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Beverages, Volume 9, Issue 2 (June 2023) – 26 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Current global research aims to explore the key role of diet and understand the benefits of a balanced diet. Furthermore, many authors have pointed to the added value of by-products as a solution to make food production chains more environmentally and economically sustainable. By-products emerge as an alternative matrix to fermentation, and the fermentation process has the potential to transform by-products into value-added products through an efficient and sustainable process. During fermentation, besides the consumption of molecules to grow, microbial enzymes act on several phytochemical compounds, creating new derivative compounds that affect the flavour and function of fermented beverages. View this paper
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15 pages, 1083 KiB  
Article
Polyphenols Profile and Antioxidant Activity Characterization of Commercial North Italian Ciders in Relation to Their Geographical Area of Production and Cidermaking Procedures
by Federica Mainente, Simone Vincenzi, Corrado Rizzi and Gabriella Pasini
Beverages 2023, 9(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9020054 - 20 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1356
Abstract
Twenty-four samples of differently produced commercial Italian cider were analyzed for their polyphenols profile and antioxidant activity. A partial least square regression was used to correlate the ciders’ antioxidant activity with their polyphenolic content. Statistical analyses revealed only a clustering pattern in the [...] Read more.
Twenty-four samples of differently produced commercial Italian cider were analyzed for their polyphenols profile and antioxidant activity. A partial least square regression was used to correlate the ciders’ antioxidant activity with their polyphenolic content. Statistical analyses revealed only a clustering pattern in the samples based on their geographical area of production (North-West, NW, vs. North-East, NE). Indeed, NW ciders, compared to NE ones, showed higher antioxidant activity and higher contents of procyanidin B1, catechin, chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, and total polyphenols. On the contrary, no clear-cut clustering pattern determined by cidermaking procedures (i.e., Charmat or Champenoise method) has been observed. These data suggest that the differences observed between NW and NE ciders might be accounted uniquely to the use of different apple varieties and/or the maturation status, as well as the pedoclimatic conditions of their production areas and not for cellar procedures’ specificity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Quality, Nutrition, and Chemistry of Beverages)
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19 pages, 15543 KiB  
Article
When Does Milk Spoil? The Use of Rejection Threshold Methodology to Investigate the Influence of Total Microbial Numbers on the Acceptability of Fresh Chilled Pasteurised Milk
by Mohammad Alothman, Phil J. Bremer, Karen Lusk and Patrick Silcock
Beverages 2023, 9(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9020053 - 19 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1570
Abstract
The consumer rejection threshold (RjT) method was applied to determine the total microbial numbers (TMNs) where consumers find that the quality of whole fresh chilled pasteurised milk (WFCPM) and skim milk (Trim) stored at 4.5 ± 0.5 °C is no longer acceptable. Food [...] Read more.
The consumer rejection threshold (RjT) method was applied to determine the total microbial numbers (TMNs) where consumers find that the quality of whole fresh chilled pasteurised milk (WFCPM) and skim milk (Trim) stored at 4.5 ± 0.5 °C is no longer acceptable. Food spoilage progression was supported by measurements of VOCs and the terms consumers used to describe the ageing fresh chilled pasteurised milk (FCPM). RjTs for TMN of 7.43 and 7.34 log10 CFU.mL−1 for WFCPM and Trim, respectively were derived using Hill’s equation from a series of paired preference tests comparing fresh and aged milks (3–26 days) assessed by consumers (WFCPM, n = 55; Trim, n = 52). A poor relationship between storage time and TMN was found, owing mainly to batch-to-batch and within-batch variation in the milk’s post-pasteurization contamination (PPC) levels. At the RjT, there was a significant change in the signal intensities for a number of spoilage-related VOCs that occurred in the FCPM headspace (p ≤ 0.05), which were measured using proton transfer reaction–mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), including m/z 33, 45, 47, 61, 63, 69, 71, 87, and 89, tentatively identified as methanol; acetaldehyde; ethanol; acetate (acetic acid and acetate esters); dimethyl sulphide (DMS); isoprene, furan, and aldehydes; 2-butanone; and pentanal and butyrates (butyric acid and butyrate esters), respectively. Consumers described the milks at TMN greater than the RjTs using terms like off, expired, sour, spoilt or rancid. This multidisciplinary study has provided data on the importance of PPC and subsequent increases in TMN on VOCs associated with FCPM and consumer’s preferences and highlighted the value of measuring a range of variables when investigating consumer’s perception of food quality and shelf-life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Beverage Technology Fermentation and Microbiology)
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11 pages, 1666 KiB  
Article
Umami in Wine: Impact of Glutamate Concentration and Contact with Lees on the Sensory Profile of Italian White Wines
by Deborah Franceschi, Giovanna Lomolino, Ryo Sato, Simone Vincenzi and Alberto De Iseppi
Beverages 2023, 9(2), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9020052 - 14 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3084
Abstract
Umami is a fundamental taste, associated with the molecules of monosodium glutamate and other amino acids and nucleotides present in many fermented foods and beverages, including wine. Umami also plays the role of flavor enhancer and prolongs the aftertaste. In this research, monosodium [...] Read more.
