Next Issue
Volume 9, June
Previous Issue
Volume 8, December
 
 

Beverages, Volume 9, Issue 1 (March 2023) – 28 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): It is well-established that remote Indigenous communities have higher rates of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption than non-Indigenous counterparts, which results in higher rates of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity, and kidney disease. The aetiology leading to this behaviour remains understudied and overlooked. Therefore, the aim of this literature review is to understand the underpinning factors that contribute to SSB consumption in remote Indigenous communities. Studies were identified through five databases (n = 2529) and grey literature searching (n = 54). Following the PRISMA guidelines, each paper was assessed for eligibility, which left 34 studies for inclusion in the review. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
14 pages, 1053 KiB  
Article
Fondillón Wine Adulteration by Addition of Other Monastrell Wines
by Hanán Issa-Issa, Francisca Hernández, David López-Lluch, Reyhan Selin Uysal and Ángel A. Carbonell-Barrachina
Beverages 2023, 9(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9010028 - 20 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2065
Abstract
Authenticity and traceability are two issues of great importance to quality and food safety in the food industry. For wine producers and authorities, it is essential to know how to detect adulterations because wine is one of the alcoholic beverages most prone to [...] Read more.
Authenticity and traceability are two issues of great importance to quality and food safety in the food industry. For wine producers and authorities, it is essential to know how to detect adulterations because wine is one of the alcoholic beverages most prone to adulteration, as indicated by the European Commission. Fondillón is one of the most important naturally sweet Spanish wines and is certainly the core of the Alicante PDO. Fondillón is a wine that is prone to be adulteration due to its limited production and high price. The aim of this study was to identify potential markers of Fondillón adulteration by mixing it with other Monastrell wines. The experimental results showed that Fondillón is characterized by high concentrations of acetic acid, furfural, benzaldehyde, vitispirane, and TDN and low concentrations of citric, tartaric, and malic acids; a low total phenolic content; and low values of antioxidant activity. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

17 pages, 1625 KiB  
Review
Functional Beverages in the 21st Century
by Mateusz Sugajski, Magdalena Buszewska-Forajta and Bogusław Buszewski
Beverages 2023, 9(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9010027 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4016
Abstract
Underlying the dawn of humanity was primarily the search for food and access to drinking water. Over the course of civilization, there has been a significant increase in drinking water quality. By the average of the nutritional standards, the daily water demand is [...] Read more.
Underlying the dawn of humanity was primarily the search for food and access to drinking water. Over the course of civilization, there has been a significant increase in drinking water quality. By the average of the nutritional standards, the daily water demand is 2.5 L (also including liquid products such as tea, coffee, or soup). However, it is worth noticing that the need is strictly individual for each person and depends on two major factors, namely, epidemiological (sex, age state of health, lifestyle, and diet) and environmental (humidity and air temperature). Currently, our diet is more and more often enriched with isotonic drinks, functional drinks, or drinks bearing the hallmarks of health-promoting products. As a result, manufacturing companies compete to present more interesting beverages with complex compositions. This article will discuss both the composition of functional beverages and their impact on health. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 3992 KiB  
Article
Consumer Preferences for Craft Beer by Means of Artificial Intelligence: Are Italian Producers Doing Well?
by Vittoria Pilone, Alessandro Di Pasquale and Antonio Stasi
Beverages 2023, 9(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9010026 - 13 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2315
Abstract
To identify the key drivers of consumption, we analyzed consumer preferences and estimated the willingness to pay for craft beer compared with industrial products in Italy. For this purpose, we conducted an ad hoc survey of 469 craft beer drinkers and set up [...] Read more.
To identify the key drivers of consumption, we analyzed consumer preferences and estimated the willingness to pay for craft beer compared with industrial products in Italy. For this purpose, we conducted an ad hoc survey of 469 craft beer drinkers and set up an econometric strategy using a machine learning estimation technique. The main results show that young consumers, the ability to perceive and evaluate quality, and the frequency of consumption are the main profile elements that, more than others, orient preferences. In the meantime, sustaining local beer producers, sharing good time with friends, and the perception of beer as healthier compared with other drinks are also important. The most preferable product attributes are can packaging and the search for unique taste. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 3638 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Solid Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and 1H qNMR Spectroscopy as Potential Methods for the Authentication of Baijiu Spirits
by Neil Fitzgerald and John C. Edwards
Beverages 2023, 9(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9010025 - 08 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1933
Abstract
The baijiu spirit is often the focus of fraudulent activity due to the widely varying prices of the products. In this work, Solid Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography (SPME GCMS), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy and 1H qNMR spectroscopy were evaluated as potential [...] Read more.
The baijiu spirit is often the focus of fraudulent activity due to the widely varying prices of the products. In this work, Solid Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography (SPME GCMS), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy and 1H qNMR spectroscopy were evaluated as potential methods to authenticate baijiu samples. Data were collected for 30 baijiu samples produced by seven different distilleries. The data from the SPME GCMS and FTIR methods were treated by a Principal Component Analysis to identify clusters that would suggest chemical differences in the products from different distilleries. The results suggest that SPME GCMS has the potential to be a fully portable method for baijiu authentication. FTIR did not appear suitable for authentication but can be used to find the %ABV range of the sample. 1H quantitative NMR (1H qNMR) was utilized to quantify the ethanol concentrations and calculate the observable congener chemistry comprising ester, ethanol, methanol, fusel alcohol, and organic acids. Discrepancies in ethanol content were observed in three samples, and a lack of major congeners in two samples indicates the possible presence of a counterfeit product. Detailed and quantitative congener chemistry is obtainable by NMR and provides a possible fingerprint analysis for the authentication and quality control of baijiu style, producer, and the length of the ageing process. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 2531 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Cinnamon and Ginger Spices on Anthocyanins in Sweetened Roselle Beverages
by Esereosa D. Omoarukhe, Niamh Harbourne and Paula Jauregi
Beverages 2023, 9(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9010024 - 08 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2032
Abstract
This study explores the potential benefits of spices (cinnamon and ginger) on Roselle anthocyanins within a sweetened Roselle beverage matrix. Anthocyanins and other related properties of the beverage (colour, antioxidant capacity, total phenolics, and pH) were observed from the start and monitored for [...] Read more.
