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J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis., Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2023) – 32 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This Empathy trial subanalysis investigates His Bundle Pacing (HBP) vs. Left Bundle Branch Area Pacing (LBBAP). These physiological pacing methods aim to address limitations linked to right ventricular endocardial pacing. Involving 24 patients with pacing indications, the study employed a three-dimensional electroanatomical mapping system and fluoroscopy for HBP, and fluoroscopy alone for LBBAP implantations. Echocardiographic assessments, analyzing global longitudinal strain (GLS) and myocardial work (MW), revealed no significant differences in MW indices and QRS durations between spontaneous and paced ventricular activation in both groups. Despite a longer procedural duration and higher fluoroscopy time in the HBP group, these findings strengthen the case for LBBAP. View this paper
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16 pages, 23289 KiB  
Review
The Atrioventricular Conduction Axis Revisited for the 21st Century
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(11), 471; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10110471 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1203
Abstract
Although first described in the final decade of the 19th century, the axis responsible for atrioventricular conduction has long been the source of multiple controversies. Some of these continue to reverberate. When first described by His, for example, many doubted the existence of [...] Read more.
Although first described in the final decade of the 19th century, the axis responsible for atrioventricular conduction has long been the source of multiple controversies. Some of these continue to reverberate. When first described by His, for example, many doubted the existence of the bundle we now name in his honour, while Kent suggested that multiple pathways crossed the atrioventricular junctions in the normal heart. It was Tawara who clarified the situation, although many of his key definitions have not universally been accepted. In key studies in the third decade of the 20th century, Mahaim then suggested the presence of ubiquitous connections that provided “paraspecific” pathways for atrioventricular conduction. In this review, we show the validity of these original investigations, based on our own experience with a large number of datasets from human hearts prepared by serial histological sectioning. Using our own reconstructions, we show how the atrioventricular conduction axis can be placed back within the heart. We emphasise that newly emerging techniques will be key in providing the resolution to map cellular detail to the gross evidence provided by the serial sections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Approach to Complex Arrhythmias)
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16 pages, 1870 KiB  
Article
The Predictors and Outcomes of Functional Mitral Stenosis following Surgical Mitral Valve Repair: A Retrospective Analysis
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(11), 470; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10110470 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1231
Abstract
To optimize mitral valve repair outcomes, it is crucial to comprehend the predictors of functional mitral valve stenosis (FMS), to enhance preoperative assessments, and to adapt intraoperative treatment strategies. This study aimed to identify FMS risk factors, contributing valuable insights for refining surgical [...] Read more.
To optimize mitral valve repair outcomes, it is crucial to comprehend the predictors of functional mitral valve stenosis (FMS), to enhance preoperative assessments, and to adapt intraoperative treatment strategies. This study aimed to identify FMS risk factors, contributing valuable insights for refining surgical techniques. Among 228 selected patients, 215 underwent postoperative echocardiography follow-ups, and 36 met the FMS criteria based on a mean trans-mitral pressure gradient of >5 mmHg. Patients with FMS exhibited higher pulmonary systolic arterial pressure and increased late mortality during the follow-up. Univariable logistic regression analysis identified several risk factors for FMS, including end-stage renal disease, anterior leaflet lesion, concomitant aortic valve replacement, smaller ring size, ring type, and neochordae implantation. Conversely, resection alone and resection combined with neochordae implantation had protective effects against FMS. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that smaller ring sizes and patch repair independently predicted FMS. When focusing on degenerative mitral regurgitation, the neochordae implantation without resection in leaflet repair, emerged as an independent predictor of FMS. Surgeons should weigh the substantial impact of surgical procedures on postoperative trans-mitral pressure gradients, emphasizing preoperative evaluation and techniques such as precise ring size assessment and effective leaflet management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Factors and Outcomes in Cardiac Surgery)
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10 pages, 738 KiB  
Review
Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation and Conduction Disturbances: Focus on Clinical Implications
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(11), 469; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10110469 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1180
Abstract
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an established alternative to surgery in patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis and has expanded its indications to even low-surgical-risk patients. Conduction abnormalities (CA) and permanent pacemaker (PPM) implantations remain a relatively common finding post TAVI due [...] Read more.
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an established alternative to surgery in patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis and has expanded its indications to even low-surgical-risk patients. Conduction abnormalities (CA) and permanent pacemaker (PPM) implantations remain a relatively common finding post TAVI due to the close proximity of the conduction system to the aortic root. New onset left bundle branch block (LBBB) and high-grade atrioventricular block are the most commonly reported CA post TAVI. The overall rate of PPM implantation post TAVI varies and is related to pre- and intra-procedural factors. Therefore, when screening patients for TAVI, Heart Teams should take under consideration the various anatomical, pathophysiological and procedural conditions that predispose to CA and PPM requirement after the procedure. This is particularly important as TAVI is being offered to younger patients with longer life-expectancy. Herein, we highlight the incidence, predictors, impact and management of CA in patients undergoing TAVI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) II)
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15 pages, 1163 KiB  
Review
Soluble ST2 in Heart Failure: A Clinical Role beyond B-Type Natriuretic Peptide
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(11), 468; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10110468 - 17 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1466
Abstract
Soluble (s)ST2 has been proposed as a useful biomarker for heart failure (HF) patient management. Myocardial damage or mechanical stress stimulate sST2 release. ST2 competes with a membrane bound receptor (ST2 ligand, or ST2L) for interleukin-33 (IL-33) binding, inhibiting the effects induced by [...] Read more.
Soluble (s)ST2 has been proposed as a useful biomarker for heart failure (HF) patient management. Myocardial damage or mechanical stress stimulate sST2 release. ST2 competes with a membrane bound receptor (ST2 ligand, or ST2L) for interleukin-33 (IL-33) binding, inhibiting the effects induced by the ST2L/IL-33 interaction so that excessive sST2 may contribute to myocardial fibrosis and ventricular remodeling. Compared to natriuretic peptides (NPs), sST2 concentration is not substantially affected by age, sex, body mass index, kidney function, atrial fibrillation, anemia, or HF etiology, and has low intra-individual variation. Its prognostic role as an independent marker is well reported in the literature. However, there is a gap on its use in combination with NPs, currently the only biomarkers recommended by European and American guidelines for HF management. Reflecting the activation of two distinct biological systems, a benefit from the use of sST2 and NP in combination is advocated. The aim of this review is to report the current scientific knowledge on sST2 in the acute and chronic HF settings with a particular attention to its additive role to natriuretic peptides (NPs). Full article
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10 pages, 483 KiB  
Article
Speckle-Tracking Analysis of the Right and Left Heart after Peak Exercise in Healthy Subjects with Type 1 Diabetes: An Explorative Analysis of the AppEx Trial
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(11), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10110467 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1160
Abstract
In eight healthy participants with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) exercise-related dynamic cardiac remodeling was analyzed by performing two-dimensional echocardiography, including deformation analysis of the left-ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain (LV-GLS), and the deformation pattern of the left atrium (LA) and right ventricle (RV) [...] Read more.