Umami is a fundamental taste, associated with the molecules of monosodium glutamate and other amino acids and nucleotides present in many fermented foods and beverages, including wine. Umami also plays the role of flavor enhancer and prolongs the aftertaste. In this research, monosodium glutamate and aspartate, responsible for the umami taste, were quantified in Italian still and sparkling white wines aged through contact with yeasts. The wines were studied from a sensory point of view to quantify the perception of umami and relate it to other sensory parameters. The results show that monosodium glutamate and aspartate are present in the wines studied. However, sensory analysis shows that there is no clear relationship between the umami taste and the concentration of the two amino acids, but their presence plays a fundamental role in enhancing other gustatory and olfactory perceptions, making them even more persistent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensory Analysis of Beverages)
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13 pages, 639 KiB  
Review
Recent Trends in Fermented Beverages Processing: The Use of Emerging Technologies
by Mariana Morales-de la Peña, Graciela A. Miranda-Mejía and Olga Martín-Belloso
Beverages 2023, 9(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9020051 - 13 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3588
Abstract
Since ancient times, fermentation has been one of the most utilized techniques for food preservation and for the development of natural products with functional properties at low cost. Nowadays, fermented foods and beverages are highly attractive to consumers since they are perceived as [...] Read more.
Since ancient times, fermentation has been one of the most utilized techniques for food preservation and for the development of natural products with functional properties at low cost. Nowadays, fermented foods and beverages are highly attractive to consumers since they are perceived as natural and potential sources of functional compounds. Research efforts conducted in this area over the years have allowed for an understanding of the main reactions occurring during fermentation related to microbial growth, enzyme activity, metabolite production, and physicochemical changes. As a result, scientists and technologists have been able to improve the fermentation process in terms of efficiency, safety, costs, and high-quality production of products. The aim of this review was to gather the most recent and relevant information about fermentation evolution during the last decades, focused on the application of emerging technologies for the development of fermented beverages as interesting products in the functional food market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights on Traditional Fermented Beverages)
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10 pages, 924 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Hempseed-Added Kombucha for Increasing the Antioxidant Capacity, Protein Concentration, and Total Phenolic Content
by Samanta Reyes-Flores, Taísa Sabrina Silva Pereira and Milena Maria Ramírez-Rodrigues
Beverages 2023, 9(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9020050 - 12 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1824
Abstract
To enhance the effects of kombucha’s beneficial compounds and their functional properties, studies on kombucha fermentation using alternatives ingredients are needed. The aim of this study was to formulate and optimize kombucha using hempseed as a high antioxidant, phenolic compound, and protein contributor. [...] Read more.
To enhance the effects of kombucha’s beneficial compounds and their functional properties, studies on kombucha fermentation using alternatives ingredients are needed. The aim of this study was to formulate and optimize kombucha using hempseed as a high antioxidant, phenolic compound, and protein contributor. An experimental central composite design (CCD) with response surface methodology (RSM) was used for maximizing the antioxidant capacity (AC), total phenolic content (TPC), and protein concentrations (PC) of this product. The optimized infusion concentrations were observed at 0.017% of hempseeds and 0.00046% of black tea leaves. AC was determined by the DPPH+ assay in microplate. TPC was determined in microplate using the Folin–Ciocalteu method. PC was determined by Peterson’s modification of the micro-Lowry method. The optimized kombucha results were 0.134 ± 0.002 mg Trolox Eq/mL for AC, 0.473 ± 0.027 mg GA Eq/mL for TPC, and 6.535 ± 0.477 μg/mL of PC. RSM can be developed to optimize the formulation of kombuchas to increase the amounts of desirables compounds. This study demonstrated that hempseeds added to kombucha have a higher antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, and protein concentration than traditional kombucha. Full article
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17 pages, 932 KiB  
Article
Isotonic Drinks Based on Organic Grape Juice and Naturally Flavored with Herb and Spice Extracts
by Yasmina Bendaali, Cristian Vaquero, Carlos Escott, Carmen González and Antonio Morata
Beverages 2023, 9(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9020049 - 07 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1921
Abstract
The aim of this study was the elaboration of isotonic drinks rich in bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity using organic ingredients and without synthetic additives. Grape juice was used as a natural source of sugars and phenolic compounds, combined with lemon juice and [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was the elaboration of isotonic drinks rich in bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity using organic ingredients and without synthetic additives. Grape juice was used as a natural source of sugars and phenolic compounds, combined with lemon juice and natural flavors from herb and spice extracts. The ingredients were diluted in two types of water with different mineralization, to which three different determined concentrations of salts (sodium chloride and potassium chloride) were added. The beverages had a sugar content ranging from 72.73 ± 0.23 to 78.43 ± 0.06 g/L, total soluble solids between 4.23 ± 0.06 and 4.83 ± 0.29 °Brix, and total acids from 1.75 ± 0.02 to 2.39 ± 0.08 g/L. Generally, antioxidant activity was higher in the beverages flavored with herb and spice extracts, ranging from 3.28 ± 0.01 to 4.27 ± 0.09 µmols Trolox equivalent/mL. Color intensity showed an increase of up to 129.39% in all samples during the storage period, being higher in beverages prepared with high-mineral water and having high pH values. The results of sensory analysis revealed that the flavored beverages had higher values of global perception than the controls. Thus, the functional properties of grape juice have been increased, and these beverages can be alternative natural and healthy products because their formulation is based only on organic and natural ingredients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Wine and Beverage: Fermentation and Conservation Technologies)
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3 pages, 171 KiB  
Editorial
Beverage Industry By-Products as Bio-Resources of Functional Compounds
by Dimitris P. Makris
Beverages 2023, 9(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9020048 - 02 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1113
Abstract
To produce sufficient food for the expanding global population, natural resources are constantly being overused, and at the same time, wastes are being produced at an ever-increasing rate [...] Full article
23 pages, 665 KiB  
Review
Exploring the Potential of Rice, Tiger Nut and Carob for the Development of Fermented Beverages in Spain: A Comprehensive Review on the Production Methodologies Worldwide
by Matteo Vitali, Mónica Gandía, Guadalupe Garcia-Llatas, Juan Antonio Tamayo-Ramos, Antonio Cilla and Amparo Gamero
Beverages 2023, 9(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9020047 - 02 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2784
Abstract
Rice, tiger nut and carob are Mediterranean products suitable for developing new foods, such as fermented beverages, due to their nutritional properties. These crops have a high carbohydrate content, are gluten and lactose-free and have a low allergenicity index. The development of fermented [...] Read more.
