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J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis., Volume 11, Issue 2 (February 2024) – 36 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Cryoballoon ablation (CBA) is an established therapy in atrial fibrillation. However, suboptimal PVI validation by conventional methods only using the 8-polar inner-lumen spiral mapping catheter remains the Achilles’ heel of this technique. Our group showed that the addition of electroanatomical voltage mapping of the left atrium pre- and post-CBA was able to overcome this limitation improving acute rate of pulmonary vein isolation. The current study was conducted to evaluate its impact on clinical outcome, procedure time and radiation exposure as compared to a propensity-matched historical cohort. Furthermore, the durability of PVI at first repeat ablation studies was compared between both groups. View this paper
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13 pages, 4980 KiB  
Article
Early Feasibility Study of a Hybrid Tissue-Engineered Mitral Valve in an Ovine Model
by Ramin Zareian, Samuel D. Zuke, Daisuke Morisawa, Roger S. Geertsema, Mariwan Majid, Clinton Wynne, Jeffrey C. Milliken and Arash Kheradvar
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2024, 11(2), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd11020069 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1165
Abstract
Tissue engineering aims to overcome the current limitations of heart valves by providing a viable alternative using living tissue. Nevertheless, the valves constructed from either decellularized xenogeneic or purely biologic scaffolds are unable to withstand the hemodynamic loads, particularly in the left ventricle. [...] Read more.
Tissue engineering aims to overcome the current limitations of heart valves by providing a viable alternative using living tissue. Nevertheless, the valves constructed from either decellularized xenogeneic or purely biologic scaffolds are unable to withstand the hemodynamic loads, particularly in the left ventricle. To address this, we have been developing a hybrid tissue-engineered heart valve (H-TEHV) concept consisting of a nondegradable elastomeric scaffold enclosed in a valve-like living tissue constructed from autologous cells. We developed a 21 mm mitral valve scaffold for implantation in an ovine model. Smooth muscle cells/fibroblasts and endothelial cells were extracted, isolated, and expanded from the animal’s jugular vein. Next, the scaffold underwent a sequential coating with the sorted cells mixed with collagen type I. The resulting H-TEHV was then implanted into the mitral position of the same sheep through open-heart surgery. Echocardiography scans following the procedure revealed an acceptable valve performance, with no signs of regurgitation. The valve orifice area, measured by planimetry, was 2.9 cm2, the ejection fraction reached 67%, and the mean transmitral pressure gradient was measured at 8.39 mmHg. The animal successfully recovered from anesthesia and was transferred to the vivarium. Upon autopsy, the examination confirmed the integrity of the H-TEHV, with no evidence of tissue dehiscence. The preliminary results from the animal implantation suggest the feasibility of the H-TEHV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiac Surgery)
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13 pages, 1325 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Sleep Quality on Coronary Lesion Severity and Prognosis in the Young Acute Coronary Syndrome Population
by Jiaxin Yang, Kexin Wang, Wenjie Wang, Jialong Niu, Xiaoli Liu, Hua Shen, Yan Sun, Hailong Ge and Hongya Han
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2024, 11(2), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd11020068 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 923
Abstract
This study aimed to explore the effect of long-term (≥1 year) sleep quality on coronary lesion complexity and cardiovascular prognosis in young acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. We consecutively recruited young patients aged from 18 to 44 years old with first-episode ACS and [...] Read more.
This study aimed to explore the effect of long-term (≥1 year) sleep quality on coronary lesion complexity and cardiovascular prognosis in young acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. We consecutively recruited young patients aged from 18 to 44 years old with first-episode ACS and significant epicardial stenosis on coronary angiography from January 2016 to January 2017. Coronary lesion complexity was evaluated based on SYNTAX scores. Long-term sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) (PSQI ≤ 5 and PSQI > 5 groups). The primary endpoints were major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs). A total of 466 young ACS patients (93.13% male; median age, 41 years) were included. Poor sleepers (PSQI > 5) had higher SYNTAX scores. After adjusting for confounders, PSQI scores (continuous variables, OR: 1.264; 95%CI: 1.166–1.371; p < 0.001) and PSQI grade (binary variable, OR: 3.864; 95%CI: 2.313–6.394; p = 0.001) were significantly associated with an increased risk of complex coronary lesions. During a median follow-up of 74 months, long-term poor sleep quality (PSQI > 5) was significantly associated with an increased risk of MACEs (HR: 4.266; 95%CI: 2.274–8.001; p < 0.001). Long-term poor sleep quality was a risk factor for complex coronary lesions and has adverse effects on cardiovascular prognosis in the young ACS population. Full article
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13 pages, 946 KiB  
Commentary
Effects of Sociodemographic Factors on Access to and Outcomes in Congenital Heart Disease in the United States
by Justin Robinson, Siddhartha Sahai, Caroline Pennacchio, Betemariam Sharew, Lin Chen and Tara Karamlou
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2024, 11(2), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd11020067 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1061
Abstract
Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are complex conditions affecting the heart and/or great vessels that are present at birth. These defects occur in approximately 9 in every 1000 live births. From diagnosis to intervention, care has dramatically improved over the last several decades. Patients [...] Read more.
Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are complex conditions affecting the heart and/or great vessels that are present at birth. These defects occur in approximately 9 in every 1000 live births. From diagnosis to intervention, care has dramatically improved over the last several decades. Patients with CHDs are now living well into adulthood. However, there are factors that have been associated with poor outcomes across the lifespan of these patients. These factors include sociodemographic and socioeconomic positions. This commentary examined the disparities and solutions within the evolution of CHD care in the United States. Full article
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12 pages, 317 KiB  
Article
Vascular Health of Females with History of Assisted Reproductive Technology
by Pengzhu Li, Magdalena Langer, Theresa Vilsmaier, Marie Kramer, Franziska Sciuk, Brenda Kolbinger, André Jakob, Nina Rogenhofer, Robert Dalla-Pozza, Christian Thaler, Nikolaus Alexander Haas and Felix Sebastian Oberhoffer
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2024, 11(2), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd11020066 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1104
Abstract
The use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) for the treatment of infertility is gaining popularity. Limited data on the overall vascular health of females with history of ART are available. This pilot study aimed to investigate the overall vascular health of females with [...] Read more.