In eight healthy participants with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) exercise-related dynamic cardiac remodeling was analyzed by performing two-dimensional echocardiography, including deformation analysis of the left-ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain (LV-GLS), and the deformation pattern of the left atrium (LA) and right ventricle (RV) at rest and post-peak performance on a bicycle. The feasibility echocardiographic speckle-tracking analysis was performed on eight asymptomatic participants with T1D (n = 8, male n = 5, age: 23–65 years). The obtained echocardiographic data were compared for various echocardiographic parameters at rest and post exercise. Across our participating T1D individuals no structural echocardiographic abnormalities of concern could be revealed. All participating T1D subjects showed preserved contractile reserve of the LV and no significant diastolic dysfunction. Significant differences were found for the phasic LA contractile strain pattern at rest and post exercise (p < 0.001), whereby the dynamic RV (p = 0.5839 and p = 0.7419) and LV strain pattern (p = 0.5952) did not reveal significant differences in comparison to resting conditions. This descriptive secondary outcome analysis describes preserved contractile reserve of the LV and elucidates dynamic modification of the phasic LA contractile deformation pattern in asymptomatic T1D individuals after exhaustive exercise on a bicycle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Cardiology: From Diagnosis to Clinical Management)
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10 pages, 1225 KiB  
Article
Differences in Androgen Receptor Expression in Human Heart Tissue in Various Types of Cardiomyopathy and in Aortic Valve Stenosis
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(11), 466; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10110466 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1274
Abstract
Background: Sex-specific differences in heart disease outcomes are influenced by the levels of the steroid hormones, estrogen and testosterone. While the roles of estrogen receptors in cardiac disease are well-studied in animals and humans, respective research on androgen receptors (AR) is limited. [...] Read more.
Background: Sex-specific differences in heart disease outcomes are influenced by the levels of the steroid hormones, estrogen and testosterone. While the roles of estrogen receptors in cardiac disease are well-studied in animals and humans, respective research on androgen receptors (AR) is limited. Here we investigate AR protein and mRNA expression in human myocardium of various cardiac diseases. Methods: AR expression was analyzed by western blotting in myocardium from human non-failing hearts (NF, n = 6) and patients with aortic stenosis (AS, n = 6), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM, n = 7), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM, n = 7), and ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM, n = 7). Using an AR45-specific antibody, a subsequent western blot assessed samples from male and female patients with HCM (n = 10) and DCM (n = 10). The same sample set was probed for full-length AR and AR45 mRNA expression. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) localized AR in myocardium from HCM and AS hearts. Results: Full-length AR was notably enriched in AS and HCM hearts compared to ICM, DCM, and NF. Similarly, AR45 was more abundant in HCM than in DCM. In contrast to the pattern observed for AR protein, full-length AR mRNA levels were lower in HCM compared to DCM, with no discernible difference for the AR45 isoform. Although gender differences in AR expression were not detected in western blots or qRT-PCR, IHC showed stronger nuclear AR signals in males than in females. Conclusions: Our findings indicate disease-specific regulation of AR mRNA and/or AR protein in cardiac hypertrophy, underscoring a potential role in this cardiac pathology. Full article
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35 pages, 3524 KiB  
Review
The Ketogenic Effect of SGLT-2 Inhibitors—Beneficial or Harmful?
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(11), 465; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10110465 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 2151
Abstract
Sodium–glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors, also called gliflozins or flozins, are a class of drugs that have been increasingly used in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) due to their glucose-lowering, cardiovascular (CV), and renal positive effects. However, recent studies suggest that [...] Read more.
Sodium–glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors, also called gliflozins or flozins, are a class of drugs that have been increasingly used in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) due to their glucose-lowering, cardiovascular (CV), and renal positive effects. However, recent studies suggest that SGLT-2 inhibitors might also have a ketogenic effect, increasing ketone body production. While this can be beneficial for some patients, it may also result in several potential unfavorable effects, such as decreased bone mineral density, infections, and ketoacidosis, among others. Due to the intricate and multifaceted impact caused by SGLT-2 inhibitors, this initially anti-diabetic class of medications has been effectively used to treat both patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and those with heart failure (HF). Additionally, their therapeutic potential appears to extend beyond the currently investigated conditions. The objective of this review article is to present a thorough summary of the latest research on the mechanism of action of SGLT-2 inhibitors, their ketogenesis, and their potential synergy with the ketogenic diet for managing diabetes. The article particularly discusses the benefits and risks of combining SGLT-2 inhibitors with the ketogenic diet and their clinical applications and compares them with other anti-diabetic agents in terms of ketogenic effects. It also explores future directions regarding the ketogenic effects of SGLT-2 inhibitors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Flozins - New Revolution Has Started)
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10 pages, 1697 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Individualized Three-Dimensional Holographic Models on Patients’ Knowledge Qualified for Intervention in the Treatment of Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(11), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10110464 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1243
Abstract
We sought to determine the role of the patient-specific, three-dimensional (3D) holographic vascular model in patient medical knowledge and its influence on obtaining a more conscious informed consent process for percutaneous balloon angioplasty (PTA). Patients with peripheral arterial disease who had been scheduled [...] Read more.