This study explores the potential benefits of spices (cinnamon and ginger) on Roselle anthocyanins within a sweetened Roselle beverage matrix. Anthocyanins and other related properties of the beverage (colour, antioxidant capacity, total phenolics, and pH) were observed from the start and monitored for 30 days at accelerated storage conditions (40 °C). The sweeteners at the amounts used (80 g/L granulated sugar and 0.32 g/L Stevia Reb A) did not have a significant effect on the initial anthocyanin content in the beverage and did not significantly impact degradation. Upon the addition of spices to the sweetened beverage, ginger (1 g/L) did not result in significant changes, initially or during storage. However, following the addition of cinnamon (1 g/L) to the beverages (unsweetened and sweetened), an initial increase in the total phenolic and FRAP antioxidant activity in the Roselle beverages was observed; furthermore, it reduced the degradation of anthocyanins and improved colour stability during storage. This effect is postulated to be due to a co-pigmentation reaction or the acylation of anthocyanins with a complex formed from the reaction of glucose with the phenolic compounds contained in cinnamon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Supplement Drinks: Development and Health Benefits)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1050 KiB  
Article
Impact of Ageing on Ultrasound-Treated Lees on Volatile Composition and Sensory Properties of Red Sparkling Base Wine
by Coro Blanco-Huerta, Encarnación Fernández-Fernández, Josefina Vila-Crespo, Violeta Ruipérez, Raúl Moyano and José Manuel Rodríguez-Nogales
Beverages 2023, 9(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9010023 - 02 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1673
Abstract
Ageing on lees can be a good technique to enhance the quality of red sparkling base wines. Ultrasound treatment of the lees, prior to addition to the wine, can improve the releasing of their components into the wine. This study carries out a [...] Read more.
Ageing on lees can be a good technique to enhance the quality of red sparkling base wines. Ultrasound treatment of the lees, prior to addition to the wine, can improve the releasing of their components into the wine. This study carries out a four month ageing on lees of a red sparkling base wine by the addition of lees sonicated at different amplitude levels: 30%, 60% and 90% for 10 min. The ageing on ultrasound-treated lees improved the quality of the red base wine, with a greater impact the higher the amplitude of the applied ultrasound. Sonicated lees at an amplitude of 90% enlarged the concentration of neutral polysaccharides in the wine and reduced its astringency, which was evaluated chemically. Furthermore, this treatment enhanced the concentration of some volatile compounds in the wine, mainly acetates, esters and terpenes with floral and fruity aromatic notes. This trend was also found for some fused alcohols, contributing to the aromatic complexity of wines, as well as for 2-phenylethanol, an alcohol with a rose-like aroma, and also for C6-alcohols with a green-herbaceous aroma. The results indicate that ultrasonication is a promising tool to increase the benefits of ageing on lees on the quality of red sparkling base wines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Innovations in the Production of Sparkling Wines)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 2452 KiB  
Article
Validation of High-Pressure Homogenization Process to Pasteurize Brazil Nut (Bertholletia excelsa) Beverages: Sensorial and Quality Characteristics during Cold Storage
by Wilson V. Vasquez-Rojas, Sara Parralejo-Sanz, Diana Martin, Tiziana Fornari and M. Pilar Cano
Beverages 2023, 9(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9010022 - 01 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2151
Abstract
The effect of high-pressure homogenization (HPH) on the inactivation of Escherichia coli and the stability of the quality properties of Brazil nut beverages were studied. E. coli was used as target microorganism to validate the HPH process (pressures from 50 to 180 MPa [...] Read more.
The effect of high-pressure homogenization (HPH) on the inactivation of Escherichia coli and the stability of the quality properties of Brazil nut beverages were studied. E. coli was used as target microorganism to validate the HPH process (pressures from 50 to 180 MPa and inlet temperatures (Ti) from 25 to 75 °C). Cold storage (5 °C) for 21 days was conducted to establish the shelf-life of BN beverages, in terms of their microbiological, physical, physicochemical, and sensorial stability. HPH-treated samples were compared to pasteurized BN beverages (63 °C for 20 min). The combination of Ti and the pressure of the HPH process (50 to 150 MPa/75 °C and 180 MPa/25 °C) had a significant effect on E. coli inactivation (8.2 log CFU/mL). During storage at 5 °C, the growth of mesophilic aerobes in processed BN beverages was controlled by the HPH process. Oxidative stability (TBAR assay) and physicochemical properties (pH, acidity, and °Brix) were evaluated during cold storage, showing good stability. Additionally, HPH-treated beverages showed a reduction in their particle size and the formation of more stable protein aggregates, which favored the beverages’ whiteness (color). The HPH process could be an alternative to pasteurization to obtain Brazil nut beverages with an acceptable microbiological shelf life (≥21 days at 5 °C) and high-quality characteristics without the use of any additives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Process Intensification on Beverages Production)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

12 pages, 2066 KiB  
Article
Infrared-Photoacoustic Spectroscopy and Multiproduct Multivariate Calibration to Estimate the Proportion of Coffee Defects in Roasted Samples
by Rafael Dias, Patrícia Valderrama, Paulo Março, Maria Scholz, Michael Edelmann and Chahan Yeretzian
Beverages 2023, 9(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9010021 - 01 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1635
Abstract
Infrared-photoacoustic spectroscopy (IR-PAS) and partial least squares (PLS) were tested as a rapid alternative to conventional methods to evaluate the proportion of coffee defects in roasted and ground coffees. Multiproduct multivariate calibration models were obtained from spectra of healthy beans of Coffea canephora [...] Read more.