Rice, tiger nut and carob are Mediterranean products suitable for developing new foods, such as fermented beverages, due to their nutritional properties. These crops have a high carbohydrate content, are gluten and lactose-free and have a low allergenicity index. The development of fermented beverages from these crops can contribute to the Sustainable Development Goals by promoting human health and sustainable production and consumption. A narrative review of the nutritional value and potential functional activity of fermented beverages made from these crops was carried out. This literature review of existing studies on fermented and non-fermented beverages highlights their composition, production methodology, and health benefits. Fermented beverages made from these crops are high in fiber, essential fatty acids, vitamins (group B), and minerals. Fermentation increases the bioaccessibility of these nutrients while decreasing possible anti-nutritional factors. These fermented beverages offer several health benefits due to their antioxidant effects, modulating the intestinal microbiota and reducing the incidence of chronic degenerative diseases such as metabolic syndrome. Therefore, fermented rice, tiger nut and carob beverages can improve the Spanish diet by offering improved nutritional value and beneficial health effects. Additionally, these local crops promote sustainability, making them an appropriate choice for developing new fermented beverages. Full article
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9 pages, 2358 KiB  
Communication
Sensory Profile of Monferace Wine: An ‘Old-Style’ Vinification Approach for Grignolino, a Red Indigenous Italian Variety
by Maria Carla Cravero, Federica Bonello, Andriani Asproudi, Silvia Gianotti, Mario Ronco and Maurizio Petrozziello
Beverages 2023, 9(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9020046 - 29 May 2023
Viewed by 1246
Abstract
Grignolino is an autochthonous Italian red variety cultivated in Piedmont (north-west Italy), used in high percentages (90–100%) to produce three main different DOC wines, generally consumed young. The Monferace project was born of an idea of 12 winegrowers wanting to create a new [...] Read more.
Grignolino is an autochthonous Italian red variety cultivated in Piedmont (north-west Italy), used in high percentages (90–100%) to produce three main different DOC wines, generally consumed young. The Monferace project was born of an idea of 12 winegrowers wanting to create a new “old style” Grignolino red wine and inspired by ancient winemaking techniques of this variety. Monferace wine is produced following a discipline which gives some guidelines but no indications on the vinification technique or on the variety of wood to be used. The percentage of Grignolino grapes should be 100% and the ageing of 40 months, 24 of which are spent in wooden barrels of differing volumes. The aim of this work is the definition of the sensory profile of Monferace wines during ageing. The sensory analysis on 10 Monferace wines (2019 vintage) was assessed after approximately 11 months of ageing in wood. A trained panel carried out the wine sensory descriptive analysis (sensory profile) with a methodology derived from ISO norms. The results showed that all the wines were characterized by 16 attributes: color (garnet red, orange highlights), odor (rose, violet, nutmeg, pepper, blackberries, cherries, jam/marmalade, dry herbaceous, boisé-oak wood) and taste (acidity, bitterness, astringency, structure (body) and taste–olfactory persistence). Some attributes were, quantitatively, not statistically different: acidity, bitterness, astringency. All the other attributes discriminated the wines with different intensities, and each wine had a specificity. These preliminary results demonstrated the cohesion of sensory attributes among the wines, with individual distinctions within each product, and indicated that Monferace is a very promising wine style for the Grignolino variety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensory Analysis of Beverages)
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18 pages, 673 KiB  
Review
Properties of Fermented Beverages from Food Wastes/By-Products
by Elisabete M. C. Alexandre, Nuno F. B. Aguiar, Glenise B. Voss and Manuela E. Pintado
Beverages 2023, 9(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9020045 - 25 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3536
Abstract
Current global research aims to explore the key role of diet and understand the benefits of a balanced diet. Furthermore, many authors have pointed to the added value of by-products as a solution to make food production chains more environmentally and economically sustainable. [...] Read more.
