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Toxics, Volume 11, Issue 2 (February 2023) – 112 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): European regulations require safe migration from food packaging, but evaluating the safety of non-intentionally added substances is difficult. Efforts are focused on combining data from analytics, bioassays, and in silico toxicology. Non-targeted screening approaches are key. A protocol was developed for chemical and biological screening of migrants from coated metal packaging, including guidance on sample preparation, migrant simulation, chemical analysis, and validated bioassays covering endocrine activity, genotoxicity and metabolism-related targets. An inter-laboratory study found acceptable consistency in chemical analysis and bioassay results, but technical differences led to different data interpretations. Suggestions for improvement that an aligned protocol for chemical and biological analyses is needed for packaging safety assessment to avoid inconsistent data interpretation. View this paper
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19 pages, 1096 KiB  
Case Report
Heavy Metals Content in Selected Medicinal Plants Produced and Consumed in Serbia and Their Daily Intake in Herbal Infusions
by Irina Kandić, Milan Kragović, Jelena Petrović, Peđa Janaćković, Milan Gavrilović, Miloš Momčilović and Marija Stojmenović
Toxics 2023, 11(2), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11020198 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2010
Abstract
The heavy metals content (HMs) was investigated in 14 different medicinal plants collected from the three regions in Central Serbia, Zlatar, Sokobanja, and Kopaonik. The concentrations of Cd, Cr, Ni, Hg and Pb were determined: Cd (<0.03–2.72 mg/kg); Cr (<0.08–12.1 mg/kg); Ni (<0.08–12.2 [...] Read more.
The heavy metals content (HMs) was investigated in 14 different medicinal plants collected from the three regions in Central Serbia, Zlatar, Sokobanja, and Kopaonik. The concentrations of Cd, Cr, Ni, Hg and Pb were determined: Cd (<0.03–2.72 mg/kg); Cr (<0.08–12.1 mg/kg); Ni (<0.08–12.2 mg/kg); Pb (0.6–49.0 mg/kg); the Hg concentration was below the detection limit of 0.06 mg/kg in all samples. The daily intake of HMs due to ingestion of 200 mL of herbal infusion was in all cases below the recommended limit prescribed by the World Health Organization. The estimated daily intake values were below the values for the oral reference dose regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USA EPA). The target hazard quotient and hazard index for Cd, Cr Ni, and Pb were below 1. Nevertheless, due to the tendency of heavy metals to accumulate in the organism, attention should be paid to the daily intake of herbal infusion during long-term usage. Specifically, it is recommended to consume not more than one cup (200 mL) of infusion per day made from thyme (Mt. Zlatar) and blueberry (Mt. Kopaonik), and not more than two cups per day for other herbs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Metals and Radioactive Substances)
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13 pages, 1895 KiB  
Article
Transcriptomic Analysis of Diethylstilbestrol in Daphnia Magna: Energy Metabolism and Growth Inhibition
by Qi Li, Qian Zhao, Jiahua Guo, Xi Li and Jinxi Song
Toxics 2023, 11(2), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11020197 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1933
Abstract
With the widespread use of diethylstilbestrol (DES), it has become a common contaminant in the aquatic environment. It is toxic to a wide range of aquatic organisms, disrupting the water flea growth and further interfering with several ecosystem services. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism [...] Read more.
With the widespread use of diethylstilbestrol (DES), it has become a common contaminant in the aquatic environment. It is toxic to a wide range of aquatic organisms, disrupting the water flea growth and further interfering with several ecosystem services. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism of DES in water fleas is still unexplicit. In this study, the 21-day chronic test showed that a negative effect of growth and reproduction can be observed with DES exposure. Subsequently applied transcriptomic analysis illustrated the molecular mechanism in mode freshwater invertebrate Daphnia magna (D. magna) exposed to 2, 200, and 1000 μg·L−1 of DES for 9 days. Meanwhile, exposure to DES at 200 and 1000 μg·L−1 significantly restrains the growth (body length) and reproduction (first spawning time) of D. magna. Identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) are majorly enriched relative to energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, the digestive system, transport and catabolism pathways which were remarkably changed. These repressed and up-regulated pathways, in relation to energy synthesis and metabolism, may be the reasons for the reduced body length and delayed first spawning time. Taken together, this study revealed that DES is a threat to D. magna in the aquatic environment and clarifies the molecular mechanism of the toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Emerging Contaminants)
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6 pages, 544 KiB  
Case Report
Successful Use of Continuous Veno-Venous Haemodialysis in a Case of Potential Lethal Caffeine Intoxication
by Elles J. Reimerink, Daan W. Huntjens, Lindsey G. Pelkmans, Jan-Willem H. J. Geerts and Eric J. F. Franssen
Toxics 2023, 11(2), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11020196 - 20 Feb 2023
Viewed by 2677
Abstract
Here we describe the case of a potentially lethal caffeine intoxication after the reported ingestion of 10 g of caffeine. Due to hemodynamic instability with tachycardia and hypertension with an insufficient effect of continuous labetalol infusion, the patient was started on continuous veno-venous [...] Read more.
Here we describe the case of a potentially lethal caffeine intoxication after the reported ingestion of 10 g of caffeine. Due to hemodynamic instability with tachycardia and hypertension with an insufficient effect of continuous labetalol infusion, the patient was started on continuous veno-venous haemodialysis (CVVHD). After successful treatment for 15 h, CVVHD could be discontinued, and the patient was discharged home the next day. This case report is the first to report the use of CVVHD as a haemodialysis modality in the case of caffeine intoxication and illustrate the effect on caffeine clearance. We stress the importance of an early recognition of caffeine intoxication, so that haemodialysis can be considered in the case of a potentially lethal intoxication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical and Post-Mortem Toxicology)
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22 pages, 6791 KiB  
Article
Preliminary Toxicological Analysis in a Safe-by-Design and Adverse Outcome Pathway-Driven Approach on Different Silver Nanoparticles: Assessment of Acute Responses in A549 Cells
by Giulia Motta, Maurizio Gualtieri, Melissa Saibene, Rossella Bengalli, Andrea Brigliadori, Marie Carrière and Paride Mantecca
Toxics 2023, 11(2), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11020195 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2215
Abstract
Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are among the most widely used metal-based nanomaterials (NMs) and their applications in different products, also as antibacterial additives, are increasing. In the present manuscript, according to an adverse outcome pathway (AOP) approach, we tested two safe-by-design (SbD) newly [...] Read more.
Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are among the most widely used metal-based nanomaterials (NMs) and their applications in different products, also as antibacterial additives, are increasing. In the present manuscript, according to an adverse outcome pathway (AOP) approach, we tested two safe-by-design (SbD) newly developed Ag NPs coated with hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), namely AgHEC powder and AgHEC solution. These novel Ag NPs were compared to two reference Ag NPs (naked and coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone—PVP). Cell viability, inflammatory response, reactive oxygen species, oxidative DNA damage, cell cycle, and cell–particle interactions were analyzed in the alveolar in vitro model, A549 cells. The results show a different toxicity pattern of the novel Ag NPs compared to reference NPs and that between the two novel NPs, the AgHEC solution is the one with the lower toxicity and to be further developed within the SbD framework. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano and Ultrafine Particle Toxicology and Exposure Assessment)
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12 pages, 609 KiB  
Guidelines
Chinese Technical Guideline for Deriving Water Quality Criteria for Protection of Freshwater Organisms
by Zhen-Guang Yan, Xin Zheng, Yi-Zhang Zhang, Zhan-Hong Yang, Quan Zhou, Shu-Hui Men and Jin-Zhe Du
Toxics 2023, 11(2), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11020194 - 19 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1461
Abstract
In recent years, China has determined the national goal of “developing national environmental criteria”, thereby promoting the rapid development of environmental quality criteria research in China. In 2017, the Ministry of Ecology and Environment of China (MEEC, formerly the Ministry of Environmental Protection [...] Read more.
In recent years, China has determined the national goal of “developing national environmental criteria”, thereby promoting the rapid development of environmental quality criteria research in China. In 2017, the Ministry of Ecology and Environment of China (MEEC, formerly the Ministry of Environmental Protection of China) issued the technical guideline for deriving water quality criteria (WQC) for protection of freshwater organisms (HJ 831-2017), and in 2022, they organized the guideline revision and issued an updated version (HJ 831-2022). The primary contents of the revision included the following. The minimum toxicity data requirements were upgraded from 6 to 10, and the species mean toxicity value was replaced by the same effect toxicity value for the criteria calculation. It is now required that the tested organisms must be distributed in China’s natural fresh waters, and the toxicity data of non-native model species will no longer be used. The list of freshwater invasive species in China that cannot be used as test species was added into the guideline. The acute/chronic ratio (ACR) method for the criteria derivation and the extreme value model were deleted, and the provisions for testing the toxicity data distribution were also deleted. The exposure time of the toxicity test of various tested organisms was refined, and the priority of the toxicity data was clearly specified. This paper introduces the framework and specific technical requirements of HJ 831-2022 in detail, including data collection, pre-processing of toxicity data, criteria derivation, fitting models, and quality control. This introduction is helpful for international peers to understand the latest research progress of China’s WQC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Emerging Contaminants)
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13 pages, 1580 KiB  
Article
Levels of Heavy Metals in Grapevine Soil and Leaf Samples in Response to Seasonal Change and Farming Practice in the Cape Winelands
by Amanda Mahlungulu, Learnmore Kambizi, Enoch Akinbiyi Akinpelu and Felix Nchu
Toxics 2023, 11(2), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11020193 - 19 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1914
Abstract
Heavy metal toxicity is a major threat to the health of both humans and ecosystems. Toxic levels of heavy metals in food crops, such as grapes, can have devastating effects on plant health and the market value of the produce. Two important factors [...] Read more.
Heavy metal toxicity is a major threat to the health of both humans and ecosystems. Toxic levels of heavy metals in food crops, such as grapes, can have devastating effects on plant health and the market value of the produce. Two important factors that may influence the prevalence of heavy metals in grapevines are seasonal change and farming practices. The objectives of this study were (i) to conduct a detailed pioneer screening of heavy metal levels in soils and grapevine leaf tissues in selected wine farms and (ii) to study the influence of season and farming on heavy metal levels in soils and grapevine leaf tissues. Soil and grapevine leaf samples were collected from demarcated areas in selected vineyards in the Cape Winelands region of South Africa. The sampling was conducted in winter and summer from the same sites. The soil and leaf samples were analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) techniques. The pooled data from the farms practising conventional or organic farming showed that seasonal variation had no significant effect (DF = 1, 22; p > 0.05) on the heavy metal contents in the soil. When the soil data from the winter and summer months were compared separately or pooled, the influence of agricultural practice was well-pronounced in As (DF = 1, 22, or 46; p < 0.05) and Cu (DF = 1, 22, or 46; p <0.05). The agricultural practice greatly influenced (DF = 1, 22; p< 0.05) Cu, As, Cr, and Hg uptake, with little effect on Ni, Co, Cd, and Hg leaf contents. Generally, the heavy metals studied (Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb) were substantially below the maximum permitted levels in plant and soil samples, per the recommendations of the WHO and Er indices, respectively. However, moderate contamination of the soils was recorded for Cr, Ni, Zn, and Pb. Remarkably, the Cu levels in the organic vineyard soils were significantly higher than in the conventional vineyards. Furthermore, based on the Igeo index, Cu occurred at moderate to heavy contamination levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Metals and Radioactive Substances)
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20 pages, 527 KiB  
Review
Neurobehavioral Effects of Low-Dose Chronic Exposure to Insecticides: A Review
by Laura Maria Antonangeli, Saniya Kenzhebekova and Claudio Colosio
Toxics 2023, 11(2), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11020192 - 19 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2049
Abstract
The modes of action of insecticides frequently involve a neurotoxic effect; therefore, the study of neurotoxic effects caused by long-term and low-dose insecticide exposure is of particular interest. This study looks at whether or not new studies conducted after 2009 and up to [...] Read more.
The modes of action of insecticides frequently involve a neurotoxic effect; therefore, the study of neurotoxic effects caused by long-term and low-dose insecticide exposure is of particular interest. This study looks at whether or not new studies conducted after 2009 and up to 2021 have provided new evidence for a better understanding of the actual neurobehavioral risk associated with long-term insecticide exposure. We selected and reviewed studies carried out on the neurobehavioral effects of neurotoxic insecticides (organophosphates and/or carbamates, pyrethroids, multiple or undefined insecticides, and organochlorines) considering occupational and non-occupational exposures. The articles were also scored and ranked based on seven parameters. Eighty-six studies were chosen for a final review process from among the 950 scientific papers identified. Twenty-six addressed occupational exposure and six environmental exposure. Among the latter group of studies, 17 focused on rural residents, to be assumed exposed because of living in rural areas, and 43 on the general population. Pending doubts have not been resolved in the last ten years due to the presence of contradictory and hardly comparable results and the fact that in most of the studies showing an evident neurobehavioral impairment the frequent presence of a previous episode of poisoning and hospitalization, with severe brain hypoxia, impaired the possibility of confirming the presence of a causal association with insecticide exposure. Interestingly, the most severely exposed groups, such as applicators who did not wear personal protective equipment, performed worse on neurobehavioral tests. As for residential exposure, there is sufficient evidence to suggest that prenatal OP exposure may increase the risk of ADHD in children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Neurotoxicity)
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14 pages, 1976 KiB  
Article
Subchronic Low-Dose Methylmercury Exposure Accelerated Cerebral Telomere Shortening in Relevant with Declined Urinary aMT6s Level in Rats
by Xi Wu, Ping Li, Junyan Tao, Xiong Chen and Aihua Zhang
Toxics 2023, 11(2), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11020191 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1403
Abstract
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a global pollutant with established toxic effects on the central nervous system (CNS). However, early events and early-warning biomarkers of CNS damage following exposure to low-dose MeHg are still lacking. This study aimed to investigate whether subchronic low-dose MeHg exposure [...] Read more.