Infrared-photoacoustic spectroscopy (IR-PAS) and partial least squares (PLS) were tested as a rapid alternative to conventional methods to evaluate the proportion of coffee defects in roasted and ground coffees. Multiproduct multivariate calibration models were obtained from spectra of healthy beans of Coffea canephora and C. arabica (Arabica) and blends composed of defective and healthy beans of Arabica in different proportions. The blends, named selections, contained sour, black, broken, whole beans, skin, and coffee woods. Six models were built using roasted and ground coffee samples. The model was optimized through outlier evaluation, and the parameters of merit such as accuracy, sensitivity, limits of detection and quantification, the inverse of analytical sensitivity, linearity, and adjustment were computed. The models presented predictive capacity and high sensitivity in determining defects, all being predicted with suitable correlation coefficients (ranging from 0.7176 to 0.8080) and presenting adequate performance. The parameters of merit displayed promising results, and the prediction models developed for %defects can be safely used as an alternative to the reference method. Furthermore, the new method is fast, efficient, and suitable for in-line application in quality control industrial coffee processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Tea, Coffee, Water, and Other Non-Alcoholic Beverages)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

25 pages, 1591 KiB  
Article
Lachancea thermotolerans, an Innovative Alternative for Sour Beer Production
by Vanesa Postigo, Sergio Esteban and Teresa Arroyo
Beverages 2023, 9(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9010020 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3765
Abstract
The interest in and growth of craft beer has led to an intense search for new beers and styles. The revival of traditional styles has sometimes been hampered by the use of microorganisms such as lactic acid bacteria. Therefore, studies on alternative yeasts [...] Read more.
The interest in and growth of craft beer has led to an intense search for new beers and styles. The revival of traditional styles has sometimes been hampered by the use of microorganisms such as lactic acid bacteria. Therefore, studies on alternative yeasts for the production of this style of beer have increased. In this work and together with previous studies carried out with yeasts isolated from Madrid agriculture (from grapes, must, wine, vineyards and wineries), the capacity of 10 yeast strains, belonging to the genus Lachancea thermotolerans, for the production of sour beer has been determined. For this purpose, different fermentation scale-ups (100 mL, 1 L and 100 L) have been performed and their fermentation capacity, aroma compound production (33 volatile compounds by GC), organoleptic profile (trained tasting panel and consumers), melatonin production (HPLC) and antioxidant capacity have been studied. Beer fermented with yeast strain CLI 1232 showed a balanced acidity with a fruity aromatic profile and honey notes. On the other hand, the beer fermented with strain 1-8B also showed a balanced acidity, but less fruity and citric flavour than CLI 1232 strain. Finally, the yeast strain selected by the consumers (CLI 1232) was used for beer production at industrial scale and the market launch of a sour beer. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

16 pages, 5583 KiB  
Article
Characterization and Control of Oxygen Uptake in the Blanketing and Purging of Tanks with Inert Gases in the Winery
by Rubén del Barrio-Galán, Ignacio Nevares and Maria del Alamo-Sanza
Beverages 2023, 9(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9010019 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3399
Abstract
This work presents the study of the effectiveness of different inert gases applied during racking to prevent oxygen uptake by wine. Inert gases were used for the purging of empty tanks and hoses before the start of each racking, as well as for [...] Read more.
This work presents the study of the effectiveness of different inert gases applied during racking to prevent oxygen uptake by wine. Inert gases were used for the purging of empty tanks and hoses before the start of each racking, as well as for blanketing in the full racked tank. After analyzing these operations with the different inert gases, the required volumes of each gas were optimized. The CO2:Ar (20:80) mixture proved to be the most effective for the complete purging of the empty tank, while CO2 was the most cost-effective gas. Purging the empty tank with 25% vessel volume gas was sufficient to achieve useful inerting with all the gases studied, as well as to maintain low levels of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the wine filling the tank. Applying 0.5 of vessel volume of Ar, CO2:Ar (20:80), and CO2 gases during blanketing allowed the headspace oxygen (HSO) of the racked tank to be protected throughout. During the racking of a white wine in a commercial winery, Ar showed the highest efficiency, compared to N2, for both the inerting of empty hoses and destination tank and for maintaining low levels of DO and HSO in the tank. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Process Intensification on Beverages Production)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1253 KiB  
Article
A Comprehensive Comparison of Gluten-Free Brewing Techniques: Differences in Gluten Reduction Ability, Analytical Attributes, and Hedonic Perception
by Nazarena Cela, Nicola Condelli, Giuseppe Perretti, Maria Di Cairano, Jessika De Clippeleer, Fernanda Galgano and Gert De Rouck
Beverages 2023, 9(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9010018 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2382
Abstract
This study provides a comprehensive comparison among the most common gluten-free (GF) brewing practices, with a focus on the impact of each treatment on physicochemical parameters and consumer acceptability of the final beer. In addition, the influence of a longer cold maturation on [...] Read more.
