 8(12), 1299; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8121299 - 14 Dec 2022
Viewed by 891
Abstract
This work deals with the durability of a Pinus elliotti wood impregnated with alumina (Al2O3) particles. The samples were impregnated at three different Al2O3 weight fractions (c.a. 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.5%) and were then exposed to [...] Read more.
This work deals with the durability of a Pinus elliotti wood impregnated with alumina (Al2O3) particles. The samples were impregnated at three different Al2O3 weight fractions (c.a. 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.5%) and were then exposed to two wood-rot fungi, namely white-rot fungus (Trametes versicolor) and brown-rot fungus (Gloeophyllum trabeum). Thermal and chemical characteristics were evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermogravimetric (TG) analyses. The wood which incorporated 0.3 wt% of Al2O3 presented a weight loss 91.5% smaller than the untreated wood after being exposed to the white-rot fungus. On the other hand, the highest effectiveness against the brown-rot fungus was reached by the wood treated with 5 wt% of Al2O3, which presented a mass loss 91.6% smaller than that of the untreated pine wood. The Al2O3-treated woods presented higher antifungal resistances than the untreated ones in a way that: the higher the Al2O3 content, the higher the thermal stability. In general, the impregnation of the Al2O3 particles seems to be a promising treatment for wood protection against both studied wood-rot fungi. Additionally, both FT-IR and TG results were valuable tools to ascertain chemical changes ascribed to fungal decay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eco-Physiology of Wood Decay Fungi: Basics and Applications)
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Article
Characterization of Defensin-like Protein 1 for Its Anti-Biofilm and Anti-Virulence Properties for the Development of Novel Antifungal Drug against Candida auris
J. Fungi 2022, 8(12), 1298; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8121298 - 14 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1201
Abstract
Candida auris has emerged as a pan-resistant pathogenic yeast among immunocompromised patients worldwide. As this pathogen is involved in biofilm-associated infections with serious medical manifestations due to the collective expression of pathogenic attributes and factors associated with drug resistance, successful treatment becomes a [...] Read more.
Candida auris has emerged as a pan-resistant pathogenic yeast among immunocompromised patients worldwide. As this pathogen is involved in biofilm-associated infections with serious medical manifestations due to the collective expression of pathogenic attributes and factors associated with drug resistance, successful treatment becomes a major concern. In the present study, we investigated the candidicidal activity of a plant defensin peptide named defensin-like protein 1 (D-lp1) against twenty-five clinical strains of C. auris. Furthermore, following the standard protocols, the D-lp1 was analyzed for its anti-biofilm and anti-virulence properties. The impact of these peptides on membrane integrity was also evaluated. For cytotoxicity determination, a hemolytic assay was conducted using horse blood. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values ranged from 0.047–0.78 mg/mL and 0.095–1.56 mg/mL, respectively. D-lp1 at sub-inhibitory concentrations potentially abrogated both biofilm formation and 24-h mature biofilms. Similarly, the peptide severely impacted virulence attributes in the clinical strain of C. auris. For the insight mechanism, D-lp1 displayed a strong impact on the cell membrane integrity of the test pathogen. It is important to note that D-lp1 at sub-inhibitory concentrations displayed minimal hemolytic activity against horse blood cells. Therefore, it is highly useful to correlate the anti-Candida property of D-lp1 along with anti-biofilm and anti-virulent properties against C. auris, with the aim of discovering an alternative strategy for combating serious biofilm-associated infections caused by C. auris. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Candida Pathogenicity Mechanisms)
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Article
Two New Species and a New Record of Microdochium from Grasses in Yunnan Province, South-West China
J. Fungi 2022, 8(12), 1297; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8121297 - 14 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 964
Abstract
Microdochium species are frequently reported as phytopathogens on various plants and also as saprobic and soil-inhabiting organisms. As a pathogen, they mainly affect grasses and cereals, causing severe disease in economically valuable crops, resulting in reduced yield and, thus, economic loss. Numerous asexual [...] Read more.