The use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) for the treatment of infertility is gaining popularity. Limited data on the overall vascular health of females with history of ART are available. This pilot study aimed to investigate the overall vascular health of females with history of ART compared to individuals who conceived spontaneously. The assessment of overall vascular health included the measurement of brachial blood pressure, central blood pressure, and pulse wave velocity, as well as the evaluation of the arterial stiffness and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) of the common carotid arteries. Conventional blood lipids including lipoprotein a (Lp(a)) were also determined. In total, 45 females with history of ART and 52 females who conceived spontaneously were included (mean age: 47.72 ± 5.96 years vs. 46.84 ± 7.43 years, p = 0.525). An initial comparison revealed a significantly higher prevalence of elevated Lp(a) in ART females (p = 0.011). However, after multiple comparison correction, the significant result disappeared (p = 0.132). Within the cohort of ART females, no significantly higher cardiovascular risk was detected regarding vascular function. The potentially higher prevalence of elevated Lp(a) in ART females must be further investigated in future studies, as it might contribute to the impaired reproductive process in this cohort. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiovascular Disease: Risk Factors and Prevention)
13 pages, 1880 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Influence of IL-11 on Cardiac Fibrosis in Experimental Models: A Systematic Review
by Yarlla Loyane Lira Braga, José Rodrigues do Carmo Neto, Pablo Igor Ribeiro Franco, Fernanda Rodrigues Helmo, Marlene Antônia dos Reis, Flávia Aparecida de Oliveira, Mara Rúbia Nunes Celes, Marcos Vinícius da Silva and Juliana Reis Machado
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2024, 11(2), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd11020065 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 993
Abstract
Fibrosis is one of the main factors that impair the function of many organs. In the heart, fibrosis leads to contractile dysfunction and arrhythmias, which are important in the development of heart failure. Interleukin (IL)-11 is regulated in various heart diseases and has [...] Read more.
Fibrosis is one of the main factors that impair the function of many organs. In the heart, fibrosis leads to contractile dysfunction and arrhythmias, which are important in the development of heart failure. Interleukin (IL)-11 is regulated in various heart diseases and has recently been reported to be an important cytokine in fibrosis in this organ. However, this topic has been little explored, and many questions persist. Thus, this systematic review aimed to report on possible IL-11 therapies evaluated in rodent model-induced cardiac fibrosis. Inclusion criteria were experimental in vivo studies that used different rodent models for cardiac fibrosis associated with IL-11 interventions, without year and language restrictions. The search in PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase databases was performed in October 2022. The risk of bias assessment of the studies was based on the guidelines of the SYRCLE tool, and data from the selected articles were also presented in a table as a narrative description. This review was based on eight studies in which five different interventions were used: recombinant human IL-11 (rhIL-11), anti-IL11 (X203), recombinant mouse IL-11 (rmIL-11), lentivirus (LV)-IL-11 + lutein, and anti-IL11RA (X209). Based on the included studies, the results were variable, with IL-11 overexpression inducing cardiac fibrosis, while inhibition protected against this process, preserving the function of this organ. Therefore, IL-11 stands out as a promising therapeutic target for cardiac fibrosis. However, further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms triggered by each treatment, as well as its safety and immunogenicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiac Fibrosis and Remodeling)
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13 pages, 3148 KiB  
Review
Understanding the Application of Mechanical Dyssynchrony in Patients with Heart Failure Considered for CRT
by Abhishek Dutta, Rakan Radwan M. Alqabbani, Andreas Hagendorff and Bhupendar Tayal
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2024, 11(2), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd11020064 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1345
Abstract
Over the past two decades of CRT use, the failure rate has remained around 30–35%, despite several updates in the guidelines based on the understanding from multiple trials. This review article summarizes the role of mechanical dyssynchrony in the selection of heart failure [...] Read more.
Over the past two decades of CRT use, the failure rate has remained around 30–35%, despite several updates in the guidelines based on the understanding from multiple trials. This review article summarizes the role of mechanical dyssynchrony in the selection of heart failure patients for cardiac resynchronization therapy. Understanding the application of mechanical dyssynchrony has also evolved during these past two decades. There is no role of lone mechanical dyssynchrony in the patient selection for CRT. However, mechanical dyssynchrony can complement the electrocardiogram and clinical criteria and improve patient selection by reducing the failure rate. An oversimplified approach to mechanical dyssynchrony assessment, such as just estimating time-to-peak delays between segments, should not be used. Instead, methods that can identify the underlying pathophysiology of HF and are representative of a substrate to CRT should be applied. Full article
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13 pages, 642 KiB  
Review
Comprehensive Cardiovascular Management of Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1 Patients: A Report from the Italian Neuro-Cardiology Network
by Vincenzo Russo, Giovanni Antonini, Roberto Massa, Carlo Casali, Alfredo Mauriello, Anna Maria Martino, Roberto Marconi, Matteo Garibaldi, Pasquale Franciosa, Massimo Zecchin, Carlo Gaudio, Antonello D’Andrea and Stefano Strano
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2024, 11(2), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd11020063 - 16 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1167
Abstract
Myotonic dystrophy is a hereditary disorder with systemic involvement. The Italian Neuro-Cardiology Network-“Rete delle Neurocardiologie” (INCN-RNC) is a unique collaborative experience involving neurology units combined with cardio-arrhythmology units. The INCN facilitates the creation of integrated neuro-cardiac teams in Neuromuscular Disease Centers for the [...] Read more.
Myotonic dystrophy is a hereditary disorder with systemic involvement. The Italian Neuro-Cardiology Network-“Rete delle Neurocardiologie” (INCN-RNC) is a unique collaborative experience involving neurology units combined with cardio-arrhythmology units. The INCN facilitates the creation of integrated neuro-cardiac teams in Neuromuscular Disease Centers for the management of cardiovascular involvement in the treatment of myotonic dystrophy type 1 (MD1). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arrhythmic Risk Stratification)
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16 pages, 1309 KiB  
Review
Cardiac and Renal Fibrosis, the Silent Killer in the Cardiovascular Continuum: An Up-to-Date
by Traian Chiuariu, Delia Șalaru, Carina Ureche, Laura Vasiliu, Ancuta Lupu, Vasile Valeriu Lupu, Adela Mihaela Șerban, Alexandra Zăvoi, Laura Catalina Benchea, Alexandra Clement, Bogdan-Sorin Tudurachi, Radu Andy Sascău and Cristian Stătescu
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2024, 11(2), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd11020062 - 16 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1437
Abstract
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) often coexist and have a major impact on patient prognosis. Organ fibrosis plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of cardio-renal syndrome (CRS), explaining the high incidence of heart failure and sudden cardiac death in [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) often coexist and have a major impact on patient prognosis. Organ fibrosis plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of cardio-renal syndrome (CRS), explaining the high incidence of heart failure and sudden cardiac death in these patients. Various mediators and mechanisms have been proposed as contributors to the alteration of fibroblasts and collagen turnover, varying from hemodynamic changes to the activation of the renin–angiotensin system, involvement of FGF 23, and Klotho protein or collagen deposition. A better understanding of all the mechanisms involved has prompted the search for alternative therapeutic targets, such as novel inhibitors of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS), serelaxin, and neutralizing interleukin-11 (IL-11) antibodies. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms of cardiac and renal fibrosis in the CKD and heart failure (HF) population and highlights the therapeutic alternatives designed to target the responsible pathways. Full article
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20 pages, 1326 KiB  
Review
Advanced Heart Failure: Therapeutic Options and Challenges in the Evolving Field of Left Ventricular Assist Devices
by Michael Antonopoulos, Michael J. Bonios, Stavros Dimopoulos, Evangelos Leontiadis, Aggeliki Gouziouta, Nektarios Kogerakis, Antigone Koliopoulou, Dimitris Elaiopoulos, Ioannis Vlahodimitris, Maria Chronaki, Themistocles Chamogeorgakis, Stavros G. Drakos and Stamatis Adamopoulos
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2024, 11(2), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd11020061 - 16 Feb 2024
Viewed by 2190
Abstract
Heart Failure is a chronic and progressively deteriorating syndrome that has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. Improved outcomes have been achieved with novel drugs and devices. However, the number of patients refractory to conventional medical therapy is growing. These advanced heart failure patients suffer [...] Read more.
