Next Article in Journal
Needle-Based Electrical Impedance Imaging Technology for Needle Navigation
Previous Article in Journal
One Billion hiPSC-Cardiomyocytes: Upscaling Engineered Cardiac Tissues to Create High Cell Density Therapies for Clinical Translation in Heart Regeneration
Previous Article in Special Issue
Mn-Based Methacrylated Gellan Gum Hydrogels for MRI-Guided Cell Delivery and Imaging
 
 
Order Article Reprints
Font Type:
Arial Georgia Verdana
Font Size:
Aa Aa Aa
Line Spacing:
Column Width:
Background:
Editorial

Could the Convergence of Science and Technology Guarantee Human Health in the Future?

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Natural Sciences, Istinye University, 34396 Istanbul, Türkiye
Bioengineering 2023, 10(5), 589; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering10050589
Received: 17 April 2023 / Accepted: 12 May 2023 / Published: 13 May 2023
Due to the daily growth of the world population, there has been an increase in concerns regarding health, especially due to the increase in the number of aged people, the surge of pollution, and the appearance of new pandemic diseases such as COVID-19 and influenza H1N1. One exciting approaches that provides much hope is the convergence of science and technology, which can improve the performance of routinely used strategies (in both diagnosis and treatment) and even create new approaches for monitoring the healthcare of the global population. This could be put into practice by creating new therapeutic compounds against cancer, which could target the intracellular pathways [1], or by producing new nanomaterials that could carry therapeutic compounds [2]. The convergence of science and technology could also be used for the creation of low-cost highly sensitive biosensors used for point-of-care applications, such as monitoring heart rates [3], detecting therapeutic compounds, such as antibiotics in pharmaceutical and clinical samples [4], and as highly sensitive and selective aptasensors [5]. This convergence could also help overcome the problem of low efficiency in conventional in vitro and in vivo models in the development and assessment of new drug formulation using different types of organ-on-chip models [6]. In this context, Osouli Tabrizi and his coworkers represented a type of cells-on-a-chip platform for the modeling of complementary metal oxide semiconductors, as a low-cost sensor for the detection of living cells, which could help detect periodontal diseases early and with high accuracy. The results of this study showed the effectiveness of this new sensor in monitoring the cells in very small sample saliva volumes (1 µL) [7]. In another study, the application of hydrogels containing drug, cells, and growth factor for the treatment of osteoporosis showed promising signs of improvement in comparison to implants and metallic scaffolds [8]. On the other hand, coating the currently used stainless-steel (SS) implants with a polymeric shell of zein/Ag-Sr doped mesoporous bioactive glass nanoparticles has reduced the toxicity effects of the SS implants and exhibited beneficial effects in bone regeneration applications [9]. In another study, Sikder et al. evaluated the combination of ultrasound (US) and the 3D-printed bioactive piezoelectric scaffolds for the treatment of orthopedic defects. They have shown that the fabricated scaffold that contained bioactive PCL-BaTiO3 piezoelectric composite formulations could improve osteogenesis. On the other hand, the application of US in combination with this scaffold could induce pre-osteoblast adhesion, proliferation, spreading (at 1 Hz), and osteoblast differentiation (at 3 HZ) [10]. In a recent study, Vieira et al. introduced a new type of theranostic platform based on gellan gum hydrogel functionalized with Mn molecules, which showed T1-weighted MRI features, and at the same time, the capability of delivering stem cells to the central nervous system (CNS) in a noninvasive manner. Therefore, the combination of hydrogel-based formulation, Mn, and MRI technology resulted in the real-time monitoring of cell delivery to the CNS system [11]. Another interesting direction that the simultaneous application of science and engineering can take is the utilization of microorganisms for removing pollutant from the environment, while simultaneously producing useful materials. We have shown that Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris), as a type of microalgea, has the capability of removing antibiotic contamination from the water via a 3-steps bioreaction, bio-adsorption, bioaccumulation, and biodegradation. In addition, this study shows that the microalgae produce some useful byproducts, such as proteins, lipids, chlorophyll-a, and carbohydrates [12].
Recently, with the emergence of artificial intelligence (AI) and the rapid growth of its application in different fields of medicine, there is renewed hope for the fast detection of diseases and the prediction of the effectiveness of the performance of new drugs and therapeutic methods, which will help professionals make better and more informed decisions [13,14]. Computational modeling is one of the subcategories of AI that could be used, in combination with in vitro tests, to predict and evaluate the results of different treatments. This could reduce the time of treatment and improve its performance. We have used the in silico 3D and single cell ventricle simulations to evaluate the effects of mexiletine on cardiac cells, and the results showed that this drug could reduce the action potential duration (APD) in a long QT variant 3 (LQT3) patients with an A1656D mutation, shift the occurrence of alternants from a normal heart rate in the cells to a quicker one, and eliminate the possibility of a breakup of the spiral wave [15]. In another study, Arippa et al. used computational modeling for the evaluation of the kinematic parameters related to Parkinson’s disease (PD). They selected “61 people with PD (aged 68.9 ± 9.3 years) and 47 unaffected individuals age- and sex-matched (66.0 ± 8.3 years)” to evaluate the differences between them in angular trends at hip, knee, and ankle joints by applying the “computerized 3D gait analysis performed using an optical motion-capture system”. They presented a new approach for the early diagnosis of PD since, according to their results, the patients had significant alterations in interlimb coordination, which could be detected at the hip and ankle joints and had “a modified gait pattern particularly at the terminal stance/early swing phase of the gait cycle” [16].
According to the aforementioned research, this Special Issue aims to highlight the beneficial effects of the convergence of science and technology in different aspects of human health, from the daily monitoring of health to the introduction of novel or improved treatment and diagnosis methods for different types of disorders, which could be helpful in tackling the current challenges health management among nations.