We sought to determine the role of the patient-specific, three-dimensional (3D) holographic vascular model in patient medical knowledge and its influence on obtaining a more conscious informed consent process for percutaneous balloon angioplasty (PTA). Patients with peripheral arterial disease who had been scheduled for PTA were enrolled in the study. Information regarding the primary disease, planned procedure, and informed consent was recorded in typical fashion. Subsequently, the disease and procedure details were presented to the patient, showing the patients their individual model. A patient and medical supervisor equipped with mixed reality headsets could both simultaneously manipulate the hologram using gestures. The holographic 3D model had been created on a scale of 1:1 based on computed tomography scans. The patient’s knowledge was tested by the completion of a questionnaire before and after the interaction in a mixed reality environment. Seventy-nine patients manipulated arterial holograms in mixed reality head-mounted devices. Before the 3D holographic artery model interaction, the mean ± standard deviation score of the knowledge test was 2.95 ± 1.21 points. After the presentation, the score had increased to 4.39 ± 0.82, with a statistically significant difference (p = 0.0000) between the two scores. Using a Likert scale from 1 to 5, the patients had scored the use of the 3D holographic model at 3.90 points regarding its usefulness in comprehending their medical condition; at 4.04 points regarding the evaluation of the holograms as helpful in understanding the course of surgery; and rated the model at 1.99 points in reducing procedure-related stress. Using a nominal scale (know or don’t know), the patients had self-assessed their knowledge of the procedure before and after the 3D model presentation, with a score of 6.29 ± 2.01 and 8.39 ± 1.54, respectively. The study group tolerated the use of head-mounted devices. Only one patient had nausea and dizziness, while four patients experienced transient eye pain. The 3D holographic arterial model aided in the understanding of patients’ knowledge regarding the disease and procedure, making the informed consent process more conscious. The holograms improved the patient’s self-consciousness. Mixed reality headset-related complications were rare and within acceptable rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endovascular Intervention for Peripheral Artery Disease)
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9 pages, 739 KiB  
Article
Safety of Retrograde Tibial-Pedal Access and Intervention in Patients with Single Remaining Non-Occluded Infra-Popliteal Runoff Artery
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(11), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10110463 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1129
Abstract
Background: The adaptation of retrograde tibial-pedal access for peripheral angiogram and intervention is limited by the lack of operator experience and concern for small distal vessel injury. This study evaluates the safety of the retrograde tibial-pedal access for peripheral angiogram and intervention in [...] Read more.
Background: The adaptation of retrograde tibial-pedal access for peripheral angiogram and intervention is limited by the lack of operator experience and concern for small distal vessel injury. This study evaluates the safety of the retrograde tibial-pedal access for peripheral angiogram and intervention in patients with two vessel infra-popliteal artery chronic total occlusions, where the access point is the sole remaining non-occluded infra-popliteal artery. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 5687 consecutive patients who underwent peripheral angiograms by retrograde tibial-pedal access via the single remaining non-occluded infra-popliteal artery was performed. Patients who had retrograde tibial-pedal access at the sole remaining infra-popliteal artery confirmed by angiography were included. Clinical and ultrasound data of the accessed infra-popliteal vessel up to 6 months were collected. Results: The cohort consisted of 314 patients (152 males; mean age 77.9 years). At 6 months, access vessel complications occurred in 15 patients (4.8%). Access vessel occlusion occurred in 9 out of 314 patients (2.9%), arteriovenous fistula in 4 (1.3%), with spontaneous resolution in 2, pseudoaneurysm requiring thrombin injection in 2 (0.6%) and non-cardiovascular death in 1 (0.3%). No uncontrolled bleeding, procedure-related hospitalizations or limb amputations occurred. Conclusions: Routine primary retrograde tibial-pedal access for lower extremity peripheral artery diagnostic angiography and intervention in patients with single infra-popliteal artery runoff can be safety performed in an outpatient setting with infrequent and manageable complications. Full article
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12 pages, 254 KiB  
Review
Anaesthesia for Minimally Invasive Cardiac Surgery
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(11), 462; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10110462 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1383
Abstract
Minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS) has been used since the 1990s and encompasses a wide range of techniques that lack full sternotomy, including valve and coronary artery graft surgery as well as transcatheter procedures. Due to the potential benefits offered to patients by [...] Read more.
Minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS) has been used since the 1990s and encompasses a wide range of techniques that lack full sternotomy, including valve and coronary artery graft surgery as well as transcatheter procedures. Due to the potential benefits offered to patients by MICS, these procedures are becoming more common. Unique anaesthetic knowledge and skills are required to overcome the specific challenges presented by MICS, including mastery of transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) and the provision of thoracic regional analgesia. This review evaluates the relevance of MICS to the anaesthetist and discusses pre-operative assessment, the relevant adjustments to intra-operative conduct that are necessary for these techniques, as well as post-operative care and what is known about outcomes. Full article
11 pages, 1891 KiB  
Article
Integrin β Expression as a New Diagnostic Marker for Arteriovenous Thrombosis: A Single-Center Prospective Study
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(11), 461; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10110461 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1148
Abstract
Integrin β plays an important role in the pathogenesis of thrombosis and inflammation, and it may be a shared pathogenic mechanism between arterial and venous thromboses. With the goal of identifying new treatment targets for thrombotic diseases and specific diagnostic markers for venous [...] Read more.
Integrin β plays an important role in the pathogenesis of thrombosis and inflammation, and it may be a shared pathogenic mechanism between arterial and venous thromboses. With the goal of identifying new treatment targets for thrombotic diseases and specific diagnostic markers for venous thromboembolism (VTE), this prospective clinical study was performed to clarify the relationship between integrin and thrombosis. The levels of integrin β1–3, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein were significantly higher in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI; n = 44) and acute VTE (n = 43) compared to healthy controls (n = 33). The IL-6 and integrin β1–3 levels were also significantly higher in the AMI group compared to the VTE and control groups. Logistic regression analysis identified IL-6 and integrin β1–3 levels as independent risk factors for thrombotic disease. Based on the receiver-operating characteristic curve, Youden index, sensitivity, and specificity, the diagnostic accuracy value for VTE was greater than 0.8 when integrins β1, β2, and β3 were combined. Overall, these results suggest that integrin β levels can contribute to improving the diagnosis and treatment of arteriovenous thrombosis. Full article
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9 pages, 2472 KiB  
Case Report
Percutaneous Modified Blalock–Taussig Shunt Closure in a Patient with Isolated Right Ventricular Hypoplasia
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(11), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10110460 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1138
Abstract
Clinical presentation, course, and treatment for patients with isolated right ventricular (RV) hypoplasia (IRVH) depends on the degree of hypoplasia that is present—this is a spectrum from spontaneous maturation to Fontan circulation over time. An 8-month-old infant presented with IRVH; in the patient, [...] Read more.