Microdochium species are frequently reported as phytopathogens on various plants and also as saprobic and soil-inhabiting organisms. As a pathogen, they mainly affect grasses and cereals, causing severe disease in economically valuable crops, resulting in reduced yield and, thus, economic loss. Numerous asexual Microdochium species have been described and reported as hyphomycetous. However, the sexual morph is not often found. The main purpose of this study was to describe and illustrate two new species and a new record of Microdochium based on morphological characterization and multi-locus phylogenetic analyses. Surveys of both asexual and sexual morph specimens were conducted from March to June 2021 in Yunnan Province, China. Here, we introduce Microdochium graminearum and M. shilinense, from dead herbaceous stems of grasses and report M. bolleyi as an endophyte of Setaria parviflora leaves. This study improves the understanding of Microdochium species on monocotyledonous flowering plants in East Asia. A summary of the morphological characteristics of the genus and detailed references are provided for use in future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphasic Identification of Fungi 2.0)
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Article
Eco-Physiological Adaptations of the Xylotrophic Basidiomycetes Fungi to CO2 and O2 Mode in the Woody Habitat
J. Fungi 2022, 8(12), 1296; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8121296 - 13 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1075
Abstract
The aim of this research is to study of eco-physiological adaptations of xylotrophic fungi (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes) to hypoxia, anoxia and hypercapnia as the main environmental factors that determine the activity of fungi in woody habitat. The study was carried out on seven species [...] Read more.
The aim of this research is to study of eco-physiological adaptations of xylotrophic fungi (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes) to hypoxia, anoxia and hypercapnia as the main environmental factors that determine the activity of fungi in woody habitat. The study was carried out on seven species of polypore fungi widespread in the preforest-steppe pine-birch forests of the Central Urals, including both white (D. tricolor, D. septentrionalis, F. fomentarius, H. rutilans, T. biforme) and brown (F. betulina, F. pinicola) rot. Their CO2 and O2 gas exchange were analyzed in natural samples of woody substrates (Betula pendula, Pinus sylvestris) and basidiocarps by the chamber method using a CO2/O2 gas analyzer. It was shown that the intensity of O2 gas exchange is positively related to the oxygen concentration but is not very sensitive to a decrease in its content in the woody habitat. Xylotrophic fungi are able to completely exhaust the O2 in the habitat, and this process is linear, indicating that they do not have threshold values for oxygen content. Oxygen consumption is accompanied by an adequate linear increase in CO2 concentration up to 18–19%. At a concentration of 5–10%, carbon dioxide does not affect the gas exchange of xylotrophic fungi and can even enhance it, but at 20% it significantly reduces its intensity. Xylotrophic fungi are resistant to high CO2 concentrations and remain viable at 100% CO2 concentration and are capable of growth under these conditions. In an oxygen-free habitat, anaerobic CO2 emissions are recorded; when O2 appears, its consumption is restored to the level preceding anoxia. Xylotrophic fungi are the specialized group of saprotrophic microaerophilic and capnophilic facultative anaerobes adapted to develop at low oxygen and high carbon dioxide concentration, anoxia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eco-Physiology of Wood Decay Fungi: Basics and Applications)
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Article
β-Xylosidase SRBX1 Activity from Sporisorium reilianum and Its Synergism with Xylanase SRXL1 in Xylose Release from Corn Hemicellulose
J. Fungi 2022, 8(12), 1295; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8121295 - 13 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1065
Abstract
Sposisorium reilianum is the causal agent of corn ear smut disease. Eleven genes have been identified in its genome that code for enzymes that could constitute its hemicellulosic system, three of which have been associated with two Endo-β-1,4-xylanases and one with α-L-arabinofuranosidase activity. [...] Read more.