Funding

This research received no external funding.

Institutional Review Board Statement

Not applicable.

Informed Consent Statement

Not applicable.

Data Availability Statement

No new data were created or analyzed in this study. Data sharing is not applicable to this article.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Ravish, A.; Shivakumar, R.; Xi, Z.; Yang, M.H.; Yang, J.-R.; Swamynayaka, A.; Nagaraja, O.; Madegowda, M.; Chinnathambi, A.; Alharbi, S.A.J.B. De Novo Design of Imidazopyridine-Tethered Pyrazolines That Target Phosphorylation of STAT3 in Human Breast Cancer Cells. Bioengineering 2023, 10, 159. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Monfared, Y.K.; Mahmoudian, M.; Hoti, G.; Bisericaru, D.M.; Caldera, F.; Cavalli, R.; Zakeri-Milani, P.; Matencio, A.; Trotta, F.J.B. Hyper-Branched Cyclodextrin-Based Polymers as Anticoagulant Agents: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies. Bioengineering 2022, 9, 765. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Salas-Monedero, M.; Lozano-Berrio, V.; Cazorla-Martínez, M.-J.; Ceruelo-Abajo, S.; Gil-Agudo, Á.; Hernández-Sánchez, S.; Jiménez-Díaz, J.-F.; DelosReyes-Guzmán, A.J.B. Is it Feasible to Use a Low-Cost Wearable Sensor for Heart Rate Monitoring within an Upper Limb Training in Spinal Cord Injured Patients?: A Pilot Study. Bioengineering 2022, 9, 763. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Patil, V.B.; Ilager, D.; Tuwar, S.M.; Mondal, K.; Shetti, N.P.J.B. Nanostructured ZnO-Based Electrochemical Sensor with Anionic Surfactant for the Electroanalysis of Trimethoprim. Bioengineering 2022, 9, 521. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Zhao, Z.; Das, S.; Zharnikov, M.J.B. Rational Design of Porous Poly (ethylene glycol) Films as a Matrix for ssDNA Immobilization and Hybridization. Bioengineering 2022, 9, 414. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Gholizadeh, H.; Cheng, S.; Kourmatzis, A.; Xing, H.; Traini, D.; Young, P.M.; Ong, H.X.J.B. Application of Micro-Engineered Kidney, Liver, and Respiratory System Models to Accelerate Preclinical Drug Testing and Development. Bioengineering 2022, 9, 150. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Osouli Tabrizi, H.; Panahi, A.; Forouhi, S.; Sadighbayan, D.; Soheili, F.; Haji Hosseini Khani, M.R.; Magierowski, S.; Ghafar-Zadeh, E.J.B. Oral Cells-On-Chip: Design, Modeling and Experimental Results. Bioengineering 2022, 9, 218. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Alabdah, F.; Alshammari, A.; Hidalgo-Bastida, A.; Cooper, G.J.B. A Review of Conventional and Novel Treatments for Osteoporotic Hip Replacements. Bioengineering 2023, 10, 161. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Batool, S.A.; Liaquat, U.; Channa, I.A.; Gilani, S.J.; Makhdoom, M.A.; Yasir, M.; Ashfaq, J.; Jumah, M.N.b.; Rehman, M.A.U.J.B. Development and Characterization of Zein/Ag-Sr Doped Mesoporous Bioactive Glass Nanoparticles Coatings for Biomedical Applications. Bioengineering 2022, 9, 367. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Sikder, P.; Nagaraju, P.; Naganaboyina, H.P.J.B. 3D-Printed Piezoelectric Porous Bioactive Scaffolds and Clinical Ultrasonic Stimulation Can Help in Enhanced Bone Regeneration. Bioengineering 2022, 9, 679. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Vieira, S.; Strymecka, P.; Stanaszek, L.; Silva-Correia, J.; Drela, K.; Fiedorowicz, M.; Malysz-Cymborska, I.; Janowski, M.; Reis, R.L.; Łukomska, B.J.B. Mn-Based Methacrylated Gellan Gum Hydrogels for MRI-Guided Cell Delivery and Imaging. Bioengineering 2023, 10, 427. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Ricky, R.; Chiampo, F.; Shanthakumar, S.J.B. Efficacy of Ciprofloxacin and Amoxicillin Removal and the Effect on the Biochemical Composition of Chlorella vulgaris. Bioengineering 2022, 9, 134. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Rong, G.; Mendez, A.; Assi, E.B.; Zhao, B.; Sawan, M.J.E. Artificial intelligence in healthcare: Review and prediction case studies. Engineering 2020, 6, 291–301. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  14. Cutillo, C.M.; Sharma, K.R.; Foschini, L.; Kundu, S.; Mackintosh, M.; Mandl, K.D.; MI in Healthcare Workshop Working Group. Machine intelligence in healthcare—Perspectives on trustworthiness, explainability, usability, and transparency. NPJ Digit. Med. 2020, 3, 47. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Qauli, A.I.; Yoo, Y.; Marcellinus, A.; Lim, K.M.J.B. Verification of the Efficacy of Mexiletine Treatment for the A1656D Mutation on Downgrading Reentrant Tachycardia Using a 3D Cardiac Electrophysiological Model. Bioengineering 2022, 9, 531. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Arippa, F.; Leban, B.; Monticone, M.; Cossu, G.; Casula, C.; Pau, M.J.B. A Study on Lower Limb Asymmetries in Parkinson’s Disease during Gait Assessed through Kinematic-Derived Parameters. Bioengineering 2022, 9, 120. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Disclaimer/Publisher’s Note: The statements, opinions and data contained in all publications are solely those of the individual author(s) and contributor(s) and not of MDPI and/or the editor(s). MDPI and/or the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to people or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content.

Share and Cite

MDPI and ACS Style

Zarrabi, A. Could the Convergence of Science and Technology Guarantee Human Health in the Future? Bioengineering 2023, 10, 589. https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering10050589

AMA Style

Zarrabi A. Could the Convergence of Science and Technology Guarantee Human Health in the Future? Bioengineering. 2023; 10(5):589. https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering10050589

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zarrabi, Ali. 2023. "Could the Convergence of Science and Technology Guarantee Human Health in the Future?" Bioengineering 10, no. 5: 589. https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering10050589

Note that from the first issue of 2016, this journal uses article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Back to TopTop