Heart Failure is a chronic and progressively deteriorating syndrome that has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. Improved outcomes have been achieved with novel drugs and devices. However, the number of patients refractory to conventional medical therapy is growing. These advanced heart failure patients suffer from severe symptoms and frequent hospitalizations and have a dismal prognosis, with a significant socioeconomic burden in health care systems. Patients in this group may be eligible for advanced heart failure therapies, including heart transplantation and chronic mechanical circulatory support with left ventricular assist devices (LVADs). Heart transplantation remains the treatment of choice for eligible candidates, but the number of transplants worldwide has reached a plateau and is limited by the shortage of donor organs and prolonged wait times. Therefore, LVADs have emerged as an effective and durable form of therapy, and they are currently being used as a bridge to heart transplant, destination lifetime therapy, and cardiac recovery in selected patients. Although this field is evolving rapidly, LVADs are not free of complications, making appropriate patient selection and management by experienced centers imperative for successful therapy. Here, we review current LVAD technology, indications for durable MCS therapy, and strategies for timely referral to advanced heart failure centers before irreversible end-organ abnormalities. Full article
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11 pages, 229 KiB  
Article
Association of Alkaline Phosphatase with Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with Dyslipidemia: A 6-Year Retrospective Study
by Petros Spyridonas Adamidis, Matilda Florentin, Evangelos Liberopoulos, Amalia Despoina Koutsogianni, Georgia Anastasiou, George Liamis, Haralampos Milionis and Fotios Barkas
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2024, 11(2), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd11020060 - 15 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1773
Abstract
Background and Aim: Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity has been associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). We aimed to investigate the association of ALP with ASCVD in patients with dyslipidemia. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study including consecutive adults with dyslipidemia followed-up [...] Read more.
Background and Aim: Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity has been associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). We aimed to investigate the association of ALP with ASCVD in patients with dyslipidemia. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study including consecutive adults with dyslipidemia followed-up for ≥3 years (from 1999 to 2022) in the outpatient Lipid Clinic of Ioannina University General Hospital, Greece. The primary endpoint was the association between baseline ALP and incident ASCVD after adjusting for traditional risk factors (i.e., sex, age, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, and dyslipidemia), baseline ASCVD, and lipid-lowering treatment. ALP levels were stratified by tertiles as follows: low: <67 U/L, middle: 67–79 U/L, high: ≥79 U/L. Results: Overall, 1178 subjects were included; 44% were males, and their median age was 57 years (range: 49–65). During a 6-year median follow-up (interquartile range: IQR: 4–9), 78 new ASCVD events (6.6%) occurred. A statistically significant association between baseline ALP levels and incident ASCVD was demonstrated (Odds Ratio, OR: 6.99; 95% Confidence Interval, CI: 2.29–21.03, p = 0.001). Subjects in the highest ALP tertile had the highest odds for ASCVD when compared with those in the lowest tertile (OR: 2.35; 95% CI: 1.24–4.41, p = 0.008). Conclusions: The present study indicates an association between ALP and the development of ASCVD in patients with dyslipidemia, which underscores the potential of ALP as a predictive tool or a therapeutic target in the realm of ASCVD prevention within this population. Full article
12 pages, 736 KiB  
Article
Structural Complications Following ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: An Analysis of the National Inpatient Sample 2016 to 2020
by Chun Shing Kwok, Adnan I. Qureshi, Maximillian Will, Konstantin Schwarz, Gregory Y. H. Lip and Josip A. Borovac
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2024, 11(2), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd11020059 - 15 Feb 2024
Viewed by 968
Abstract
ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is a life-threatening emergency that can result in cardiac structural complications without timely revascularization. A retrospective study from the National Inpatient Sample included all patients with a diagnosis of STEMI between 2016 and 2020. Primary outcomes of interest were [...] Read more.
ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is a life-threatening emergency that can result in cardiac structural complications without timely revascularization. A retrospective study from the National Inpatient Sample included all patients with a diagnosis of STEMI between 2016 and 2020. Primary outcomes of interest were in-hospital mortality, length of stay (LoS), and healthcare costs for patients with and without structural complications. There were 994,300 hospital admissions included in the analysis (median age 64 years and 32.2% female). Structural complications occurred in 0.78% of patients. There was a three-fold increase in patients with cardiogenic shock (41.6% vs. 13.6%) and in-hospital mortality (30.6% vs. 10.7%) in the group with structural complications. The median LoS was longer (5 days vs. 3 days), and the median cost was significantly greater (USD 32,436 vs. USD 20,241) for patients with structural complications. After adjustments, in-hospital mortality was significantly greater for patients with structural complications (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.73–2.30), and both LoS and costs were greater. There was a significant increase in mortality with ruptured cardiac wall (OR 9.16, 95% CI 5.91–14.20), hemopericardium (OR 3.20, 95% CI 1.91–5.35), and ventricular septal rupture (OR 2.57, 95% CI 1.98–3.35) compared with those with no complication. In conclusion, structural complications in STEMI patients are rare but potentially catastrophic events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Myocardial Infarction: Prevention, Treatment and Outcomes)
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11 pages, 593 KiB  
Article
Peri-Carotid Adipose Tissue and Atherosclerosis at Carotid Bifurcation
by Joana Ferreira, Adhemar Longatto-Filho, Ana Dionísio, Margarida Correia-Neves, Pedro Cunha and Armando Mansilha
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2024, 11(2), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd11020058 - 11 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1106
Abstract
Vulnerable carotid plaques are responsible for 20% of the ischemic strokes. The identification of these asymptomatic carotid plaques that will become symptomatic is essential but remains unclear. Our main goal was to investigate whether the amount of the peri-carotid adipose tissue, estimated by [...] Read more.