Current global research aims to explore the key role of diet and understand the benefits of a balanced diet. Furthermore, many authors have pointed to the added value of by-products as a solution to make food production chains more environmentally and economically sustainable. By-products emerge as an alternative matrix to fermentation, and the fermentation process has the potential to transform by-products into value-added products through an efficient and sustainable process. During fermentation, besides the consumption of molecules to grow, microbial enzymes act on several phytochemical compounds, creating new derivative compounds that affect the flavour and function of fermented beverages. As an alternative for consumers with lactose intolerance or vegan or vegetarian diets, new beverages produced from plant by-products and probiotic bacteria hold great promise for the global functional food market. Several challenges were overcome in developing these new products from by-products, namely the availability and quality/standardization of raw materials, adapted microbial starter cultures for fermentation, and optimization of production processes to maximize consumer acceptance and product yield. This review provides an overview of recent research/developments in the field of new fermented beverages from by-products, and aspects related to their functionality, beyond the challenges of these new beverages. Full article
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13 pages, 287 KiB  
Article
Do Consumers Consider the Healthfulness of Wine in Republic of Korea?
by Jinkyung Choi, Jinlin Zhao and Jiin Yang
Beverages 2023, 9(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9020044 - 17 May 2023
Viewed by 1455
Abstract
Purpose: Wine is an alcoholic beverage considered to have health benefits when consumed in moderation. Studies have investigated the healthfulness of wine via various approaches; however, given that wine consumption behavior is evolving, fresh data are needed. There is a paucity of evidence [...] Read more.
Purpose: Wine is an alcoholic beverage considered to have health benefits when consumed in moderation. Studies have investigated the healthfulness of wine via various approaches; however, given that wine consumption behavior is evolving, fresh data are needed. There is a paucity of evidence on the perceived mental health benefits of wine; hence, this study examined consumers’ perceptions of wine healthfulness separately for each physical and mental health benefit and compared them with wine consumption behaviors. Design/methodology/approach: A quantitative data collection method was used. The questionnaires were given to participants in South Korea who had consumed wine in the six months before the survey. A total of 304 responses were collected for further analysis. A paired t-test, ANOVA, and descriptive analysis were used to analyze the data. Findings: This study found that respondents perceived higher mental health benefits than physical health benefits from wine consumption. Demographic characteristics showed significant differences in the mental or physical health benefits of wine. Consumers who believed in the physical health benefits of wine preferred white wine over red wine; however, consumers who believed in the mental health benefits of wine had no preferences. Originality: This study suggests that segmented marketing tools are needed due to the various characteristics of wine consumers. In addition, to encourage a healthy drinking environment, marketing should focus on moderation for both the wine industry and consumers. Furthermore, consumers’ consideration of the mental health benefits of wine consumption cannot be underestimated compared to the physical health benefits of wine consumption; however, wine is also regarded as an alcoholic beverage that needs to be consumed with consideration of health concerns in various restrictions. Full article
17 pages, 1102 KiB  
Article
An Exploratory Research Regarding Greek Consumers’ Behavior on Wine and Wineries’ Character
by Dionysia Sykalia, Yvonni Chrisostomidou and Ioannis K. Karabagias
Beverages 2023, 9(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9020043 - 12 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2264
Abstract
Given the lack of data regarding the preferences, behavior and habits of wine consumers in Greece, the purpose of the present study was to investigate consumer trends and explore the factors that affect the purchase and consumption of wine in comparison with other [...] Read more.
Given the lack of data regarding the preferences, behavior and habits of wine consumers in Greece, the purpose of the present study was to investigate consumer trends and explore the factors that affect the purchase and consumption of wine in comparison with other alcoholic beverages. For this purpose, a self-response questionnaire survey was designed through the Google platform on a sample of 994 participants. In order to analyze the collected data, statistical analysis was done. A second online questionnaire was introduced to Greek winery companies. The purpose was to examine if the wine producers follow the wine consumption trends according to the desires of the Greek wine consumers or are addressed to a more international audience. As for the wine companies’ perspectives, we wanted to collect data regarding the amount of their production and the type of wine they produce and to know about their profile (international, exports, strategies, etc.). We collected 71 responses from wineries located in different parts of Greece. For the first time in the last 10 years, there is a profile of Greek consumers’ behavior toward wine in comparison with other alcoholic beverages and knowledge of specific operational data of Greek wineries using an online questionnaire survey (e-survey). Full article
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12 pages, 1287 KiB  
Article
Fruit Juice Consumption, Body Mass Index, and Adolescent Diet Quality in a Biracial Cohort
by Lynn L. Moore, Xinyi Zhou, Li Wan, Martha R. Singer, M. Loring Bradlee and Stephen R. Daniels
Beverages 2023, 9(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9020042 - 08 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 10058
Abstract
Fruit juice consumption during childhood remains controversial. Here, we evaluated the association between preadolescent 100% fruit juice intake and later adolescent diet quality and body mass index (BMI). We used prospective data over 10 years from the National Growth and Health Study for [...] Read more.
Fruit juice consumption during childhood remains controversial. Here, we evaluated the association between preadolescent 100% fruit juice intake and later adolescent diet quality and body mass index (BMI). We used prospective data over 10 years from the National Growth and Health Study for 1921 black and white girls, ages 9–10 years at baseline, for analyses of diet quality, and 2165 girls for BMI analyses. Statistical analyses included repeated measures analysis of variance and logistic regression models. Girls who drank ≥1.0 cup/day of fruit juice in preadolescence consumed 0.44 cup/day more total fruit in later adolescence than non-juice-drinking girls (p < 0.0001). White and black girls who drank ≥1.25 cups/day in preadolescence were 2.62 (95% CI: 1.35–5.08) and 2.54 (1.27–5.07) times more likely, respectively, to meet the Dietary Guidelines for whole fruit by later adolescence than those with the lowest juice intakes. Further, fruit juice consumption was positively associated with diet quality scores. Overall, girls consuming ≥1.25 cups/day of juice had a BMI in late adolescence that was 1.7 kg/m2 lower than that of non-juice-drinking girls. In conclusion, early adolescent fruit juice intake was positively associated with subsequent whole fruit consumption, better diet quality, and lower BMI in later adolescence. Full article
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18 pages, 316 KiB  
Review
Measuring Wine Quality and Typicity
by Marianthi Basalekou, Panagiotis Tataridis, Konstantinos Georgakis and Christos Tsintonis
Beverages 2023, 9(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9020041 - 04 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 5056
Abstract
Wine quality and typicity are complex concepts that can be hard to define. Wine is a product destined to not only be consumed and appreciated but also marketed, and its distinctiveness, quality and typicity are important characteristics that describe a wine’s sensory profile [...] Read more.
