Next Article in Journal
Phytochemical and Structural Changes of Chickpea Beverage Prepared Using Ultrasound-Assisted Fermentation with Optimized Ultrasound Parameters Modelled by Response Surface Methodology
Previous Article in Journal
Exploring the Mineral Composition of Grapevine Canes for Wood Chip Applications in Alcoholic Beverage Production to Enhance Viticulture Sustainability
Previous Article in Special Issue
Large-Scale and Online Retailer Assortment: The Case of Plant-Based Beverages as Alternatives to Cow’s Milk
Font Type:
Arial Georgia Verdana
Font Size:
Aa Aa Aa
Line Spacing:
Column Width:

Perceptions of Probiotics and Kombucha Consumption in Relation to Emotion Regulation: An Exploratory Study Comparing Portugal and Brazil

Human Neurobehavioural Laboratory, Research Centre for Human Development, Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Rua de Diogo Botelho, 1327, 4169-005 Porto, Portugal
Departamento de Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal 1524, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Beverages 2023, 9(3), 61;
Received: 29 May 2023 / Revised: 19 July 2023 / Accepted: 20 July 2023 / Published: 24 July 2023


Probiotic products have been the focus of research for several years due to the potential of their biological properties to impact mental health, mood, and cognitive functions. Kombucha is a probiotic drink that has been reported to be beneficial for mental health, particularly at the level of emotion regulation. This study aims to understand the perception of the Portuguese and Brazilian populations regarding the consumption of probiotics and Kombucha, as well as to understand these consumers’ perceptions related to the impact on emotion regulation (and the impact of this consumption on emotion regulation). The research was conducted through an online questionnaire and had a total sample of 256 participants. The results show that there are no statistically significant differences between the consumption of probiotics and Kombucha when comparing the Portuguese and Brazilian samples. Additionally, this study reveals a significant association between probiotic consumption patterns in both the Portuguese and Brazilian samples. However, no statistically significant relationship was found between the consumption of probiotics and Kombucha and emotion regulation. This study intends to contribute to the increase in knowledge about the perception of probiotics and Kombucha consumption in relation to emotion regulation, and to draw attention to the importance of this topic in the community (society, academia, and industry).

1. Introduction

The population’s concern for both physical and mental health has been growing. To keep up with this growing concern, the development and demand for food that benefits human health have been increasing exponentially [1]. Probiotic products are a recent example of a food product that has awakened interest and consumption [2]. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) define probiotics as live microorganisms that, when ingested in sufficient quantities, offer health benefits to their host [3]. These microorganisms help to balance the intestinal mucosa and promote the prevention and treatment of several pathologies [3]. Some studies have reported the association of probiotic consumption with their effectiveness in regulating intestinal microbiota, controlling gastrointestinal infections, improving the absorption of certain nutrients, reducing cholesterol levels, stimulating the immune system, and influencing psychological aspects, such as mood and cognitive functions [4,5]. On the other hand, the literature has reported an association between probiotic consumption and decreased stress levels, improved well-being, and more stable emotion regulation [6,7,8,9].
This relationship between microorganisms and brain impact has driven researchers to understand the bidirectional gut–brain axis [10,11,12]. The recent literature has reported the relationship between the intestinal microbiota and the brain [6,7,13]. Several studies have indicated that changes in the intestinal microbial community influence the central nervous system and may be involved in the development of pathologies such as depression, anxiety, Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, disorders of the autism spectrum, and other mental disorders [8,14,15,16]. In this way, intestinal microbiota such as Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium have been proven to offer therapeutic effects on mental illness. In addition, microbiota secrete neurotransmitters such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and catecholamine, which have the potential to regulate nerve signals by influencing brain mechanisms [17].
This study pays particular attention to the probiotic product known as Kombucha, whose consumption has been increasing, particularly in the European context. Kombucha is a fermented drink developed from tea and a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeasts (SCOBY), accommodated on a cellulosic basis. Following fermentation, Kombucha is composed of a blend of different chemical elements. These include various substances such as sugars; tea polyphenols; organic food acids; fiber; ethanol; amino acids such as lysine; essential elements such as copper, iron, manganese, nickel, and zinc; water-soluble vitamins (e.g., B and C vitamins); carbon dioxide; antibiotic agents; and hydrolytic enzymes [18,19]. The rise in the popularity of Kombucha occurred simultaneously with the scientific exploration of the microbiome’s impact on health [20,21]. Today, this beverage is considered potentially beneficial for intestinal microbiota, and has evidence to support its impact on health in general [22]. According to the recent literature, Kombucha presents biological properties that are beneficial to health, such as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antidiabetic, detoxifying, antioxidant, and immunostimulant properties [4,23,24,25,26]. Some evidence highlights the neuroprotective effect of Kombucha, which has an impact on neurodegenerative diseases [23,27]. However, there is still a lack of information about this product and its health benefits, and the literature on this topic needs to be increased [28].
Growing evidence suggests that probiotics may play a role in emotion regulation. Research has shown that the intestinal microbiota produces many of the neurotransmitters and hormones (including serotonin, dopamine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid—GABA) that are involved in regulating mood and behavior [29]. Research on the connection between Kombucha and emotion regulation is still limited. Only a few studies have indicated that probiotic consumption could have advantages for psychological health and well-being [30]. However, further investigation is required to completely comprehend the processes that cause these outcomes. The literature has reported the impact of these probiotic products on the gut–brain relation and, consequently, the impact of gut microbiota changes on mental illness [31].
Thus, considering the high standard consumption of probiotic products and Kombucha in society, it is necessary to understand the consumption effects of these products and their influence on emotion regulation. This study compares the results obtained from samples collected in Portugal and Brazil to assess the level of familiarity with probiotic products, namely, Kombucha. Brazil and Portugal have a shared history, resulting in many similarities between the two cultures, but also differences that reflect the divergent paths that the two countries have taken. Additionally, eating habits and social customs are aspects that can vary greatly between cultures [32]. Kombucha first appeared in Brazil and quickly became very popular, particularly among health-conscious consumers as well as investors and entrepreneurs in Brazil’s beverage industry, while it just recently arrived in Portugal [33].
The specific aims of this study are to compare the perception of these products (sources, benefits associated) and their consumption pattern in both countries (Portugal and Brazil); to analyze the age-related differences in each sample; and to investigate the participants’ perception of Kombucha’s impact on emotion regulation.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Participants and Study Design