Vulnerable carotid plaques are responsible for 20% of the ischemic strokes. The identification of these asymptomatic carotid plaques that will become symptomatic is essential but remains unclear. Our main goal was to investigate whether the amount of the peri-carotid adipose tissue, estimated by the extra-media thickness (EMT), is associated with the atherosclerotic characteristics at the carotid bifurcation in patients with PAD. An observational, prospective, single-center, longitudinal study was conducted. Overall, 177 patients were subjected to carotid Doppler ultrasound at the study admission. The following data were collected: EMT, intima-media thickness (IMT), the presence of carotid plaques, the area of the highest plaque, the presence of “acute culprit” carotid stenosis, and the grade of internal carotid stenosis. “Acute culprit” carotid stenosis was defined as a significant atherosclerotic plaque that leads to a neurologic event within 15 days. From each carotid bifurcation, a right and a left EMT were determined. We analyzed both the mean EMTs (calculated as the mean between the right and the left EMT) and the EMT ipsilateral to the carotid bifurcation. The presence of carotid plaques was associated with a higher mean EMT [Median = 1.14; IQR = 0.66 versus Median = 0.97; IQR = 0.40; p = 0.001]. A positive correlation was found between the mean EMT and IMT (right: ρ = 0.20; p = 0.010; left: ρ = 0.21; p = 0.007) and between the mean EMT and the area of the largest carotid plaque (right: ρ = 0.17; p = 0.036; left: ρ = 0.22; p = 0.004). Left carotid stenosis ≥ 70% was associated with higher ipsilateral EMT [Median = 1.56; IQR = 0.70 versus Median = 0.94; IQR = 0.42; p = 0.009]. Patients with “acute culprit” carotid stenosis had a higher ipsilateral EMT [left ipsilateral EMT: Median = 1.46; IQR = 0.63; “non-acute”: Median = 0.94; IQR = 0.43; p = 0.009; right ipsilateral EMT: Median = 2.25; IQR = 0.62; “non-acute”: Median = 1.00; IQR = 0.51; p = 0.015]. This difference was not found in the contra-lateral EMT. Six months after the neurologic event, EMT ipsilateral to an “acute culprit” carotid stenosis decreased (p = 0.036). The amount of peri-carotid adipose tissue, estimated with EMT, was associated with atherosclerosis at the carotid arteries. The mean EMT was associated with the features of chronic atherosclerosis lesions: the presence of carotid plaques, IMT, and the area of the highest plaque. Ipsilateral EMT was linked with “acute culprit” atherosclerotic plaque. Full article
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16 pages, 2014 KiB  
Article
Adding Electroanatomical Mapping to Cryoballoon Pulmonary Vein Isolation Improves 1-Year Clinical Outcome and Durability of Pulmonary Vein Isolation: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis
by Maxime Tijskens, Juan Pablo Abugattas, Hendrik Thoen, Antanas Strazdas, Bruno Schwagten, Michael Wolf and Yves De Greef
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2024, 11(2), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd11020057 - 06 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1141
Abstract
Background: Adding electroanatomical left atrial (LA) voltage mapping to cryoballoon ablation (CBA) improves validation of acute pulmonary vein isolation (PVI). Aims: To determine whether the addition of mapping can improve outcome and PVI durability. Methods: One-year outcome and PV reconnection (PVR) rate at [...] Read more.
Background: Adding electroanatomical left atrial (LA) voltage mapping to cryoballoon ablation (CBA) improves validation of acute pulmonary vein isolation (PVI). Aims: To determine whether the addition of mapping can improve outcome and PVI durability. Methods: One-year outcome and PV reconnection (PVR) rate at first repeat ablation were studied in 400 AF patients in a propensity-matched analysis (age, AF type, CHA2DS2-VASc score) between Achieve catheter-guided CBA with additional EnSite LA voltage maps performed pre- and post-CBA (mapping group; N = 200) and CT- and Achieve catheter-guided CBA (control group; N = 200). Clinical success was defined as freedom of documented AF or atrial tachycardia (AT) > 30 s. PV reconnection patterns were characterized in repeat ablations. Results: At 1 year, 77 (19.25%) patients had recurrence of AF/AT, significantly lower than in the mapping group: 21 (10.5%) vs. 56 (28%), p < 0.001. Procedure time was shorter (72.2 ± 25.4 vs. 78.2 ± 29.3 min, p = 0.034) and radiation exposure lower (4465.0 ± 3454.6 Gy.cm2 vs. 5940.5 ± 4290.5 Gy.cm2, p = 0.037). Use of mapping was protective towards AF/AT recurrence (HR = 0.348; 95% CI 0.210–0.579; p < 0.001), independent of persistent AF type (HR = 1.723; 95% CI 1.034–2.872; p = 0.037), and LA diameter (HR = 1.055; 95% CI 1.015–1.096; p = 0.006). At repeat ablation (N = 90), persistent complete PVI was seen in 14/20 (70.0%) versus 23/70 (32.9%) in the mapping and conventional group, respectively (p = 0.03). Reconnection rate of the right inferior PV was lower with mapping (10.0% vs. 34,3%, p = 0.035). Conclusions: Adding electroanatomical LA voltage mapping to CBA improves 1-year clinical outcome and lowers both procedure time and radiation exposure. At repeat, use of mapping increases complete persistent PVI mainly by improving PVI durability of the RIPV. Full article
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16 pages, 700 KiB  
Review
The Inclusion of Underrepresented Populations in Cardiovascular Genetics and Epidemiology
by Elias Chappell, Laura Arbour and Zachary Laksman
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2024, 11(2), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd11020056 - 05 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1602
Abstract
Novel genetic risk markers have helped us to advance the field of cardiovascular epidemiology and refine our current understanding and risk stratification paradigms. The discovery and analysis of variants can help us to tailor prognostication and management. However, populations underrepresented in cardiovascular epidemiology [...] Read more.
Novel genetic risk markers have helped us to advance the field of cardiovascular epidemiology and refine our current understanding and risk stratification paradigms. The discovery and analysis of variants can help us to tailor prognostication and management. However, populations underrepresented in cardiovascular epidemiology and cardiogenetics research may experience inequities in care if prediction tools are not applicable to them clinically. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to outline the barriers that underrepresented populations can face in participating in genetics research, to describe the current efforts to diversify cardiogenetics research, and to outline strategies that researchers in cardiovascular epidemiology can implement to include underrepresented populations. Mistrust, a lack of diverse research teams, the improper use of sensitive biodata, and the constraints of genetic analyses are all barriers for including diverse populations in genetics studies. The current work is beginning to address the paucity of ethnically diverse genetics research and has already begun to shed light on the potential benefits of including underrepresented and diverse populations. Reducing barriers for individuals, utilizing community-driven research processes, adopting novel recruitment strategies, and pushing for organizational support for diverse genetics research are key steps that clinicians and researchers can take to develop equitable risk stratification tools and improve patient care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Cardiovascular Epidemiology)
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12 pages, 5838 KiB  
Case Report
Prenatal Diagnosis of a Ductal-Dependent Branch Pulmonary Artery: Extra Vessels in the 3-Vessel and Trachea View
by Anmol Goyal, Maria Kiaffas, Tara Swanson, Melanie J. Kathol, Sanket Shah and Nitin Madan
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2024, 11(2), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd11020055 - 04 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1200
Abstract
Obtaining a three-vessel (3V) and three-vessel and trachea (3VT) view from the fetal upper mediastinum is now considered to be part of standard imaging protocol for routine obstetric cardiac screening examinations. We report two fetal cases of an anomalous pulmonary artery origin, utilizing [...] Read more.
Obtaining a three-vessel (3V) and three-vessel and trachea (3VT) view from the fetal upper mediastinum is now considered to be part of standard imaging protocol for routine obstetric cardiac screening examinations. We report two fetal cases of an anomalous pulmonary artery origin, utilizing the standard 3V and 3VT views. Further imaging led to a rare diagnosis of bilateral ductus arteriosus with discontinuous branch pulmonary arteries in the absence of any other congenital heart defect. We briefly discuss the imaging features, differential diagnoses, and management of this rare entity. Full article
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26 pages, 5222 KiB  
Review
Mast Cells in Cardiac Remodeling: Focus on the Right Ventricle
by Argen Mamazhakypov, Abdirashit Maripov, Akpay S. Sarybaev, Ralph Theo Schermuly and Akylbek Sydykov
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2024, 11(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd11020054 - 04 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1192
Abstract
In response to various stressors, cardiac chambers undergo structural remodeling. Long-term exposure of the right ventricle (RV) to pressure or volume overload leads to its maladaptive remodeling, associated with RV failure and increased mortality. While left ventricular adverse remodeling is well understood and [...] Read more.