Sposisorium reilianum is the causal agent of corn ear smut disease. Eleven genes have been identified in its genome that code for enzymes that could constitute its hemicellulosic system, three of which have been associated with two Endo-β-1,4-xylanases and one with α-L-arabinofuranosidase activity. In this study, the native protein extracellular with β-xylosidase activity, called SRBX1, produced by this basidiomycete was analyzed by performing production kinetics and its subsequent purification by gel filtration. The enzyme was characterized biochemically and sequenced. Finally, its synergism with Xylanase SRXL1 was determined. Its activity was higher in a medium with corn hemicellulose and glucose as carbon sources. The purified protein was a monomer associated with the sr16700 gene, with a molecular weight of 117 kDa and optimal activity at 60 °C in a pH range of 4–7, which had the ability to hydrolyze the ρ-nitrophenyl β-D-xylanopyranoside and ρ-Nitrophenyl α-L-arabinofuranoside substrates. Its activity was strongly inhibited by silver ions and presented Km and Vmax values of 2.5 mM and 0.2 μmol/min/mg, respectively, using ρ-nitrophenyl β-D-xylanopyranoside as a substrate. The enzyme degrades corn hemicellulose and birch xylan in combination and in sequential synergism with the xylanase SRXL1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smut Fungi 2.0)
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Editorial
Fungal Taxonomy, Phylogeny, and Ecology: A Themed Issue Dedicated to Academician Wen-Ying Zhuang
J. Fungi 2022, 8(12), 1294; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8121294 - 11 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1067
Abstract
We are honored and privileged to edit this Special Issue, “Fungal Taxonomy, Phylogeny, and Ecology: A Themed Issue Dedicated to Academician Wen-Ying Zhuang” [...] Full article
Article
Heterologous Expression of CFL1 Confers Flocculating Ability to Cutaneotrichosporon oleaginosus Lipid-Rich Cells
J. Fungi 2022, 8(12), 1293; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8121293 - 11 Dec 2022
Viewed by 975
Abstract
Lipid extraction from microbial and microalgae biomass requires the separation of oil-rich cells from the production media. This downstream procedure represents a major bottleneck in biodiesel production, increasing the cost of the final product. Flocculation is a rapid and cheap system for removing [...] Read more.
Lipid extraction from microbial and microalgae biomass requires the separation of oil-rich cells from the production media. This downstream procedure represents a major bottleneck in biodiesel production, increasing the cost of the final product. Flocculation is a rapid and cheap system for removing solid particles from a suspension. This natural characteristic is displayed by some microorganisms due to the presence of lectin-like proteins (called flocculins/adhesins) in the cell wall. In this work, we showed, for the first time, that the heterologous expression of the adhesin Cfl1p endows the oleaginous species Cutaneotrichosporon oleaginosus with the capacity of cell flocculation. We used Helm’s test to demonstrate that the acquisition of this trait allows for reducing the time required for the separation of lipid-rich cells from liquid culture by centrifugation without altering the productivity. This improves the lipid production process remarkably by providing a more efficient downstream. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives for Oleaginous Fungi)
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Article
Essential Mineral Content (Fe, Mg, P, Mn, K, Ca, and Na) in Five Wild Edible Species of Lactarius Mushrooms from Southern Spain and Northern Morocco: Reference to Daily Intake
J. Fungi 2022, 8(12), 1292; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8121292 - 10 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 982
Abstract
Mushroom consumption has increased in recent years due to their beneficial properties to the proper functioning of the body. Within this framework, the high potential of mushrooms as a source of essential elements has been reported. Therefore, the present study aims to determine [...] Read more.
Mushroom consumption has increased in recent years due to their beneficial properties to the proper functioning of the body. Within this framework, the high potential of mushrooms as a source of essential elements has been reported. Therefore, the present study aims to determine the mineral content of seven essential metals, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, K, Ca, and Na, in twenty samples of mushrooms of the genus Lactarius collected from various locations in southern Spain and northern Morocco, by FAAS, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and ICP-OES after acid digestion. Statistics showed that K was the macronutrient found at the highest levels in all mushrooms studied. ANOVA showed that there were statistically significant differences among the species for K, P, and Na. The multivariate study suggested that there were differences between the accumulation of the elements according to the geographic location and species. Furthermore, the intake of 300 g of fresh mushrooms of each sample covers a high percentage of the RDI, but does not meet the recommended daily intake (RDI) for any of the metals studied, except for Fe. Even considering these benefits, the consumption of mushrooms should be moderated due to the presence of toxic metals, which may pose health risks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Edible and Medicinal Macrofungi)
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Article
Antifungal Mechanism of Metabolites from Newly Isolated Streptomyces sp. Y1-14 against Banana Fusarium Wilt Disease Using Metabolomics
J. Fungi 2022, 8(12), 1291; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8121291 - 09 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1387
Abstract
Banana Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (Foc TR4) is one of the most destructive banana diseases in the world, which limits the development of the banana industry. Compared with traditional physical and chemical practices, biological control [...] Read more.