The sample comprised 256 participants aged between 18 and 76 years and followed a convenience sampling process. Participants were recruited through various methods, including social media outreach, dissemination via marketing channels, and email communication, from October 2022 to November 2022. Inclusion criteria to be included in the study were defined as individuals aged 18 years or over who voluntarily agreed to participate in the study and who agreed to the collection and use of the data anonymously and confidentially.
The platform used in this study was selected to ensure the anonymity and confidentiality of the data. The participants were informed about the study’s objectives and all of them provided written informed consent.
This study was conducted following the guidelines of the Declaration of Helsinki, and ethical clearance was obtained from the Ethics Lab of the Universidade Católica Portuguesa.

2.2. Instruments

A survey was developed with the following different parts: information about sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, nationality, marital status, academic qualifications, and professional activity), physical exercise habits, existence of psychological disorder, sleep quality, health perception, and questions about probiotic and Kombucha consumption (supplementary document). The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) (Gross & John, 2003; Portuguese version of Machado et al., 2008 [34]) was also included to allow for a comparison between the consumption of these products and emotion regulation. The final version of the survey was validated and adjusted as necessary by a team of experienced researchers and some members of the academic community.

2.3. Design Procedure

The instrument was developed and made available through the Qualtrics platform. Through the link, the participants were directed to the study page showing the aims, ethical commitment, and contact of the responsible researcher. The survey also included the informed consent form, which clarified that the data collection and their codification would be made anonymous/confidential. Participants were required to provide their informed consent to participate in the study voluntarily; otherwise, they would not be presented with the questionnaire.

2.4. Statistical Analysis

Quantitative analysis was performed using IBM SPSS software (version Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the sample. Data preprocessing was also performed to validate the information available.
The chi-squared test (χ2) was also used in this study to determine the difference between the responses of study subjects. To analyze Spearman’s correlation results, values below 0.30 were considered weak or nonexistent correlations, values between 0.30 and 0.50 were considered moderate correlations, and values greater than 0.50 were considered strong correlations. A p value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.

3. Results

3.1. Characteristics of the Sample

Of the 251 participants, who were aged between 18 and 76 years old (M = 33.3 years, SD = 15.7), 198 were female and 53 were male. Regarding the nationality of the participants, 78.9% of the participants were of Portuguese nationality, and 21.1% were of Brazilian nationality. Regarding marital status, most participants were single (68.1%).
In relation to academic qualifications, most participants (60.1%) had completed higher education. Regarding main professional activity, 53% were students, and 47% performed other activities (e.g., social worker, teacher, psychologist, pharmacist, engineer, etc.) (Table 1).