Wine quality and typicity are complex concepts that can be hard to define. Wine is a product destined to not only be consumed and appreciated but also marketed, and its distinctiveness, quality and typicity are important characteristics that describe a wine’s sensory profile and, ultimately, add value to the finished product. Even though both quality and typicity are mostly assessed using a sensory evaluation, many studies have examined the feasibility of using chemical analysis methods in order to increase the objectivity of assessments. Today, the use of chemometrics facilitates the handling of big data, and outcomes from various analytical techniques can be integrated to produce more accurate results. This study discusses the existing sensory and analytical approaches, implications and future prospects for an objective measurement of quality and typicity as well as methods for the selection of appropriate data for predictive model development. Full article
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17 pages, 4160 KiB  
Article
Large-Scale and Online Retailer Assortment: The Case of Plant-Based Beverages as Alternatives to Cow’s Milk
by Giulia Mastromonaco, Valentina Maria Merlino, Stefano Massaglia, Cristiana Peano, Antonina Sparacino, Chiara Caltagirone, Danielle Borra and Francesco Sottile
Beverages 2023, 9(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9020040 - 01 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2122
Abstract
This research analysed the size and depth of assortment and the marketing strategies of communications around plant-based beverages (PBBs) on the Italian market. Sales of PBBs have increased over the last year due to their use as a substitute for cow’s milk and [...] Read more.
This research analysed the size and depth of assortment and the marketing strategies of communications around plant-based beverages (PBBs) on the Italian market. Sales of PBBs have increased over the last year due to their use as a substitute for cow’s milk and also thanks to their popularity in online distribution. This study compares the characteristics of the PBB assortment sold across 65 large-scale retail stores and on 74 websites. The comparison was made considering 15 product categories defined by main ingredient, packaging type, specialty, and claims found on labels. An ordered logit regression analysis was performed to understand how key product features positively or negatively influence the selling price. The results showed that online sales focus on describing plant-based beverages with characteristics that are closer to new consumer preferences (with labels such as “free from” products, “naturalness” of the product, and “health” characteristics). In both distribution channels, there were few products with packaging information related to nutritional characteristics, health benefits, and environmental sustainability, in contrast to the needs expressed by baby food purchasers. Additionally, the price analysis showed unexpected results: in fact, some products for which, according to the literature, consumers would be willing to pay a premium price, instead showed a lower retail price than the average price. These results could represent a concrete tool to improve the efficiency of promotional campaigns and communication strategies for baby food, optimising communication according to consumer needs. Full article
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12 pages, 2053 KiB  
Article
Changes in Polyphenols and Anthocyanin Pigments during Ripening of Vitis vinifera cv Maratheftiko: A Two-Year Study
by Kosmas Roufas, Theodoros Chatzimitakos, Vassilis Athanasiadis, Stavros I. Lalas and Dimitris P. Makris
Beverages 2023, 9(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9020039 - 01 May 2023
Viewed by 1628
Abstract
The vineyard of Cyprus is comprised largely of native Vitis vinifera varieties, which are rather underexploited with regard to wine production to date. Although empirical observations concur that several of these varieties may possess a high potential for the production of quality wines, [...] Read more.
The vineyard of Cyprus is comprised largely of native Vitis vinifera varieties, which are rather underexploited with regard to wine production to date. Although empirical observations concur that several of these varieties may possess a high potential for the production of quality wines, analytical data pertaining to their polyphenolic composition are scarce. This study was undertaken with the aim of providing a detailed picture of the evolution patterns of several important polyphenolic constituents during the last stages of ripening of Maratheftiko, which is one of the major native grape varieties. This study included monitoring of representative simple phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin pigments for two consecutive years, 2021 and 2022, to obtain a more integrated portrayal of changes occurring during the critical period prior to harvest. It was revealed that there was a very high difference in the content of almost all polyphenols considered for the harvests in 2021 and 2022. The grapes harvested in 2022 had a much higher content in catechin, but most importantly, the content in total anthocyanins was 3.91-fold higher in 2022 compared to 2021. On the other hand, trans-resveratrol was the only polyphenolic metabolite whose difference was rather marginal. In seeds, the predominant substance was catechin, which displayed pronounced fluctuations during the period examined. It was concluded that the contents of major polyphenolic metabolites in Maratheftiko grapes might exhibit large variations during the period prior to harvest, most possibly reflecting differences in the average temperature and rainfall. Thus, tight monitoring of technologically important constituents, e.g., anthocyanins, is recommended to ensure the harvest of grapes with optimal maturity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Quality, Nutrition, and Chemistry of Beverages)
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16 pages, 1780 KiB  
Article
Quality Determination of a High-Pressure Processed Avocado Puree-Based Smoothie Beverage
by Paraskevi Sarantakou, Varvara Andreou, Eleni Paraskevopoulou, Efimia K. Dermesonlouoglou and Petros Taoukis
Beverages 2023, 9(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9020038 - 27 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1934
Abstract
The aim was to study the quality stability of a high-pressure (HP) processed avocado puree-based smoothie beverage and to determine its shelf life. To achieve this mathematical description of HP process parameters (pressure, temperature, and pH conditions) on polyphenoloxidase (PPO) inactivation of avocado-puree [...] Read more.