Banana Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (Foc TR4) is one of the most destructive banana diseases in the world, which limits the development of the banana industry. Compared with traditional physical and chemical practices, biological control becomes a promising safe and efficient strategy. In this study, strain Y1-14 with strong antagonistic activity against Foc TR4 was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of a banana plantation, where no disease symptom was detected for more than ten years. The strain was identified as Streptomyces according to the morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics and the phylogenetic tree of 16S rRNA. Streptomyces sp. Y1-14 also showed a broad-spectrum antifungal activity against the selected 12 plant pathogenic fungi. Its extracts inhibited the growth and spore germination of Foc TR4 by destroying the integrity of the cell membrane and the ultrastructure of mycelia. Twenty-three compounds were identified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antifungal mechanism was investigated further by metabolomic analysis. Strain Y1-14 extracts significantly affect the carbohydrate metabolism pathway of Foc TR4 by disrupting energy metabolism. Full article
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Review
A Review of Antifungal Susceptibility Testing for Dermatophyte Fungi and It’s Correlation with Previous Exposure and Clinical Responses
J. Fungi 2022, 8(12), 1290; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8121290 - 09 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1609
Abstract
Background: An increase in the number of recurrent and recalcitrant dermatophytoses calls for a tool to guide the clinician to correlate in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) data, antifungal treatment with clinical outcomes. This systematic review aims to explore a possible correlation between [...] Read more.
Background: An increase in the number of recurrent and recalcitrant dermatophytoses calls for a tool to guide the clinician to correlate in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) data, antifungal treatment with clinical outcomes. This systematic review aims to explore a possible correlation between one aspect of this, previous antifungal exposure, and clinical outcomes. Methods: A systematic literature search for articles on previous antifungal treatment, treatment outcome, susceptibility methods used, organism (genus/species), and MIC values was conducted. Results: A total of 720 records were identified of which 19 articles met the inclusion criteria. Forty percent of the cases had contact with or travel to India, 28% originated from or had traveled to other countries where treatment unresponsive tinea infections had been reported. Tinea corporis was the most common clinical presentation and the species involved were Trichophyton (T.) indotineae and T. rubrum, followed by T. mentagrophyte/interdigitale complex and T. tonsurans. Nearly all patients had previously been exposed to one or more antifungals. The studies were too heterogeneous to perform a statistical analysis to test if previous antifungal exposure was related to resistance. Conclusions: Only a few studies were identified, which had both sufficient and robust data on in vitro susceptibility testing and clinical treatment failure. Further research on the value of susceptibility testing to improve clinical practice in the management of dermatophyte infections is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Infections: From Diagnostics to Treatments)
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Article
Eumycetoma Caused by Madurella pseudomycetomatis in a Captive Tiger (Panthera tigris)
J. Fungi 2022, 8(12), 1289; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8121289 - 09 Dec 2022
Viewed by 960
Abstract
A captive-kept adult male tiger presented with a large cutaneous and subcutaneous mass on the thigh with a fistula. During sedation, multiple nodules were detected and samples for a histopathological exam were collected. Histologically, granulomatous panniculitis and dermatitis were seen around dense aggregates [...] Read more.