3.2. Consumption of Probiotics and Kombucha in the Portuguese and Brazilian Samples

When the consumption pattern of probiotics was analyzed, it was verified that 85.9% of the total sample claimed to be aware of probiotic products; however, 14.1% did not know what these products are. Regarding Kombucha, 67.3% knew of the drink, and 48.6% had tried it; however, 32.7% did not know about it, and more than half of the sample 51.4% had never tried it (Table 2).
The participants were asked about which sources of information enabled them to obtain knowledge about probiotic products. Among the different sources of information mentioned, health professionals (26.2% of the Portuguese sample and 34.1% of the Brazilian sample), social media (24.8% Portuguese and 23.1% Brazilian), and advertisements by marketing campaigns (18.2% Portuguese and 17.6% Brazilian) stood out as the main sources through which participants obtained information about these products (Figure 1).
Another issue explored in the present study is the type of probiotic products that individuals consumed. It was verified that 44.2% of Portuguese and 39.8% of Brazilian participants consumed yogurts, 9% of the total sample consumed supplements sold in supermarkets, 7.7% consumed supplements sold in pharmacies, 9.3% consumed fermented vegetables, 7.4% consumed medication, and 23.8% consumed other products, such as kefir, brown paste, and fermented beverages (Table 3).
Regarding the perception of the benefits associated with the consumption of probiotic products, the following results were found: 25.2% of the participants associated the use of probiotics with the balance of the gastrointestinal tract, 23.2% associated probiotic use with the improvement of the immune system, 20.7% associated probiotic use with mental health (improvement of mental health and emotion regulation), and 1.8% associated probiotic use with antidiabetic effects (Table 4).
On the other hand, when the perceptions about Kombucha consumption were analyzed, it was found that the majority of the participants (32.5%) related this product to the improvement of gastrointestinal activity, 22% mentioned the anti-inflammatory effect, 13.9% associated Kombucha consumption with emotion regulation and antibacterial effect, and 9.7% associated Kombucha consumption with the improvement of cognitive functions (Table 5).
According to the results obtained (χ2(1) = 160.7, p < 0.001), it is possible to state that there is a significant association between the consumption pattern of probiotics and Kombucha in the total sample.
Concerning the pattern of probiotic and Kombucha consumption, most of the sample indicated that they had never tried Kombucha (56.3%), while only 15.6% reported the same regarding probiotics. While Kombucha consumption was relatively infrequent, almost half of the entire sample reported consuming probiotics frequently (i.e., daily or weekly). However, only approximately 20% of the respondents reported consuming Kombucha with the same frequency, while almost 80% reported rare or no consumption of this beverage (Figure 2).
To characterize consumption according to the age of the participants, the sample was divided into three subgroups according to broader categories, namely, ‘young’, ‘adults’, and ‘seniors’ (18–35 years; 36–53 years; 54–76 years), to minimize bias and increase the generalizability of the findings. Probiotic consumption is prevalent in the youngest age group (18–35 years) (Table 6). Similarly, there is a higher consumption of Kombucha among the younger age group (18–35). However, this consumption is lower compared to the consumption of probiotics.
When comparing the probiotic consumption pattern between the Portuguese and Brazilian samples, which was categorized into five groups (daily, weekly, monthly, rarely, and never), a significant association was seen in which the probiotic consumption pattern in the Portuguese sample was closely linked to that of the Brazilian sample (χ2(6) = 21.9, p = 0.001) (Figure 3).
Similarly, according to the results obtained (χ2(5) = 12.6, p = 0.027), it is possible to affirm that there is a significant positive association between the consumption patterns of Kombucha in the Portuguese and Brazilian samples. Figure 4 displays the frequency of consumption of Kombucha for each sample. Almost half (46.6%) of the participants in Brazil had never consumed Kombucha, while more than half of the participants in Portugal (60.1%) reported that they had never consumed Kombucha.

3.3. Impact of Probiotics and Kombucha Consumption on Emotion Regulation

Subsequently, the relationship between probiotic consumption and self-reported emotion regulation capacity was evaluated. The results show that there is no statistically significant association between the patterns of probiotics and Kombucha consumption, considering the means obtained via the ERQ as a metric (rs = –0.20, p = 0.747). The participants who consumed probiotics (M = 39.91, SD = 7.52) and Kombucha (M = 39.07, SD = 7.2) daily showed high scores on the ERQ. However, only a small percentage of the total participants consumed these products daily (32.4%) compared to those who never consumed them (71.9%), especially Kombucha (56.3%).
Therefore, the consumption pattern of probiotics and Kombucha in this sample is not associated with the reported pattern of emotion regulation, according to the data collected from the ERQ (Table 7).

