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Toxics, Volume 10, Issue 9 (September 2022) – 61 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Honey bees are exposed daily to multiple stressors in crops and wild environments. Fungicide residues are increasingly present in bees’ pollen and nectar and can harm colonies’ production and survival. This study assessed the effects of the fungicide pyraclostrobin on the fat body and pericardial cells of Africanized Apis mellifera. The bees were exposed to three pyraclostrobin residual concentrations, and histopathological and morphometric fat body and pericardial cells were measured. The results showed the adverse toxicity of pyraclostrobin with cytoarchitecture changes and decreased surface area on the fat body and pericardial cells. Although fungicides are considered less harmful to nontarget organisms, this study highlighted the harmful effects on the individual fitness of forager bees that could impair the maintenance of colony balance. View this paper
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12 pages, 2963 KiB  
Article
Effects of Oxathiapiprolin on the Structure, Diversity and Function of Soil Fungal Community
Toxics 2022, 10(9), 548; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10090548 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1300
Abstract
Pesticides can affect non-target microorganisms in the soil and are directly related to soil microecological health and environmental safety. Oxathiapiprolin is a piperidinyl thiazole isoxazoline fungicide that shows excellent control effect against oomycete fungal diseases, including late blight, downy mildew, root rot, stem [...] Read more.
Pesticides can affect non-target microorganisms in the soil and are directly related to soil microecological health and environmental safety. Oxathiapiprolin is a piperidinyl thiazole isoxazoline fungicide that shows excellent control effect against oomycete fungal diseases, including late blight, downy mildew, root rot, stem rot, and blight. Though it can exist stably in the soil for a long time, its effects on soil microbial structure and diversity are not well investigated. In the present study, the effects of oxathiapiprolin on the abundance and diversity of soil fungal communities in typical farmland were studied. The results show that the abundance and diversity of soil fungi were increased by oxathiapiprolin treatment with differences not significant on the 30th day. Oxathiapiprolin was found to change the structure of soil fungal communities, among which Ascomycota and Mortierellomycota were the most affected. Undefined saprophytic fungi increased in the treatment groups, and the colonization of saprophytic fungi can act as a major contributor to the function of soil microbial communities. This study lays a solid foundation regarding environmental behavior with the use of oxathiapiprolin in soil and details its scientific and rational use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecotoxicity Induced by Pesticides Exposure)
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17 pages, 3290 KiB  
Article
Emission Characteristics of Air Pollutants and CO2 from 11 Cities with Different Economic Development around the Bohai Sea in China from 2008–2017
Toxics 2022, 10(9), 547; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10090547 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1447
Abstract
Cities around the Bohai Sea are one of the main population cluster areas in China, which are characterized by high levels of sustainability performance and human capital, as well as resource-intensive industries. In this study, levels of economic development metrics and emissions of [...] Read more.
Cities around the Bohai Sea are one of the main population cluster areas in China, which are characterized by high levels of sustainability performance and human capital, as well as resource-intensive industries. In this study, levels of economic development metrics and emissions of air pollutants (BC, CO, NH3, NOx, OC, PM2.5, PM10, and SO2) and CO2 across eleven cities around the Bohai Sea from 2008 to 2017 were compared to illustrate the potential relationships between air pollutants/carbon emissions and socioeconomic developments. Meanwhile, the associations between the levels of economic development metrics (GDP per capita), emissions, and energy use per GDP have also been examined. Large differences across these 11 cities presenting different economic development levels and energy consumption characteristics have been observed. Cities with development dependable on the consumption of fossil fuels and the development of resource-intensive industries have emitted large amounts of air pollutants and CO2. Furthermore, the emissions and energy use per GDP for all the cities follow environmental Kuznets curves. The comparison results suggested that the developing cities dependable on resource-intensive industries around the Bohai Sea would obtain greater socioeconomic benefits owing to the interregional cooperation policies under top-down socioeconomic development plans and bottom-up technology development, accompanied by reduced emissions of air pollutants and CO2. Full article
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13 pages, 1668 KiB  
Article
Study on Di-Phase Membrane Device with DZ272(DDD) for Purification Behavior of Divalent Cobalt Ions in Slops
Toxics 2022, 10(9), 546; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10090546 - 19 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1026
Abstract
A novel Di-phase membrane device with DZ272 (DDD) containing a replenishing feed section and replenishing resolving section for the purification behavior of Co(II) has been studied. The replenishing feed section was composed of feed solution and Di-isooctylphosphinic acid (DZ272) as the carrier in [...] Read more.