The aim was to study the quality stability of a high-pressure (HP) processed avocado puree-based smoothie beverage and to determine its shelf life. To achieve this mathematical description of HP process parameters (pressure, temperature, and pH conditions) on polyphenoloxidase (PPO) inactivation of avocado-puree (base of the smoothie beverage), use of the appropriate kinetic models was undertaken. Inactivation rate constants were obtained for combinations of constant pressure (600, 700, 750 MPa) and temperature (25, 35, 45 °C) for pH values 4 and 5. According to the Eyring and Arrhenius equations, activation volumes and activation energies, respectively, representing pressure and temperature dependence of the inactivation rate constant, were calculated for all temperatures and pressures studied. The combined use of HP led to PPO inactivation (<10% remaining PPO activity). An increase in the temperature at pressure 600 or 750 MPa caused an increase in PPO inactivation (4.5 and 9.0%, respectively). The ultimate goal was to produce a HP processed avocado puree-based smoothie beverage (containing acid whey and other ingredients) with superior quality and increased shelf life (under refrigeration). The blended ingredients were HP processed in PET packages (600 MPa-25 °C-10 min, 600 MPa-35 °C-10 min, 750 MPa-25 °C-5 min, 750 MPa-35 °C-5 min) based on PPO inactivation as well as industrial practices. Non-processed as well as thermally (TM) processed (90 °C-5 min) samples were used as control samples. No significant differences were found in sensorial attributes between non-processed and HP samples, although the aroma and acceptability scores decreased significantly for thermally pasteurized smoothies. Based on the data obtained, 600 MPa-25/35 °C-10 min are sufficient to obtain safe smoothies (of pH 5 approximately) (up to 6 months) whose organoleptic properties are equally as acceptable to consumers as freshly made smoothies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies—2nd Volume)
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17 pages, 1595 KiB  
Article
From Fermented Wash to New Make Spirit: Assessing the Evolution of Flavour Characteristics of Scotch Whisky Using Lab-Scale Process Simulations
by Martina Daute, Irene Baxter, Barry Harrison, Graeme Walker and Frances Jack
Beverages 2023, 9(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9020037 - 24 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2421
Abstract
New product development for distilled spirits frequently involves experimental trials at the laboratory scale that attempt to replicate industrial-scale production processes. This process is time-consuming and limits the number of samples that can be analysed. The aim of the present study was to [...] Read more.
New product development for distilled spirits frequently involves experimental trials at the laboratory scale that attempt to replicate industrial-scale production processes. This process is time-consuming and limits the number of samples that can be analysed. The aim of the present study was to conduct laboratory-scale Scotch malt whisky production experiments to determine if samples taken from earlier in the production process, that is, directly after fermentation (wash stage) or after a single distillation (low wines stage), showed similar analytical differentiation compared to samples of fresh distillates (new make spirits). Napping, a rapid sensory method, was used to assess the impact on flavour characteristics while solid-phase microextraction (SPME) gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) was used to analyse volatile flavour congeners. Hierarchical Multiple Factor Analysis was used to compare the product maps from samples taken at each whisky production stage and revealed a pattern of differences across the samples that could be tracked through the process. Although the flavour descriptors and volatile congeners composition changed at each stage, there were only marginal changes in the differentiation between samples, resulting in the same sample groups being found in all analyses. RV coefficients >0.90 for all analytical comparisons and >0.74 overall showed that all product maps were highly similar to each other and showed the same overall differentiation between samples. These results indicate that the analysis of fermented malt whisky wash may provide sufficient information to proceed to larger-scale industry trials, saving time and allowing a greater number of parameters to be explored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Flavour Chemistry of Fermented Beverages)
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17 pages, 5625 KiB  
Article
Message in a Bottle: An Exploratory Study on the Role of Wine-Bottle Design in Capturing Consumer Attention
by Emel Ozturk, Busra Kilic, Emilia Cubero Dudinskaya, Simona Naspetti, Francesco Solfanelli and Raffaele Zanoli
Beverages 2023, 9(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9020036 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2741
Abstract
This study aims to investigate the influence of wine-bottle design and the position of labels on consumers’ visual attention in digital contexts. Two within-subjects experiments combined with implicit eye-tracking measures were implemented in Italy. The visual attention of twenty-four participants was measured using [...] Read more.