Clinical presentation, course, and treatment for patients with isolated right ventricular (RV) hypoplasia (IRVH) depends on the degree of hypoplasia that is present—this is a spectrum from spontaneous maturation to Fontan circulation over time. An 8-month-old infant presented with IRVH; in the patient, a modified Blalock–Taussig (MBTS) shunt was closed percutaneously after spontaneous RV function recovery. A female newborn was diagnosed with differential cyanosis at birth. The echocardiography showed a hypertrophic RV with a small cavity, a right–left shunt on the atrial septal defect, an almost closed ductus arteriosus (DA), and a small tricuspid valve ring (Z-score-2) with mild regurgitation (pressure gradient 30 mmHg). On the 4th day of life, the patient showed deepened cyanosis and hyperlactatemia was registered. The echocardiography examination revealed a closed DA. Right ventriculography performed on the 5th day of life evidenced the presence of a small hypertrabeculated RV. The pressure in the RV increased. A right-side MBTS was created on the 6th day of life. Further echocardiographic findings indicated a gradual development of the RV and a decrease in RV pressure. MBTS occlusion was performed when the patient was 8 months old. Vital parameters were monitored invasively and noninvasively after the balloon occlusion of MBTS. Percutaneous MBTS occlusion was successfully performed using an Amplatzer vascular plug 2 (AVP2). During the follow-up period, the patient was found to have maintained a normal percutaneous oxyhaemoglobin blood saturation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Cardiology and Congenital Heart Disease)
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13 pages, 919 KiB  
Article
Fluoroscopy Time as a New Predictor of Short-Term Outcomes after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(11), 459; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10110459 - 13 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1255
Abstract
Background: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is an almost totally cine-fluoroscopic guided procedure. The amount of radiation used during the procedure is strictly related to the fluoroscopy time (FT), that has already been demonstrated to be associated with outcomes and complexity of coronary [...] Read more.
Background: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is an almost totally cine-fluoroscopic guided procedure. The amount of radiation used during the procedure is strictly related to the fluoroscopy time (FT), that has already been demonstrated to be associated with outcomes and complexity of coronary procedures. The aim of our study is to demonstrate the relationship between FT and the short-term outcomes after TAVR defined by to the Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC)-2 and -3 consensus documents. Methods: After splitting 1797 consecutive patients into tertiles of FT, the composite endpoint early safety (ES) was adjudicated according to VARC-2 and VARC-3 definitions, whereas the composite endpoints device success (DS) and technical success (TS) according to VARC-3 criteria. Results: The absence of all these outcomes (VARC-2 ES amd VARC-3 TS, DS, and ES) was significantly associated with longer FT: this association was independent from both intraprocedural complications and other intraprocedural factors linked to longer FT, and still persisted after propensity score matching analysis. Notwithstanding, after receiver operating characteristic analysis, FT had adequate diagnostic accuracy in identifying the absence of only VARC-3 TS and VARC-2 ES. Conclusion: Longer FT is related with periprocedural and short-term outcomes after the procedure, especially in those that are more challenging. A FT duration of more than 30 min has an adequate accuracy in identifying VARC-3 technical failure (TS and DS) and absence of VARC-2 ES, selecting patients who are likely to take advantage from more careful in-hospital follow-up. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Aortic Valve Surgery)
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24 pages, 1855 KiB  
Review
Diagnosis and Management of Atrial Fibrillation in Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Setting of Reperfusion Therapy: Insights and Strategies for Optimized Care
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(11), 458; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10110458 - 12 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1878
Abstract
Reperfusion therapy in the form of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) and endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) has revolutionised the field of stroke medicine. Atrial fibrillation (AF) patients constitute a major portion of the overall stroke population; however, the prevalence of AF amongst acute ischemic stroke (AIS) [...] Read more.
Reperfusion therapy in the form of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) and endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) has revolutionised the field of stroke medicine. Atrial fibrillation (AF) patients constitute a major portion of the overall stroke population; however, the prevalence of AF amongst acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients receiving reperfusion therapy remains unclear. Limitations in our understanding of prevalence in this group of patients are exacerbated by difficulties in appropriately diagnosing AF. Additionally, the benefits of reperfusion therapy are not consistent across all subgroups of AIS patients. More specifically, AIS patients with AF often tend to have poor prognoses despite treatment relative to those without AF. This article aims to present an overview of the diagnostic and therapeutic management of AF and how it mediates outcomes following stroke, most specifically in AIS patients treated with reperfusion therapy. We provide unique insights into AF prevalence and outcomes that could allow healthcare professionals to optimise the treatment and prognosis for AIS patients with AF. Specific indications on acute neurovascular management and secondary stroke prevention in AIS patients with AF are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stroke: Risk Factors, Mechanisms, Outcomes and Ethnicity)
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10 pages, 4899 KiB  
Article
Surgical Strategy for Sternal Closure in Patients with Surgical Myocardial Revascularization Using Mammary Arteries
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(11), 457; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10110457 - 11 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1229
Abstract
Background: Coronary artery bypass grafting has evolved from all venous grafts to bilateral mammary artery (BIMA) grafting. This was possible due to the long-term patency of the left and right internal mammary demonstrated in angiography studies compared to venous grafts. However, despite higher [...] Read more.