In response to various stressors, cardiac chambers undergo structural remodeling. Long-term exposure of the right ventricle (RV) to pressure or volume overload leads to its maladaptive remodeling, associated with RV failure and increased mortality. While left ventricular adverse remodeling is well understood and therapeutic options are available or emerging, RV remodeling remains underexplored, and no specific therapies are currently available. Accumulating evidence implicates the role of mast cells in RV remodeling. Mast cells produce and release numerous inflammatory mediators, growth factors and proteases that can adversely affect cardiac cells, thus contributing to cardiac remodeling. Recent experimental findings suggest that mast cells might represent a potential therapeutic target. This review examines the role of mast cells in cardiac remodeling, with a specific focus on RV remodeling, and explores the potential efficacy of therapeutic interventions targeting mast cells to mitigate adverse RV remodeling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Basic and Translational Cardiovascular Research)
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12 pages, 2658 KiB  
Article
Postprandial Plasma Glucose Measured from Blood Taken between 4 and 7.9 h Is Positively Associated with Mortality from Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease
by Yutang Wang
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2024, 11(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd11020053 - 04 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1403
Abstract
It is unknown whether postprandial plasma glucose measured from blood taken between 4 and 7.9 h (PPG4–7.9h) is associated with mortality from hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study aimed to investigate these associations in 4896 US adults who attended [...] Read more.
It is unknown whether postprandial plasma glucose measured from blood taken between 4 and 7.9 h (PPG4–7.9h) is associated with mortality from hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study aimed to investigate these associations in 4896 US adults who attended the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of PPG4–7.9h for mortality. This cohort was followed up for 106,300 person-years (mean follow-up, 21.7 years). A 1-natural-log-unit increase in PPG4–7.9h was associated with a higher risk of mortality from hypertension (HR, 3.50; 95% CI, 2.34–5.24), diabetes (HR, 11.7; 95% CI, 6.85–20.0), and CVD (HR, 2.76; 95% CI, 2.08–3.68) after adjustment for all the tested confounders except hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). After further adjustment for HbA1c, PPG4–7.9h remained positively associated with mortality from both hypertension (HR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.13–4.08) and CVD (HR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.05–2.51), but was no longer associated with diabetes mortality. Subgroup analyses showed that similar results were obtained in the sub-cohort of participants without a prior diagnosis of myocardial infarction or stroke. In conclusion, PPG4–7.9h predicts mortality from hypertension and CVD, independent of HbA1c. Full article
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8 pages, 2329 KiB  
Case Report
Interventricular Septal Hematoma Complicating Left Bundle Branch Area Pacing: A Case Report—The Devil Is Not So Black as He Is Painted
by Paolo Pastori, Fabrizio De Rosa, Francesco Vitali, Andrea Fasulo, Giovanni Tortorella, Monica Pastore, Michele Malagù and Matteo Bertini
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2024, 11(2), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd11020052 - 01 Feb 2024
Viewed by 995
Abstract
Background: This case report outlines the presentation of an emerging complication arising from left bundle branch area pacing (LBBAP). Case summary: A 43-year-old male with no history of cardiac problems experienced recurrent episodes of syncope with no prodromal symptoms. During monitoring in the [...] Read more.
Background: This case report outlines the presentation of an emerging complication arising from left bundle branch area pacing (LBBAP). Case summary: A 43-year-old male with no history of cardiac problems experienced recurrent episodes of syncope with no prodromal symptoms. During monitoring in the emergency department, the patient underwent an episode of asystole, leading to LBBAP implantation. The procedure encountered technical challenges, resulting in an interventricular septal hematoma and subsequent ventricular arrhythmias. Despite initial concerns, conservative management led to resolution, demonstrated through echocardiographic follow-ups. Discussion: This report underscores the significance of ventricular arrhythmias as indicators of interventricular septal hematoma, providing insights into its diagnosis, management, and implications for LBBAP procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrophysiology and Cardiovascular Physiology)
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10 pages, 1129 KiB  
Brief Report
The Potential of the HeartLogicTM Algorithm in Patients with a Left Ventricular Assist Device, an Initial Report
by Michelle Feijen, Anastasia D. Egorova, Laurens F. Tops, Meindert Palmen, J. Wouter Jukema, Martin J. Schalij and Saskia L. M. A. Beeres
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2024, 11(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd11020051 - 01 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1182
Abstract
Background: Survival and quality-of-life of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) recipients improved significantly because of growing experience and technological advances. However, LVAD-related complication rates, including recurrent episodes of congestion, remain high. Early detection of fluid retention to provide a time-window for medical intervention [...] Read more.
Background: Survival and quality-of-life of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) recipients improved significantly because of growing experience and technological advances. However, LVAD-related complication rates, including recurrent episodes of congestion, remain high. Early detection of fluid retention to provide a time-window for medical intervention is the pillar in preventing hospitalizations. The multisensory HeartLogicTM algorithm accurately detected impending congestion in ambulant heart failure patients. The aim of the current study is to investigate the feasibility of HeartLogicTM-driven care in LVAD patients. Methods: Consecutive LVAD destination therapy patients were followed-up according the structured HeartLogicTM-based heart failure carepath. An alert triggered a device check-up, and the heart failure team contacted the patient to evaluate for signs and symptoms of impending congestion. An alert was adjudicated as true positive or unexplained. An episode of congestion not preceded by an alert was deemed as a false negative. Results: Data from 7 patients were included: the median age was 67 years [IQR 61–71], 71% were male and 71% had a non-ischemic aetiology. Total follow-up entailed 12 patient-years. All patients experienced at least one alert. In total, 33 alerts were observed. Majority of alerts (70%, n = 23) were driven by congestion and one alerts (15%) were clinically meaningful but not primarily fluid-retention-related (e.g., altered hemodynamic triggered by a pump thrombosis). Of all the alerts, five (15%) were classified as an unexplained alert, and during follow-up, four false negative episodes were documented. Conclusions: HeartLogicTM-driven care with continuous monitoring to detect impending fluid retention in LVAD patients was feasible and deserves further prospective validation. Full article
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6 pages, 1512 KiB  
Case Report
Anomalous Arising of Right Coronary Artery from the Pulmonary Artery
by Adrián Kolesár, Tomáš Toporcer, Jana Čobejová and Štefan Lukačin
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2024, 11(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd11020050 - 01 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1093
Abstract
Coronary artery anomalies are seen in less than 1% of the general population and in 1.6% of cardiac catheterization cases. The anomalous origin of the coronary artery from the pulmonary artery is one of four groups of coronary artery origin anomalies. The incidence [...] Read more.