A captive-kept adult male tiger presented with a large cutaneous and subcutaneous mass on the thigh with a fistula. During sedation, multiple nodules were detected and samples for a histopathological exam were collected. Histologically, granulomatous panniculitis and dermatitis were seen around dense aggregates of pigmented fungal hyphae, and a diagnosis of phaeohyphomycosis was made; considering the clinical features, it was classified as a eumycotic mycetoma. This is a rarely reported subcutaneous fungal infection in humans and animals, caused by dematiaceous fungi. Clinically, it is characterized by tumefaction, fistulous sinus tracts, and the formation of macroscopically visible grains. In the literature, only a few infections in wild felids have been reported. In this case, Fontana–Masson staining better showed pigmentation and panfungal PCR and sequencing identified Madurella pseudomyectomatis (OP623507) as the causative agent. Systemic therapy with oral administration of itraconazole was planned, but the patient died during the first period of treatment. The animal was not submitted for post-mortem examination. Visceral dissemination of the agent cannot be excluded. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of eumycotic mycetoma by Madurella pseudomycetomatis in a captive tiger. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Diseases in Animals)
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Review
Lysinibacilli: A Biological Factories Intended for Bio-Insecticidal, Bio-Control, and Bioremediation Activities
J. Fungi 2022, 8(12), 1288; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8121288 - 08 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1374
Abstract
Microbes are ubiquitous in the biosphere, and their therapeutic and ecological potential is not much more explored and still needs to be explored more. The bacilli are a heterogeneous group of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Lysinibacillus are dominantly found as motile, spore-forming, Gram-positive [...] Read more.
Microbes are ubiquitous in the biosphere, and their therapeutic and ecological potential is not much more explored and still needs to be explored more. The bacilli are a heterogeneous group of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Lysinibacillus are dominantly found as motile, spore-forming, Gram-positive bacilli belonging to phylum Firmicutes and the family Bacillaceae. Lysinibacillus species initially came into light due to their insecticidal and larvicidal properties. Bacillus thuringiensis, a well-known insecticidal Lysinibacillus, can control many insect vectors, including a malarial vector and another, a Plasmodium vector that transmits infectious microbes in humans. Now its potential in the environment as a piece of green machinery for remediation of heavy metal is used. Moreover, some species of Lysinibacillus have antimicrobial potential due to the bacteriocin, peptide antibiotics, and other therapeutic molecules. Thus, this review will explore the biological disease control abilities, food preservative, therapeutic, plant growth-promoting, bioremediation, and entomopathogenic potentials of the genus Lysinibacillus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Protection: New Green Antifungal Agents)
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Brief Report
The Calcium Chloride Responsive Type 2C Protein Phosphatases Play Synergistic Roles in Regulating MAPK Pathways in Magnaporthe oryzae
J. Fungi 2022, 8(12), 1287; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8121287 - 08 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 770
Abstract
Reversible protein phosphorylation is essential in cellular signal transduction. The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae contains six putative type 2C protein phosphatases, namely MoPtc1, MoPtc2, MoPtc5, MoPtc6, MoPtc7, and MoPtc8. The major functions of MoPtc1 and MoPtc2 have been reported recently. In this [...] Read more.
Reversible protein phosphorylation is essential in cellular signal transduction. The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae contains six putative type 2C protein phosphatases, namely MoPtc1, MoPtc2, MoPtc5, MoPtc6, MoPtc7, and MoPtc8. The major functions of MoPtc1 and MoPtc2 have been reported recently. In this communication, we found that MoPtc1 and MoPtc2 were induced by calcium chloride. We also found that the deletion of both MoPtc1 and MoPtc2 resulted in the overstimulation of both the high-osmolarity glycerol (Hog1) and pathogenicity MAP kinase 1 (Pmk1) pathways in M. oryzae. MoPtc1 was recruited directly to Osm1 (the osmotic stress-sensitive mutant) by the adaptor protein MoNbp2 to inactivate the Osm1 during hypoosmotic stress, distinct from the budding yeast. Moreover, we showed that MoPtc1 and MoPtc2 were localized in different cellular compartments in the fungal development. Taken together, we added some new findings of type 2C protein phosphatases MoPtc1 and MoPtc2 functions to the current knowledge on the regulation of MAPK signaling pathways in M. oryzae. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Signal Transductions in Fungi 2.0)
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