4. Discussion

Recently, probiotics and Kombucha have gained popularity as dietary supplements, with a considerable increase in the consumption of these products in daily routines [35]. The encouragement of the consumption of functional products in place of soft drinks may have triggered this increase in consumption [35]. It is therefore important to know the consumption and perception that consumers have of these products and their impact on health, particularly mental health. It was verified that most of the participants reported having knowledge about probiotic products and Kombucha. This information was obtained through different sources, such as health professionals (doctors, pharmacists, nurses), social networks (mainly Facebook, Instagram), and advertising (television, magazines), among others. Previous studies corroborated these results [36,37,38] and showed that the source from which information is obtained is important and can influence consumption. For example, when participants were confronted with the statement, “Would you consume probiotics more frequently if advised by your doctor”, 78.1% of participants gave an affirmative answer.
Therefore, it is important to increase health literacy about this topic. Percup and colleagues emphasize that there needs to be more general knowledge about the concept of probiotics and that there is a growing need for information disclosure (about the association between the consumption of probiotics and health benefits) that should be provided by health professionals [28]. Additionally, when analyzing the participants’ perception of the benefits of consuming these products, it was found that most participants mentioned the effect on the gastrointestinal system (i.e., the balance of the gastrointestinal tract and stimulation of bacterial growth in the intestine). In fact, this is one of the main causes of probiotic consumption, and several authors mention that there is a growing interest in the population concerning the potential benefits of probiotics for the improvement of gastrointestinal health and digestion [29,30,31]. However, other benefits have been reported in the literature, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, antidiabetic, and anticancer activity, as well as a reduction in cholesterol concentration and an improvement of the hepatic metabolism, immune system, and gastrointestinal functions [1,24,29]. Additionally, the impact of these products on mental health and emotion regulation has also been investigated, although this effect is not well known or referenced.
This study also verifies that there is an association between the consumption of probiotics and Kombucha in the total sample of participants, and most individuals who consume probiotics also consume Kombucha. However, the consumption of Kombucha is lower than the consumption of probiotics.
The association between the individual’s age and the probiotic and Kombucha consumption patterns was analyzed, showing that a higher consumption occurs in the 18–36 age group. This higher consumption pattern in the younger age group is corroborated by Tanemura and Hamadate [32], whose results show that young adult individuals with healthier lifestyles have a more in-depth knowledge of gastrointestinal health and the benefits of probiotic consumption, and are the most likely to consume this type of product.
Regarding gender, the results show a low consumption in females. It should be noted that the lack of information on the effects of probiotics may affect the percentage of consumption. When participants were asked if they “Would consume more Kombucha if it had more information available on its benefit”, the percentage of positive answers was 68%. This proves the importance of information in this area and the lack of literacy regarding the benefits of this fermented drink in physical and mental health [9,31].
On the other hand, the lack of information on the labels of the drink may also have an influence on the consumption of the drink. Christoph and collaborators [36] claim that before buying food or drinks, consumers pay attention to information, such as calories (71%) and sugar (34%). In this study, when the participants were asked about if “the information highlighted in the labels is relevant to me”, 88.7% answered affirmatively, showing the importance of the contents present in the product labels. Several authors mention that both the knowledge of certain products and their effects can contribute positively to consumer decision making [29,32,36].
Thus, although there is an increasing number of probiotic products available on the market, the underconsumption of these products is often associated with slightly higher prices due to the lack of disclosure [29]. The question of “would buy more probiotics if they were cheaper” had a representability of 64.1% of affirmative answers. Similarly, when the participants were asked about the perception of probiotic products as expensive, 65.6% of participants also said “yes”.
Subsequently, the differences found between the consumption pattern of probiotics and Kombucha in the Portuguese and Brazilian samples were not statistically significant. In other words, the consumption pattern between the two samples is similar. However, these results may be conditioned by a lack of information. In the study conducted by Bressa and colleagues about the perception and attitudes of young students toward functional foods (e.g., probiotics), they verified that more than half of the respondents were unfamiliar with the concept; however, they would buy this type of product in the future if more information on the benefits was made available [37]. Additionally, a study was carried out on 104 students, with the objective of assessing knowledge and awareness of probiotics among students. The authors concluded that 94.1% of consumers were familiar with the concept, and more than half of the respondents (52%) had taken probiotics for gastrointestinal purposes, thus highlighting the need for increasing awareness about other benefits for health [39].
Finally, the sample’s perception of the impact of consuming these products on emotion regulation did not show a statistically significant association, proving that there is no association between the two variables. These results do not resemble the results obtained in previous studies; however, the total sample of the present study presents a sociodemographic imbalance (age, gender, academic qualifications, marital status, professional activity, etc.) [4,12,38]. Therefore, these results may also be associated with the high representativeness of the female gender. According to the literature, this gender presents a greater vulnerability to stress and mental health impairment, both at the level of depressive and anxious symptomatology [39]. This situation may have influenced the mean obtained in the ERQ.