Coronary artery anomalies are seen in less than 1% of the general population and in 1.6% of cardiac catheterization cases. The anomalous origin of the coronary artery from the pulmonary artery is one of four groups of coronary artery origin anomalies. The incidence of anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the pulmonary artery is 1 in 500,000 and was first described in 1882 by John Brook. This case report reports on a 67-year-old man with a diagnosis of asymptomatic anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the pulmonary artery. The patient underwent surgery of the aortic valve because of valve stenosis. A concomitant surgical procedure included repositioning of the right coronary artery origin to the aortic root sinus. The patient was discharged on the 12th postoperative day, in good condition. Anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the pulmonary artery is commonly asymptomatic, and surgery is required only if myocardial ischemia is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiac Surgery)
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22 pages, 3467 KiB  
Review
Aortic Valve Embryology, Mechanobiology, and Second Messenger Pathways: Implications for Clinical Practice
by Maximiliaan L. Notenboom, Lucas Van Hoof, Art Schuermans, Johanna J. M. Takkenberg, Filip R. Rega and Yannick J. H. J. Taverne
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2024, 11(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd11020049 - 01 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1377
Abstract
During the Renaissance, Leonardo Da Vinci was the first person to successfully detail the anatomy of the aortic root and its adjacent structures. Ever since, novel insights into morphology, function, and their interplay have accumulated, resulting in advanced knowledge on the complex functional [...] Read more.
During the Renaissance, Leonardo Da Vinci was the first person to successfully detail the anatomy of the aortic root and its adjacent structures. Ever since, novel insights into morphology, function, and their interplay have accumulated, resulting in advanced knowledge on the complex functional characteristics of the aortic valve (AV) and root. This has shifted our vision from the AV as being a static structure towards that of a dynamic interconnected apparatus within the aortic root as a functional unit, exhibiting a complex interplay with adjacent structures via both humoral and mechanical stimuli. This paradigm shift has stimulated surgical treatment strategies of valvular disease that seek to recapitulate healthy AV function, whereby AV disease can no longer be seen as an isolated morphological pathology which needs to be replaced. As prostheses still cannot reproduce the complexity of human nature, treatment of diseased AVs, whether stenotic or insufficient, has tremendously evolved, with a similar shift towards treatments options that are more hemodynamically centered, such as the Ross procedure and valve-conserving surgery. Native AV and root components allow for an efficient Venturi effect over the valve to allow for optimal opening during the cardiac cycle, while also alleviating the left ventricle. Next to that, several receptors are present on native AV leaflets, enabling messenger pathways based on their interaction with blood and other shear-stress-related stimuli. Many of these physiological and hemodynamical processes are under-acknowledged but may hold important clues for innovative treatment strategies, or as potential novel targets for therapeutic agents that halt or reverse the process of valve degeneration. A structured overview of these pathways and their implications for cardiothoracic surgeons and cardiologists is lacking. As such, we provide an overview on embryology, hemodynamics, and messenger pathways of the healthy and diseased AV and its implications for clinical practice, by relating this knowledge to current treatment alternatives and clinical decision making. Full article
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14 pages, 269 KiB  
Review
Dual Antiplatelet Therapy for the Acute Management and Long-term Secondary Prevention of Ischemic Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack, An Updated Review
by Bernard P. L. Chan, Lily Y. H. Wong, Benjamin Y. Q. Tan, Leonard L. L. Yeo and Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2024, 11(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd11020048 - 31 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1796
Abstract
To improve the efficacy over antiplatelet monotherapy, dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) has been increasingly adopted in the management of non-cardioembolic stroke. For minor ischemic stroke and high-risk transient ischemic attack, the aspirin–clopidogrel combination is now recommended for acute short-term treatment, whereas aspirin–ticagrelor combination [...] Read more.
To improve the efficacy over antiplatelet monotherapy, dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) has been increasingly adopted in the management of non-cardioembolic stroke. For minor ischemic stroke and high-risk transient ischemic attack, the aspirin–clopidogrel combination is now recommended for acute short-term treatment, whereas aspirin–ticagrelor combination may be considered in selected patients, especially those with resistance to clopidogrel. For long-term stroke prevention, aspirin–dipyridamole combination has been used as an alternative to antiplatelet monotherapy, and aspirin or clopidogrel combined with cilostazole may be prescribed for added protection in high-risk patients. In this paper, we review the development of DAPT from a historical perspective and describe the findings from major clinical trials published up until the end of 2023. Using the 2021 American Heart Association guideline for secondary stroke prevention as a basis for our recommendations, we further discuss areas of controversy and more recent developments to provide an updated review for clinicians to consider in their daily practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Stroke and Cerebrovascular Disease)
11 pages, 834 KiB  
Article
Instability of Healthy Overweight and Obesity Phenotypes over the Long Term in Young Participants in the HARVEST Study: Influence of Sex
by Paolo Palatini, Francesca Saladini, Lucio Mos, Olga Vriz, Andrea Ermolao, Francesca Battista, Adriano Mazzer, Mattia Canevari and Marcello Rattazzi
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2024, 11(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd11020047 - 31 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1038
Abstract
Background: Whether healthy metabolic status is stable or only temporary is still controversial. The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of the transition from metabolically healthy to metabolically unhealthy status, or vice versa, over the long term. Methods: We [...] Read more.
Background: Whether healthy metabolic status is stable or only temporary is still controversial. The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of the transition from metabolically healthy to metabolically unhealthy status, or vice versa, over the long term. Methods: We examined 970 individuals of 18 to 45 years of age. The participants’ mean age was 33.1 ± 8.6 years and mean BP was 145.5 ± 10.6/93.5 ± 5.7 mmHg. Participants were classified into four groups according to whether they had normal weight or overweight/obesity (OwOb) and were metabolically healthy or unhealthy. After 7.5 years, 24.3% of men and 41.9% of women in the metabolically healthy normal-weight group remained metabolically healthy (p < 0.0001). Among the metabolically healthy OwOb participants, 31.9% remained metabolically healthy, with a similar frequency in men and women. However, more OwOb women (19.1%) than men (5.7%) achieved normal weight (p < 0.0001). Among the metabolically unhealthy OwOb subjects, 81.8% of men and 69.3% of women remained metabolically unhealthy, 7.4% of men and 12.0% of women transitioned to OwOb healthy status, and 10.7% of men and 18.7% of women achieved normal weight (men versus women, p < 0.0001). Predictors of transition to unhealthy status were high BP, high BMI, and smoking. Male sex was a borderline predictor of progression to unhealthy status in OwOb participants (p = 0.073). Conclusion: These data show that metabolically healthy status is a highly unstable condition in both normal-weight and OwOb individuals. The impairment of metabolic status was more frequent in men than in women. Lifestyle counseling produced beneficial effects in almost one-third of metabolically unhealthy OwOb women and in less than one-fifth of men. Full article
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14 pages, 1340 KiB  
Article
One Year Outcomes Following Transplantation with COVID-19-Positive Donor Hearts: A National Database Cohort Study
by Stanley B. Wolfe, Ruby Singh, Dane C. Paneitz, Seyed Alireza Rabi, Chijioke C. Chukwudi, Richa Asija, Eriberto Michel, Asvin M. Ganapathi and Asishana A. Osho
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2024, 11(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd11020046 - 31 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1062
Abstract
The current understanding of the safety of heart transplantation from COVID-19+ donors is uncertain. Preliminary studies suggest that heart transplants from these donors may be feasible. We analyzed 1-year outcomes in COVID-19+ donor heart recipients using 1:3 propensity matching. The OPTN database was [...] Read more.