A novel Di-phase membrane device with DZ272 (DDD) containing a replenishing feed section and replenishing resolving section for the purification behavior of Co(II) has been studied. The replenishing feed section was composed of feed solution and Di-isooctylphosphinic acid (DZ272) as the carrier in fossil oil, and the replenishing resolving section was composed of DZ272 as the carrier in fossil oil and HCl as the resolving agent. The effects of the voluminal ratio of the membrane solution and feed solution (O/F), pH, initial molarity of Co(II) and ionic strength in the feed solution, voluminal ratio of membrane solution and resolving agent (O/S), molarity of H2SO4 solution and DZ272 molarity in the replenishing resolving section on purification of Co(II) were considered. The benefits of DDD compared to the traditional membrane device, system stability, reuse of the membrane solution and retention of the membrane section were also studied. Experimental results indicated that the optimal purification conditions of Co(II) were obtained, as H2SO4 molarity was 2.00 mol/L, DZ272 molarity was 0.120 mol/L, O/S was 3:1 in the replenishing resolving section, O/F was 1:8 and pH was 5.20 in the replenishing feed section. The ions intensity in the replenishing feed section had no apparent effect on purification behavior of Co(II). When the initial Co(II) molarity was 3.00 × 10−4 mol/L, the purification percentage of Co(II) achieved 93.6% in 200 min. The kinetic equation was deduced in light of the law of mass diffusivity and interfacial chemistry. Full article
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14 pages, 8866 KiB  
Article
Enhancement and Homogenization of Indoor Air Quality in a Classroom Using a Vertical Airflow Ventilation Scheme
Toxics 2022, 10(9), 545; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10090545 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1559
Abstract
Since air quality has a great influence on students’ health and learning ability, enhancing air quality in classrooms is important. Currently, widely distributed ventilation systems operate by moving airflow horizontally from ventilation inlets and outlets on the ceiling. This method can reduce the [...] Read more.
Since air quality has a great influence on students’ health and learning ability, enhancing air quality in classrooms is important. Currently, widely distributed ventilation systems operate by moving airflow horizontally from ventilation inlets and outlets on the ceiling. This method can reduce the average pollution in a space by diluting it through air exchange; however, it is limited regarding homogeneous cleanliness due to air stagnation at some locations. Therefore, in this study, a new ventilation system was devised to improve indoor air quality and spatial homogeneity by installing ventilation inlets on the ceiling and numerous outlets on the floor, creating a vertical airflow in the interior space; this system was then applied to a middle school classroom. Using the age of air as an index, air quality improvement between the existing and newly designed ventilation systems was compared. In the classroom with the existing ventilation system, the age of air was low in the area near the ventilation inlets, while air congestion areas were widely distributed and air age was high near the outlets. Conversely, in the vertical airflow classroom, the average age of air was approximately 15% lower than that with the existing ventilation system, and the deviation of air age for each position in the classroom space was also reduced, showing a uniform air age distribution. Therefore, the vertical airflow ventilation system proposed in this study can be an effective ventilation scheme for enhancing and homogenizing indoor air quality. Full article
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13 pages, 3398 KiB  
Article
Effect of Embryonic Alcohol Exposure on Craniofacial and Skin Melanocyte Development: Insights from Zebrafish (Danio rerio)
Toxics 2022, 10(9), 544; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10090544 - 18 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2101
Abstract
Alcohol is a common addictive substance and prenatal alcohol exposure could cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) and can lead to various birth defects. The small teleost zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been identified as a fine animal model in developmental biology [...] Read more.