5. Limitations and Strengths of the Study

The analysis of this study also reflected on the limitations of the study. Therefore, some limitations should be considered when interpreting the results obtained. The first limitation is the fact that the sample is not representative of the Portuguese and Brazilian populations, and the interpretation of the results obtained cannot be generalized. We acknowledge that the size of our study group may restrict the generalizability of the findings to a larger population. However, even with a small sample size, our research contributes to the existing body of knowledge by offering nuanced insights within a specific context since generalizability is not the sole criterion for the value and significance of a study.
Second, it was not possible to obtain equity in the representation of the genders. The total sample presents a sociodemographic imbalance, which presupposes a prudent interpretation of the data. However, limitations related to sample imbalances are variables that researchers cannot control since the data collection followed a convenience sampling process. According to Goubet and colleagues, female participants have a higher motivation to participate in health-related studies than male participants [40]. Third, these gender differences also need to be taken into account with regard to emotional regulation processes, including the strategies used and neuronal systems involved [19]. According to the results obtained, 44.1% of female participants are currently receiving psychological/psychiatric follow-up (which may influence the total score of the ERQ). Finally, it is important to consider the fact that a short psychological assessment instrument (ERQ) was applied, limiting the observed results [35]. When the results of self-reporting instruments are evaluated, questions such as social desirability cannot be overlooked, and there may be a bias in the participants’ responses. Moreover, answering several questions at once can often be influenced by the context in which the individual is present, as well as by other factors (perception of well-being, tolerance, and tiredness) [21]. However, these findings can be valuable for researchers, practitioners, and policymakers who are interested in understanding the perspectives and behaviors of the specific group under investigation.
On the other hand, this study has strengths, such as being an exploratory study that aims to address the need to obtain information on the population about the consumption of these products, why they consume them, how much they consume, what they know about these products, and the perception they have about the impact on physical health and mental health.
This study draws attention to the need for further studies on these products, namely, clinical studies that prove the benefits reported in the literature. Knowledge of these products is still very much focused on physical well-being, but more studies are needed to prove their benefits on a mental health level.
Conversely, the increasing consumption of probiotics worldwide and the incentive to consider them as healthier products and as belonging to a wellness market may be considered worrying, since in many countries, there is no regulation of this product, which may affect consumer safety [35].
This work also aims to draw attention to the need for increased literacy on this issue.

6. Conclusions and Perspectives

In conclusion, the growing demand and interest in Kombucha and probiotics have led to an increased study of their potential benefits. As these products have been associated with positive benefits for physical and mental health, it is important to understand consumers’ perceptions, particularly in terms of their knowledge and consumption habits.
This exploratory study also highlights the importance of making more efforts in terms of research in this area. For instance, in terms of its impact on psychological functioning, particularly on cognitive and affective levels, there needs to be more studies in this area. This article and future works aim to draw attention to the need for an increase in clinical studies on these products, as well as the need for regulatory guidelines for their production and marketing. This need is urgent as the consumption of these products is increasing.
The collaboration between industries and academia to validate products and conduct robust studies before releasing them on the market has gained significant importance in recent years. This partnership is driven by several factors and mutual benefits that both parties can derive from such collaborations. Collaborating with academia can facilitate knowledge exchange, enabling industries to stay updated with the latest advancements and trends in their respective fields. Conversely, academia benefits from industry partnerships by gaining access to real-world data, practical challenges, and industry-specific expertise. This symbiotic relationship fosters a conducive environment for conducting robust studies and releasing products with increased confidence and reliability on the market.

Supplementary Materials

The following supporting information can be downloaded at:

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, P.B.; methodology, P.B.; investigation, M.G. and M.A.; writing—original draft preparation, M.G.; writing—review and editing, P.B. and P.O.-S.; supervision, P.O.-S. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


The present publication is supported by CEDH, through the CEECINST/00137/2018 and Project UIDB/04872/2020 of Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT), Portugal.

Institutional Review Board Statement

This study complies with all ethical procedures required by the institutions involved, as well as the principles expressed in the Declaration of Helsinki. Furthermore, this project also relies on a favorable ethical opinion that was carried out by the “Ethics Lab” of the “Institute of Bioethics” of the Universidade Católica Portuguesa (reference number 018/2018). Additionally, this project received a favorable opinion from the “National Data Protection Commission” (Proc. No 6129/2018).