The current understanding of the safety of heart transplantation from COVID-19+ donors is uncertain. Preliminary studies suggest that heart transplants from these donors may be feasible. We analyzed 1-year outcomes in COVID-19+ donor heart recipients using 1:3 propensity matching. The OPTN database was queried for adult heart transplant recipients between 1 January 2020 and 30 September 2022. COVID-19+ donors were defined as those who tested positive on NATs or antigen tests within 21 days prior to procurement. Multiorgan transplants, retransplants, donors without COVID-19 testing, and recipients allocated under the old heart allocation system were excluded. A total of 7211 heart transplant recipients met the inclusion criteria, including 316 COVID-19+ donor heart recipients. Further, 290 COVID-19+ donor heart recipients were matched to 870 COVID-19− donor heart recipients. Survival was similar between the groups at 30 days (p = 0.46), 6 months (p = 0.17), and 1 year (p = 0.07). Recipients from COVID-19+ donors in the matched cohort were less likely to experience postoperative acute rejection prior to discharge (p = 0.01). National COVID-19+ donor heart usage varied by region: region 11 transplanted the most COVID-19+ hearts (15.8%), and region 6 transplanted the fewest (3.2%). Our findings indicate that COVID-19+ heart transplantation can be performed with safe early outcomes. Further analyses are needed to determine if long-term outcomes are equivalent between groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Challenges in Heart Failure and Cardiac Transplantation)
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11 pages, 999 KiB  
Article
Achieving Cardiovascular Risk Management Goals and Patient Quality of Life
by Agata Kosobucka-Ozdoba, Łukasz Pietrzykowski, Piotr Michalski, Jakub Ratajczak, Klaudyna Grzelakowska, Michał Kasprzak, Jacek Kubica and Aldona Kubica
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2024, 11(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd11020045 - 31 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1108
Abstract
(1) Background: Eliminating or reducing the severity of modifiable risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and undertaking health-promoting behaviors is the basis for prevention. (2) Methods: This study included 200 subjects without a history of CVD, aged 18 to 80 years, who had [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Eliminating or reducing the severity of modifiable risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and undertaking health-promoting behaviors is the basis for prevention. (2) Methods: This study included 200 subjects without a history of CVD, aged 18 to 80 years, who had been diagnosed with hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, or diabetes 6 to 24 months before study enrolment. (3) Results: The median 10-year CV risk assessed by the SCORE2 and SCORE2-OP algorithms was 3.0 (IQR 1.5–7.0). An increase in mean cardiovascular risk in the range from low and moderate to very high was associated with a decrease in quality of life both in individual subscales and the overall score. The median number of controlled risk factors was 4.0 (IQR 3.0–5.0). As the mean number of controlled risk factors increased, the quality of life improved in both of HeartQoL questionnaire subscales (emotional p = 0.0018; physical p = 0.0004) and the overall score (global p = 0.0001). The median number of reported health-promoting behaviors undertaken within 3 years before study enrolment was 3.0 (IQR 2.0–4.0). The highest quality of life in each of the studied dimensions was found in people who reported undertaking three health-promoting behaviors. (4) Conclusions: Controlling CVD risk factors and undertaking health-promoting behaviors has a positive impact on the quality of life of patients without a history of atherosclerotic CVD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Epidemiology, Lifestyle, and Cardiovascular Health)
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12 pages, 244 KiB  
Article
Apolipoprotein B and Lipid Profile in Italian Children and Adolescents
by Francesco Martino, Tarcisio Niglio, Eliana Martino, Vincenzo Paravati, Luisa de Sanctis and Ornella Guardamagna
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2024, 11(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd11020044 - 29 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1312
Abstract
Rationale. The prevention of cardiovascular (CV) disease is mandatory from childhood onwards. Among biochemical markers related to the clinical cardiovascular outcome, LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), non-HDL-C and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) are recognized as main target parameters. Emphasis on ApoB concentrations is growing, as representative [...] Read more.
Rationale. The prevention of cardiovascular (CV) disease is mandatory from childhood onwards. Among biochemical markers related to the clinical cardiovascular outcome, LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), non-HDL-C and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) are recognized as main target parameters. Emphasis on ApoB concentrations is growing, as representative of any class of atherogenic lipoprotein. This consideration allows checking of subjects under 18 years of age when the CV risk occurs. The aim of this study is to evaluate ApoB levels in a sample of Italian hyperlipidemic children and adolescents, and their siblings, to test any relationship with their lipid profile. Methods. A retrospective study, including 1877 children and adolescents (aged 0–18 years), was performed. Clinical and biochemical data were selected from a database, including the lipid profile, ApoB analysis and anthropometric parameters of any proband. Participants had been checked as potentially hyperlipidemia affected, the suspicion raised by familial CV risk or because the dyslipidemia was already known. Data from the first visit at the University Hospitals in Rome and Turin were collected. Patients affected by secondary hyperlipidemia or obesity were excluded. Blood test analysis was performed in fasting conditions by automated commercial kits. Participants were classified according to gender, age (stratified in subgroups: 0–5, 6–10, 11–14, and 15–18 years old) and anthropometric parameters, referred to as weight in Kg and height in cm, and BMI calculated. Lipid profile results were stratified in relation to acceptable, borderline, or increased levels, as indicated by NCEP, and any potential relation with ApoB established. Statistics were performed by Epi-Info 7 programs to evaluate the variance analysis. Either parent could sign the informed consent. Results. Among the whole sample n.1010 and n.867 participants were females and males, respectively. TC values acceptable (≤170 mg/dL), borderline (171–200 mg/dL) and elevated (≥201 mg/dL) were found in 411 (22%), 585 (31%) and 881 (47%) participants, respectively. The LDL-C cut-off considered was 110 mg/dL (90° percentile). Mean ApoB progressively increased from 65 to 110 mg/dL according to TC levels and resulted in significant correlation when any age subgroup and gender was considered. The highest ApoB values, TC and LDL-C related, were found in the youngest subgroup, regardless of gender. Conclusion. ApoB results increase progressively and in parallel with TC and LDL-C and represent a further parameter to distinguish between normal and hyperlipidemic subjects. Serum levels are close to 70 mg/dL and to 100 mg/dL in the former and latter group, respectively. Full article
14 pages, 1217 KiB  
Systematic Review
Efficacy and Safety of Thirty-Day Dual-Antiplatelet Therapy Following Complex Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Anastasios Apostolos, David-Dimitris Chlorogiannis, Grigorios Chrysostomidis, Maria Bozika, Filippos Timpilis, Angelos Kramvis, Grigoris V. Karamasis, Georgios Leventopoulos, Periklis Davlouros and Grigorios Tsigkas
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2024, 11(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd11020043 - 29 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1668
Abstract
The optimal duration of DAPT after complex PCI remains under investigation. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to explore the safety and efficacy of a one-month therapy period versus a longer duration of DAPT after complex PCI. We systematically screened [...] Read more.