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a global pollutant with established toxic effects on the central nervous system (CNS). However, early events and early-warning biomarkers of CNS damage following exposure to low-dose MeHg are still lacking. This study aimed to investigate whether subchronic low-dose MeHg exposure had adverse effects on the cerebral telomere length, as well as serum melatonin and its urinary metabolite 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) in rats. Sixteen male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into two groups. Group I was the control group. In group II, rats were exposed to MeHg by gavage at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg/day for 3 months. This study revealed that MeHg exposure resulted in impairment of learning and memory ability, a slightly reduced number of neurons and an irregular arrangement of neurons in the hippocampus. It also significantly accelerated telomere shortening in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus. Moreover, MeHg exposure decreased the levels of melatonin in serum and aMT6s in urine, partly by suppressing the synthesis of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the brain but promoted the expression of melatonin-catalyzing AANAT and ASMT. Importantly, cerebral telomere length was positively correlated with MT and aMT6s after MeHg exposure. These results suggested that the shortened telomere length in the brain may be an early event in MeHg-induced CNS toxicity, and the level of aMT6s in urine may serve as an early-warning biomarker for MeHg-induced CNS damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Environmental Toxicology and Human Health)
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13 pages, 1287 KiB  
Systematic Review
Association of Dietary Nitrate, Nitrite, and N-Nitroso Compounds Intake and Gastrointestinal Cancers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Monireh Sadat Seyyedsalehi, Elham Mohebbi, Fatemeh Tourang, Bahareh Sasanfar, Paolo Boffetta and Kazem Zendehdel
Toxics 2023, 11(2), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11020190 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2735
Abstract
N-nitroso compounds (NOCs) are a class of chemical carcinogens found in various environmental sources such as food, drinking water, cigarette smoke, the work environment, and the indoor air population. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the links between nitrate, nitrite, [...] Read more.
N-nitroso compounds (NOCs) are a class of chemical carcinogens found in various environmental sources such as food, drinking water, cigarette smoke, the work environment, and the indoor air population. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the links between nitrate, nitrite, and NOCs in food and water and the risk of gastrointestinal (GI) cancers, including esophageal cancer (EC), gastric cancer (GC), colorectal cancer (CRC), and pancreatic cancer (PC). A systematic search of the literature in Scopus, PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, and Embase was performed for studies on the association between NOCs in drinking water and food sources and GI cancers. Forest plots of relative risk (RR) were constructed for all the cancer sites and the intake sources. The random-effects model was used to assess the heterogeneity between studies. Forty articles were included after removing duplicate and irrelevant articles. The meta-analysis indicated that the intake of high dose vs. low dose of these compounds was significantly associated with the overall GI cancer risk and nitrite (RR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.07–1.29), and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) (RR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.06–1.65). We found that dietary nitrite intake increased GC (RR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.02–1.73), and EC (RR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.01–1.89). Additionally, dietary NDMA intake increased the risk of CRC (RR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.18–1.58). This meta-analysis provides some evidence that the intake of dietary and water nitrate, nitrite, and NOCs may be associated with GI cancers. In particular, dietary nitrite is linked to GC and EC risks and dietary NDMA intake is associated with CRC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Environmental Toxicology and Human Health)
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18 pages, 1260 KiB  
Article
Prediction of Molecular Initiating Events for Adverse Outcome Pathways Using High-Throughput Identification of Chemical Targets
by Veronica Lizano-Fallas, Ana Carrasco del Amor and Susana Cristobal
Toxics 2023, 11(2), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11020189 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1616
Abstract
The impact of exposure to multiple chemicals raises concerns for human and environmental health. The adverse outcome pathway method offers a framework to support mechanism-based assessment in environmental health starting by describing which mechanisms are triggered upon interaction with different stressors. The identification [...] Read more.
The impact of exposure to multiple chemicals raises concerns for human and environmental health. The adverse outcome pathway method offers a framework to support mechanism-based assessment in environmental health starting by describing which mechanisms are triggered upon interaction with different stressors. The identification of the molecular initiating event and the molecular interaction between a chemical and a protein target is still a challenge for the development of adverse outcome pathways. The cellular response to chemical exposure studied with omics could not directly identify the protein targets. However, recent mass spectrometry-based methods are offering a proteome-wide identification of protein targets interacting with s but unrevealing a molecular initiating event from a set of targets is still dependent on available knowledge. Here, we directly coupled the target identification findings from the proteome integral solubility alteration assay with an analytical hierarchy process for the prediction of a prioritized molecular initiating event. We demonstrate the applicability of this combination of methodologies with a test compound (TCDD), and it could be further studied and integrated into AOPs. From the eight protein targets identified by the proteome integral solubility alteration assay after analyzing 2824 human hepatic proteins, the analytical hierarchy process can select the most suitable protein for an AOP. Our combined method solves the missing links between high-throughput target identification and prediction of the molecular initiating event. We anticipate its utility to decipher new molecular initiating events and support more sustainable methodologies to gain time and resources in chemical assessment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Exposome Analysis and Risk Assessment)
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26 pages, 610 KiB  
Review
Outlining Potential Biomarkers of Exposure and Effect to Critical Minerals: Nutritionally Essential Trace Elements and the Rare Earth Elements
by Jill A. Jenkins, MaryLynn Musgrove and Sarah Jane O. White
Toxics 2023, 11(2), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11020188 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2587
Abstract
Emerging and low-carbon technologies and innovations are driving a need for domestic sources, sustainable use, and availability of critical minerals (CMs)—those vital to the national and economic security of the United States. Understanding the known and potential health effects of exposures to such [...] Read more.
Emerging and low-carbon technologies and innovations are driving a need for domestic sources, sustainable use, and availability of critical minerals (CMs)—those vital to the national and economic security of the United States. Understanding the known and potential health effects of exposures to such mineral commodities can inform prudent and environmentally responsible handling and harvesting. We review the occurrence, use, predominant exposure pathways, and adverse outcome pathways (AOP) for human and fish receptors of those CMs that are nutritionally essential trace metals (specifically, cobalt, chromium, manganese, nickel, and zinc), as well as the rare earth elements. Biological responses to some elements having comparable biogeochemistry can sometimes be similar. Candidate quantifiable biomarkers for assessing potential AOP are conveyed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicity of Metal Mixtures to Aquatic Life)
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20 pages, 4685 KiB  
Article
Complex Mixtures: Array PBPK Modeling of Jet Fuel Components
by Teresa R. Sterner, Tammie R. Covington and David R. Mattie
Toxics 2023, 11(2), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11020187 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1618
Abstract
An array physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model represents a streamlined method to simultaneously quantify dosimetry of multiple compounds. To predict internal dosimetry of jet fuel components simultaneously, an array PBPK model was coded to simulate inhalation exposures to one or more selected compounds: toluene, [...] Read more.