Data Availability Statement

Not applicable.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


  1. Yousefi, B.; Eslami, M.; Ghasemian, A.; Kokhaei, P.; Salek Farrokhi, A.; Darabi, N. Probiotics importance and their immunomodulatory properties. J. Cell. Physiol. 2019, 234, 8008–8018. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Heinen, E.; Ahnen, R.T.; Slavin, J. Fermented Foods and the Gut Microbiome. Nutr. Today 2020, 55, 163–167. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  3. Sanders, M.E.; Merenstein, D.; Merrifield, C.A.; Hutkins, R. Probiotics for human use. Nutr. Bull. 2018, 43, 212–225. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  4. Dahiya, D.; Nigam, P.S. Clinical Potential of Microbial Strains, Used in Fermentation for Probiotic Food, Beverages and in Synbiotic Supplements, as Psychobiotics for Cognitive Treatment through Gut–Brain Signaling. Microorganisms 2022, 10, 1687. [Google Scholar]
  5. Rea, K.; Dinan, T.G.; Cryan, J.F. Gut Microbiota: A Perspective for Psychiatrists. Neuropsychobiology 2020, 79, 50–62. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  6. Cheng, W.-Y.; Ho, Y.-S.; Chang, R.C.-C. Linking circadian rhythms to microbiome-gut-brain axis in aging-associated neurodegenerative diseases. Ageing Res. Rev. 2022, 78, 101620. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  7. Sharma, R.; Gupta, D.; Mehrotra, R.; Mago, P. Psychobiotics: The Next-Generation Probiotics for the Brain. Curr. Microbiol. 2021, 78, 449–463. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  8. Wang, Y.; Xie, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Ma, W.; Ning, K.; Xiang, J.-Y.; Cui, J.; Xiang, H. Combination of probiotics with different functions alleviate DSS-induced colitis by regulating intestinal microbiota, IL-10, and barrier function. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2020, 104, 335–349. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  9. Kazemi, A.; Noorbala, A.A.; Azam, K.; Eskandari, M.H.; Djafarian, K. Effect of probiotic and prebiotic vs placebo on psychological outcomes in patients with major depressive disorder: A randomized clinical trial. Clin. Nutr. 2019, 38, 522–528. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  10. Casertano, M.; Fogliano, V.; Ercolini, D. Psychobiotics, gut microbiota and fermented foods can help preserving mental health. Food Res. Int. 2022, 152, 110892. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  11. Fried, S.; Wemelle, E.; Cani, P.D.; Knauf, C. Interactions between the microbiota and enteric nervous system during gut-brain disorders. Neuropharmacology 2021, 197, 108721. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Del Toro-Barbosa, M.; Hurtado-Romero, A.; Garcia-Amezquita, L.E.; García-Cayuela, T. Psychobiotics: Mechanisms of Action, Evaluation Methods and Effectiveness in Applications with Food Products. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3896. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Agirman, G.; Hsiao, E.Y. SnapShot: The microbiota-gut-brain axis. Cell 2021, 184, 2524–2524.e1. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Niu, M.; Li, Q.; Zhang, J.; Wen, F.; Dang, W.; Duan, G.; Li, H.; Ruan, W.; Yang, P.; Guan, C.; et al. Characterization of Intestinal Microbiota and Probiotics Treatment in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in China. Front. Neurol. 2019, 10, 1084. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  15. Sanctuary, M.R.; Kain, J.N.; Chen, S.Y.; Kalanetra, K.; Lemay, D.G.; Rose, D.R.; Yang, H.T.; Tancredi, D.J.; German, J.B.; Slupsky, C.M.; et al. Pilot study of probiotic/colostrum supplementation on gut function in children with autism and gastrointestinal symptoms. PLoS ONE 2019, 14, e0210064. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  16. Li, C.; Niu, Z.; Zou, M.; Liu, S.; Wang, M.; Gu, X.; Lu, H.; Tian, H.; Jha, R. Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics regulate the intestinal microbiota differentially and restore the relative abundance of specific gut microorganisms. J. Dairy Sci. 2020, 103, 5816–5829. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  17. Natale, G.; Ryskalin, L.; Morucci, G.; Lazzeri, G.; Frati, A.; Fornai, F. The Baseline Structure of the Enteric Nervous System and Its Role in Parkinson’s Disease. Life 2021, 11, 732. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  18. Jayabalan, R.; Malbaša, R.V.; Lončar, E.S.; Vitas, J.S.; Sathishkumar, M. A review on kombucha tea—Microbiology, composition, fermentation, beneficial effects, toxicity, and tea fungus. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. 2014, 13, 538–550. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  19. Esatbeyoglu, T.; Sarikaya Aydin, S.; Gültekin Subasi, B.; Erskine, E.; Gök, R.; Ibrahim, S.A.; Yilmaz, B.; Özogul, F.; Capanoglu, E. Additional advances related to the health benefits associated with kombucha consumption. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 2023, 1–18. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  20. Peterson, J.; Garges, S.; Giovanni, M.; McInnes, P.; Wang, L.; Schloss, J.A.; Bonazzi, V.; McEwen, J.E.; Wetterstrand, K.A.; Deal, C.; et al. The NIH Human Microbiome Project. Genome Res. 2009, 19, 2317–2323. [Google Scholar]