Background: Coronary artery bypass grafting has evolved from all venous grafts to bilateral mammary artery (BIMA) grafting. This was possible due to the long-term patency of the left and right internal mammary demonstrated in angiography studies compared to venous grafts. However, despite higher survival rates when using bilateral mammary arteries, multiple studies report a higher rate of surgical site infections, most notably deep sternal wound infections, a so-called “never event”. Methods: We designed a prospective study between 1 January 2022 and 31 December 2022 and included all patients proposed for total arterial myocardial revascularization in order to investigate the rate of surgical site infections (SSI). Chest closure in all patients was performed using a three-step protocol. The first step refers to sternal closure. If the patient’s BMI is below 35 kg/m2, sternal closure is achieved using the “butterfly” technique with standard steel wires. If the patient’s BMI exceeds 35 kg/m2, we use nitinol clips or hybrid wire cable ties according to the surgeon’s preference for sternal closure. The main advantages of these systems are a larger implant-to-bone contact with a reduced risk of bone fracture. The second step refers to presternal fat closure with two resorbable monofilament sutures in a way that the edges of the skin perfectly align at the end. The third step is skin closure combined with negative pressure wound therapy. Results: This system was applied to 217 patients. A total of 197 patients had bilateral mammary artery grafts. We report only 13 (5.9%) superficial SSI and only one (0.46%) deep SSI. The preoperative risk of major wound infection was 3.9 +/− 2.7. Bilateral mammary artery grafting was not associated with surgical site infection in a univariate analysis. Conclusions: We believe this strategy of sternal wound closure can reduce the incidence of deep surgical site infection when two mammary arteries are used in coronary artery bypass surgery. Full article
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7 pages, 1745 KiB  
Case Report
Optimal Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy with Conduction System Pacing Guided by Electro-Anatomical Mapping: A Case Report
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(11), 456; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10110456 - 09 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1045
Abstract
Introduction: Biventricular pacing has been the gold standard for cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with left bundle branch block and severely reduced left ventricular ejection fraction for decades. However, in the past few years, this role has been challenged by the promising results [...] Read more.
Introduction: Biventricular pacing has been the gold standard for cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with left bundle branch block and severely reduced left ventricular ejection fraction for decades. However, in the past few years, this role has been challenged by the promising results of conduction system pacing in these patients, which has proven non-inferior and, at times, superior to biventricular pacing regarding left ventricular function outcomes. One of the most important limitations of both procedures is the long fluoroscopy times. Case description: We present the case of a 60-year-old patient with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy and left bundle branch block in whom conduction system pacing was chosen as the first option for resynchronization therapy. A 3D electro-anatomical mapping system was used to guide the lead to the His bundle region, where correction was observed at high amplitudes, and afterward to the optimal septal penetration site. After reaching the left endocardium, left bundle branch pacing achieved a narrow, paced QRS complex with low fluoroscopy exposure. The three-month follow-up showed a significant improvement in clinical status and left ventricular function. Conclusion: Since conduction system pacing requires a great deal of precision, targeting specific, narrow structures inside the heart, 3D mapping is a valuable tool that increases the chances of success, especially in patients with complex anatomies, such as those with indications for cardiac resynchronization therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiac Device Therapy)
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14 pages, 1949 KiB  
Article
TGFBR1 Variants Can Associate with Non-Syndromic Congenital Heart Disease without Aortopathy
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(11), 455; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10110455 - 09 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1180
Abstract
Background: Congenital heart diseases (CHD) are the most common congenital malformations in newborns and remain the leading cause of mortality among infants under one year old. Molecular diagnosis is crucial to evaluate the recurrence risk and to address future prenatal diagnosis. Here, we [...] Read more.
Background: Congenital heart diseases (CHD) are the most common congenital malformations in newborns and remain the leading cause of mortality among infants under one year old. Molecular diagnosis is crucial to evaluate the recurrence risk and to address future prenatal diagnosis. Here, we describe two families with various forms of inherited non-syndromic CHD and the genetic work-up and resultant findings. Methods: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was employed in both families to uncover the genetic cause. In addition, we performed functional analysis to investigate the consequences of the identified variants in vitro. Results: NGS identified possible causative variants in both families in the protein kinase domain of the TGFBR1 gene. These variants occurred on the same amino acid, but resulted in differently substituted amino acids (p.R398C/p.R398H). Both variants co-segregate with the disease, are extremely rare or unique, and occur in an evolutionary highly conserved domain of the protein. Furthermore, both variants demonstrated a significantly altered TGFBR1-smad signaling activity. Clinical investigation revealed that none of the carriers had (signs of) aortopathy. Conclusion: In conclusion, we describe two families, with various forms of inherited non-syndromic CHD without aortopathies, associated with unique/rare variants in TGFBR1 that display altered TGF-beta signaling. These findings highlight involvement of TGFBR1 in CHD, and warrant consideration of potential causative TGFBR1 variants also in CHD patients without aortopathies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Genetics)
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8 pages, 403 KiB  
Article
Association between Serum Testosterone and Aortic Valve Stenosis: A Prospective Cohort Study
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(11), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10110454 - 09 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1189
Abstract
Serum testosterone is associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, which shares risk factors with aortic stenosis (AS). The association between serum testosterone and AS has not been previously investigated. We aimed to assess the prospective association between serum testosterone and risk of AS. Serum [...] Read more.
Serum testosterone is associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, which shares risk factors with aortic stenosis (AS). The association between serum testosterone and AS has not been previously investigated. We aimed to assess the prospective association between serum testosterone and risk of AS. Serum testosterone was determined at baseline using a radioimmunoassay kit in 2577 men aged 42–61 years recruited into the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease prospective cohort study. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (Cis) were estimated for AS. After a median follow-up of 27.2 years, 119 cases of AS were recorded. The risk of AS increased continuously with increasing serum testosterone across the range 25–39 nmol/L (p-value for nonlinearity = 0.49). In an analysis adjusted for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking status, history of type 2 diabetes, history of coronary heart disease, and alcohol consumption, the HR (95% CI) for AS was 1.39 (1.10–1.76) per 10 nmol/L increase in serum testosterone. When alcohol consumption was replaced with physical activity, the HR (95% CI) was 1.38 (1.09–1.74). Comparing the bottom versus top third of serum testosterone, the corresponding (adjusted) risk estimates were 1.76 (1.11–2.81) and 1.76 (1.10–2.80), respectively. In middle-aged and older Finnish men, elevated levels of serum testosterone were associated with an increased risk of AS. Further research is needed to replicate these findings and assess any potential relevance of serum testosterone in AS prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Cardiovascular Epidemiology)
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9 pages, 858 KiB  
Review
The VEST External Support for Saphenous Vein Grafts in Coronary Surgery: A Review of Randomized Clinical Trials
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(11), 453; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10110453 - 07 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1293
Abstract
Saphenous vein grafts (SVGs) are the most frequently used conduits in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), but their higher rate of occlusion compared to arterial conduits remains a concern. Previous studies have shown that SVG failure is mainly driven by intimal hyperplasia, an [...] Read more.