Alcohol is a common addictive substance and prenatal alcohol exposure could cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) and can lead to various birth defects. The small teleost zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been identified as a fine animal model in developmental biology and toxicological research. Zebrafish models are widely used to study the harmful effects of alcohol and limited studies are available on the craniofacial and skin malformations associated with FASD. The present study attempts to investigate the effect of alcohol on early zebrafish embryonic development. The effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on neural crest cell-derived organ formation, including pharyngeal dentition, palatal bones and skin melanocytes were analysed. Whole-mount cartilage and bone staining and imaging techniques were applied to determine the effects of alcohol on the above-mentioned structures. The tooth size and shape were affected by alcohol exposure, but the number of teeth in the pharyngeal dentition was not affected. Only first-generation teeth showed size differences. The alcohol-exposed ethmoid bone, which is homologous to the human hard palate, was smaller and less dense in cell arrangement compared with the control medial ethmoid bone. The skin pigmentation defects included reduced melanocyte density, melanin contraction, smaller melanocyte surface area and aberrations in melanosome dispersion, revealing that alcohol significantly influenced and downregulated each and every step of the melanocyte developmental process. This descriptive study summarises the effects of alcohol on the development of neural crest cell-derived structures and highlights the importance of zebrafish in studying the phenotypic characteristics of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Models for Human Toxicology)
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17 pages, 2087 KiB  
Article
Uranium Concentrations in Private Wells of Potable Groundwater, Korea
Toxics 2022, 10(9), 543; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10090543 - 18 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1324
Abstract
Uranium (U) is one of the typical naturally occurring radioactive elements enriched in groundwater through geological mechanisms, thereby bringing about adverse effects on human health. For this reason, some countries and the World Health Organization (WHO) regulate U with drinking water standards and [...] Read more.
Uranium (U) is one of the typical naturally occurring radioactive elements enriched in groundwater through geological mechanisms, thereby bringing about adverse effects on human health. For this reason, some countries and the World Health Organization (WHO) regulate U with drinking water standards and monitor its status in groundwater. In Korea, there have been continuous investigations to monitor and manage U in groundwater, but they have targeted only public groundwater wells. However, the features of private wells differ from public ones, particularly in regard to the well’s depth and diameter, affecting the U distribution in private wells. This study was initiated to investigate U concentrations in private groundwater wells for potable use, and the significant factors controlling them were also elucidated through statistical methods. The results obtained from the analyses of 7036 groundwater samples from private wells showed that the highest, average, and median values of U concentrations were 1450, 0.4, and 4.0 μg/L, respectively, and 2.1% of the wells had U concentrations exceeding the Korean and WHO standard (30 μg/L). In addition, the U concentrations were highest in areas of the Jurassic granite, followed by Quaternary alluvium and Precambrian metamorphic rocks. A more detailed investigation of the relationship between U concentration and geology revealed that the Jurassic porphyritic granite, mainly composed of Daebo granite, showed the highest U contents, which indicated that U might originate from uraninite (UO2) and coffinite (USiO4). Consequently, significant caution should be exercised when using the groundwater in these geological areas for potable use. The results of this study might be applied to establish relevant management plans to protect human health from the detrimental effect of U in groundwater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metal Contamination in Soil and Health Risks)
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11 pages, 1025 KiB  
Article
Effects of Exposure Duration and Exposure Levels of Ambient Air Pollutants on the Risk of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A 2015–2019 Korean Population-Based Cohort Study
Toxics 2022, 10(9), 542; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10090542 - 18 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1362
Abstract
Exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with an increased risk of menstrual disorders and infertility. This study examined the relationships between the levels and duration of air pollution exposure and the risk of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) using Korean population-based cohort data [...] Read more.
Exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with an increased risk of menstrual disorders and infertility. This study examined the relationships between the levels and duration of air pollution exposure and the risk of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) using Korean population-based cohort data (2015–2019). Real-time data on PM10, PM2.5, O3, CO, SO2, and NO2 were provided by the Korean Ministry of Environment. The average monthly air pollutant concentration from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2018 was analyzed. To assess individual-level exposure to air pollutants, a spatial prediction model and an area-averaging approach were used. In total, 237,582 PCOS cases were analyzed. The annual age-adjusted PCOS incidence was 6.70, 8.28, 9.73, 11.58, and 11.97% from 2015–2019, respectively. The PCOS risk increased 1.29–1.32, 1.43–1.52, and 1.32-fold following exposure to the 2-year and 3-year average levels of PM2.5, O3, and NO2, respectively, compared to their 1-year average levels. The PCOS risk increased 1.75-fold (95% confidence interval: 1.66–1.85) in the fourth-quartile for the NO2 level. Increased SO2 and CO levels in the second- and third-quartiles were also associated with an increased PCOS risk. Exposure to air pollutants thus increased the risk for PCOS in the Korean population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change, Air Pollution, and Human Health)
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13 pages, 801 KiB  
Article
Healthier Lifestyles Attenuated Association of Single or Mixture Exposure to Air Pollutants with Cardiometabolic Risk in Rural Chinese Adults
Toxics 2022, 10(9), 541; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10090541 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1531
Abstract
There is little research on how long-term exposure to independent and multiple air pollutants changes cardiometabolic risk in adults. In addition, previous studies focused on only the effect of one or two lifestyles on cardiometabolic risk. The evidence on the interactive effects of [...] Read more.