This study provides a comprehensive comparison among the most common gluten-free (GF) brewing practices, with a focus on the impact of each treatment on physicochemical parameters and consumer acceptability of the final beer. In addition, the influence of a longer cold maturation on the natural reduction of the gluten content was investigated. Prolyl endopeptidase addition was found to be the most effective treatment in reducing gluten levels (−75.93%), followed by silica gel (−53.09%), longer cold maturation (−4.32%), and tannins (−1.85%). Nonetheless, none of the treated beer samples was gluten-free (gluten content > 20 ppm) due to the high nitrogen content of the original wort. The silica gel application treatment affected the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the final beer the least. According to the difference from control test results, no significant difference in terms of overall liking, appearance, odor/aroma, or taste was observed between the silica gel-treated sample and control beer (p > 0.05). On the other hand, the application of enzymes and tannins significantly affected the appearance and the beer odor/aroma. Nevertheless, all beer samples received positive sensory acceptance scores. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

26 pages, 2498 KiB  
Article
Influence of Native S. cerevisiae Strains on the Final Characteristics of “Pago” Garnacha Wines from East Spain
by Carmen Berbegal, Lucía Polo, Victoria Lizama, Inmaculada Álvarez, Sergi Ferrer, Isabel Pardo and Mª José García-Esparza
Beverages 2023, 9(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9010017 - 13 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1663
Abstract
This work studies the variability of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae present during the spontaneous fermentation of Garnacha grapes’ musts from a “Pago” winery from the east of Spain. The parameters used to select yeast are those related to growth, fermentative behaviour, and the influence [...] Read more.
This work studies the variability of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae present during the spontaneous fermentation of Garnacha grapes’ musts from a “Pago” winery from the east of Spain. The parameters used to select yeast are those related to growth, fermentative behaviour, and the influence on the wine’s aroma and polyphenolic composition. Yeast identification was performed by ITS analysis and typed by Hinfl mDNA restriction profile analysis. Growth and metabolic characteristics of the isolates were determined by laboratory-scale fermentations of sterile Garnacha must, and the composition of the polyphenolic and the volatile compounds, and the sensory attributes of the small-scale produced red wines were determined. Ten S. cerevisiae strains were isolated and characterized. Overall, strain 22H quickly grew, produced wines with moderate ethanol concentrations and low volatile acidity, and obtained the highest colour and aroma scores, plus a high score for sensory attributes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Microorganisms in Wine Production: From Vine to Wine)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 3982 KiB  
Article
Use of Fumaric Acid to Inhibit Malolactic Fermentation in Bottled Rioja Wines: Effect in pH and Volatile Acidity Control
by Antonio Morata, Elena Adell, Carmen López, Felipe Palomero, Elena Suárez, Silvia Pedrero, María Antonia Bañuelos and Carmen González
Beverages 2023, 9(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9010016 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2056
Abstract
Fumaric acid (FH2) is an additive allowed by the Codex Alimentarius and the International Organization of Vine and Wine (OIV) that can be used for wine acidification but also to inhibit malolactic fermentation (MLF). FH2 has a positive effect in the reduction in [...] Read more.
Fumaric acid (FH2) is an additive allowed by the Codex Alimentarius and the International Organization of Vine and Wine (OIV) that can be used for wine acidification but also to inhibit malolactic fermentation (MLF). FH2 has a positive effect in the reduction in SO2 doses by controlling LAB and other bacteria and by preserving molecular SO2 due to pH effect. This article reports the use of FH2 at 600 mg/L in wines produced with 3 varieties of Vitis vinifera L. grapes (Tempranillo, Garnacha and Viura) made in vintages 2018, 2020 and 2021. Wines treated with 600 mg/L of FH2 were more stable in the long term and showed lower pH by the preservation of malic acid due to both the absence of MLF (which reduced the pH in 0.1–0.2 units compared with controls) and the effect of FH2 acidification (what produced and additional reduction of 0.05–0.1 pH units). The wines treated with FH2 also remained with very low volatile acidity contents close to 0.2 mg/L or lower. These results corroborate that FH2 can be used to successfully control malolactic fermentation in all still wine types (red, white, and rose) from either of the studied varieties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Wine and Beverage: Fermentation and Conservation Technologies)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1046 KiB  
Article
Wine Cork Closures Impacts on Dimethyl Sulfide (DMS) and Precursors (DMSP) Equilibrium of Different Shiraz Wines during Accelerated Bottle Ageing
by Rémi De La Burgade, Valérie Nolleau, Teddy Godet, Nicolas Galy, Dimitri Tixador, Christophe Loisel, Nicolas Sommerer and Aurélie Roland
Beverages 2023, 9(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9010015 - 06 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1844
Abstract
Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is a flavor compound, characteristic of the truffle aroma in red wines, and is well-known to be a fruity exhauster. DMS comes from the degradation of dimethyl sulfide potential (DMSP) during winemaking. Up to now, little is known about the [...] Read more.
Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is a flavor compound, characteristic of the truffle aroma in red wines, and is well-known to be a fruity exhauster. DMS comes from the degradation of dimethyl sulfide potential (DMSP) during winemaking. Up to now, little is known about the role of the closure on the DMSP degradation during ageing. For that purpose, the effect of four micro-agglomerated wine cork closures was studied on the DMS/DMSP equilibrium, along with six other volatile sulfur compounds (VSC), was investigated in six Shiraz wines. After three months of accelerated bottle ageing, DMS levels increased significantly in all bottles. The most permeable closures induced a lesser accumulation of DMS, suggesting that DMS could be dependent on the redox status of the wine. At the same time, the DMSP decrease was proportional to the permeability of the closures. For the first time, a possible implication of closure permeability on DMSP degradation was observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers in Wine, Spirits and Oenological Products Section)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 1404 KiB  
Review
Diet Diversification and Priming with Kunu: An Indigenous Probiotic Cereal-Based Non-Alcoholic Beverage in Nigeria
by Johnson K. Ndukwe, Claret Chiugo Aduba, Kingsley Tochukwu Ughamba, Kenechi Onyejiaka Chukwu, Chijioke Nwoye Eze, Ogueri Nwaiwu and Helen Onyeaka
Beverages 2023, 9(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9010014 - 02 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 7433
Abstract
Kunu is a fermented non-alcoholic beverage consumed all over Nigeria. The drink is served as an alternative to alcohol due to its perceived extreme nourishing and therapeutic properties. Varieties of this beverage are determined mostly by the type of grain, the supplements, sensory [...] Read more.
Kunu is a fermented non-alcoholic beverage consumed all over Nigeria. The drink is served as an alternative to alcohol due to its perceived extreme nourishing and therapeutic properties. Varieties of this beverage are determined mostly by the type of grain, the supplements, sensory additives used, and the process employed during its production. Dietary quality is paramount in nutritional well-being and a key factor in human overall health development. The nutritional quality of grains utilised for Kunu production makes the drink more appealing to a large growing population when compared to some other drinks. Some use Kunu drink as an infant weaning drink, thus serving as a priming beverage for infants due to its rich probiotic and nutritional properties. However, this beverage’s short shelf-life has limited its production scale. This review therefore elaborates succinctly on the diverse therapeutic nutritional properties of the Kunu beverage and the effect of additives and fermentation on the microbial dynamics during Kunu production, as well as the prospect of Kunu in diet diversification and priming for weaning infants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights on Traditional Fermented Beverages)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1106 KiB  
Article
δ13C-Ethanol as a Potential Exclusionary Criterium for the Authentication of Scotch Whiskies in Taiwan: Normal vs. 3-Parameter Lognormal Distributions of δ13C-Ethanol Found in Single Malt and Blended Scotch Whiskies
by Hsiao-Wen Huang and Wei-Tun Chang
Beverages 2023, 9(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9010013 - 01 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1565
Abstract
With the difference in the photosynthesis process between C3- and C4-plants, the 13C/12C stable isotope ratio of ethanol, i.e., δ13C-ethanol, can potentially be a basis for the discrimination of Scotch whiskies derived from different raw materials. This study [...] Read more.
With the difference in the photosynthesis process between C3- and C4-plants, the 13C/12C stable isotope ratio of ethanol, i.e., δ13C-ethanol, can potentially be a basis for the discrimination of Scotch whiskies derived from different raw materials. This study analyzed 51 authentic single malt Scotch whiskies and 34 authentic blended Scotch whiskies by gas chromatography–combustion–isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) and examined the resulting data by a series of fitting distribution processes. The evaluation result demonstrated that δ13C-ethanol distribution of single malt Scotch whiskies fitted both normal and 3-parameter lognormal distribution. For blended Scotch whiskies, however, the data distribution of δ13C-ethanol conformed with a 3-parameter lognormal distribution rather than a normal one. Moreover, 99.7% of the confidence intervals (CI) of δ13C-ethanol for single malt Scotch whiskies would define between −23.21‰ to −30.07‰ for 3-parameter lognormal distribution, while from −11.19‰ to −28.93‰ for blended Scotch whiskies on the basis of the statistical properties. The simulative adulterated Scotch whiskies using more than 30% C4-derived edible distilled spirits can be effectively discriminated by means of CI of δ13C-ethanol. Since the addition of rectified spirits produced from the C4 plant has been found in some cases of seized Scotch whiskies in Taiwan, establishing a CI of δ13C-ethanol would be valuable for the purpose of Scotch whisky authentication. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

16 pages, 2809 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Protein-Ligand Interaction and Thermally Induced Quality Changes in Tomato-Based Pineapple Beverage
by Rajinder Kaur, Nitya Sharma, Vasudha Bansal, Reenu Reenu, Dharmendra Kumar Yadav, Akansha Gupta and Dipendra Kumar Mahato
Beverages 2023, 9(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9010012 - 01 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1584
Abstract
The intake of tomato in its natural form is comparatively restricted due to its limited shelf-life. Thereby, we investigated the willingness of consumers and optimized the proportions of beverages on the basis of the overall liking of the sensory panel. Further, molecular docking [...] Read more.