The optimal duration of DAPT after complex PCI remains under investigation. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to explore the safety and efficacy of a one-month therapy period versus a longer duration of DAPT after complex PCI. We systematically screened three major databases, searching for randomized controlled trials or sub-analyses of them, which compared shortened DAPT (S-DAPT), namely, one month, and longer DAPT (L-DAPT), namely, more than three months. The primary endpoint was any Net Adverse Clinical Event (NACE), and the secondary was any MACE (Major Adverse Cardiac Event), its components (mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, and stent thrombosis), and major bleeding events. Three studies were included in the analysis, with a total of 6275 patients. Shortening DAPT to 30 days after complex PCI did not increase the risk of NACEs (OR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.52–1.14), MACEs, mortality, myocardial infractions, stroke, or stent thrombosis. Pooled major bleeding incidence was reduced, but this finding was not statistically significant. This systematic review and meta-analysis showed that one-month DAPT did not differ compared to a longer duration of DAPT after complex PCI in terms of safety and efficacy endpoints. Further studies are still required to confirm these findings. Full article
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13 pages, 1275 KiB  
Article
Reliability and Time Course of Postexercise Hypotension during Exercise Training among Adults with Hypertension
by Peter A. Kiernan, Christina A. Day, Rachel S. Berkowsky, Amanda L. Zaleski, Simiao Gao, Beth A. Taylor, Lucas P. Santos, Gregory Panza, Melody Kramarz, Kyle McCormick, Paul D. Thompson, Antonio B. Fernandez, Ming-Hui Chen and Linda S. Pescatello
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2024, 11(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd11020042 - 29 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1435
Abstract
Postexercise hypotension (PEH), or the immediate decrease in blood pressure (BP) lasting for 24 h following an exercise bout, is well-established; however, the influence of exercise training on PEH dynamics is unknown. This study investigated the reliability and time course of change of [...] Read more.
Postexercise hypotension (PEH), or the immediate decrease in blood pressure (BP) lasting for 24 h following an exercise bout, is well-established; however, the influence of exercise training on PEH dynamics is unknown. This study investigated the reliability and time course of change of PEH during exercise training among adults with hypertension. PEH responders (n = 10) underwent 12 weeks of aerobic exercise training, 40 min/session at moderate-to-vigorous intensity for 3 d/weeks. Self-measured BP was used to calculate PEH before and for 10 min after each session. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) determined PEH reliability and goodness-of-fit for each week, respectively. Participants were obese (30.6 ± 4.3 kg∙m−2), middle-aged (57.2 ± 10.5 years), and mostly men (60%) with stage I hypertension (136.5 ± 12.1/83.4 ± 6.7 mmHg). Exercise training adherence was 90.6 ± 11.8% with 32.6 ± 4.2 sessions completed. PEH occurred in 89.7 ± 8.3% of these sessions with BP reductions of 9.3 ± 13.1/3.2 ± 6.8 mmHg. PEH reliability was moderate (ICC ~0.6). AIC analysis revealed a stabilization of maximal systolic and diastolic BP reductions at 3 weeks and 10 weeks, respectively. PEH persisted throughout exercise training at clinically meaningful levels, suggesting that the antihypertensive effects of exercise training may be largely due to PEH. Further studies in larger samples and under ambulatory conditions are needed to confirm these novel findings. Full article
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13 pages, 3127 KiB  
Article
Phospholamban p.Leu39* Cardiomyopathy Compared with Other Sarcomeric Cardiomyopathies: Age-Matched Patient Cohorts and Literature Review
by Andreea Sorina Afana, Laura Vasiliu, Radu Sascău, Robert Daniel Adam, Cristina Rădulescu, Sebastian Onciul, Eliza Cinteză, Adela Chirita-Emandi and Ruxandra Jurcuț
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2024, 11(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd11020041 - 28 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1343
Abstract
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a heterogeneous genetic disorder, most often caused by sarcomeric gene mutations, with a small proportion due to variants in non-sarcomeric loci. Phospholamban (PLN) is a phosphoprotein associated with the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum, a major determinant of cardiac contractility and [...] Read more.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a heterogeneous genetic disorder, most often caused by sarcomeric gene mutations, with a small proportion due to variants in non-sarcomeric loci. Phospholamban (PLN) is a phosphoprotein associated with the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum, a major determinant of cardiac contractility and relaxation. We conducted a retrospective study to determine the prevalence, phenotypical spectrum and clinical course of patients carrying the PLN p.Leu39* variant. A cohort including 11 PLN patients was identified among all patients with HCM (9/189, 4.8%) and DCM (2/62, 3.2%) who underwent genetic testing from two tertiary centers and five more were detected through cascade screening. Complete phenotyping was performed. PLN p.Leu39* variant-driven cardiomyopathy presented mostly as hypertrophic, with frequent progression to end-stage dilated HCM. We proceeded to compare these results to a similar analysis of a control cohort consisting of age-matched individuals that inherited pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in common sarcomeric genes (MYBPC3/MYH7). Overall, the clinical characteristics and examination findings of patients carrying PLN p.Leu39* were not different from patients with cardiomyopathy related to sarcomeric mutations except for the presence of pathological Q waves and the incidence of non-sustained ventricular arrhythmias, which were higher in PLN patients than in those with MYBPC3/MYH7-related diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Management)
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15 pages, 1099 KiB  
Review
Myocardial Late Gadolinium Enhancement (LGE) in Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (CMR)—An Important Risk Marker for Cardiac Disease
by Claudia Meier, Michel Eisenblätter and Stephan Gielen
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2024, 11(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd11020040 - 26 Jan 2024
Viewed by 2035
Abstract
Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has significantly revolutionized the comprehension and diagnosis of cardiac diseases, particularly through the utilization of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging for tissue characterization. LGE enables the visualization of expanded extracellular spaces in conditions such as fibrosis, fibrofatty tissue, or [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has significantly revolutionized the comprehension and diagnosis of cardiac diseases, particularly through the utilization of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging for tissue characterization. LGE enables the visualization of expanded extracellular spaces in conditions such as fibrosis, fibrofatty tissue, or edema. The growing recognition of LGE’s prognostic capacity underscores its importance, evident in the increasing explicit recommendations within guidelines. Notably, the contemporary characterization of cardiomyopathies relies on LGE-based scar assessment by CMR to a large extent. This review describes the pattern and prognostic value of LGE in detail for various cardiac diseases. Despite its merits, establishing LGE as a reliable risk marker encounters challenges. Limitations arise from the fact that not all diseases show LGE, and it should always be analyzed in the context of all CMR sequences and the patient’s medical history. In summary, LGE stands as a robust indicator of adverse outcomes in diverse cardiovascular diseases. Its further integration into routine practice is desirable, necessitating widespread availability and application to accumulate both individual and scientific experience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Factors and Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases)
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