There is little research on how long-term exposure to independent and multiple air pollutants changes cardiometabolic risk in adults. In addition, previous studies focused on only the effect of one or two lifestyles on cardiometabolic risk. The evidence on the interactive effects of the lifestyle score and exposure to independent and mixtures of air pollutants on cardiometabolic risk is lacking. A total of 33,638 rural residents were included in the cross-sectional study. The three-year average concentrations of air pollutants for participants were predicted by using a satellite-based prediction. The air pollution score was created to assess the combined exposure of four air pollutants (PM1, PM2.5, PM10, and NO2). A gender−age-specific cardiometabolic risk score was calculated. Multivariable-adjusted linear regression and quantile g-computation were used to investigate the associations between air pollutants and cardiometabolic risk. Interaction plots were applied to describe the interactive effects of air pollution and the healthy lifestyle score on cardiometabolic risk. Per interquartile range (IQR) unit increases in PM1, PM2.5, PM10, or NO2 were associated with 0.162 (95% CI: 0.091, 0.233), 0.473 (95% CI: 0.388, 0.559), 0.718 (95% CI: 0.627, 0.810), and 0.795 (95% CI: 0.691, 0.898) unit increases in cardiometabolic risk score (all p < 0.05), respectively. A 0.854 (95% CI: 0.768, 0.940) unit increase in cardiometabolic risk was associated with each IQR increase in air pollution score. Furthermore, the strengths of associations of PM1, PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and the air pollution score on cardiometabolic risk score were attenuated with the healthy lifestyle score increase. In addition, there was no statistical significance after the lifestyle score equal to four scores for the effect of PM1 on the cardiometabolic risk score. In conclusions, individual or joint air pollutants were associated with an increased cardiometabolic risk. Improving the healthy lifestyle may be an effective method to improve cardiometabolic health in highly polluted rural regions. Full article
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14 pages, 19770 KiB  
Article
Study on Tritium and Iodine Species Transport through Porous Granite: A Non-Sorption Effect by Anion Exclusion
Toxics 2022, 10(9), 540; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10090540 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1318
Abstract
The safety of deep geological repositories is important in the disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW). In this study, advection–dispersion experiments were designed to build a transport model through a calibration/validation process, and the transport behavior of tritiated water (HTO) and various iodine [...] Read more.
The safety of deep geological repositories is important in the disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW). In this study, advection–dispersion experiments were designed to build a transport model through a calibration/validation process, and the transport behavior of tritiated water (HTO) and various iodine species (iodide: I and iodate: IO3) was studied on a dynamic compacted granite column. Breakthrough curves (BTCs) were plotted under various flow rates (1–5 mL/min). BTCs showed that the non-sorption effect by anion exclusion was observed only in I transport because the retardation factor (R) of I was lower than that of HTO (R = 1). Moreover, equilibrium and nonequilibrium transport models were used and compared to identify the mobile/immobile zones in the compacted granite column. The anion exclusion effect was influenced by the immobile zones in the column. The non-sorption effect by anion exclusion (R < 1) was only observed for I at 5.0 ± 0.2 mL/min flow rate, and a relatively higher Coulomb’s repulsive force may be caused by the smaller hydration radius of I(3.31 Å) than that of IO3(3.74 Å). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Adsorbents and Adsorption Methods for Pollutants Removal)
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17 pages, 1767 KiB  
Review
Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Photocatalysis for the Treatment of Pharmaceutical Industry Wastewaters: A Review
Toxics 2022, 10(9), 539; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10090539 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2007
Abstract
Pharmaceuticals are biologically active compounds used for therapeutical purposes in humans and animals. Pharmaceuticals enter water bodies in various ways and are detected at concentrations of ng L−1–μg L−1. Their presence in the environment, and especially long-term pollution, can [...] Read more.