Saphenous vein grafts (SVGs) are the most frequently used conduits in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), but their higher rate of occlusion compared to arterial conduits remains a concern. Previous studies have shown that SVG failure is mainly driven by intimal hyperplasia, an adaptative response to higher pressures of the arterial circulation. The VESTTM device (Vascular Graft Solutions, Tel Aviv, Israel), an external support designed to mitigate intimal hyperplasia in SVGs, has been tested in few clinical trials (RCTs). Herein, we descriptively evaluated the randomized evidence on the VEST device. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Review Papers in Cardiac Surgery)
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10 pages, 1370 KiB  
Article
Minimally Invasive Surgery for Simple Congenital Heart Defects: Preserving Aesthetics without Jeopardizing Patient Safety
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(11), 452; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10110452 - 06 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1366
Abstract
Minimally invasive surgeries for pediatric patients have been proposed for decades, with different approaches in mind. Minimal right axillary thoracotomy (MRAT), proposed two decades ago, allows the preservation of patients’ safety alongside faster aesthetic and functional recovery. The MRAT did not become widely [...] Read more.
Minimally invasive surgeries for pediatric patients have been proposed for decades, with different approaches in mind. Minimal right axillary thoracotomy (MRAT), proposed two decades ago, allows the preservation of patients’ safety alongside faster aesthetic and functional recovery. The MRAT did not become widely adopted due to the prejudice that to follow a minimally invasive approach, safety and efficacy must be compromised. With this study, we aim to compare MRAT to the standard median sternotomy approach with a focus on safety and clinical outcomes. Between January 2017 and April 2021, 216 patients diagnosed with ASD, pAVSD, or PAPVD underwent surgical repair with different approaches in the same period. MRAT was used for 78 patients, and median sternotomy was used for 138 patients. In this last group, standard median sternotomy (SMS) was used for 116 patients, while a minimal skin incision (SMS mini) was used for 22 patients. There were no major complications overall nor in each specific approach. MRAT enabled the successful repair of simple heart defects, providing similar post-operative and cardiological recovery. MRAT does not compromise patients’ safety and does not prolong the duration of surgery once the learning curve is overcome, which is generally after 15–20 consecutive operations. Full article
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15 pages, 2794 KiB  
Article
The Presence, Location, and Degree of Late Gadolinium Enhancement in Relation to Myocardial Dysfunction and Poor Prognosis in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(11), 451; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10110451 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1299
Abstract
Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) typically develop myocardial fibrosis. No studies have investigated the clinical significance of the presence, location, and degree of fibrosis in SLE patients. Seventy-four SLE patients were included. Thirty-seven non-autoimmune disease patients and thirty-seven healthy individuals were included [...] Read more.
Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) typically develop myocardial fibrosis. No studies have investigated the clinical significance of the presence, location, and degree of fibrosis in SLE patients. Seventy-four SLE patients were included. Thirty-seven non-autoimmune disease patients and thirty-seven healthy individuals were included as controls. Myocardial fibrosis was evaluated at cardiac magnetic resonance via a qualitative and quantitative assessment of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). Myocardial function was measured via speckle-tracking echocardiography. All patients were followed up for the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE). The presence, locations, and degrees of LGE disturbed regional and global myocardial function. The presence of LGE, left ventricular free-wall LGE (LVFW LGE), and severe LGE were all independent predictors of MACE in SLE patients [LGE presence HR: 3.746 (1.434–9.79), p = 0.007; LVFW LGE HR: 2.395 (1.023–5.606), p = 0.044; severe LGE HR: 3.739 (1.241–11.266), p = 0.019]. LGE combined with SLE-related organ damage identified patients at high risk of MACE (p < 0.001). In conclusion, the presence, degree, and location of LGE were associated with myocardial dysfunction. The presence, location, and degree of LGE had the potential to independently predict poor prognosis and improve risk stratification in SLE patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance in Cardiology Practice)
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33 pages, 904 KiB  
Review
Contaminant Metals and Cardiovascular Health
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(11), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10110450 - 31 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1733
Abstract
A growing body of research has begun to link exposure to environmental contaminants, such as heavy metals, with a variety of negative health outcomes. In this paper, we sought to review the current research describing the impact of certain common contaminant metals on [...] Read more.
A growing body of research has begun to link exposure to environmental contaminants, such as heavy metals, with a variety of negative health outcomes. In this paper, we sought to review the current research describing the impact of certain common contaminant metals on cardiovascular (CV) health. We reviewed ten metals: lead, barium, nickel, chromium, cadmium, arsenic, mercury, selenium, zinc, and copper. After a literature review, we briefly summarized the routes of environmental exposure, pathophysiological mechanisms, CV health impacts, and exposure prevention and/or mitigation strategies for each metal. The resulting article discloses a broad spectrum of pathological significance, from relatively benign substances with little to no described effects on CV health, such as chromium and selenium, to substances with a wide-ranging and relatively severe spectrum of CV pathologies, such as arsenic, cadmium, and lead. It is our hope that this article will provide clinicians with a practical overview of the impact of these common environmental contaminants on CV health as well as highlight areas that require further investigation to better understand how these metals impact the incidence and progression of CV diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiovascular Disease: Risk Factors and Prevention)
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13 pages, 489 KiB  
Review
Efficacy and Safety of Iodixanol in Computed Coronary Tomographic Angiography and Cardiac Catheterization
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(11), 449; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10110449 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1455
Abstract
Iodixanol is an iso-osmolar non-ionic dimeric hydrophilic contrast agent with a higher viscosity than the monomeric agents. It is the only Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved iso-osmolar agent in the United States, and it is the only contrast agent with an FDA-approved indication [...] Read more.
Iodixanol is an iso-osmolar non-ionic dimeric hydrophilic contrast agent with a higher viscosity than the monomeric agents. It is the only Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved iso-osmolar agent in the United States, and it is the only contrast agent with an FDA-approved indication for use in cardiac computed tomographic angiography (CCTA), to assist in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected coronary artery disease. In clinical studies, it has been noted to have fewer side effects and similar image quality when compared to low-osmolar contrast media. This can be attributed to the pharmacological properties of iodixanol. These contrast agents are used for coronary computed tomography angiography and cardiac catheterization. In this article, the use, tolerability, and efficacy of iodixanol are reviewed, specifically evaluating the use of CCTA and coronary angiography, including outcome studies, randomized trials, and comparisons to other contrast agents. Full article
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22 pages, 3634 KiB  
Review
Conduction System Pacing for Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(11), 448; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10110448 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1645
Abstract
Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) via biventricular pacing (BiVP-CRT) is considered a mainstay treatment for symptomatic heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction and wide QRS. However, up to one-third of patients receiving BiVP-CRT are considered non-responders to the therapy. Multiple strategies have been [...] Read more.
Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) via biventricular pacing (BiVP-CRT) is considered a mainstay treatment for symptomatic heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction and wide QRS. However, up to one-third of patients receiving BiVP-CRT are considered non-responders to the therapy. Multiple strategies have been proposed to maximize the percentage of CRT responders including two new physiological pacing modalities that have emerged in recent years: His bundle pacing (HBP) and left bundle branch area pacing (LBBAP). Both pacing techniques aim at restoring the normal electrical activation of the ventricles through the native conduction system in opposition to the cell-to-cell activation of conventional right ventricular myocardial pacing. Conduction system pacing (CSP), including both HBP and LBBAP, appears to be a promising pacing modality for delivering CRT and has proven to be safe and feasible in this particular setting. This article will review the current state of the art of CSP-based CRT, its limitations, and future directions. Full article
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12 pages, 1033 KiB  
Review
Cardiovascular Toxicities of Radiation Therapy and Recommended Screening and Surveillance
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(11), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10110447 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1267
Abstract
Radiation therapy is a key part of treatment for many cancers. Vast advancements in the field of radiation oncology have led to a decrease in malignancy-related mortality, which has uncovered some of the long-term side effects of radiation therapy. Specifically, there has been [...] Read more.
Radiation therapy is a key part of treatment for many cancers. Vast advancements in the field of radiation oncology have led to a decrease in malignancy-related mortality, which has uncovered some of the long-term side effects of radiation therapy. Specifically, there has been an increase in research looking into the cardiovascular side effects of chest radiation therapy for cancers of the esophagus, breast, and lung tissue as well as lymphomas. The manifestations of cardiac injury from irradiation range from short-term complications, such as pericarditis, to long-term damage including cardiomyopathy, valvular disease, and conduction disturbances. The aims of this article are to describe the cardiovascular side effects and the associated risk factors, to discuss risk reduction strategies, and to provide guidance in pre-radiation screening, post-radiation surveillance, and the management of these conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiac Complications and Cardiotoxicity of Radiation Therapy)
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11 pages, 726 KiB  
Article
Role of ECLS in Managing Post-Myocardial Infarction Ventricular Septal Rupture
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(11), 446; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10110446 - 30 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1394
Abstract
Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyze outcomes in patients undergoing surgery for ventricular septal rupture (VSR) after myocardial infarction (MI) and the preoperative use of extracorporeal life support (ECLS) as a bridge to surgery. Methods: We included patients undergoing surgery [...] Read more.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyze outcomes in patients undergoing surgery for ventricular septal rupture (VSR) after myocardial infarction (MI) and the preoperative use of extracorporeal life support (ECLS) as a bridge to surgery. Methods: We included patients undergoing surgery for VSR from January 2009 until June 2021 from two centers in Germany. Patients were separated into two groups, those with and without ECLS, before surgery. Pre- and intraoperative data, outcome, and survival during follow-up were evaluated. Results: A total of 47 consecutive patients were included. Twenty-five patients were in the ECLS group, and 22 were in the group without ECLS. All the ECLS-group patients were in cardiogenic shock preoperatively. Most patients in the ECLS group were transferred from another hospital [n = 21 (84%) vs. no-ECLS (n = 12 (57.1%), p = 0.05]. We observed a higher number of postoperative bleeding complications favoring the group without ECLS [n = 6 (28.6%) vs. n = 16 (64%), p < 0.05]. There was no significant difference in the persistence of residual ventricular septal defect (VSD) between groups [ECLS n = 4 (16.7%) and no-ECLS n = 3 (13.6%)], p = 1.0. Total in-hospital mortality was 38.3%. There was no significant difference in in-hospital mortality [n = 6 (27.3%) vs. n = 12 (48%), p = 0.11] and survival at last follow-up between the groups (p = 0.50). Conclusion: We detected no statistical difference in the in-hospital and long-term mortality in patients who received ECLS as supportive therapy after MI-induced VSR compared to those without ECLS. ECLS could be an effective procedure applied as a bridge to surgery in patients with VSR and cardiogenic shock. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Mechanical Circulatory Support in Heart Failure)
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13 pages, 969 KiB  
Article
Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Mortality, Cost, Complications, and Disparities after Radiation Therapy: Artificial Intelligence-Augmented, Cost Effectiveness, and Computational Ethical Analysis
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(11), 445; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10110445 - 30 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1384
Abstract
The optimal cardio-oncology management of radiation therapy and its complications are unknown despite the high patient and societal costs. This study is the first known nationally representative, multi-year, artificial intelligence and propensity score-augmented causal clinical inference and computational ethical and policy analysis of [...] Read more.
The optimal cardio-oncology management of radiation therapy and its complications are unknown despite the high patient and societal costs. This study is the first known nationally representative, multi-year, artificial intelligence and propensity score-augmented causal clinical inference and computational ethical and policy analysis of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) mortality, cost, and disparities including by primary malignancy following radiation therapy. Bayesian Machine learning-augmented Propensity Score translational (BAM-PS) statistics were conducted in the 2016–2020 National Inpatient Sample. Of the 148,755,036 adult hospitalizations, 2,229,285 (1.50%) had a history of radiation therapy, of whom, 67,450 (3.00%) had an inpatient AMI, and of whom, 18,400 (28.69%) underwent PCI. Post-AMI mortality, costs, and complications were comparable with and without radiation across cancers in general and across the 30 primary malignancies tested, except for breast cancer, in which PCI significantly increased mortality (OR 3.70, 95%CI 1.10–12.43, p = 0.035). In addition to significant sex, race, and insurance disparities, significant regional disparities were associated with nearly 50 extra inpatient deaths and over USD 500 million lost. This large clinical, cost, and pluralistic ethical analysis suggests PCI when clinically indicated should be provided to patients regardless of sex, race, insurance, or region to generate significant improvements in population health, cost savings, and social equity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiac Complications and Cardiotoxicity of Radiation Therapy)
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12 pages, 3581 KiB  
Article
A Comparative Assessment of Myocardial Work Performance during Spontaneous Rhythm, His Bundle Pacing, and Left Bundle Branch Area Pacing: Insights from the EMPATHY Study
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(11), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10110444 - 27 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1328
Abstract
Background: Physiological pacing has gained significant interest due to its potential to achieve optimal hemodynamic response. This study aimed to assess left ventricular performance in terms of electrical parameters, specifically QRS duration and mechanical performance, evaluated as myocardial work. We compared His Bundle [...] Read more.