The intake of tomato in its natural form is comparatively restricted due to its limited shelf-life. Thereby, we investigated the willingness of consumers and optimized the proportions of beverages on the basis of the overall liking of the sensory panel. Further, molecular docking was also performed to evaluate the protein-ligand interactions of vitamin C, lycopene, and β-carotene against CR protein. These compounds showed great interactions with the protein targets leading to the enhancement of antioxidant activity. The most acceptable combination (S4 = 50:50 tomato and pineapple juices) was subjected to thermal processing at 70, 80, and 90 °C, respectively. Biochemical parameters such as acidity, vitamin C, non-enzymatic browning, antioxidant capacity, and total phenolics were found to be optimum in the beverage samples treated at 80 °C. It was revealed that the microbial shelf-life of beverages enhanced with an increase in processing temperatures. The untreated beverage samples could only retain a shelf-life of 4 days, however, samples treated at 80 °C for 60 s were rendered fit for 40 ± 2 days. Therefore, with the help of molecular docking, this manuscript assessed the protein-ligand interaction with the thermally induced quality changes in tomato-based beverages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Quality, Nutrition, and Chemistry of Beverages)
Show Figures

Figure 1

53 pages, 1715 KiB  
Systematic Review
Seeking Sweetness: A Systematic Scoping Review of Factors Influencing Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in Remote Indigenous Communities Worldwide
by Jessica Cartwright, Michael E. Netzel, Yasmina Sultanbawa and Olivia R. L. Wright
Beverages 2023, 9(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9010011 - 31 Jan 2023
Viewed by 3447
Abstract
It is well-established that remote Indigenous communities have higher rates of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption than non-Indigenous counterparts, which results in higher rates of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity, and kidney disease. The aetiology leading to this behaviour [...] Read more.
It is well-established that remote Indigenous communities have higher rates of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption than non-Indigenous counterparts, which results in higher rates of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity, and kidney disease. The aetiology leading to this behaviour remains understudied and overlooked. Therefore, the aim of this literature review is to understand the underpinning factors that contribute to SSB consumption in remote Indigenous communities. Studies were identified through five databases (n = 2529) and grey literature searching (n = 54). Following the PRISMA guidelines, each paper was assessed for eligibility, which left 34 studies for inclusion in the review. Within these papers, 37 different factors were found to influence SSB consumption in remote Indigenous communities. These were organised according to the Determinants of Nutrition and Eating (DONE) framework. SSB consumption was found to influence intake through each main level of the framework; individual (n = 9), interpersonal (n = 18), environmental (n = 9), and policy (n = 3). Preference was identified to be the most common factor to influence intake (n = 19), followed by health literacy (n = 15) and community availability (n = 12). Despite this, interventions to reduce SSB intake have never targeted this factor. This paper highlights the importance of a multi-level whole-of-system approach and suggests that an individual’s taste/preference should shape the direction of future research and intervention in this area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Quality, Nutrition, and Chemistry of Beverages)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 2337 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Role of Mashing in the Amino Acid Profiles of Worts Produced from Gluten-Free Malts
by Andrew J. Ledley, Ryan J. Elias and Darrell W. Cockburn
Beverages 2023, 9(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9010010 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2674
Abstract
A successful wort fermentation depends on both the sugar and the free amino nitrogen (FAN) content of a wort. The primary goal of the mashing step is to generate fermentable sugars, as FAN is regarded as being primarily determined by malt quality; however, [...] Read more.
A successful wort fermentation depends on both the sugar and the free amino nitrogen (FAN) content of a wort. The primary goal of the mashing step is to generate fermentable sugars, as FAN is regarded as being primarily determined by malt quality; however, the role of mashing in modifying FAN has not been extensively studied, especially with respect to non-barley brewing materials. In this study, the FAN content of gluten-free (GF) worts varied greatly from barley (73–490 mg/L vs. 201 mg/L, respectively) and yielded different amino acid profiles, including lower proline and higher γ-aminobutyric acid concentrations. While most of the amino acids were present in the malt or generated in a brief window early in the mashing, significant increases in amino acid concentrations could be generated by mashing at temperatures below 55 °C. Overall, GF malts are promising brewing ingredients that can produce quality worts if appropriate mashing conditions are implemented. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

23 pages, 1360 KiB  
Article
Single and Interactive Effects of Unmalted Cereals, Hops, and Yeasts on Quality of White-Inspired Craft Beers
by Antonietta Baiano, Anna Fiore, Barbara la Gatta, Maria Tufariello, Carmela Gerardi, Michele Savino and Francesco Grieco
Beverages 2023, 9(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9010009 - 24 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2167
Abstract
White beers owe their name to their straw yellow colour deriving from the use of unmalted wheat, which also supplies a relatively high protein content causing haze formation. This study aimed to develop white-inspired craft beers made with combinations of three mixtures of [...] Read more.
White beers owe their name to their straw yellow colour deriving from the use of unmalted wheat, which also supplies a relatively high protein content causing haze formation. This study aimed to develop white-inspired craft beers made with combinations of three mixtures of barley malt/unmalted wheat (alternatively durum-var. Dauno III, soft-var. Risciola, or emmer-var. Padre Pio), two hop varieties (Cascade or Columbus), and two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (Belgian yeast and a high-ester producing yeast); and assess the single and interactive effects of these ingredients on physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics of the beers. According to the graphical representation of the results for the Principal Component Analysis, most of the samples appear overlapped since they had similar characteristics, but it was possible to highlight two clusters of beers different from the others: those produced with (a) Risciola wheat and Columbus hop and (b) Dauno III wheat, Cascade hop, and the Belgian yeast. The beers of these clusters obtained the highest scores for their overall quality that, in turn, was positively correlated with concentrations of citric acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, syringic acid, and epicatechin; alcohol %, colour, amount and persistence of foam, intensity of fruity flavour, and body. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

17 pages, 4370 KiB  
Article
Climate Effect on Morphological Traits and Polyphenolic Composition of Red Wine Grapes of Vitis vinifera
by Maria Inês Rouxinol, Maria Rosário Martins, Vanda Salgueiro, Maria João Costa, João Mota Barroso and Ana Elisa Rato
Beverages 2023, 9(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9010008 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2163
Abstract
Wine quality is determined by the development of grape maturation, which is highly dependent on climate variations. Extreme weather events are becoming more common, which will affect the productivity and quality of grapes and wine. Grape development depends on many factors, including weather, [...] Read more.