Pharmaceuticals are biologically active compounds used for therapeutical purposes in humans and animals. Pharmaceuticals enter water bodies in various ways and are detected at concentrations of ng L−1–μg L−1. Their presence in the environment, and especially long-term pollution, can cause toxic effects on the aquatic ecosystems. The pharmaceutical industry is one of the main sources introducing these compounds in aquatic systems through the disposal of untreated or partially treated wastewaters produced during the different procedures in the manufacturing process. Pharmaceutical industry wastewaters contain numerous pharmaceutical compounds and other chemicals and are characterized by high levels of total dissolved solids (TDS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The toxic and recalcitrant nature of this type of wastewater hinders conventional biological processes, leading to its ineffective treatment. Consequently, there is an urgent demand for the development and application of more efficient methods for the treatment of pharmaceutical industry wastewaters. In this context, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have emerged as promising technologies for the treatment of pharmaceutical industry wastewaters through contaminant removal, toxicity reduction as well as biodegradability improvement. Therefore, a comprehensive literature study was conducted to review the recent published works dealing with the application of heterogeneous and homogeneous photocatalysis for pharmaceutical industry wastewater treatment as well as the advances in the field. The efficiency of the studied AOPs to treat the wastewaters is assessed. Special attention is also devoted to the coupling of these processes with other conventional methods. Simultaneously with their efficiency, the cost estimation of individual and integrated processes is discussed. Finally, the advantages and limitations of the processes, as well as their perspectives, are addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photocatalytic Degradation of Pharmaceuticals in Water)
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20 pages, 1318 KiB  
Article
Concurrent Assessment of Phthalates/HEXAMOLL® DINCH Exposure and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Performance in Three European Cohorts of the HBM4EU Aligned Studies
Toxics 2022, 10(9), 538; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10090538 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1978
Abstract
Information about the effects of phthalates and non-phthalate substitute cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester (HEXAMOLL® DINCH) on children’s neurodevelopment is limited. The aim of the present research is to evaluate the association between phthalate/HEXAMOLL® DINCH exposure and child neurodevelopment in three European [...] Read more.
Information about the effects of phthalates and non-phthalate substitute cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester (HEXAMOLL® DINCH) on children’s neurodevelopment is limited. The aim of the present research is to evaluate the association between phthalate/HEXAMOLL® DINCH exposure and child neurodevelopment in three European cohorts involved in HBM4EU Aligned Studies. Participating subjects were school-aged children belonging to the Northern Adriatic cohort II (NAC-II), Italy, Odense Child Cohort (OCC), Denmark, and PCB cohort, Slovakia. In each cohort, children’s neurodevelopment was assessed through the Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient score (FSIQ) of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale of Children test using three different editions. The children’s urine samples, collected for one point in time concurrently with the neurodevelopmental evaluation, were analyzed for several phthalates/HEXAMOLL® DINCH biomarkers. The relation between phthalates/HEXAMOLL® DINCH and FSIQ was explored by applying separate multiple linear regressions in each cohort. The means and standard deviations of FSIQ were 109 ± 11 (NAC-II), 98 ± 12 (OCC), and 81 ± 15 (PCB cohort). In NAC-II, direct associations between FSIQ and DEHP’s biomarkers were found: 5OH-MEHP+5oxo-MEHP (β = 2.56; 95% CI 0.58–4.55; N = 270), 5OH-MEHP+5cx-MEPP (β = 2.48; 95% CI 0.47–4.49; N = 270) and 5OH-MEHP (β = 2.58; 95% CI 0.65–4.51; N = 270). On the contrary, in the OCC the relation between DEHP’s biomarkers and FSIQ tended to be inverse but imprecise (p-value ≥ 0.10). No associations were found in the PCB cohort. FSIQ was not associated with HEXAMOLL® DINCH in any cohort. In conclusion, these results do not provide evidence of an association between concurrent phthalate/DINCHHEXAMOLLR DINCH exposure and IQ in children. Full article
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20 pages, 8284 KiB  
Article
Reducing PM10 and PM2.5 Concentrations in a Subway Station by Changing the Diffuser Arrangement
Toxics 2022, 10(9), 537; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10090537 - 15 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1383
Abstract
According to the stringent regulations on particulate matter (PM) concentrations in Seoul, Korea, the PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations in subway stations must be maintained below 50 and 30 μg/m3, respectively, by 2024. Therefore, the PM concentrations in a subway [...] Read more.