Background: Physiological pacing has gained significant interest due to its potential to achieve optimal hemodynamic response. This study aimed to assess left ventricular performance in terms of electrical parameters, specifically QRS duration and mechanical performance, evaluated as myocardial work. We compared His Bundle Pacing (HBP) and Left Bundle Branch Area Pacing (LBBAP) to evaluate their effects. Methods: Twenty-four patients with class I or IIa indications for pacing were enrolled in this study, with twelve patients undergoing HBP implantation and another twelve undergoing LBBAP implantation. A comprehensive analysis of myocardial work was conducted. Results: Our findings indicate that there were no major differences in terms of spontaneous and HBP activation in myocardial work, except for global wasted work (217 mmHg% vs. 283 mmHg%; p 0.016) and global work efficiency (87 mmHg% vs. 82 mmHg%; p 0.049). No significant differences were observed in myocardial work between spontaneous activation and LBBAP. Similarly, no significant differences in myocardial work were found between HBP and LBBAP. Conclusions: Both pacing modalities provide physiological ventricular activation without significant differences when compared to each other. Moreover, there were no significant differences in QRS duration between HBP and LBBAP. However, LBBAP demonstrated advantages in terms of feasibility, as it achieved better lead electrical parameters compared to HBP (threshold@0.4 ms 0.6 V vs. 1 V; p = 0.045—sensing 9.4 mV vs. 2.4 mV; p < 0.001). Additionally, LBBAP required less fluoroscopy time (6 min vs. 13 min; p = 0.010) and procedural time (81 min vs. 125 min; p = 0.004) compared to HBP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiac Device Therapy)
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12 pages, 1137 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Perfusion Computed Tomography for the Assessment of Concomitant Coronary Artery Disease in Patients with a History of Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty for Chronic Limb-Threatening Ischemia—A Pilot Study
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(11), 443; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10110443 - 25 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1243
Abstract
Background: Chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI) is associated with high rates of long-term cardiovascular mortality. Exercise stress testing to detect obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) can be difficult in this subset of patients due to inability to undergo exercise testing, presence of balanced ischemia [...] Read more.
Background: Chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI) is associated with high rates of long-term cardiovascular mortality. Exercise stress testing to detect obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) can be difficult in this subset of patients due to inability to undergo exercise testing, presence of balanced ischemia and severe coronary artery calcification (CAC). Aim: To test the feasibility of regadenoson stress dynamic perfusion computed tomography (DPCT) in CLTI patients. Methods: Between 2018 and 2023, coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) and, in the case of a calcium score higher than 400, DPCT, were performed in 25 CLTI patients with a history of endovascular revascularization. Results: Of the 25 patients, 19 had a calcium score higher than 400, requiring DPCT image acquisition. Obstructive CAD could be ruled out in 10 of the 25 patients. Of the 15 CTA/DPCT+ patients, 13 proceeded to coronary angiography (CAG). Revascularization was necessary in all 13 patients. In these 13 patients, vessel-based sensitivity and specificity of coronary CTA/DPCT as compared to invasive evaluation was 75%, respectively. At follow-up (27 ± 21 months) there was no statistically significant difference in all-cause mortality between CTA/DPCT- positive and -negative patients (p = 0.065). Conclusions: Despite a high prevalence of severe CAC, coronary CTA complemented by DPCT may be a feasible method to detect obstructive and functionally significant CAD in CLTI patients. Full article
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12 pages, 836 KiB  
Article
Change in Right-to-Left Shunt Fraction in Patients with Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension after Pulmonary Endarterectomy
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(11), 442; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10110442 - 25 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1210
Abstract
Background: Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) is the treatment of choice for patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) with accessible lesions. Breathing pure oxygen (hyperoxia) during right heart catheterization (RHC) allows for the calculation of the right-to-left shunt fraction (Qs/Qt). In the absence of [...] Read more.
Background: Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) is the treatment of choice for patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) with accessible lesions. Breathing pure oxygen (hyperoxia) during right heart catheterization (RHC) allows for the calculation of the right-to-left shunt fraction (Qs/Qt). In the absence of intracardiac shunt, Qs/Qt can be used as a marker of ventilation–perfusion mismatch in patients with CTEPH. This study involved investigating Qs/Qt after PEA and its relation to other disease-specific outcomes. Study design and Methods: This study is a retrospective study that focuses on patients with operable CTEPH who had Qs/Qt assessment during RHC before and 1 year after PEA. Additionally, 6 min walking distance (6MWD), WHO functional class (WHO-FC), and NT-proBNP were assessed to calculate a four-strata risk score. Results: Overall, 16 patients (6 females) with a median age of 66 years (quartiles 55; 74) were included. After PEA, an improvement in mean pulmonary artery pressure (38 [32; 41] to 24 [18; 28] mmHg), pulmonary vascular resistance (5.7 [4.0; 6.8] to 2.5 [1.4; 3.8] WU), oxygen saturation (92 [88; 93]% to 94 [93; 95]%), WHO-FC, and risk score was observed (all p < 0.05). No improvement in median Qs/Qt could be detected (13.7 [10.0; 17.5]% to 13.0 [11.2; 15.6]%, p = 0.679). A total of 7 patients with improved Qs/Qt had a significant reduction in risk score compared to those without improved Qs/Qt. Conclusion: PEA did not alter Qs/Qt assessed after 1 year in operable CTEPH despite an improvement in hemodynamics and risk score, potentially indicating a persistent microvasculopathy. In patients whose shunt fraction improved with PEA, the reduced shunt was associated with an improvement in risk score. Full article
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