An array physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model represents a streamlined method to simultaneously quantify dosimetry of multiple compounds. To predict internal dosimetry of jet fuel components simultaneously, an array PBPK model was coded to simulate inhalation exposures to one or more selected compounds: toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, n-nonane, n-decane, and naphthalene. The model structure accounts for metabolism of compounds in the lung and liver, as well as kinetics of each compound in multiple tissues, including the cochlea and brain regions associated with auditory signaling (brainstem and temporal lobe). The model can accommodate either diffusion-limited or flow-limited kinetics (or a combination), allowing the same structure to be utilized for compounds with different characteristics. The resulting model satisfactorily simulated blood concentration and tissue dosimetry data from multiple published single chemical rat studies. The model was then utilized to predict tissue kinetics for the jet fuel hearing loss study (JTEH A, 25:1-14). The model was also used to predict rat kinetic comparisons between hypothetical exposures to JP-8 or a Virent Synthesized Aromatic Kerosene (SAK):JP-8 50:50 blend at the occupational exposure limit (200 mg/m3). The array model has proven useful for comparing potential tissue burdens resulting from complex mixture exposures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxic Mixtures Evaluation and Management)
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11 pages, 1642 KiB  
Article
Estrogenic Effect Mechanism and Influencing Factors for Transformation Product Dimer Formed in Preservative Parabens Photolysis
by Xiaolin Niu, Guanhui Chen, Yi Chen, Na Luo, Mei Wang, Xinyi Hu, Yanpeng Gao, Yuemeng Ji and Taicheng An
Toxics 2023, 11(2), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11020186 - 17 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1544
Abstract
The environmental transformation and health effects of endocrine disruptors (EDCs) need urgent attention, particularly the formation of transformation products with higher toxicity than parent EDCs. In this paper, an important transformation product dimer (short for ethyl 4-hydroxy-3-(2-((4-hydroxybenzoyl) oxy) ethyl) benzoate) with estrogenic activity [...] Read more.
The environmental transformation and health effects of endocrine disruptors (EDCs) need urgent attention, particularly the formation of transformation products with higher toxicity than parent EDCs. In this paper, an important transformation product dimer (short for ethyl 4-hydroxy-3-(2-((4-hydroxybenzoyl) oxy) ethyl) benzoate) with estrogenic activity was investigated and detected in the photolysis of preservative ethyl-paraben (EPB) dissolved in actual water. The environmental factors, such as the higher initial concentration of EPB, the stronger optical power and the lower pH could stimulate the formation of the dimer. Simultaneously, the interaction of multiple environmental factors was significant, especially the initial concentration and pH using the response surface methodology. Furthermore, the relationship between the environmental factors and the formation of the product dimer was further explained and the empirical model equation was built for predicting the amount of dimer in actual water. Quantum chemical and toxicological calculations showed the estrogenic effect mechanism of the product dimer and it was revealed further that the hydrogen bonds of the dimer and ERα proteins (ARG-394, Glu-353, His-524, GYY-521) were formed, with a lowest binding energy of −8.38 Kcal/mol during molecular docking. In addition, the health effect risk of the product dimer was higher than the parent compound in the blood, cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal system, kidney and liver. In short, the present study was of great significance for the transformation product in pollution control and health effects in the photolysis of EDCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transformation and Exposure Risk of Emerging Contaminants)
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22 pages, 1237 KiB  
Review
Antimicrobial and the Resistances in the Environment: Ecological and Health Risks, Influencing Factors, and Mitigation Strategies
by Weitao Wang, You Weng, Ting Luo, Qiang Wang, Guiling Yang and Yuanxiang Jin
Toxics 2023, 11(2), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11020185 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3261
Abstract
Antimicrobial contamination and antimicrobial resistance have become global environmental and health problems. A large number of antimicrobials are used in medical and animal husbandry, leading to the continuous release of residual antimicrobials into the environment. It not only causes ecological harm, but also [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial contamination and antimicrobial resistance have become global environmental and health problems. A large number of antimicrobials are used in medical and animal husbandry, leading to the continuous release of residual antimicrobials into the environment. It not only causes ecological harm, but also promotes the occurrence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. The role of environmental factors in antimicrobial contamination and the spread of antimicrobial resistance is often overlooked. There are a large number of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and antimicrobial resistance genes in human beings, which increases the likelihood that pathogenic bacteria acquire resistance, and also adds opportunities for human contact with antimicrobial-resistant pathogens. In this paper, we review the fate of antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance in the environment, including the occurrence, spread, and impact on ecological and human health. More importantly, this review emphasizes a number of environmental factors that can exacerbate antimicrobial contamination and the spread of antimicrobial resistance. In the future, the timely removal of antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes in the environment will be more effective in alleviating antimicrobial contamination and antimicrobial resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Drugs Toxicity)
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12 pages, 4941 KiB  
Article
Multi-Omics Analyses Reveal the Mechanisms of Early Stage Kidney Toxicity by Diquat
by Huazhong Zhang, Jinsong Zhang, Jinquan Li, Zhengsheng Mao, Jian Qian, Cheng Zong, Hao Sun and Beilei Yuan
Toxics 2023, 11(2), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11020184 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1799
Abstract
Diquat (DQ), a widely used bipyridyl herbicide, is associated with significantly higher rates of kidney injuries compared to other pesticides. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, we identified the molecular changes in the early stage of DQ-induced kidney [...] Read more.
Diquat (DQ), a widely used bipyridyl herbicide, is associated with significantly higher rates of kidney injuries compared to other pesticides. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, we identified the molecular changes in the early stage of DQ-induced kidney damage in a mouse model through transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic analyses. We identified 869 genes, 351 proteins and 96 metabolites that were differentially expressed in the DQ-treated mice relative to the control mice (p < 0.05), and showed significant enrichment in the PPAR signaling pathway and fatty acid metabolism. Hmgcs2, Cyp4a10, Cyp4a14 and Lpl were identified as the major proteins/genes associated with DQ-induced kidney damage. In addition, eicosapentaenoic acid, linoleic acid, palmitic acid and (R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid were the major metabolites related to DQ-induced kidney injury. Overall, the multi-omics analysis showed that DQ-induced kidney damage is associated with dysregulation of the PPAR signaling pathway, and an aberrant increase in Hmgcs2 expression and 3-hydroxybutyric acid levels. Our findings provide new insights into the molecular basis of DQ-induced early kidney damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Environmental Chemicals Exposomics and Metabolomics)
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2 pages, 863 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Lenarczyk et al. T Cells Contribute to Pathological Responses in the Non-Targeted Rat Heart following Irradiation of the Kidneys. Toxics 2022, 10, 797
by Marek Lenarczyk, Ammar J. Alsheikh, Eric P. Cohen, Dörthe Schaue, Amy Kronenberg, Aron Geurts, Slade Klawikowski, David Mattson and John E. Baker
Toxics 2023, 11(2), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11020183 - 16 Feb 2023
Viewed by 827
Abstract
In the original publication [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Metals and Radioactive Substances)
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16 pages, 1580 KiB  
Article
A Proposed Association between Improving Energy Metabolism of HepG2 Cells by Plant Extracts and Increasing Their Sensitivity to Doxorubicin
by Tamer A. Al-Shafie, Engy A. Mahrous, Mustafa Shukry, Mohammad Y. Alshahrani, Samah F. Ibrahim, Liana Fericean, Afaf Abdelkader and Mennatallah A. Ali
Toxics 2023, 11(2), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11020182 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2535
Abstract
Increasing cancer cell sensitivity to chemotherapy by amending aberrant metabolism using plant extracts represents a promising strategy to lower chemotherapy doses while retaining the same therapeutic outcome. Here, we incubated HepG2 cells with four plant extracts that were selected based on an earlier [...] Read more.
Increasing cancer cell sensitivity to chemotherapy by amending aberrant metabolism using plant extracts represents a promising strategy to lower chemotherapy doses while retaining the same therapeutic outcome. Here, we incubated HepG2 cells with four plant extracts that were selected based on an earlier assessment of their cytotoxicity, viz asparagus, green tea, rue, and avocado, separately, before treatment with doxorubicin. MTT assays elucidated a significant decrease in doxorubicin-IC50 following HepG2 incubation with each extract, albeit to a variable extent. The investigated extract’s ultra-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS and GC/MS) revealed several constituents with anticancer activity. Biochemical investigation displayed several favorable effects, including the inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor1α (HIF1α), c-Myc, pyruvate kinase-M2 (PKM2), lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDH-A), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), and glutaminase by asparagus and rue extracts. To less extent, HIF1α, c-Myc, PKM2, and LDH-A were partially inhibited by green tea extract, and HIF1α and glutaminase activity was inhibited by avocado oil. Undesirably, green tea extract increased glutaminase; avocado oil rose c-Myc, and both increased G6PD. In conclusion, our study confirms the potential cytotoxic effects of these plant extracts. It highlights a strong association between the ability of asparagus, green tea, rue, and avocado to sensitize HepG2 cells to doxorubicin and their power to amend cell metabolism, suggesting their use as add-on agents that might aid in clinically lowering the doxorubicin dose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Novel Methods in Toxicology Research)
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15 pages, 1415 KiB  
Article
Differential Cell Metabolic Pathways in Gills and Liver of Fish (White Seabream Diplodus sargus) Coping with Dietary Methylmercury Exposure
by Giuseppe De Marco, Barbara Billè, Fátima Brandão, Mariachiara Galati, Patrícia Pereira, Tiziana Cappello and Mário Pacheco
Toxics 2023, 11(2), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11020181 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1750
Abstract
Mercury (Hg) is a dangerous and persistent trace element. Its organic and highly toxic form, methylmercury (MeHg), easily crosses biological membranes and accumulates in biota. Nevertheless, understanding the mechanisms of dietary MeHg toxicity in fish remains a challenge. A time-course experiment was conducted [...] Read more.
Mercury (Hg) is a dangerous and persistent trace element. Its organic and highly toxic form, methylmercury (MeHg), easily crosses biological membranes and accumulates in biota. Nevertheless, understanding the mechanisms of dietary MeHg toxicity in fish remains a challenge. A time-course experiment was conducted with juvenile white seabreams, Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus, 1758), exposed to realistic levels of MeHg in feed (8.7 μg g−1, dry weight), comprising exposure (E; 7 and 14 days) and post-exposure (PE; 28 days) periods. Total Hg levels increased with time in gills and liver during E and decreased significantly in PE (though levels of control fish were reached only for gills), with liver exhibiting higher levels (2.7 times) than gills. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics revealed multiple and often differential metabolic changes between fish organs. Gills exhibited protein catabolism, disturbances in cholinergic neurotransmission, and changes in osmoregulation and lipid and energy metabolism. However, dietary MeHg exposure provoked altered protein metabolism in the liver with decreased amino acids, likely for activation of defensive strategies. PE allowed for the partial recovery of both organs, even if with occurrence of oxidative stress and changes of energy metabolism. Overall, these findings support organ-specific responses according to their sensitivity to Hg exposure, pointing out that indications obtained in biomonitoring studies may depend also on the selected organ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ecotoxicology)
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16 pages, 2540 KiB  
Article
Risk Assessment of Phthalate Esters in Baiyangdian Lake and Typical Rivers in China
by Yin Hou, Mengchen Tu, Cheng Li, Xinyu Liu, Jing Wang, Chao Wei, Xin Zheng and Yihong Wu
Toxics 2023, 11(2), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11020180 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1386
Abstract
Phthalate esters (PAEs) are frequently tracked in water environments worldwide. As a typical class of endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), PAEs posed adverse effects on aquatic organisms at low concentration. Thus, they have attracted wide attention in recent years. In the present study, the [...] Read more.
Phthalate esters (PAEs) are frequently tracked in water environments worldwide. As a typical class of endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), PAEs posed adverse effects on aquatic organisms at low concentration. Thus, they have attracted wide attention in recent years. In the present study, the concentrations of seven typical PAEs from 30 sampling sites in Baiyangdian Lake were measured, and the environmental exposure data of PAEs were gathered in typical rivers in China. Then, based on the aquatic life criteria (ALCs) derived from the reproductive toxicity data of aquatic organisms, two risk assessment methods, including hazard quotient (HQ) and probabilistic ecological risk assessment (PERA), were adopted to evaluate the ecological risks of PAEs in water. The sediment quality criteria (SQCs) of DEHP, DBP, BBP, DIBP and DEP were deduced based on the equilibrium partitioning method. Combined with the gathered environmental exposure data of seven PAEs in sediments from typical rivers in China, the ecological risk assessments of five PAEs in sediment were conducted only by the HQ method. The results of ecological risk assessment showed that in terms of water, DBP and DIBP posed low risk, while the risk of DEHP in Baiyangdian Lake cannot be ignored and should receive attention. In typical rivers in China, BBP and DEP posed no risk, while DIBP and DBP posed potential risk. Meanwhile, DEHP posed a high ecological risk. As far as sediment is concerned, DBP posed a high risk in some typical rivers in China, and the other rivers had medium risk. DEHP posed a high risk only in a few rivers and low to medium risk in others. This study provides an important reference for the protection of aquatic organisms and the risk management of PAEs in China. Full article
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16 pages, 4467 KiB  
Article
Assessment and Management of Mercury Leaching from a Riverbank
by Hasti Ziaei, Balaji Rao, Tea V. Wood, Uriel Garza-Rubalcava, Ashkan Alborzi, Huayun Zhou, Paul Bireta, Nancy Grosso and Danny Reible
Toxics 2023, 11(2), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11020179 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1891
Abstract
The South River located in the city of Waynesboro, Virginia, contains mercury (Hg) contamination due to historical releases from an industrial facility operating between 1929 and 1950. In 2015, two sampling events were conducted in two of the contaminated bank regions (Constitution Park [...] Read more.
The South River located in the city of Waynesboro, Virginia, contains mercury (Hg) contamination due to historical releases from an industrial facility operating between 1929 and 1950. In 2015, two sampling events were conducted in two of the contaminated bank regions (Constitution Park and North Park) to evaluate non-particulate total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in bank interstitial waters during river base flows and during bank drainage after flooding events. Porewater THg and MeHg at the bank–water interface were measured using diffusive gradient in thin-film devices (DGTs). The results showed THg mercury concentrations during bank drainage were approximately a factor of 3 higher than during base flow conditions. To have a better understanding of the parameters that control Hg leaching, a series of laboratory experiments were designed using South River sediments. The field and laboratory assessment showed that drainage/inundation cycles can lead to high THg concentration leachate from contaminated sediment due to increased partitioning from solids under oxic bank conditions and mobilization by the drainage waters. The results also demonstrated that methyl mercury concentrations at the bank–water interface are highest under base flow when conditions are more reduced due to the absence of oxic water exchange with the surface water. A remedial approach was implemented involving partial removal of surficial sediments and placement of biochar (to reduce non-particulate THg) and an armoring layer (to reduce erosion). DGT Measurements after bank stabilization showed THg decreased by a factor of ~200 and MeHg concentration by a factor of more than 20. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Removal of Hazardous Substances from Water Resources)
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19 pages, 4383 KiB  
Article
Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) Alters Immune and Apoptotic Endpoints in Developing Zebrafish (Danio rerio)
by Nazish Iftikhar, Isaac Konig, Cole English, Emma Ivantsova, Christopher L. Souders II, Imran Hashmi and Christopher J. Martyniuk
Toxics 2023, 11(2), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11020178 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2083
Abstract
Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is a broad-range bacteriostatic antibiotic widely used in animal and fish farming and is also employed in human medicine. These antibiotics can ultimately end up in the aquatic ecosystem and affect non-target organisms such as fish. To discern the effect of [...] Read more.
Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is a broad-range bacteriostatic antibiotic widely used in animal and fish farming and is also employed in human medicine. These antibiotics can ultimately end up in the aquatic ecosystem and affect non-target organisms such as fish. To discern the effect of SMX on developing zebrafish embryos and larvae, we investigated a broad range of sub-lethal toxicity endpoints. Higher concentrations of SMX affected survivability, caused hatch delay, and induced malformations including edema of the yolk sac, pericardial effusion, bent tail, and curved spine in developing embryos. Lower levels of SMX provoked an inflammatory response in larvae at seven days post fertilization (dpf), as noted by up-regulation of interferon (ifn-γ) and interleukin 1β (il-1β). SMX also increased the expression of genes related to apoptosis, including BCL2-Associated Agonist of Cell Death (bad) and BCL2 Associated X, Apoptosis Regulator (bax) at 50 µg/L and decreased caspase 3 (casp3) expression in a dose-dependent manner. SMX induced hyperactivity in larval fish at 500 and 2500 µg/L based upon the light/dark preference test. Collectively, this study revealed that exposure to SMX can disrupt the immune system by altering host defense mechanisms as well as transcripts related to apoptosis. These data improve understanding of antibiotic chemical toxicity in aquatic organisms and serves as a baseline for in-depth environmental risk assessment of SMX and antibiotics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ecotoxicology)
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17 pages, 3724 KiB  
Article
Stage-Related Neurotoxicity of BPA in the Development of Zebrafish Embryos
by Jianjun Liu, Wenyu Kong, Yuchen Liu, Qiyao Ma, Qi Shao, Liwen Zeng, Yu Chao, Xiaoyao Song and Jie Zhang
Toxics 2023, 11(2), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11020177 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1797
Abstract
Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the most widely produced chemicals in the world used in the production of epoxy resins and polycarbonate plastics. BPA is easily migrated from the outer packaging to the contents. Due to the lipophilic property, BPA is easily [...] Read more.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the most widely produced chemicals in the world used in the production of epoxy resins and polycarbonate plastics. BPA is easily migrated from the outer packaging to the contents. Due to the lipophilic property, BPA is easily accumulated in organisms. Perinatal low-dose BPA exposure alters brain neural development in later generations. In this study, after BPA treatment, the spontaneous movement of zebrafish larvae from the cleavage period to the segmentation period (1–24 hpf) was significantly decreased, with speed decreasing by 18.97% and distance decreasing between 18.4 and 29.7% compared to controls. Transcriptomics analysis showed that 131 genes were significantly differentially expressed in the exposed group during the 1–24 hpf period, among which 39 genes were significantly upregulated and 92 genes were significantly downregulated. The GO enrichment analysis, gene function analysis and real-time quantitative PCR of differentially expressed genes showed that the mRNA level of guanine deaminase (cypin) decreased significantly in the 1–24 hpf period. Moreover, during the 1–24 hpf period, BPA exposure reduced guanine deaminase activity. Therefore, we confirmed that cypin is a key sensitive gene for BPA during this period. Finally, the cypin mRNA microinjection verified that the cypin level of zebrafish larvae was restored, leading to the restoration of the locomotor activity. Taken together, the current results show that the sensitive period of BPA to zebrafish embryos is from the cleavage period to the segmentation period (1–24 hpf), and cypin is a potential target for BPA-induced neurodevelopmental toxicity. This study provides a potential sensitive period and a potential target for the deep understanding of neurodevelopmental toxicity mechanisms caused by BPA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Environmental Chemicals Exposomics and Metabolomics)
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17 pages, 1596 KiB  
Review
Experimental Studies on Zooplankton-Toxic Cyanobacteria Interactions: A Review
by S. Nandini and S. S. S. Sarma
Toxics 2023, 11(2), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11020176 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2349
Abstract
Cyanobacterial blooms have been recognized as a problem in fresh water for about 150 years. Over the past 50 years, experimental studies on the subject have gained importance considering the increasing need to control toxic cyanobacterial blooms. This article presents information on the [...] Read more.
Cyanobacterial blooms have been recognized as a problem in fresh water for about 150 years. Over the past 50 years, experimental studies on the subject have gained importance considering the increasing need to control toxic cyanobacterial blooms. This article presents information on the different lines of research that have been undertaken on zooplankton–cyanobacteria interactions over the past 50 years. These include information on filtering/ingestion rates and phytoplankton preferences of small and large rotifers, cladocerans, and copepods; growth rates of zooplankton on cyanobacterial diets; feeding rates of other freshwater invertebrates on cyanobacteria; role of zooplankton in top-down biomanipulation efforts; effect of cyanotoxins on zooplankton; bioaccumulation of cyanotoxins; and physical and chemical control of cyanobacterial blooms. We also highlight measures that have led to successful lake management and improvement of water quality in selected waterbodies. Full article
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10 pages, 1450 KiB  
Article
Potential Role of Lipase Activity on the Internal Exposure Assessment of Glycidol Released from Its Fatty Acid Esters
by Yuko Shimamura, Ryo Inagaki, Minami Oike, Yuri Wada, Hiroshi Honda and Shuichi Masuda
Toxics 2023, 11(2), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11020175 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1360
Abstract
Glycidyl fatty acid esters (GEs) can be found in food, and they can be converted into genotoxic animal carcinogen glycidol in vivo by the action of lipase. This study examined whether human ingestion of charbroiled pork containing high levels of GEs (300 µg/day) [...] Read more.
Glycidyl fatty acid esters (GEs) can be found in food, and they can be converted into genotoxic animal carcinogen glycidol in vivo by the action of lipase. This study examined whether human ingestion of charbroiled pork containing high levels of GEs (300 µg/day) increased glycidol–hemoglobin adduct (diHOPrVal), a marker of internal exposure to glycidol using LC-MS/MS. Contrary to expectation, the diHOPrVal value before ingesting charbroiled pork was 3.11 ± 1.10 pmol/g globin, which slightly decreased to 2.48 ± 0.47 pmol/g globin after 5 days of consumption. The decrease in lipase activity caused by the continuous consumption of lipid-rich foods such as meat in humans might decrease internal exposure to glycidol released from its esters. Thus, lipase activity was measured in C57/BL6J mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks, and diHOPrVal formation was measured after the administration of glycidyl oleate. Lipase activity was significantly lower in the HFD group than in the normal diet group. The amount of diHOPrVal was reduced in the HFD group. Therefore, the lipase activity was reduced by HFD, thereby decreasing the degradation of glycidol from glycidyl oleate. These results indicate that changes in lipase activity depending on the amount of lipids in the diet may affect the assessment of GEs exposure, and monitoring the lipase activity would provide a comprehensive understanding of exposure assessment. Full article
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11 pages, 2350 KiB  
Article
Preliminary Study on the Protective Effects and Molecular Mechanism of Procyanidins against PFOS-Induced Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion Impairment in INS-1 Cells
by Hai-Ming Xu, Meng-Yu Wu, Xin-Chen Shi, Ke-Liang Liu, Ying-Chi Zhang, Yin-Feng Zhang and Hong-Mei Li
Toxics 2023, 11(2), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11020174 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1613
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the effects of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) exposure on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) of rat insulinoma (INS-1) cells and the potential protective effects of procyanidins (PC). The effects of PFOS and/or PC on GSIS of INS-1 cells were investigated [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the effects of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) exposure on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) of rat insulinoma (INS-1) cells and the potential protective effects of procyanidins (PC). The effects of PFOS and/or PC on GSIS of INS-1 cells were investigated after 48 h of exposure (protein level: insulin; gene level: glucose transporter 2 (Glut2), glucokinase (Gck), and insulin). Subsequently, the effects of exposure on the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity were measured. Compared to the control group, PFOS exposure (12.5, 25, and 50 μM) for 48 h had no significant effect on the viability of INS-1 cells. PFOS exposure (50 μM) could reduce the level of insulin secretion and reduce the relative mRNA expression levels of Glut2, Gck, and insulin. It is worth noting that PC could partially reverse the damaging effect caused by PFOS. Significantly, there was an increase in ROS after exposure to PFOS and a decline after PC intervention. PFOS could affect the normal physiological function of GSIS in INS-1 cells. PC, a plant natural product, could effectively alleviate the damage caused by PFOS by inhibiting ROS activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular, Molecular and Genetic Toxicity of Endocrine Disruptors)
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10 pages, 2087 KiB  
Article
Fishing Cat Scats as a Biomonitoring Tool for Toxic Heavy Metal Contamination in Aquatic Ecosystems
by Thirupati Lakshmi Harika, Khalid A. Al-Ghanim, Mian Nadeem Riaz, Kaliyamoorthy Krishnappa, Jeganathan Pandiyan and Marimuthu Govindarajan
Toxics 2023, 11(2), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11020173 - 13 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1673
Abstract
Mangrove forest is one of the productive ecosystems that provide essential habitats for various fauna as breeding and feeding drives. However, heavy metal pollution in the mangrove forest has led to severe health problems for several aquatic species. Biomonitoring of metals using a [...] Read more.
Mangrove forest is one of the productive ecosystems that provide essential habitats for various fauna as breeding and feeding drives. However, heavy metal pollution in the mangrove forest has led to severe health problems for several aquatic species. Biomonitoring of metals using a nondestructive method is an emerging technique. Scats of the fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus) were collected from five locations in the Godavari estuary mangrove habitats, Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh, India, to determine the level of various metals. An opportunistic method was applied to collect scats in the mangrove forest. Six scat samples were collected from each of the sampling sites. The following prey species, such as crabs, fishes, birds, rodents, plants, plastics, and unidentifiable prey matters, were found in the scats. Select metals, such as chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb) were analyzed from the scats of the fishing cat since they intensively influence the physiology and behavior of top predators. The concentration of Cu in fishing cat scats was higher than the other two metals assessed. Metals showed statistically substantial variation across locations (p < 0.05). According to the current study, heavy metals may significantly threaten the fishing cat in the Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary. The fishing cat is a vulnerable species in accordance with the ICUN categories. Due to pollution and other human pressures, the fishing cat may soon be categorized as a threatened or endangered species; the research advises that authorities should prioritize the protection of the vulnerable species of the fishing cat from the Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh, India. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ecotoxicology)
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17 pages, 5647 KiB  
Article
Health Risk Assessment of PAHs from Estuarine Sediments in the South of Italy
by Fabiana Di Duca, Paolo Montuori, Ugo Trama, Armando Masucci, Gennaro Maria Borrelli and Maria Triassi
Toxics 2023, 11(2), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11020172 - 13 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1785
Abstract
Increased concerns about the toxicities of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), ubiquitous and persistent compounds, as well as the associated ecotoxicology issue in estuarine sediments, have drawn attention worldwide in the last few years. The levels of PAHs in the Sele, Sarno, and Volturno [...] Read more.
Increased concerns about the toxicities of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), ubiquitous and persistent compounds, as well as the associated ecotoxicology issue in estuarine sediments, have drawn attention worldwide in the last few years. The levels of PAHs in the Sele, Sarno, and Volturno Rivers sediments were evaluated. Moreover, the cancerogenic risk resulting from dermal and ingestion exposure to PAHs was estimated using the incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) assessment and the toxic equivalent concentration (TEQBaP). For Sele River, the results showed that the total PAH concentration ranged from 632.42 to 844.93 ng g−1 dw, with an average value of 738.68 ng g−1 dw. ∑PAHs were in the range of 5.2–678.6 ng g−1 dw and 434.8–872.1 ng g−1 dw for the Sarno and Volturno River sediments, respectively. The cancerogenic risk from the accidental ingestion of PAHs in estuarine sediments was low at all sampling sites. However, based on the ILCRdermal values obtained, the risk of cancer associated with exposure by dermal contact with the PAHs present in the sediments was moderate, with a mean ILCRdermal value of 2.77 × 10−6. This study revealed the pollution levels of PAHs across the South of Italy and provided a scientific basis for PAH pollution control and environmental protection. Full article
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9 pages, 3534 KiB  
Communication
Causal Associations of PM2.5 and GDM: A Two-Sample Mendelian Randomization Study
by Yi Yang, Xianli Ma, Weiyi Pang and Caina Jiang
Toxics 2023, 11(2), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11020171 - 13 Feb 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3485
Abstract
Epidemiological studies have linked particulate matter (PM2.5) to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). However, the causality of this association has not been established; Mendelian randomization was carried out using summary data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). For the analysis of the causal relationship between [...] Read more.
Epidemiological studies have linked particulate matter (PM2.5) to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). However, the causality of this association has not been established; Mendelian randomization was carried out using summary data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). For the analysis of the causal relationship between PM2.5 and GDM, the inverse variance weighted (IVW) method was used. The exposure data came from a GWAS dataset of IEU analysis of the United Kingdom Biobank phenotypes consisting of 423,796 European participants. The FinnGen consortium provided the GDM data, which included 6033 cases and 123,000 controls. We also performed multivariate MR (MVMR), adjusting for body mass index (BMI) and smoking. As a result, we found that each standard deviation increase in PM2.5 is associated with a 73.6% increase in the risk of GDM (OR: 1.736; 95%CI: 1.226–2.457). Multivariable MR analysis showed that the effect of PM2.5 on GDM remained after accounting for BMI and smoking. Our results demonstrate a causal relationship between PM2.5 and GDM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Air Pollution and Health)
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13 pages, 810 KiB  
Article
Reproductive Effects of S. boulardii on Sub-Chronic Acetamiprid and Imidacloprid Toxicity in Male Rats
by Çiğdem Sevim, Erol Akpınar, Emrah Hicazi Aksu, Ali Doğan Ömür, Serkan Yıldırım, Mehtap Kara, İsmail Bolat, Aristides Tsatsakis, Robin Mesnage, Kirill S. Golokhvast, Sevgi Karabulut Uzunçakmak and Rabia Nilüfer Ersoylu
Toxics 2023, 11(2), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11020170 - 12 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2161
Abstract
The potential health-promoting effects of probiotics against intoxication by pesticides is a topic of increasing commercial interest with limited scientific evidence. In this study, we aimed to investigate the positive effects of probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii on the male reproductive system under low dose [...] Read more.
The potential health-promoting effects of probiotics against intoxication by pesticides is a topic of increasing commercial interest with limited scientific evidence. In this study, we aimed to investigate the positive effects of probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii on the male reproductive system under low dose neonicotinoid pesticide exposure conditions. We observed that acetamiprid and imidacloprid caused a degeneration and necrosis of the spermatocytes in the tubular wall, a severe edema of the intertubular region and a hyperemia. This was concomittant to increased levels of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine reflecting oxidative stress, and an increase in caspase 3 expression, reflecting apoptosis. According to our results, Saccharomyces boulardii supplementation mitigates these toxic effects. Further in vivo and clinical studies are needed to clarify the molecular mechanisms of protection. Altogether, our study reinforces the burden of evidence from emerging studies linking the composition of the gut microbiome to the function of the reproductive system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Exposure and Reproductive Health)
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18 pages, 5545 KiB  
Article
Mitigation Effect of Dense “Water Network” on Heavy PM2.5 Pollution: A Case Model of the Twain-Hu Basin, Central China
by Yan Zhu, Yongqing Bai, Jie Xiong, Tianliang Zhao, Jiaping Xu, Yue Zhou, Kai Meng, Chengzhen Meng, Xiaoyun Sun and Weiyang Hu
Toxics 2023, 11(2), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11020169 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1213
Abstract
The influence of the underlying surface on the atmospheric environment over rivers and lakes is not fully understood. To improve our understanding, this study targeted the Twain-Hu Basin (THB) in central China, with a unique underlying surface comprising a dense “water network” over [...] Read more.
The influence of the underlying surface on the atmospheric environment over rivers and lakes is not fully understood. To improve our understanding, this study targeted the Twain-Hu Basin (THB) in central China, with a unique underlying surface comprising a dense “water network” over rivers and lakes. In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) was used to simulate the impact of this dense “water network” on a wintertime heavy PM2.5 pollution event in the THB. On this basis, the regulating effects of density and area of the lake groups, with centralized big lakes (CBLs) and discrete small lakes (DSLs), on PM2.5 concentrations over the underlying surface of the dense “water network” in the THB were clarified, and the relative contributions of thermal factors and water vapor factors in the atmospheric boundary layer to the variation of PM2.5 concentrations were evaluated. The results show that the underlying surface of dense “water networks” in the THB generally decreases the PM2.5 concentrations, but the influences of different lake-group types are not uniform in spatial distribution. The CBLs can reduce the PM2.5 concentrations over the lake and its surroundings by 4.90–17.68% during the day and night. The ability of DSLs in reducing PM2.5 pollution is relatively weak, with the reversed contribution between −5.63% and 1.56%. Thermal factors and water vapor–related factors are the key meteorological drivers affecting the variation of PM2.5 concentrations over the underlying surface of dense “water networks”. The warming and humidification effects of such underlying surfaces contribute positively and negatively to the “purification” of air pollution, respectively. The relative contributions of thermal factors and water vapor–related factors are 52.48% and 43.91% for CBLs and 65.96% and 27.31% for DSLs, respectively. The “purification” effect of the underlying surface with a dense “water network” in the THB on regional air pollution highlights the importance of environmental protection of inland rivers and lakes in regional environmental governance. In further studies on the atmospheric environment, long-term studies are necessary, including fine measurements in terms of meteorology and the environment and more comprehensive simulations under different scenarios. Full article
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