Wine quality is determined by the development of grape maturation, which is highly dependent on climate variations. Extreme weather events are becoming more common, which will affect the productivity and quality of grapes and wine. Grape development depends on many factors, including weather, and extreme events will influence berry size, skin thickness and the development of some key compounds, such as phenolics. In this work, the ripening evolution and phenolic content of Vitis vinifera extracts from a vineyard in Alentejo (Portugal) were evaluated in two distinct climatic years. During this period, the influence of climatic conditions on grape ripening, and thereby on red wine quality, was assessed. The results demonstrate differences in polyphenol compounds between years and the importance of monitoring their content during maturation. The reduction of berry size, apparently due to lower pluviosity and higher temperatures, resulted in a higher content of polyphenolic compounds related to grape quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Compounds in Wine)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 2075 KiB  
Review
The Role of Emergent Processing Technologies in Beer Production
by Gonçalo Carvalho, Ana Catarina Leite, Rita Leal and Ricardo Pereira
Beverages 2023, 9(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9010007 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 9098
Abstract
The brewing industry is regarded as a fiercely competitive and insatiable sector of activity, driven by the significant technological improvements observed in recent years and the most recent consumer trends pointing to a sharp demand for sensory enhanced beers. Some emergent and sustainable [...] Read more.
The brewing industry is regarded as a fiercely competitive and insatiable sector of activity, driven by the significant technological improvements observed in recent years and the most recent consumer trends pointing to a sharp demand for sensory enhanced beers. Some emergent and sustainable technologies regarding food processing such as pulsed electric fields (PEF), ultrasound (US), thermosonication (TS), high-pressure processing (HPP), and ohmic heating (OH) have shown the potential to contribute to the development of currently employed brewing methodologies by both enhancing the quality of beer and contributing to processing efficiency with a promise of being more environmentally friendly. Some of these technologies have not yet found their way into the industrial brewing process but already show potential to be embedded in continuous thermal and non-thermal unit operations such as pasteurization, boiling and sterilization, resulting in beer with improved organoleptic properties. This review article aims to explore the potential of different advanced processing technologies for industrial application in several key stages of brewing, with particular emphasis on continuous beer production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preservation of Beverages by Continuous Pasteurization Technologies)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

3 pages, 161 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of Beverages in 2022
by Beverages Editorial Office
Beverages 2023, 9(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9010006 - 16 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1034
Abstract
High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...] Full article
23 pages, 1085 KiB  
Review
Current State of Sensors and Sensing Systems Utilized in Beer Analysis
by Khalfa Benadouda, Salvia Sajid, Suleman Farooq Chaudhri, Khadiaz Jahangir Tazally, Marcus M. K. Nielsen and Bala Krishna Prabhala
Beverages 2023, 9(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9010005 - 10 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2832
Abstract
Beer is one of the most consumed beverages in the world. Advances in instrumental techniques have allowed the analysis and characterization of a large number of beers. However, review studies that outline the methodologies used in beer characterization are scarce. Herein, a systematic [...] Read more.
Beer is one of the most consumed beverages in the world. Advances in instrumental techniques have allowed the analysis and characterization of a large number of beers. However, review studies that outline the methodologies used in beer characterization are scarce. Herein, a systematic review investigating the molecular targets and sensometric techniques in beer characterization was performed following the PRISMA protocol. The study reviewed 270 articles related to beer analysis in order to provide a comprehensive summary of the recent advances in beer analysis, including methods using sensors and sensing systems. The results revealed the use of various techniques that include several technologies, such as nanotechnology and electronics, often combined with scientific data analysis tools. To our knowledge, this study is the first of its kind and provides the reader with a faithful overview of what has been done in the sensor field regarding beer characterization. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1265 KiB  
Article
Accelerated Solvent Extraction of Phenols from Lyophilised Ground Grape Skins and Seeds
by Alenka Mihelčič, Klemen Lisjak and Andreja Vanzo
Beverages 2023, 9(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9010004 - 06 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1895
Abstract
The efficient extraction of phenols from grapes is an important step for their reliable quantification. The aim was to optimise the lyophilisation process and the extraction of phenols from grape skins and seeds. The phenol extraction yield from lyophilised tissues was investigated with [...] Read more.
The efficient extraction of phenols from grapes is an important step for their reliable quantification. The aim was to optimise the lyophilisation process and the extraction of phenols from grape skins and seeds. The phenol extraction yield from lyophilised tissues was investigated with different accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) operating conditions. Skins and seeds were separated from frozen berries and lyophilised without being ground. The weight loss during lyophilisation was followed daily. Phenols were extracted from lyophilised, cryo-ground seeds and skins with ASE at room temperature and 10.3 MPa using 80% aqueous acetone and 60% aqueous methanol. The effects of ASE operational parameters (the number of extraction cycles (ECs) and static time (ST) duration) were investigated. The yield of extracted phenols was evaluated spectrophotometrically by determining total phenolic index at 280 nm (TPI). The weight of skins and seeds significantly dropped after 24 h of lyophilisation and continued to decrease, although not significantly, up until the 9th day. The optimal lyophilisation time was estimated to be 3 days and 5 days for skins and seeds, respectively. The phenol extraction yield was significantly affected after changes of ASE conditions. Based on TPI, the optimal ASE conditions were as follows: (i) lyophilised seeds—eight ECs with 10 min ST using aqueous acetone and then four ECs with 20 min ST using aqueous methanol; (ii) lyophilised skins—eight ECs with 1 min ST using aqueous acetone and then one EC with 20 min ST using aqueous methanol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Compounds in Wine)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 2229 KiB  
Article
Bioactive Compounds in Different Coffee Beverages for Quality and Sustainability Assessment
by Laura Gobbi, Lucia Maddaloni, Sabrina Antonia Prencipe and Giuliana Vinci
Beverages 2023, 9(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9010003 - 05 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3456
Abstract
Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages worldwide, mainly due to its organoleptic, and psychoactive properties. Coffee brewing techniques involve the use of different extraction/infusion conditions (i.e., time, temperature, pressure, water/powder ratio, etc.), which can influence the quality of the final [...] Read more.
Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages worldwide, mainly due to its organoleptic, and psychoactive properties. Coffee brewing techniques involve the use of different extraction/infusion conditions (i.e., time, temperature, pressure, water/powder ratio, etc.), which can influence the quality of the final product. The study aimed to analyze the effect of four brewing coffee techniques (industrial espresso machine, Moka machine, pod machine, and capsule machine), which are the most used coffee brewing methods in Italy, on the quality and safety of the coffee brews, taking into account the profile of biogenic amines (BAs), total polyphenol content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and anti-radical activity (DPPH and ABTS assay). Eight coffee powders and brewed beverages from two different brands belonging to the 100% Arabica variety (country of origin Brazil) were analysed. The brewing techniques all resulted in a reduction of both BA content (27–30%), TPC (55–60%), TFC (50–55%), and anti-radical assays (45–50%) in coffee beverages compared to ground coffee samples. The study also showed that Moka is the method that yields the highest TPC (2.71–3.52 mg GAE/g coffee powder) and TFC (8.50–8.60 mg RUT/g coffee powder) content and highest anti-radical capacity in coffee beverages. The multivariate statistical analysis revealed a difference between coffee powder and infusions and coffee infusions obtained by different extraction techniques. Moreover, an analysis of the environmental impacts related to the different coffee preparation methods examined was conducted. This was performed by applying the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology through SimaPro v.9.2.2. software. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 938 KiB  
Article
Chemical, Physicochemical, Microbiological, Bioactive, and Sensory Characteristics of Cow and Donkey Milk Kefir during Storage
by Mohamed Aroua, Hayet Ben Haj Koubaier, Saoussen Bouacida, Samia Ben Saïd, Mokhtar Mahouachi and Elisabetta Salimei
Beverages 2023, 9(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9010002 - 01 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2281
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate essential traits of donkey’s milk and cow’s milk kefir during storage for 28 days at +4 °C. The results showed that the pH decreases significantly during fermentation from 6.75 ± 0.045 to 4.22 ± 0.062 for cow’s milk [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate essential traits of donkey’s milk and cow’s milk kefir during storage for 28 days at +4 °C. The results showed that the pH decreases significantly during fermentation from 6.75 ± 0.045 to 4.22 ± 0.062 for cow’s milk and from 7.01 ± 0.011 to 4.28 ± 0.030 for donkey’s milk. Acidity values increased significantly during storage from 63 ± 2.08 °D to 170 ± 2.80 °D for cow’s milk and from 92 ± 1.0 °D to 163 ± 1.30 °D for donkey’s milk (p < 0.05). A significant variation in total solids was observed during storage. Stability in protein content was observed for kefirs during storage time. While the level of lactose decreased significantly during storage, the fat content did not vary in kefirs during storage time at 4 °C. For microbiological properties, donkey milk kefir presents a significant difference (p < 0.05) compared to bovine kefir. Donkey’s milk always contains the lowest average germs, suggesting a better microbiological quality than cow’s milk samples. The fermented milks showed an interesting antioxidant activity measured by the DPPH and ABTS assays, which were improved during storage. The Aeromonas hydrophila was the most sensitive bacterium to the action of kefir samples. Results from the sensorial test show that participants prefer kefirs freshly prepared than those stored after 28 days at 4 °C. In conclusion, related to its unique bioactive activities and microbiological properties, donkey’s milk could be an interesting kefir fermentation source materials alternative. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Quality, Nutrition, and Chemistry of Beverages)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 895 KiB  
Review
Ultrasonication Effects on Quality of Tea-Based Beverages
by Sibel Uzuner
Beverages 2023, 9(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9010001 - 27 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3609
Abstract
Tea is the most popular consumed drink after water. Teas and tea-based beverages have grown in popularity due to bioactive compounds. Tea-based beverages have started to take their place in the market. Extraction is a crucial step for the production of functional tea-based [...] Read more.
Tea is the most popular consumed drink after water. Teas and tea-based beverages have grown in popularity due to bioactive compounds. Tea-based beverages have started to take their place in the market. Extraction is a crucial step for the production of functional tea-based beverages. Compared to conventional methods, ultrasound is attractive due to its lower energy requirements, and shorter extraction time. This review aimed to discuss recent marketing aspects of tea-based beverages as well as the potential and challenges of a novel infusion technique. This review describes the health benefits and technological aspects of tea-based beverages in relation to how to best solve nutritional and microbial concerns. Current and future challenges and opportunities of the novel infusion technique and its scaling-up for the extraction of bioactive compounds are also covered in the present review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preservation of Beverages by Continuous Pasteurization Technologies)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop