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Bioengineering, Volume 11, Issue 5 (May 2024) – 110 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Partial ACL tears can go unnoticed if they minimally affect knee laxity, but they can become complete tears. Typically, ACL tears are detected manually. We used a computational model of the knee joint to investigate partial ACL tears. Five tear types (I–V), classified by location and size, were modeled to predict the relationship between tear size, location, and anterior tibial translation (ATT). The results showed varying levels of ATT, which were manually undetectable. Small tears affected knee stability at the ligament's center the most; moderate tears impacted the proximal half of the ACL the most; and severe tears significantly increased knee instability, especially near the insertion sites. Our model can improve partial ACL tear diagnosis and aid in developing new repair techniques to prevent severe injuries. View this paper
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27 pages, 3646 KiB  
Article
Comparative Biomechanical Stability of the Fixation of Different Miniplates in Restorative Laminoplasty after Laminectomy: A Finite Element Study
by Guoyin Liu, Weiqian Huang, Nannan Leng, Peng He, Xin Li, Muliang Lin, Zhonghua Lian, Yong Wang, Jianmin Chen and Weihua Cai
Bioengineering 2024, 11(5), 519; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering11050519 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 493
Abstract
A novel H-shaped miniplate (HSM) was specifically designed for restorative laminoplasties to restore patients’ posterior elements after laminectomies. A validated finite element (FE) model of L2/4 was utilized to create a laminectomy model, as well as three restorative laminoplasty models based on the [...] Read more.
A novel H-shaped miniplate (HSM) was specifically designed for restorative laminoplasties to restore patients’ posterior elements after laminectomies. A validated finite element (FE) model of L2/4 was utilized to create a laminectomy model, as well as three restorative laminoplasty models based on the fixation of different miniplates after a laminectomy (the RL-HSM model, the RL-LSM model, and the RL-THM model). The biomechanical effects of motion and displacement on a laminectomy and restorative laminoplasty with three different shapes for the fixation of miniplates were compared under the same mechanical conditions. This study aimed to validate the biomechanical stability, efficacy, and feasibility of a restorative laminoplasty with the fixation of miniplates post laminectomy. The laminectomy model demonstrated the greatest increase in motion and displacement, especially in axial rotation, followed by extension, flexion, and lateral bending. The restorative laminoplasty was exceptional in preserving the motion and displacement of surgical segments when compared to the intact state. This preservation was particularly evident in lateral bending and flexion/extension, with a slight maintenance efficacy observed in axial rotation. Compared to the laminectomy model, the restorative laminoplasties with the investigated miniplates demonstrated a motion-limiting effect for all directions and resulted in excellent stability levels under axial rotation and flexion/extension. The greatest reduction in motion and displacement was observed in the RL-HSM model, followed by the RL-LSM model and then the RL-THM model. When comparing the fixation of different miniplates in restorative laminoplasties, the HSMs were found to be superior to the LSMs and THMs in maintaining postoperative stability, particularly in axial rotation. The evidence suggests that a restorative laminoplasty with the fixation of miniplates is more effective than a conventional laminectomy due to the biomechanical effects of restoring posterior elements, which helps patients regain motion and limit load displacement responses in the spine after surgery, especially in axial rotation and flexion/extension. Additionally, our evaluation in this research study could benefit from further research and provide a methodological and modeling basis for the design and optimization of restorative laminoplasties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanobiology in Biomedical Engineering)
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25 pages, 4991 KiB  
Article
Structural and Organizational Strategies of Locomotor Modules during Landing in Patients with Chronic Ankle Instability
by Tianle Jie, Datao Xu, Zanni Zhang, Ee-Chon Teo, Julien S. Baker, Huiyu Zhou and Yaodong Gu
Bioengineering 2024, 11(5), 518; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering11050518 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 390
Abstract
Background: Human locomotion involves the coordinated activation of a finite set of modules, known as muscle synergy, which represent the motor control strategy of the central nervous system. However, most prior studies have focused on isolated muscle activation, overlooking the modular organization of [...] Read more.
Background: Human locomotion involves the coordinated activation of a finite set of modules, known as muscle synergy, which represent the motor control strategy of the central nervous system. However, most prior studies have focused on isolated muscle activation, overlooking the modular organization of motor behavior. Therefore, to enhance comprehension of muscle coordination dynamics during multi-joint movements in chronic ankle instability (CAI), exploring muscle synergies during landing in CAI patients is imperative. Methods: A total of 22 patients with unilateral CAI and 22 healthy participants were recruited for this research. We employed a recursive model for second-order differential equations to process electromyographic (EMG) data after filtering preprocessing, generating the muscle activation matrix, which was subsequently inputted into the non-negative matrix factorization model for extraction of the muscle synergy. Muscle synergies were classified utilizing the K-means clustering algorithm and Pearson correlation coefficients. Statistical parameter mapping (SPM) was employed for temporal modular parameter analyses. Results: Four muscle synergies were identified in both the CAI and healthy groups. In Synergy 1, only the gluteus maximus showed significantly higher relative weight in CAI compared to healthy controls (p = 0.0035). Synergy 2 showed significantly higher relative weights for the vastus lateralis in the healthy group compared to CAI (p = 0.018), while in Synergy 4, CAI demonstrated significantly higher relative weights of the vastus lateralis compared to healthy controls (p = 0.030). Furthermore, in Synergy 2, the CAI group exhibited higher weights of the tibialis anterior compared to the healthy group (p = 0.042). Conclusions: The study suggested that patients with CAI exhibit a comparable modular organizational framework to the healthy group. Investigation of amplitude adjustments within the synergy spatial module shed light on the adaptive strategies employed by the tibialis anterior and gluteus maximus muscles to optimize control strategies during landing in patients with CAI. Variances in the muscle-specific weights of the vastus lateralis across movement modules reveal novel biomechanical adaptations in CAI, offering valuable insights for refining rehabilitation protocols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Trauma and Injury Biomechanics)
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15 pages, 5837 KiB  
Article
Synergistic Antibacterial Properties of Silver Nanoparticles and Its Reducing Agent from Cinnamon Bark Extract
by Araceli Granja Alvear, Nayely Pineda-Aguilar, Patricia Lozano, Cristóbal Lárez-Velázquez, Gottfried Suppan, Salomé Galeas, Alexis Debut, Karla Vizuete, Lola De Lima, Juan Pablo Saucedo-Vázquez, Frank Alexis and Floralba López
Bioengineering 2024, 11(5), 517; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering11050517 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 475
Abstract
Synthesis of silver nanoparticles with antibacterial properties using a one-pot green approach that harnesses the natural reducing and capping properties of cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) bark extract is presented in this work. Silver nitrate was the sole chemical reagent employed in this [...] Read more.
Synthesis of silver nanoparticles with antibacterial properties using a one-pot green approach that harnesses the natural reducing and capping properties of cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) bark extract is presented in this work. Silver nitrate was the sole chemical reagent employed in this process, acting as the precursor salt. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS), High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis, and some phytochemical tests demonstrated that cinnamaldehyde is the main component in the cinnamon bark extract. The resulting bio-reduced silver nanoparticles underwent comprehensive characterization by Ultraviolet–Vis (UV-Vis) and Fourier Transform InfraRed spectrophotometry (FTIR), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Transmission Electron Microscopy, and Scanning Electron Microscopy suggesting that cinnamaldehyde was chemically oxidated to produce silver nanoparticles. These cinnamon-extract-based silver nanoparticles (AgNPs-cinnamon) displayed diverse morphologies ranging from spherical to prismatic shapes, with sizes spanning between 2.94 and 65.1 nm. Subsequently, the antibacterial efficacy of these nanoparticles was investigated against Klebsiella, E. Coli, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus aureus, and Acinetobacter strains. The results suggest the promising potential of silver nanoparticles obtained (AgNPs-cinnamon) as antimicrobial agents, offering a new avenue in the fight against bacterial infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nanotechnology Applications in Bioengineering)
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9 pages, 15786 KiB  
Article
Quantitative Analysis of Stress–Stretch Curves in Canine Lumbar Vertebrae Using Modified Logistic Functions
by Ernest Kostenko, Rimantas Stonkus, Jakov Šengaut, Nikolaj Višniakov and Algirdas Maknickas
Bioengineering 2024, 11(5), 516; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering11050516 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 489
Abstract
Background: The mechanical characteristics of bone are crucial for comprehending its functionality and response to different load conditions, which are essential for advancing medical treatments, implants, and prosthetics. By employing mathematical modeling to analyze the mechanical properties of bone, we can assess stress [...] Read more.
Background: The mechanical characteristics of bone are crucial for comprehending its functionality and response to different load conditions, which are essential for advancing medical treatments, implants, and prosthetics. By employing mathematical modeling to analyze the mechanical properties of bone, we can assess stress and deformation under both normal and abnormal conditions. This analysis offers valuable perspectives on potential fracture risks, the effects of diseases, and the effectiveness of various treatments. Therefore, researchers are attempting to find an adequate mathematical description of the mechanical properties of bone. Methods: Experimental stress–stretch external loading curves were obtained through investigations of canine vertebrae. The obtained experimental curves were fitted using the SciPy Python library with a slightly modified logistic function (logistic function plus additional const). Results: The resulting coefficient of determination R2 (R squared) for most curves was near 0.999, indicating that an appropriate fitting function was selected for the description of the experimental stress–stretch curves. Conclusions: The stress–stretch behavior of canine vertebrae can be described using a logistic function modified by adding additional parameters for the most accurate fitting results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomechanics and Sports Medicine)
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14 pages, 1782 KiB  
Systematic Review
Bone Bruises and Concomitant Meniscus and Cartilage Damage in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Sueen Sohn, Saad Mohammed AlShammari, Jeong Han Lee and Man Soo Kim
Bioengineering 2024, 11(5), 515; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering11050515 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 429
Abstract
(1) Background: Bone bruises in acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are closely linked to the occurrence of simultaneous meniscal and cartilage damage. Despite the frequent occurrence of associated injuries including bone bruises, meniscus, and cartilage damage in patients with ACL injuries, a [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Bone bruises in acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are closely linked to the occurrence of simultaneous meniscal and cartilage damage. Despite the frequent occurrence of associated injuries including bone bruises, meniscus, and cartilage damage in patients with ACL injuries, a systematic review of the relationships between the presence of bone bruises and the extent of meniscus and cartilage injuries has yet to be conducted. (2) Methods: Multiple comprehensive databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library, were searched for studies that evaluated the relationship between bone bruises and meniscus or cartilage injuries following ACL injuries. Study selection, data extraction, and meta-analysis were performed. The Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies (MINORS) was used for quality assessments, and Review Manager 5.3 was used for data analysis. (3) Results: Data were extracted from 22 studies encompassing a total of 2891 patients with ACL injuries. Among the included studies, six studies investigated the relationships between bone bruises and medial meniscus (MM) or lateral meniscus (LM) injuries, while three studies investigated the relationships between bone bruises and cartilage injuries. There were no significant correlations between the presence of bone bruises and MM injuries (relative risk (RR) = 1.32; p = 0.61). A quantitative analysis indicated that individuals with bone bruises had a 2.71-fold higher likelihood of sustaining LM injuries than those without bone bruises (RR = 2.71; p = 0.0003). The analysis confirmed a significant relationship between bone bruises and cartilage injuries (RR = 6.18; p = 0.003). (4) Conclusions: Bone bruises occur most frequently in the lateral compartment. Bone bruises resulting from ACL injuries are related to accompanying LM injuries and cartilage injuries. Knowing these associations and the frequency of injuries may allow orthopedic surgeons to promptly address ACL-related meniscus and cartilage injuries on MRI results and in future clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomechanics and Sports Medicine)
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21 pages, 1757 KiB  
Review
Cortical and Trabecular Bone Modeling and Implications for Bone Functional Adaptation in the Mammalian Tibia
by Meir M. Barak
Bioengineering 2024, 11(5), 514; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering11050514 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 435
Abstract
Bone modeling involves the addition of bone material through osteoblast-mediated deposition or the removal of bone material via osteoclast-mediated resorption in response to perceived changes in loads by osteocytes. This process is characterized by the independent occurrence of deposition and resorption, which can [...] Read more.
Bone modeling involves the addition of bone material through osteoblast-mediated deposition or the removal of bone material via osteoclast-mediated resorption in response to perceived changes in loads by osteocytes. This process is characterized by the independent occurrence of deposition and resorption, which can take place simultaneously at different locations within the bone due to variations in stress levels across its different regions. The principle of bone functional adaptation states that cortical and trabecular bone tissues will respond to mechanical stimuli by adjusting (i.e., bone modeling) their morphology and architecture to mechanically improve their mechanical function in line with the habitual in vivo loading direction. This principle is relevant to various research areas, such as the development of improved orthopedic implants, preventative medicine for osteopenic elderly patients, and the investigation of locomotion behavior in extinct species. In the present review, the mammalian tibia is used as an example to explore cortical and trabecular bone modeling and to examine its implications for the functional adaptation of bones. Following a short introduction and an exposition on characteristics of mechanical stimuli that influence bone modeling, a detailed critical appraisal of the literature on cortical and trabecular bone modeling and bone functional adaptation is given. By synthesizing key findings from studies involving small mammals (rodents), large mammals, and humans, it is shown that examining both cortical and trabecular bone structures is essential for understanding bone functional adaptation. A combined approach can provide a more comprehensive understanding of this significant physiological phenomenon, as each structure contributes uniquely to the phenomenon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomedical Engineering and Biomaterials)
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19 pages, 4401 KiB  
Article
Modulation of Canine Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem/Medicinal Signalling Cells with Ascorbic Acid: Effect on Proliferation and Chondrogenic Differentiation on Standard Plastic and Silk Fibroin Surfaces
by Metka Voga
Bioengineering 2024, 11(5), 513; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering11050513 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 393
Abstract
Ascorbic acid (AA) plays a crucial role in both the proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation potential of mesenchymal stem/medicinal signalling cells (MSCs); these are both key aspects of their general therapeutic use and their increasing use in veterinary medicine. Current immunomodulatory therapies require efficient [...] Read more.
Ascorbic acid (AA) plays a crucial role in both the proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation potential of mesenchymal stem/medicinal signalling cells (MSCs); these are both key aspects of their general therapeutic use and their increasing use in veterinary medicine. Current immunomodulatory therapies require efficient expansion of MSCs in the laboratory, while emerging tissue regeneration strategies, such as cartilage or bone repair, aim to use differentiated MSCs and modulate the expression of chondrogenic and hypertrophic markers. Our aim was to investigate whether the addition of AA to the growth medium enhances the proliferation of canine adipose-derived MSCs (cAMSCs) grown on standard plastic surfaces and whether it affects chondrogenic differentiation potential on silk fibroin (SF) films. We assessed cell viability with trypan blue and proliferation potential by calculating population doubling. Chondrogenic induction on SF films was assessed by Alcian blue staining and gene expression analysis of chondrogenic and hypertrophic genes. The results showed that growth medium with AA significantly enhanced the proliferation of cAMSCs without affecting cell viability and modulated the expression of chondrogenic and hypertrophic genes of cAMSCs grown on SF films. Our results suggest that AA may be used in growth medium for expansion of cAMSCs and, at the same time, provide the basis for future studies to investigate the role of AA and SF in chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine in Bioengineering)
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12 pages, 3824 KiB  
Article
The Development and Implementation of Innovative Blind Source Separation Techniques for Real-Time Extraction and Analysis of Fetal and Maternal Electrocardiogram Signals
by Mohcin Mekhfioui, Aziz Benahmed, Ahmed Chebak, Rachid Elgouri and Laamari Hlou
Bioengineering 2024, 11(5), 512; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering11050512 - 19 May 2024
Viewed by 432
Abstract
This article presents an innovative approach to analyzing and extracting electrocardiogram (ECG) signals from the abdomen and thorax of pregnant women, with the primary goal of isolating fetal ECG (fECG) and maternal ECG (mECG) signals. To resolve the difficulties related to the low [...] Read more.
This article presents an innovative approach to analyzing and extracting electrocardiogram (ECG) signals from the abdomen and thorax of pregnant women, with the primary goal of isolating fetal ECG (fECG) and maternal ECG (mECG) signals. To resolve the difficulties related to the low amplitude of the fECG, various noise sources during signal acquisition, and the overlapping of R waves, we developed a new method for extracting ECG signals using blind source separation techniques. This method is based on independent component analysis algorithms to detect and accurately extract fECG and mECG signals from abdomen and thorax data. To validate our approach, we carried out experiments using a real and reliable database for the evaluation of fECG extraction algorithms. Moreover, to demonstrate real-time applicability, we implemented our method in an embedded card linked to electronic modules that measure blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and body temperature, as well as the transmission of data to a web server. This enables us to present all information related to the fetus and its mother in a mobile application to assist doctors in diagnosing the fetus’s condition. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach in isolating fECG and mECG signals under difficult conditions and also calculating different heart rates (fBPM and mBPM), which offers promising prospects for improving fetal monitoring and maternal healthcare during pregnancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosignal Processing)
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17 pages, 1952 KiB  
Article
Study of a Deep Convolution Network with Enhanced Region Proposal Network in the Detection of Cancerous Lung Tumors
by Jiann-Der Lee, Yu-Tsung Hsu and Jong-Chih Chien
Bioengineering 2024, 11(5), 511; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering11050511 - 19 May 2024
Viewed by 421
Abstract
A deep convolution network that expands on the architecture of the faster R-CNN network is proposed. The expansion includes adapting unsupervised classification with multiple backbone networks to improve the Region Proposal Network in order to improve accuracy and sensitivity in detecting minute changes [...] Read more.
A deep convolution network that expands on the architecture of the faster R-CNN network is proposed. The expansion includes adapting unsupervised classification with multiple backbone networks to improve the Region Proposal Network in order to improve accuracy and sensitivity in detecting minute changes in images. The efficiency of the proposed architecture is investigated by applying it to the detection of cancerous lung tumors in CT (computed tomography) images. This investigation used a total of 888 images from the LUNA16 dataset, which contains CT images of both cancerous and non-cancerous tumors of various sizes. These images are divided into 80% and 20%, which are used for training and testing, respectively. The result of the investigation through the experiment is that the proposed deep-learning architecture could achieve an accuracy rate of 95.32%, a precision rate of 94.63%, a specificity of 94.84%, and a high sensitivity of 96.23% using the LUNA16 images. The result shows an improvement compared to a reported accuracy of 93.6% from a previous study using the same dataset. Full article
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16 pages, 5418 KiB  
Article
Neurospora sp. Mediated Synthesis of Naringenin for the Production of Bioactive Nanomaterials
by Jitendra Dattatray Salunkhe, Indra Neel Pulidindi, Vikas Sambhaji Patil and Satish Vitthal Patil
Bioengineering 2024, 11(5), 510; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering11050510 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 443
Abstract
The application of Neurospora sp., a fungus that commonly thrives on complex agricultural and plant wastes, has proven successful in utilizing citrus peel waste as a source of naringin. A UV-Vis spectrophotometric method proved the biotransformation of naringin, with an absorption maximum (λ [...] Read more.
The application of Neurospora sp., a fungus that commonly thrives on complex agricultural and plant wastes, has proven successful in utilizing citrus peel waste as a source of naringin. A UV-Vis spectrophotometric method proved the biotransformation of naringin, with an absorption maximum (λmax) observed at 310 nm for the biotransformed product, naringenin (NAR). Further verification of the conversion of naringin was provided through thin layer chromatography (TLC). The Neurospora crassa mediated biotransformation of naringin to NAR was utilized for the rapid (within 5 min) synthesis of silver (Ag) and gold (Au) nanoconjugates using sunlight to accelerate the reaction. The synthesized NAR-nano Ag and NAR-nano Au conjugates exhibited monodispersed spherical and spherical as well as polygonal shaped particles, respectively. Both of the nanoconjugates showed average particle sizes of less than 90 nm from TEM analysis. The NAR-Ag and NAR-Au nanoconjugates displayed potential enhancement of the antimicrobial activities, including antibacterial and nematicidal properties over either standalone NAR or Ag or Au NPs. This study reveals the potential of naringinase-producing Neurospora sp. for transforming naringin into NAR. Additionally, the resulting NAR-Ag and NAR-Au nanoconjugates showed promise as sustainable antibiotics and biochemical nematicides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomaterials)
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11 pages, 425 KiB  
Article
How the Soluble Human Leukocyte Antigen-G levels in Amniotic Fluid and Maternal Serum Correlate with the Feto-Placental Growth in Uncomplicated Pregnancies
by Márió Vincze, János Sikovanyecz, Jr., Imre Földesi, Andrea Surányi, Szabolcs Várbíró, Gábor Németh, Zoltan Kozinszky and János Sikovanyecz
Bioengineering 2024, 11(5), 509; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering11050509 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 321
Abstract
Introduction: Trophoblast-derived angiogenic factors are considered to play an important role in the pathophysiology of various complications of pregnancy. Human Leukocyte Antigen-G (HLA-G) belongs to the non-classical human major histocompatibility complex (MHC-I) molecule and has membrane-bound and soluble forms. HLA-G is primarily expressed [...] Read more.
Introduction: Trophoblast-derived angiogenic factors are considered to play an important role in the pathophysiology of various complications of pregnancy. Human Leukocyte Antigen-G (HLA-G) belongs to the non-classical human major histocompatibility complex (MHC-I) molecule and has membrane-bound and soluble forms. HLA-G is primarily expressed by extravillous cytotrophoblasts located in the placenta between the maternal and fetal compartments and plays a pivotal role in providing immune tolerance. The aim of this study was to establish a relationship between concentrations of soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) in maternal serum and amniotic fluid at 16–22 weeks of gestation and the sonographic measurements of fetal and placental growth. Materials and methods: sHLA-G in serum and amniotic fluid, as well as fetal biometric data and placental volume and perfusion indices, were determined in 41 singleton pregnancies with no complications. The level of sHLA-G (U/mL) was tested with a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Results: The sHLA-G levels were unchanged both in amniotic fluid and serum during mid-pregnancy. The sHLA-G level in serum correlated positively with amniotic sHLA-G level (β = 0.63, p < 0.01). Serum sHLA-G level was significantly correlated with abdominal measurements (β = 0.41, p < 0.05) and estimated fetal weight (β = 0.41, p < 0.05). Conversely, amniotic sHLA-G level and placental perfusion (VI: β = −0.34, p < 0.01 and VFI: β = −0.44, p < 0.01, respectively) were negatively correlated. A low amniotic sHLA-G level was significantly associated with nuchal translucency (r = −0.102, p < 0.05). Conclusions: sHLA-G assayed in amniotic fluid might be a potential indicator of placental function, whereas the sHLA-G level in serum can be a prognostic factor for feto-placental insufficiency. Full article
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19 pages, 1476 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in Magnesium–Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticle Composites for Biomedical Applications
by Abbas Saberi, Madalina Simona Baltatu and Petrica Vizureanu
Bioengineering 2024, 11(5), 508; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering11050508 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 496
Abstract
Magnesium (Mg) is considered an attractive option for orthopedic applications due to its density and elastic modulus close to the natural bone of the body, as well as biodegradability and good tensile strength. However, it faces serious challenges, including a high degradation rate [...] Read more.
Magnesium (Mg) is considered an attractive option for orthopedic applications due to its density and elastic modulus close to the natural bone of the body, as well as biodegradability and good tensile strength. However, it faces serious challenges, including a high degradation rate and, as a result, a loss of mechanical properties during long periods of exposure to the biological environment. Also, among its other weaknesses, it can be mentioned that it does not deal with bacterial biofilms. It has been found that making composites by synergizing its various components can be an efficient way to improve its properties. Among metal oxide nanoparticles, magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO NPs) have distinct physicochemical and biological properties, including biocompatibility, biodegradability, high bioactivity, significant antibacterial properties, and good mechanical properties, which make it a good choice as a reinforcement in composites. However, the lack of comprehensive understanding of the effectiveness of Mg NPs as Mg matrix reinforcements in mechanical, corrosion, and biological fields is considered a challenge in their application. While introducing the role of MgO NPs in medical fields, this article summarizes the most important results of recent research on the mechanical, corrosion, and biological performance of Mg/MgO composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Prospects on Functional Biomaterials)
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17 pages, 5477 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the Role of Osteoporotic Vertebra Degeneration on the Stability of the Lumbar Spine: In Silico Modelling under Compressive Loading
by Olga Chabarova, Jelena Selivonec and Alicia Menendez Hurtado
Bioengineering 2024, 11(5), 507; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering11050507 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 316
Abstract
An evaluation of the impact of osteoporosis on loss of spinal stability, with or without intervertebral disc degeneration, using computational analysis is presented. The research also investigates the correlation between osteoporosis and intervertebral disc degeneration. Three-dimensional finite element models of human lumbar spine [...] Read more.
An evaluation of the impact of osteoporosis on loss of spinal stability, with or without intervertebral disc degeneration, using computational analysis is presented. The research also investigates the correlation between osteoporosis and intervertebral disc degeneration. Three-dimensional finite element models of human lumbar spine segments were used to assess the influence of osteoporosis on spinal stability. Five different models of age-related degeneration were created using various material properties for trabecular bone and intervertebral discs. Calculation results indicate that in a spine with osteoporosis, the deformation of the intervertebral discs can increase by more than 30% when compared to a healthy spine. Thus, intervertebral disc deformation depends not only on the degree of degeneration of the discs themselves, but their deformation is also influenced by the degree of osteoporosis of the vertebrae. Additionally, the load-bearing capacity of the spine can decrease by up to 30% with osteoporosis, regardless of the degree of intervertebral disc deformation. In conclusion, osteoporosis can contribute to intervertebral disc degeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Development in Spine Biomechanics)
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21 pages, 2236 KiB  
Review
Integration of Ultrasound in Image-Guided Adaptive Brachytherapy in Cancer of the Uterine Cervix
by Elena Manea, Elena Chitoran, Vlad Rotaru, Sinziana Ionescu, Dan Luca, Ciprian Cirimbei, Mihnea Alecu, Cristina Capsa, Bogdan Gafton, Iulian Prutianu, Dragos Serban and Laurentiu Simion
Bioengineering 2024, 11(5), 506; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering11050506 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 413
Abstract
Cervical cancer continues to be a public health concern, as it remains the second most common cancer despite screening programs. It is the third most common cause of cancer-related death for women, and the majority of cases happen in developing nations. The standard [...] Read more.
Cervical cancer continues to be a public health concern, as it remains the second most common cancer despite screening programs. It is the third most common cause of cancer-related death for women, and the majority of cases happen in developing nations. The standard treatment for locally advanced cervical cancer involves the use of external beam radiation therapy, along with concurrent chemotherapy, followed by an image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT) boost. The five-year relative survival rate for European women diagnosed with cervical cancer was 62% between 2000 and 2007. Updated cervical cancer treatment guidelines based on IGABT have been developed by the Gynecological working group, which is composed of the Group Européen de Curiethérapie–European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. The therapeutic strategy makes use of three-dimensional imaging, which can be tailored to the target volume and at-risk organs through the use of computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Under anaesthesia, the brachytherapy implantation is carried out. Ultrasonography is utilised to assess the depth of the uterine cavity and to facilitate the dilation of the uterine canal during the application insertion. In this study, we examine data from the international literature regarding the application of ultrasound in cervical cancer brachytherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image-Guided Radiation Therapy for Cancer)
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24 pages, 7165 KiB  
Article
Subtractive Proteomics and Reverse-Vaccinology Approaches for Novel Drug Target Identification and Chimeric Vaccine Development against Bartonella henselae Strain Houston-1
by Sudais Rahman, Chien-Chun Chiou, Shabir Ahmad, Zia Ul Islam, Tetsuya Tanaka, Abdulaziz Alouffi, Chien-Chin Chen, Mashal M. Almutairi and Abid Ali
Bioengineering 2024, 11(5), 505; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering11050505 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 614
Abstract
Bartonella henselae is a Gram-negative bacterium causing a variety of clinical symptoms, ranging from cat-scratch disease to severe systemic infections, and it is primarily transmitted by infected fleas. Its status as an emerging zoonotic pathogen and its capacity to persist within host erythrocytes [...] Read more.
Bartonella henselae is a Gram-negative bacterium causing a variety of clinical symptoms, ranging from cat-scratch disease to severe systemic infections, and it is primarily transmitted by infected fleas. Its status as an emerging zoonotic pathogen and its capacity to persist within host erythrocytes and endothelial cells emphasize its clinical significance. Despite progress in understanding its pathogenesis, limited knowledge exists about the virulence factors and regulatory mechanisms specific to the B. henselae strain Houston-1. Exploring these aspects is crucial for targeted therapeutic strategies against this versatile pathogen. Using reverse-vaccinology-based subtractive proteomics, this research aimed to identify the most antigenic proteins for formulating a multi-epitope vaccine against the B. henselae strain Houston-1. One crucial virulent and antigenic protein, the PAS domain-containing sensor histidine kinase protein, was identified. Subsequently, the identification of B-cell and T-cell epitopes for the specified protein was carried out and the evaluated epitopes were checked for their antigenicity, allergenicity, solubility, MHC binding capability, and toxicity. The filtered epitopes were merged using linkers and an adjuvant to create a multi-epitope vaccine construct. The structure was then refined, with 92.3% of amino acids falling within the allowed regions. Docking of the human receptor (TLR4) with the vaccine construct was performed and demonstrated a binding energy of −1047.2 Kcal/mol with more interactions. Molecular dynamic simulations confirmed the stability of this docked complex, emphasizing the conformation and interactions between the molecules. Further experimental validation is necessary to evaluate its effectiveness against B. henselae. Full article
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16 pages, 907 KiB  
Systematic Review
Deep Learning for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Segmentation in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Chih-Keng Wang, Ting-Wei Wang, Ya-Xuan Yang and Yu-Te Wu
Bioengineering 2024, 11(5), 504; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering11050504 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 457
Abstract
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a significant health challenge that is particularly prevalent in Southeast Asia and North Africa. MRI is the preferred diagnostic tool for NPC due to its superior soft tissue contrast. The accurate segmentation of NPC in MRI is crucial for effective [...] Read more.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a significant health challenge that is particularly prevalent in Southeast Asia and North Africa. MRI is the preferred diagnostic tool for NPC due to its superior soft tissue contrast. The accurate segmentation of NPC in MRI is crucial for effective treatment planning and prognosis. We conducted a search across PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science from inception up to 20 March 2024, adhering to the PRISMA 2020 guidelines. Eligibility criteria focused on studies utilizing DL for NPC segmentation in adults via MRI. Data extraction and meta-analysis were conducted to evaluate the performance of DL models, primarily measured by Dice scores. We assessed methodological quality using the CLAIM and QUADAS-2 tools, and statistical analysis was performed using random effects models. The analysis incorporated 17 studies, demonstrating a pooled Dice score of 78% for DL models (95% confidence interval: 74% to 83%), indicating a moderate to high segmentation accuracy by DL models. Significant heterogeneity and publication bias were observed among the included studies. Our findings reveal that DL models, particularly convolutional neural networks, offer moderately accurate NPC segmentation in MRI. This advancement holds the potential for enhancing NPC management, necessitating further research toward integration into clinical practice. Full article
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14 pages, 4960 KiB  
Article
Computational Lower Limb Simulator Boundary Conditions to Reproduce Measured TKA Loading in a Cohort of Telemetric Implant Patients
by Chase Maag, Clare K. Fitzpatrick and Paul J. Rullkoetter
Bioengineering 2024, 11(5), 503; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering11050503 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 400
Abstract
Recent advancements in computational modeling offer opportunities to refine total knee arthroplasty (TKA) design and treatment strategies. This study developed patient-specific simulator external boundary conditions (EBCs) using a PID-controlled lower limb finite element (FE) model. Calibration of the external actuation required to achieve [...] Read more.
Recent advancements in computational modeling offer opportunities to refine total knee arthroplasty (TKA) design and treatment strategies. This study developed patient-specific simulator external boundary conditions (EBCs) using a PID-controlled lower limb finite element (FE) model. Calibration of the external actuation required to achieve measured patient-specific joint loading and motion was completed for nine patients with telemetric implants during gait, stair descent, and deep knee bend. The study also compared two EBC scenarios: activity-specific hip AP motion and pelvic rotation (that was averaged across all patients for an activity) and patient-specific hip AP motion and pelvic rotation. Including patient-specific data significantly improved reproduction of joint-level loading, reducing root mean squared error between the target and achieved loading by 28.7% and highlighting the importance of detailed patient data in replicating joint kinematics and kinetics. The principal component analysis (PCA) of the EBCs for the patient dataset showed that one component represented 77.8% of the overall variation, while the first three components represented 97.8%. Given the significant loading variability within the patient cohort, this group of patient-specific models can be run individually to provide insight into expected TKA mechanics variability, and the PCA can be utilized to further create reasonable EBCs that expand the variability evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Biomechanics, Volume II)
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14 pages, 3381 KiB  
Article
Adherence-Promoting Design Features in Pediatric Neurostimulators for ADHD Patients
by William Delatte, Allyson Camp, Richard B. Kreider and Anthony Guiseppi-Elie
Bioengineering 2024, 11(5), 502; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering11050502 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 579
Abstract
The emergence of remote health monitoring and increased at-home care emphasizes the importance of patient adherence outside the clinical setting. This is particularly pertinent in the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in pediatric patients, as the population inherently has difficulty remembering [...] Read more.
The emergence of remote health monitoring and increased at-home care emphasizes the importance of patient adherence outside the clinical setting. This is particularly pertinent in the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in pediatric patients, as the population inherently has difficulty remembering and initiating treatment tasks. Neurostimulation is an emerging treatment modality for pediatric ADHD and requires strict adherence to a treatment regimen to be followed in an at-home setting. Thus, to achieve the desired therapeutic effect, careful attention must be paid to design features that can passively promote and effectively monitor therapeutic adherence. This work describes instrumentation designed to support a clinical trial protocol that tests whether choice of color, or color itself, can statistically significantly increase adherence rates in pediatric ADHD patients in an extraclinical environment. This is made possible through the development and application of an internet-of-things approach in a remote adherence monitoring technology that can be implemented in forthcoming neurostimulation devices for pediatric patient use. This instrumentation requires minimal input from the user, is durable and resistant to physical damage, and provides accurate adherence data to parents and physicians, increasing assurance that neurostimulation devices are effective for at-home care. Full article
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16 pages, 6070 KiB  
Article
Biomechanical Effects of the Badminton Split-Step on Forecourt Lunging Footwork
by Yile Wang, Liu Xu, Hanhui Jiang, Lin Yu, Hanzhang Wu and Qichang Mei
Bioengineering 2024, 11(5), 501; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering11050501 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 492
Abstract
Background: This research investigates the biomechanical impact of the split-step technique on forehand and backhand lunges in badminton, aiming to enhance players’ on-court movement efficiency. Despite the importance of agile positioning in badminton, the specific contributions of the split-step to the biomechanical impact [...] Read more.