  21. de Campos Costa, M.A.; de Souza Vilela, D.L.; Fraiz, G.M.; Lopes, I.L.; Coelho, A.I.M.; Castro, L.C.V.; Martin, J.G.P. Effect of kombucha intake on the gut microbiota and obesity-related comorbidities: A systematic review. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 2023, 63, 3851–3866. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  22. Bishop, P.; Pitts, E.R.; Budner, D.; Thompson-Witrick, K.A. Chemical Composition of Kombucha. Beverages 2022, 8, 45. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  23. Permatasari, H.K.; Nurkolis, F.; Augusta, P.S.; Mayulu, N.; Kuswari, M.; Taslim, N.A.; Wewengkang, D.S.; Batubara, S.C.; Ben Gunawan, W. Kombucha tea from seagrapes (Caulerpa racemosa) potential as a functional anti-ageing food: In vitro and in vivo study. Heliyon 2021, 7, e07944. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. Sinir, G.Ö.; Tamer, C.E.; Suna, S. 10—Kombucha Tea: A Promising Fermented Functional Beverage. In Fermented Beverages; Grumezescu, A.M., Holban, A.M., Eds.; Woodhead Publishing: Delhi, India, 2019; pp. 401–432. [Google Scholar]
  25. Villarreal-Soto, S.A.; Beaufort, S.; Bouajila, J.; Souchard, J.-P.; Renard, T.; Rollan, S.; Taillandier, P. Impact of fermentation conditions on the production of bioactive compounds with anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in kombucha tea extracts. Process Biochem. 2019, 83, 44–54. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  26. Villarreal-Soto, S.A.; Bouajila, J.; Pace, M.; Leech, J.; Cotter, P.D.; Souchard, J.-P.; Taillandier, P.; Beaufort, S. Metabolome-microbiome signatures in the fermented beverage, Kombucha. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 2020, 333, 108778. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. Morales, D. Biological activities of kombucha beverages: The need of clinical evidence. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 2020, 105, 323–333. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  28. Batista, P.; Penas, M.R.; Pintado, M.; Oliveira-Silva, P. Kombucha: Perceptions and Future Prospects. Foods 2022, 11, 1977. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  29. Strandwitz, P. Neurotransmitter modulation by the gut microbiota. Brain Res. 2018, 1693, 128–133. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  30. Hill, C.; Guarner, F.; Reid, G.; Gibson, G.R.; Merenstein, D.J.; Pot, B.; Morelli, L.; Canani, R.B.; Flint, H.J.; Salminen, S. The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics consensus statement on the scope and appropriate use of the term probiotic. Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2014, 11, 506–514. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  31. Amirani, E.; Milajerdi, A.; Mirzaei, H.; Jamilian, H.; Mansournia, M.A.; Hallajzadeh, J.; Ghaderi, A. The effects of probiotic supplementation on mental health, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in patients with psychiatric disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Complement. Ther. Med. 2020, 49, 102361. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  32. Guiné, R.P.; Florença, S.G.; Carpes, S.; Anjos, O. Study of the influence of sociodemographic and lifestyle factors on consumption of dairy products: Preliminary study in Portugal and Brazil. Foods 2020, 9, 1775. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. Fernandes, D.; Peixoto, J.; Oltramari, A.P. A quarta onda da imigração brasileira em Portugal: Uma história breve. Rev. Latinoam. De Población 2021, 15, 34–63. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  34. Vaz, F.; Martins, C. Diferenciação e regulação emocional na idade adulta: Validação de dois instrumentos de avaliação do reportório e da capacidade de diferenciação e regulação emocional na idade adulta. In Actas da XIII Conferência Internacional Avaliação Psicológica: Formas e Contextos; CD-ROM; Psiquilíbrios: Braga, Portugal, 2008; p. 12. [Google Scholar]
  35. Barakat, N.; Beaufort, S.; Rizk, Z.; Bouajila, J.; Taillandier, P.; El Rayess, Y. Kombucha analogues around the world: A review. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 2022, 1–25. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. Yilmaz-Ersan, L.; Ozcan, T.; Akpinar-Bayizit, A. Assessment of socio-demographic factors, health status and the knowledge on probiotic dairy products. Food Science and Human Wellness 2020, 9, 272–279. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  37. Precup, G.; Pocol, C.B.; Teleky, B.-E.; Vodnar, D.C. Awareness, Knowledge, and Interest about Prebiotics&mdash;A Study among Romanian Consumers. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 1208. [Google Scholar] [PubMed]
  38. Fenster, K.; Freeburg, B.; Hollard, C.; Wong, C.; Rønhave Laursen, R.; Ouwehand, A.C. The Production and Delivery of Probiotics: A Review of a Practical Approach. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 8. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  39. Patait, M.R.; Saraf, K.V.; Wakchaure, P.M. Assessment of Knowledge and Awareness of Probiotics Among the Dental Post-Graduate Students—A Questionnaire Study. J. Indian Acad. Oral Med. Radiol. 2022, 34, 68–75. [Google Scholar]