This study aims to investigate the influence of wine-bottle design and the position of labels on consumers’ visual attention in digital contexts. Two within-subjects experiments combined with implicit eye-tracking measures were implemented in Italy. The visual attention of twenty-four participants was measured using areas of interest metrics while being asked to view two differently shaped bottles in three orientations. Subsequently, four examples of each bottle type were displayed, positioning an organic logo in different areas. Attention and interest measures were captured and analysed using a factorial repeated-measures ANOVA. The results show that the shoulder is the bottle’s first and most fixated part. Significant differences in participants’ attention and interest were found according to the interaction of bottle type and bottle part, as well as bottle part and orientation. Furthermore, exploring the inclusion of an organic logo on different bottle parts provided consistent results. Wine producers and marketers could benefit from bottle anatomy and morphology to identify the best place to display essential information to capture the consumer’s visual attention and interest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensory Analysis of Beverages)
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17 pages, 323 KiB  
Article
Do Wine Flaws Really Matter to Wine Consumers’ Intention to Purchase Wine—An Online Study
by D. Christopher Taylor, Cortney L. Norris, Nelson A. Barber and Scott Taylor, Jr.
Beverages 2023, 9(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9020035 - 14 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1764
Abstract
Purpose: Exploring antecedents of flawed wine purchase intention, this study attempts to assess consumer acceptance leading to the purchase or consumption of a flawed wine product as well as build a profile of flawed wine consumers. Design/Methodology/Approach: A survey, from Amazon Mechanical Turk [...] Read more.
Purpose: Exploring antecedents of flawed wine purchase intention, this study attempts to assess consumer acceptance leading to the purchase or consumption of a flawed wine product as well as build a profile of flawed wine consumers. Design/Methodology/Approach: A survey, from Amazon Mechanical Turk (Mturk) with 260 valid survey responses collected. ANOVA with post hoc testing was used to analyze the data. Findings: Results reflect that attitude, subjective knowledge, perceived behavioral control, perceived risk, and sensory appeal all significantly influence intent to purchase a flawed wine product. Additionally, environmental attitude significantly influences their intent to purchase wines with flaws and their attitude toward flawed wine. Originality: To date, no research has explored consumer acceptance of flawed wines. This study attempted to fill a gap in the literature and add to the overall body of knowledge regarding flawed wines and consumer understanding/acceptance of flawed wines, as well as generating a profile of potential flawed wine consumers. Research Limitations/Implications: Consumer panel data is not as rich as an experimental study design; however, this work starts an academic conversation on flawed wine and provides a foundation for future research. Practical Implications: The results of this study offer practical opportunities, from educating consumers toward a richer understanding of wine flaws; promotional opportunities for wine producers with a product to be disposed of, enhancing revenue generation; and how sensory appeal and environmental concern are beneficial to furthering the understanding and predictability of consumer intentions to purchase flawed wines. Full article
5 pages, 468 KiB  
Editorial
Featured Papers in the Wine, Spirit and Oenological Product Sections
by Stamatina Kallithraka and Matteo Marangon
Beverages 2023, 9(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9020034 - 13 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1229
Abstract
Current research trends in oenology concerned with contemporary issues that are of outmost important for the success of the wine industry [...] Full article
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15 pages, 4351 KiB  
Article
Different SO2 Doses and the Impact on Amino Acid and Volatile Profiles of White Wines
by Cátia V. Almeida Santos, Catarina Pereira, Nuno Martins, Maria João Cabrita and Marco Gomes da Silva
Beverages 2023, 9(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9020033 - 13 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1902
Abstract
SO2 is a preservative often used in the food industry, particularly in the wine industry. However, regulatory authorities and consumers have been strongly suggesting its reduction or even its replacement. In order to understand the impact of SO2 on the profiles [...] Read more.
SO2 is a preservative often used in the food industry, particularly in the wine industry. However, regulatory authorities and consumers have been strongly suggesting its reduction or even its replacement. In order to understand the impact of SO2 on the profiles of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as well as amino acids (AAs), the aging of two white wines (one being a varietal and another being a blend) under identical conditions and in the presence of different doses of total SO2 was studied. After alcoholic fermentation (t = 0), either no SO2 was added (0 mg/L), or 30, 60, 90, or 120 mg/L of SO2 was applied. The samples under study were kept on fine lees for 3 months (t = 3). After 3 months (t = 6) and 9 months (t = 12), the wines were bottled and analyzed. For t = 0 and t = 3, the samples were submitted to HS-SPME-GC/MS for VOC analysis and LC-DAD for AA analysis. From the principal component analysis of the detected VOCs, it was observed that the blended wine in comparison with the varietal wine, was less impacted by the applied SO2 doses and aging time. From the AA profile, it was also observed in this study that maturation on fine lees resulted in an increase in the total concentration of AAs as would be expected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Wine and Beverage: Fermentation and Conservation Technologies)
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13 pages, 1966 KiB  
Article
Introducing a Simple Method to Investigate Relative Volatilities of Flavour Compounds in Fruit Brandies
by Manami Yagishita, Ralf Kölling and Daniel Einfalt
Beverages 2023, 9(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9020032 - 12 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2074
Abstract
Determination of relative volatilities of flavour compounds in hydro-alcoholic solutions is usually performed by time-consuming and costly standard methods such as the Gillespie dynamic recirculation method. This study tested a quick and easy method with a simple distillation apparatus for measuring empirical relative [...] Read more.