Background: This research investigates the biomechanical impact of the split-step technique on forehand and backhand lunges in badminton, aiming to enhance players’ on-court movement efficiency. Despite the importance of agile positioning in badminton, the specific contributions of the split-step to the biomechanical impact of lunging footwork still need to be determined. Methods: This study examined the lower limb kinematics and ground reaction forces of 18 male badminton players performing forehand and backhand lunges. Data were collected using the VICON motion capture system and Kistler force platforms. Variability in biomechanical characteristics was assessed using paired-sample t-tests and Statistical Parametric Mapping 1D (SPM1D). Results: The study demonstrates that the split-step technique in badminton lunges significantly affects lower limb biomechanics. During forehand lunges, the split-step increases hip abduction and rotation while decreasing knee flexion at foot contact. In backhand lunges, it increases knee rotation and decreases ankle rotation. Additionally, the split-step enhances the loading rate of the initial ground reaction force peak and narrows the time gap between the first two peaks. Conclusions: These findings underscore the split-step’s potential in optimizing lunging techniques, improving performance and reducing injury risks in badminton athletes. Full article
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13 pages, 2662 KiB  
Article
Cervical Multifidus Stiffness Assessment in Individuals with and without Unilateral Chronic Neck Pain: An Inter-Examiner Reliability Study
by Umut Varol, Juan Antonio Valera-Calero, Ricardo Ortega-Santiago, Mónica López-Redondo, Marcos José Navarro-Santana, Gustavo Plaza-Manzano and Pedro Belón-Pérez
Bioengineering 2024, 11(5), 500; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering11050500 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 475
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the inter-examiner reliability of shear wave elastography (SWE) for measuring cervical multifidus (CM) muscle stiffness in asymptomatic controls and patients with chronic neck pain. A longitudinal observational study was conducted to assess the diagnostic accuracy of a procedure. [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the inter-examiner reliability of shear wave elastography (SWE) for measuring cervical multifidus (CM) muscle stiffness in asymptomatic controls and patients with chronic neck pain. A longitudinal observational study was conducted to assess the diagnostic accuracy of a procedure. SWE images, following a detailed procedure previously tested, were acquired by two examiners (one novice and one experienced) to calculate the shear wave speed (SWS) and Young’s modulus. The painful side was examined for the experimental cases while the side examined in the control group was selected randomly. Data analyses calculated the intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs), absolute errors between examiners, standard errors of measurement, and minimal detectable changes. A total of 125 participants were analyzed (n = 54 controls and n = 71 cases). The Young’s modulus and SWS measurements obtained by both examiners were comparable within the asymptomatic group (both, p > 0.05) and the chronic neck pain group (both, p > 0.05). Nonetheless, a notable distinction was observed in the absolute error between examiners for shear wave speed measurements among patients with neck pain, where a significant difference was registered (p = 0.045), pointing to a sensitivity in measurement consistency affected by the presence of chronic neck pain. ICCs demonstrated moderate-to-good reliability across both groups, with ICC values for asymptomatic individuals reported as >0.8. Among the chronic neck pain patients, ICC values were slightly lower (>0.780). The study revealed moderate-to-good consistency, highlighting the practicality and generalizability of SWE. Full article
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16 pages, 650 KiB  
Review
Cyclic Fatigue of Different Ni-Ti Endodontic Rotary File Alloys: A Comprehensive Review
by Dina Abdellatif, Alfredo Iandolo, Michela Scorziello, Giuseppe Sangiovanni and Massimo Pisano
Bioengineering 2024, 11(5), 499; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering11050499 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 960
Abstract
Introduction: Modern endodontics aims to decrease the bacterial load from the complex endodontic space. Over the years, improvements in the operative phases have led to a considerable increase in the success rate of endodontic treatments. The shaping phase has seen the development of [...] Read more.
Introduction: Modern endodontics aims to decrease the bacterial load from the complex endodontic space. Over the years, improvements in the operative phases have led to a considerable increase in the success rate of endodontic treatments. The shaping phase has seen the development of new techniques supported by technological innovations that have led to higher treatment predictability. Endodontic instruments have experienced a series of changes that have led to modifications in their design, surface treatments, and heat treatments. The clinical use of rotating nickel–titanium instruments has become widespread and consolidated, a success due primarily to the alloy’s mechanical characteristics, which are superior to steel ones, but also to innovations in instrument design. The advent of the Ni-Ti alloy has kept the concepts and requirements of shaping the same but has modified its implementation in endodontics. Aim: The following review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) protocol. The research question focused on Ni-Ti endodontic instruments whose cyclic fatigue was evaluated by analyzing cyclic fatigue strength and the incidence of fracture. Results: At the end of the research, 10 systematic reviews and 1 randomized controlled trial were included in this comprehensive review. The most frequently analysed alloys were M-wire, conventional Ni-Ti, and CM-wire. In seven articles, instruments made of M-wire alloy were used; in eight articles, instruments made of conventional Ni-Ti; and in seven articles, instruments made of CM-wire alloy. Conclusions: The technological evolution of Ni-Ti alloys has led to the development of increasingly high-performance endodontic files that are resistant to cyclic fatigue during clinical practice and have greater resistance to sterilisation practices, making treatment easier and more predictable over time. In particular, heat-treated nickel-titanium root canal instruments present greater resistance to cyclic fatigue than untreated ones and those used with reciprocating kinematics concerning continuous rotation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Approaches in Adhesive Dentistry)
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22 pages, 5842 KiB  
Article
Effect of Exposure to Particulate Matter on the Ocular Surface in an Experimental Allergic Eye Disease Mouse Model
by Basanta Bhujel, Seheon Oh, Woojune Hur, Seorin Lee, Ho Seok Chung, Hun Lee, Jin Hyoung Park and Jae Yong Kim
Bioengineering 2024, 11(5), 498; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering11050498 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 454
Abstract
In response to the escalating concern over the effect of environmental factors on ocular health, this study aimed to investigate the impact of air pollution-associated particulate matter (PM) on ocular allergy and inflammation. C57BL/6 mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) topically and aluminum [...] Read more.