  40. Goubet, K.E.; Chrysikou, E.G. Emotion regulation flexibility: Gender differences in context sensitivity and repertoire. Front. Psychol. 2019, 10, 935. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
Figure 1. Sources of dissemination of probiotic products in the total sample of participants.
Figure 1. Sources of dissemination of probiotic products in the total sample of participants.
Beverages 09 00061 g001
Figure 2. Consumption pattern for probiotics and Kombucha in the total sample of participants.
Figure 2. Consumption pattern for probiotics and Kombucha in the total sample of participants.
Beverages 09 00061 g002
Figure 3. Consumption pattern of probiotics in the Portuguese samples and in the Brazilian samples.
Figure 3. Consumption pattern of probiotics in the Portuguese samples and in the Brazilian samples.
Beverages 09 00061 g003
Figure 4. Consumption pattern of Kombucha in the Portuguese sample and Brazilian sample.
Figure 4. Consumption pattern of Kombucha in the Portuguese sample and Brazilian sample.
Beverages 09 00061 g004
Table 1. Sociodemographic characteristics of the participants.
Table 1. Sociodemographic characteristics of the participants.
Age 28.511.645.615
Marital statusSingle13978.13243.8
Academic qualificationsPrimary/basic education10.623
Secondary education8448913.6
Master’s degree3922.31624.2
Professional activityStudent11564.61824.7
Past psychiatric/psychological follow-upYes10962.32737
Current psychiatric/psychological follow-upYes4743.11137.9
Table 2. Perception and knowledge of probiotics and Kombucha in the total sample of participants.
Table 2. Perception and knowledge of probiotics and Kombucha in the total sample of participants.
Portugal Brazil
Do you know what probiotic products are?
Do you know about Kombucha?
Have you consumed Kombucha?
Table 3. Type of probiotic products consumed.
Table 3. Type of probiotic products consumed.
Type of probiotic products
Supplements sold in supermarkets187.81111.8
Supplements sold in pharmacies135.61212.9
Fermented vegetables208.71010.8
Other products6327.31415.1
Table 4. Perception of the benefits associated with the consumption of probiotics.
Table 4. Perception of the benefits associated with the consumption of probiotics.
Benefits associated with the consumption of
Balance of the gastrointestinal tract10323.56128.5
Improvement of the immune system10123.15023.4
Stimulation of bacterial growth in the intestine5913.53415.9
Improvement of mental health5412.3177.9
Emotion regulation5111.6136.1
Improvement of cognitive functions286.4115.1
Prevention of cardiovascular diseases and cancer245.5104.7
Stronger bone structure153.494.2
Antidiabetic effect30.794.2
Table 5. Perception of the benefits associated with Kombucha consumption.
Table 5. Perception of the benefits associated with Kombucha consumption.
Benefits associated with the consumption of Kombucha
Improvement of gastrointestinal activity8030.44437
Anti-inflammatory effect5721.72722.7
Emotion regulation4517.186.7
Antibacterial effect3613.71714.3
Improvement of cognitive functions2810.697.6
Antidiabetic effect124.6108.4
Anti-proliferative effect51.943.4
Table 6. The consumption pattern of probiotics and Kombucha according to age and the total sample of participants.
Table 6. The consumption pattern of probiotics and Kombucha according to age and the total sample of participants.
Frequency of Consumption of Probiotics and Kombucha
Age class
P (probiotics), K (kombucha).
Table 7. Results related to the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire according to frequency of the consumption of probiotics and Kombucha.
Table 7. Results related to the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire according to frequency of the consumption of probiotics and Kombucha.
Frequency of consumption
Disclaimer/Publisher’s Note: The statements, opinions and data contained in all publications are solely those of the individual author(s) and contributor(s) and not of MDPI and/or the editor(s). MDPI and/or the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to people or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content.

Share and Cite

MDPI and ACS Style

Góis, M.; Batista, P.; Araújo, M.; Oliveira-Silva, P. Perceptions of Probiotics and Kombucha Consumption in Relation to Emotion Regulation: An Exploratory Study Comparing Portugal and Brazil. Beverages 2023, 9, 61.

AMA Style

Góis M, Batista P, Araújo M, Oliveira-Silva P. Perceptions of Probiotics and Kombucha Consumption in Relation to Emotion Regulation: An Exploratory Study Comparing Portugal and Brazil. Beverages. 2023; 9(3):61.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Góis, Maria, Patrícia Batista, Magnólia Araújo, and Patrícia Oliveira-Silva. 2023. "Perceptions of Probiotics and Kombucha Consumption in Relation to Emotion Regulation: An Exploratory Study Comparing Portugal and Brazil" Beverages 9, no. 3: 61.

Note that from the first issue of 2016, this journal uses article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Back to TopTop