Determination of relative volatilities of flavour compounds in hydro-alcoholic solutions is usually performed by time-consuming and costly standard methods such as the Gillespie dynamic recirculation method. This study tested a quick and easy method with a simple distillation apparatus for measuring empirical relative volatilities. A total of 17 representative flavour compounds of apple and pear brandies were selected and investigated for their relative volatilities. This also included so far unpublished relative volatilities of one alcohol (2-butanol), one aldehyde (hexanal), one ketone (β-damascenone), and three esters (ethyl butyrate, butyl acetate, ethyl 2-methylbutyrate). Relative volatilities of three alcohols (methanol, isobutanol, and isoamyl alcohol), one ester (ethyl acetate), one aldehyde (acetaldehyde), and one acetal (1,1-diethoxyethane) were compared to reference data. All compounds, except for 1,1-diethoxyethane, showed a high correlation with the reference data. Vapour–liquid equilibrium for an ethanol–water mixture showed a high correlation with the reference data (r > 0.9). In accordance with the high correlation levels, we suggest that the simple distillation apparatus is a fast and simple alternative to the standard method. Full article
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12 pages, 2252 KiB  
Article
Prediction of Ethanol Content and Total Extract Using Densimetry and Refractometry
by Yurij Plugatar, Joel B. Johnson, Ruslan Timofeev, Vadim Korzin, Anatoliy Kazak, Dmitry Nekhaychuk, Elvira Borisova and Gennady Rotanov
Beverages 2023, 9(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9020031 - 07 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2822
Abstract
This study investigated the interrelationships between the parameters of density, optical refraction, the volume fraction of ethanol and the total extract, using model solutions and samples of wine materials. The regularities of changes in refractometer readings in the process of alcoholic fermentation have [...] Read more.
This study investigated the interrelationships between the parameters of density, optical refraction, the volume fraction of ethanol and the total extract, using model solutions and samples of wine materials. The regularities of changes in refractometer readings in the process of alcoholic fermentation have been studied. The functional dependence of the value of the volume fraction of ethanol in the finished wine products on the density and scale of refractometer values has been established. A technique is proposed for controlling the process of alcoholic fermentation of grape must, based on the use of refractometry. Finally, we present an algorithm to calculate the composition (volume fraction of ethanol, mass concentration of the total extract) of the fermentation product from its physical properties (density, refractive index), the coefficient of determination was R2 = 0.975. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Beverage Technology Fermentation and Microbiology)
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20 pages, 560 KiB  
Review
The Application of Non-Thermal Technologies for Wine Processing, Preservation, and Quality Enhancement
by Yogesh Kumar, Matteo Marangon and Christine Mayr Marangon
Beverages 2023, 9(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9020030 - 03 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2962
Abstract
Recently, non-thermal wine processing technologies have been proposed as alternatives to conventional winemaking processes, mostly with the aims to improve wine quality, safety, and shelf-life. Winemakers typically rely on sulfites (SO2) to prevent wine oxidation and microbial spoilage, as these processes [...] Read more.
Recently, non-thermal wine processing technologies have been proposed as alternatives to conventional winemaking processes, mostly with the aims to improve wine quality, safety, and shelf-life. Winemakers typically rely on sulfites (SO2) to prevent wine oxidation and microbial spoilage, as these processes can negatively affect wine quality and aging potential. However, SO2 can trigger allergic reactions, asthma, and headaches in sensitive consumers, so limitations on their use are needed. In red winemaking, prolonged maceration on skins is required to extract enough phenolic compounds from the wine, which is time-consuming. Consequently, the wine industry is looking for new ways to lower SO2 levels, shorten maceration times, and extend shelf life while retaining wine quality. This review aggregates the information about the novel processing techniques proposed for winemaking, such as high-pressure processing, pulsed electric field, ultrasound, microwave, and irradiation. In general, non-thermal processing techniques have been shown to lead to improvements in wine color characteristics (phenolic and anthocyanin content), wine stability, and wine sensory properties while reducing the need for SO2 additions, shortening the maceration time, and lowering the microbial load, thereby improving the overall quality, safety, and shelf life of the wines. Full article
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12 pages, 4715 KiB  
Article
Effects of Sorghum Grain and Wort Composition on Dry Grind Fermentation Performance: A Model for Baijiu Production
by Siong H. Tan, Christopher L. Blanchard, Thomas H. Roberts, Daniel L. E. Waters and A. John Mawson
Beverages 2023, 9(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9020029 - 27 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2011
Abstract
Sorghum grain is the principal raw material for Baijiu production, but the effects of grain and wort composition on fermentation performance are unclear. Ethanol production at laboratory scale using grains of 11 commercial sorghum cultivars from a field trial was investigated using dry [...] Read more.
Sorghum grain is the principal raw material for Baijiu production, but the effects of grain and wort composition on fermentation performance are unclear. Ethanol production at laboratory scale using grains of 11 commercial sorghum cultivars from a field trial was investigated using dry grind fermentation. Initial wort glucose content was 141–150 g/L and fermentability (glucose-to-ethanol conversion rate) was 87–90%. Ethanol production rate among sorghum genotypes ranged from 1.18 to 2.04 mL of ethanol per litre wort per hour of fermentation. The cultivars were categorised into four groups according to a fermentation endpoint of 60–69 h, 70–79 h, 80–89 h and >90 h. All but one of the sorghums produced a final ethanol content of 9.47–9.76% v/v. Cultivars with high-starch and low-protein grains were the most suitable for fermentation due to the high final ethanol content and fermentability achieved. Initial wort glucose content and yeast assimilable nitrogen content were not correlated with grain starch content, protein content, ethanol content, fermentability, ethanol production rate or glucose consumption rate. Knowledge of the effects of sorghum grain quality on fermentation performance can pave the way for further research to optimise solid-state fermentation for Baijiu production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Wine and Beverage: Fermentation and Conservation Technologies)
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