In response to the escalating concern over the effect of environmental factors on ocular health, this study aimed to investigate the impact of air pollution-associated particulate matter (PM) on ocular allergy and inflammation. C57BL/6 mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) topically and aluminum hydroxide via intraperitoneal injection. Two weeks later, the mice were challenged with OVA and exposed to PM. Three groups—naive, OVA, and OVA-sensitized with PM exposure (OVA + PM) groups—were induced to an Allergic Eye disease (AED) model. Parameters including clinical signs, histological changes, inflammatory cell infiltration, serum OVA-specific immunoglobulins E (IgE) levels, mast cells degranulation, cellular apoptosis and T-cell cytokines were studied. The results demonstrate that exposure with PM significantly exacerbates ocular allergy, evidenced by increased eye-lid edema, mast cell degranulation, inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-5 and TNF-α), cell proliferation (Ki67), and serum IgE, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), and apoptosis and reduced goblet cells. These findings elucidate the detrimental impact of PM exposure on exacerbating the severity of AED. Noticeably, diminished goblet cells highlight disruptions in ocular surface integrity, while increased PMN infiltration with an elevated production of IgE signifies a systemic allergic response with inflammation. In conclusion, this study not only scientifically substantiates the association between air pollution, specifically PM, and ocular health, but also underscores the urgency for further exploration and targeted interventions to mitigate the detrimental effects of environmental pollutants on ocular surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Trends in Ophthalmic Diseases Treatment)
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21 pages, 4292 KiB  
Article
Improving the Generalizability of Deep Learning for T2-Lesion Segmentation of Gliomas in the Post-Treatment Setting
by Jacob Ellison, Francesco Caliva, Pablo Damasceno, Tracy L. Luks, Marisa LaFontaine, Julia Cluceru, Anil Kemisetti, Yan Li, Annette M. Molinaro, Valentina Pedoia, Javier E. Villanueva-Meyer and Janine M. Lupo
Bioengineering 2024, 11(5), 497; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering11050497 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 477
Abstract
Although fully automated volumetric approaches for monitoring brain tumor response have many advantages, most available deep learning models are optimized for highly curated, multi-contrast MRI from newly diagnosed gliomas, which are not representative of post-treatment cases in the clinic. Improving segmentation for treated [...] Read more.
Although fully automated volumetric approaches for monitoring brain tumor response have many advantages, most available deep learning models are optimized for highly curated, multi-contrast MRI from newly diagnosed gliomas, which are not representative of post-treatment cases in the clinic. Improving segmentation for treated patients is critical to accurately tracking changes in response to therapy. We investigated mixing data from newly diagnosed (n = 208) and treated (n = 221) gliomas in training, applying transfer learning (TL) from pre- to post-treatment imaging domains, and incorporating spatial regularization for T2-lesion segmentation using only T2 FLAIR images as input to improve generalization post-treatment. These approaches were evaluated on 24 patients suspected of progression who had received prior treatment. Including 26% of treated patients in training improved performance by 13.9%, and including more treated and untreated patients resulted in minimal changes. Fine-tuning with treated glioma improved sensitivity compared to data mixing by 2.5% (p < 0.05), and spatial regularization further improved performance when used with TL by 95th HD, Dice, and sensitivity (6.8%, 0.8%, 2.2%; p < 0.05). While training with ≥60 treated patients yielded the majority of performance gain, TL and spatial regularization further improved T2-lesion segmentation to treated gliomas using a single MR contrast and minimal processing, demonstrating clinical utility in response assessment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Intelligence in Auto-Diagnosis and Clinical Applications)
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17 pages, 3160 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Hydrolyzed Royal Jelly Peptide in Human Dermal Fibroblasts: Implications for Skin Health and Care Applications
by Chang-Yu Yan, Qian-Qian Zhu, Cheng-Xi Guan, Gui-Lan Xiong, Xin-Xing Chen, Hai-Biao Gong, Jia-Wei Li, Shu-Hua Ouyang, Hiroshi Kurihara, Yi-Fang Li and Rong-Rong He
Bioengineering 2024, 11(5), 496; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering11050496 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 470
Abstract
Hydrolyzed royal jelly peptide (RJP) has garnered attention for its health-promoting functions. However, the potential applications of RJP in skincare have not been fully explored. In this study, we prepared RJP through the enzymatic hydrolysis of royal jelly protein with trypsin and investigated [...] Read more.
Hydrolyzed royal jelly peptide (RJP) has garnered attention for its health-promoting functions. However, the potential applications of RJP in skincare have not been fully explored. In this study, we prepared RJP through the enzymatic hydrolysis of royal jelly protein with trypsin and investigated its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties on primary human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). Our results demonstrate that RJP effectively inhibits oxidative damage induced by H2O2 and lipid peroxidation triggered by AAPH and t-BuOOH in HDFs. This effect may be attributed to the ability of RJP to enhance the level of glutathione and the activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase 4, as well as its excellent iron chelating capacity. Furthermore, RJP modulates the NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated inflammatory response in HDFs, suppressing the mRNA expressions of NLRP3 and IL-1β in the primer stage induced by LPS and the release of mature IL-1β induced by ATP, monosodium urate, or nigericin in the activation stage. RJP also represses the expressions of COX2 and iNOS induced by LPS. Finally, we reveal that RJP exhibits superior antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties over unhydrolyzed royal jelly protein. These findings suggest that RJP exerts protective effects on skin cells through antioxidative and anti-inflammatory mechanisms, indicating its promise for potential therapeutic avenues for managing oxidative stress and inflammation-related skin disorders. Full article
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1 pages, 133 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Chen et al. Hemodynamic Effects of Subaortic Stenosis on Blood Flow Characteristics of a Mechanical Heart Valve Based on OpenFOAM Simulation. Bioengineering 2023, 10, 312
by Aolin Chen, Adi Azriff Basri, Norzian Bin Ismail and Kamarul Arifin Ahmad
Bioengineering 2024, 11(5), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering11050495 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 277
Abstract
In the original publication [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Biomechanics)
26 pages, 2066 KiB  
Review
Navigating the Immunological Crossroads: Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells as Architects of Inflammatory Harmony in Tissue-Engineered Constructs
by Saeed Farzamfar, Luciana Melo Garcia, Mahya Rahmani and Stephane Bolduc
Bioengineering 2024, 11(5), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering11050494 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 413
Abstract
In the dynamic landscape of tissue engineering, the integration of tissue-engineered constructs (TECs) faces a dual challenge—initiating beneficial inflammation for regeneration while avoiding the perils of prolonged immune activation. As TECs encounter the immediate reaction of the immune system upon implantation, the unique [...] Read more.
In the dynamic landscape of tissue engineering, the integration of tissue-engineered constructs (TECs) faces a dual challenge—initiating beneficial inflammation for regeneration while avoiding the perils of prolonged immune activation. As TECs encounter the immediate reaction of the immune system upon implantation, the unique immunomodulatory properties of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) emerge as key navigators. Harnessing the paracrine effects of MSCs, researchers aim to craft a localized microenvironment that not only enhances TEC integration but also holds therapeutic promise for inflammatory-driven pathologies. This review unravels the latest advancements, applications, obstacles, and future prospects surrounding the strategic alliance between MSCs and TECs, shedding light on the immunological symphony that guides the course of regenerative medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biofabrication and Biomanufacturing)
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11 pages, 622 KiB  
Article
Research of Global Tilt and Functional Independence: Insights into Spinal Health of Older Women
by Yu-Chieh Chiu, Ping-Chiao Tsai, Ssu-Hsien Lee, Wen-Tien Wu, Tzai-Chiu Yu, Ru-Ping Lee, Ing-Ho Chen, Jen-Hung Wang and Kuang-Ting Yeh
Bioengineering 2024, 11(5), 493; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering11050493 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 447
Abstract
Spinal alignment intricately influences functional independence, particularly in older women with osteopenia experiencing mild neck and back pain. This study elucidates the interplay between spinal alignment, bone mineral density (BMD), and muscle strength in elderly women presenting with mild neck and back pain. [...] Read more.
Spinal alignment intricately influences functional independence, particularly in older women with osteopenia experiencing mild neck and back pain. This study elucidates the interplay between spinal alignment, bone mineral density (BMD), and muscle strength in elderly women presenting with mild neck and back pain. Focusing on a cohort of 189 older women, we examined the associations among global tilt (GT), coronal and sagittal alignment, BMD, grip strength, and functional independence as gauged by the Barthel index. Our findings indicate significant associations between functional capacity and grip strength, bone density, GT, and pelvic tilt (PT). Elderly women with a Barthel Index above 80 demonstrated higher grip strength and better bone quality, reflected by less negative average T scores. These individuals also exhibited lower values of GT and PT, suggesting a better sagittal alignment compared to those with a Barthel index of 80 or below. The results highlight that deviations in GT and PT are significantly associated with decreased functional independence. These insights emphasize the importance of maintaining optimal spinal alignment and muscle strength to support functional independence in elderly women. This study underscores the potential for targeted interventions that improve postural stability and manage pain effectively in this vulnerable population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomechanics and Sports Medicine)
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32 pages, 1481 KiB  
Review
Green Synthesis, Characterization and Application of Silver Nanoparticles Using Bioflocculant: A Review
by Nkanyiso C. Nkosi, Albertus K. Basson, Zuzingcebo G. Ntombela, Nkosinathi G. Dlamini and Rajasekhar V. S. R. Pullabhotla
Bioengineering 2024, 11(5), 492; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering11050492 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 563
Abstract
Nanotechnology has emerged as an effective means of removing contaminants from water. Traditional techniques for producing nanoparticles, such as physical methods (condensation and evaporation) and chemical methods (oxidation and reduction), have demonstrated high efficiency. However, these methods come with certain drawbacks, including the [...] Read more.
Nanotechnology has emerged as an effective means of removing contaminants from water. Traditional techniques for producing nanoparticles, such as physical methods (condensation and evaporation) and chemical methods (oxidation and reduction), have demonstrated high efficiency. However, these methods come with certain drawbacks, including the significant energy requirement and the use of costly and hazardous chemicals that may cause nanoparticles to adhere to surfaces. To address these limitations, researchers are actively developing alternative procedures that are cost-effective, environmentally safe, and user-friendly. One promising approach involves biological synthesis, which utilizes plants or microorganisms as reducing and capping agents. This review discusses various methods of nanoparticle synthesis, with a focus on biological synthesis using naturally occurring bioflocculants from microorganisms. Bioflocculants offer several advantages, including harmlessness, biodegradability, and minimal secondary pollution. Furthermore, the review covers the characterization of synthesized nanoparticles, their antimicrobial activity, and cytotoxicity. Additionally, it explores the utilization of these NPs in water purification and dye removal processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Wastewater Treatment and Resource Recovery)
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19 pages, 3428 KiB  
Article
Finite Element Analysis of a Rib Cage Model: Influence of Four Variables on Fatigue Life during Simulated Manual CPR
by Jong Hyeok Jeon, Jae Ho Sul, Dae Hwan Ko, Myoung Jae Seo, Sung Min Kim and Hong Seok Lim
Bioengineering 2024, 11(5), 491; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering11050491 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 494
Abstract
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a life-saving technique used in emergencies when the heart stops beating, typically involving chest compressions and ventilation. Current adult CPR guidelines do not differentiate based on age beyond infancy and childhood. This oversight increases the risk of fatigue fractures [...] Read more.
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a life-saving technique used in emergencies when the heart stops beating, typically involving chest compressions and ventilation. Current adult CPR guidelines do not differentiate based on age beyond infancy and childhood. This oversight increases the risk of fatigue fractures in the elderly due to decreased bone density and changes in thoracic structure. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the correlation and impact of factors influencing rib fatigue fractures for safer out-of-hospital manual cardiopulmonary resuscitation (OHMCPR) application. Using the finite element analysis (FEA) method, we performed fatigue analysis on rib cage models incorporating chest compression conditions and age-specific trabecular bone properties. Fatigue life analyses were conducted on three age-specific rib cage models, each differentiated by trabecular bone properties, to determine the influence of four explanatory variables (the properties of the trabecular bone (a surrogate for the age of the subject), the site of application of the compression force on the breastbone, the magnitude of applied compression force, and the rate of application of the compression force) on the fatigue life of the model. Additionally, considering the complex interaction of chest compression conditions during actual CPR, we aimed to predict rib fatigue fractures under conditions simulating real-life scenarios by analyzing the sensitivity and interrelation of chest compression conditions on the model’s fatigue life. Time constraints led to the selection of optimal analysis conditions through the use of design of experiments (DOE), specifically orthogonal array testing, followed by the construction of a deep learning-based metamodel. The predicted fatigue life values of the rib cage model, obtained from the metamodel, showed the influence of the four explanatory variables on fatigue life. These results may be used to devise safer CPR guidelines, particularly for the elderly at a high risk of acute cardiac arrest, safeguarding against potential complications like fatigue fractures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Trauma and Injury Biomechanics)
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13 pages, 3257 KiB  
Article
Advancing Exoskeleton Development: Validation of a Robotic Surrogate to Measure Tibial Strain
by Robert L. McGrath, Ciera A. Price, William Brett Johnson and Walter Lee Childers
Bioengineering 2024, 11(5), 490; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering11050490 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 499
Abstract
Bone stress injuries are prevalent among athletes and military recruits and can significantly compromise training schedules. The development of an ankle–foot orthosis to reduce tibial load and enable a faster return to activity will require new device testing methodologies capable of capturing the [...] Read more.
Bone stress injuries are prevalent among athletes and military recruits and can significantly compromise training schedules. The development of an ankle–foot orthosis to reduce tibial load and enable a faster return to activity will require new device testing methodologies capable of capturing the contribution of muscular force on tibial strain. Thus, an actuated robotic surrogate leg was developed to explore how tibial strain changes with different ankle–foot orthosis conditions. The purpose of this work was to assess the reliability, scalability, and behavior of the surrogate. A dual actuation system consisting of a Bowden cable and a vertical load applied to the femur via a material testing system, replicated the action-reaction of the Achilles-soleus complex. Maximum and minimum principal strain, maximum shear strain, and axial strain were measured by instrumented strain gauges at five locations on the tibia. Strains were highly repeatable across tests but did not consistently match in vivo data when scaled. However, the stiffness of the ankle–foot orthosis strut did not systematically affect tibial load, which is consistent with in vivo findings. Future work will involve improving the scalability of the results to match in vivo data and using the surrogate to inform exoskeletal designs for bone stress injuries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Devices and Implants)
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