According to the stringent regulations on particulate matter (PM) concentrations in Seoul, Korea, the PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations in subway stations must be maintained below 50 and 30 μg/m3, respectively, by 2024. Therefore, the PM concentrations in a subway station were analyzed considering air-conditioning diffuser arrangement and filtration efficiency, with the total ventilation flow rate of the station maintained constant. Dynamic analysis was performed under a worst-case scenario, wherein outdoor air was introduced through ground entrances and high-concentration dust (PM10, PM2.5) was introduced from stationary train cabins into the platforms through open platform screen doors (PSDs). Although the average PM concentrations were predicted to satisfy the reinforced criteria of Seoul under the existing operating conditions, the recommended limits were exceeded in certain local areas. To address this, the PM concentrations were predicted by changing the diffuser arrangement in the waiting room and maintaining the total ventilation flow rate constant. When the diffusers were placed near the waiting room walls, the PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were reduced by approximately 10.5 and 5%, respectively, compared to the previous diffuser arrangement. Thus, the required PM concentration criteria were satisfied in nearly all areas of the target station, except for certain areas close to PSDs. The study findings can form the basis for improving the air quality of other subway stations. Full article
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9 pages, 938 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Metal Contamination in Water of Freshwater Aquaculture Farms from a South Asian Tropical Coastal Area
Toxics 2022, 10(9), 536; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10090536 - 14 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1999
Abstract
Heavy metal accumulation in aquaculture farms has become a major problem due to the widespread use of artificial feed to enhance fish productivity. To estimate the contamination level and identify metal sources, we investigated the amounts of seven heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, [...] Read more.
Heavy metal accumulation in aquaculture farms has become a major problem due to the widespread use of artificial feed to enhance fish productivity. To estimate the contamination level and identify metal sources, we investigated the amounts of seven heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Mn) in the surface water of commercial fresh water aquaculture farms in a south Asian tropical coastal area. Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) was used to analyze 36 water samples from 12 commercial fish farms. The results demonstrated that the range of three heavy metals were detected in a decreasing order of Mn (0.0574–0.4100 mg.L−1) > Zn (0.0125–0.3250 mg.L−1) > Cu (0.0275–0.085 mg.L−1). In all samples, the remaining four heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ni) were below the detectable level (BDL). Except for Mn, the amounts of the metals examined were below WHO and USEPA guideline values. According to the findings, the levels were found to be safe for drinking, agriculture production, and aquaculture. There was no significant correlation (p > 0.05) between heavy metal concentrations and water quality parameters, indicating that pollution came from diverse sources and that no single factor was controlling their levels. Furthermore, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) revealed no significant differences in the mean metal values among the fish farms (p > 0.05). Multivariate analyses (CA and PCA) demonstrated the association and sources of metal in the study area. Although metal levels were not beyond the threshold limit, it is recommended that suitable measures and continuous monitoring should be undertaken to reduce heavy metal pollution in aquaculture farms and prevent water quality degradation. Full article
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14 pages, 2577 KiB  
Article
Deoxynivalenol Induces Apoptosis via FOXO3a-Signaling Pathway in Small-Intestinal Cells in Pig
Toxics 2022, 10(9), 535; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10090535 - 13 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1632
Abstract
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin that is found in feed ingredients derived from grains such as corn and wheat. Consumption of DON-contaminated feed has been shown to cause damage to the intestine, kidneys, and liver. However, the molecular mechanism by which DON exerts [...] Read more.
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin that is found in feed ingredients derived from grains such as corn and wheat. Consumption of DON-contaminated feed has been shown to cause damage to the intestine, kidneys, and liver. However, the molecular mechanism by which DON exerts its effect in the small intestine is not completely understood. As a result, we profiled gene expression in intestinal epithelial cells treated with DON and examined the molecular function in vitro. We hypothesized that DON could induce apoptosis via the FOXO3a-signaling pathway in intestinal epithelial cells based on these findings. DON induced the apoptosis and the translocation of FOXO3a into the nucleus. Moreover, the inhibiting of FOXO3a alleviated the apoptosis and expression of apoptosis-related genes (TRAL, BCL-6, CASP8, and CASP3). ERK1/2 inhibitor treatment suppressed the translocation of FOXO3a into the nucleus. Our discovery suggests that DON induces apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells through the FOXO3a-signaling pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicology)
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16 pages, 13475 KiB  
Article
Performance and Mechanism of As(III/V) Removal from Aqueous Solution by Fe3O4-Sunflower Straw Biochar
Toxics 2022, 10(9), 534; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10090534 - 11 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1650
Abstract
Humans and ecosystems are severely damaged by the existence of As(III/V) in the aquatic environment. Herein, an advanced Fe3O4@SFBC (Fe3O4-sunflower straw biochar) adsorbent was fabricated by co-precipitation method with sunflower straw biochar (SFBC) prepared at [...] Read more.
Humans and ecosystems are severely damaged by the existence of As(III/V) in the aquatic environment. Herein, an advanced Fe3O4@SFBC (Fe3O4-sunflower straw biochar) adsorbent was fabricated by co-precipitation method with sunflower straw biochar (SFBC) prepared at different calcination temperatures and different SFBC/Fe mass ratios as templates. The optimal pH for As(III/V) removal was investigated, and Fe3O4@SFBC shows removal efficiency of 86.43% and 95.94% for As(III) and As(V), respectively, at pH 6 and 4. The adsorption effect of calcining and casting the biochar-bound Fe3O4 obtained at different temperatures and different SFBC/Fe mass ratios were analyzed by batch experiments. The results show that when the SFBC biochar is calcined at 450 °C with an SFBC/Fe mass ratio of 1:5, the adsorption of As(III) and As(V) reaches the maximum, which are 121.347 and 188.753 mg/g, respectively. Fe3O4@SFBC morphology, structure, surface functional groups, magnetic moment, and internal morphology were observed by XRD, FTIR, SEM, TEM, and VSM under optimal working conditions. The material shows a small particle size in the range of 12–14 nm with better magnetic properties (54.52 emu/g), which is suitable for arsenic removal. The adsorption mechanism of As(III/V) by Fe3O4@SFBC indicates the presence of chemisorption, electrostatic, and complexation. Finally, the material was used for five consecutive cycles of adsorption–desorption experiments, and no significant decrease in removal efficiency was observed. Therefore, the new adsorbent Fe3O4@SFBC can be efficiently used for arsenic removal in the aqueous system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Adsorbents and Adsorption Methods for Pollutants Removal)
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12 pages, 671 KiB  
Article
Association of Duration of Smoking Cessation or Cumulative Smoking Amount with Serum hs-CRP Level in Korean Adults: A Nationwide Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study
Toxics 2022, 10(9), 533; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10090533 - 10 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1900
Abstract
This study investigates the association between the duration of smoking cessation or cumulative smoking amount with serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels. We assessed the decreasing risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer following smoking cessation in Korean adults who were former smokers [...] Read more.
This study investigates the association between the duration of smoking cessation or cumulative smoking amount with serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels. We assessed the decreasing risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer following smoking cessation in Korean adults who were former smokers compared with current smokers. This study used data from the 2016–2018 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 5411 participants were included. The duration of smoking cessation and cumulative smoking amount were classified into cut-offs for 6 and 17 months, and 5 and 20 pack-years, respectively, using tertile values. Elevated serum hs-CRP level was defined as ≥1 mg/L. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. The odds ratio (OR) for elevated serum hs-CRP level was 0.73 times lower in the group whose duration of smoking cessation was 17 months or more than that in the group who were current smokers after adjusting for confounding variables (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57–0.92; p < 0.01). The OR for elevated serum hs-CRP level was 0.71 and 0.67 times lower in the groups whose cumulative smoking amounts were less than 5 and 5–20 pack-years than that in the group who were current smokers (95% CI: 0.50–0.99 and 0.50–0.92, respectively; both p < 0.05). This study reveals that a duration of smoking cessation of more than 17 months and a cumulative smoking amount of less than 20 pack-years were significantly associated with a decreased risk of elevated serum hs-CRP levels in Korean adults who were former smokers. Therefore, quitting smoking early and a low cumulative smoking amount are a potential preventive strategy for CVD and cancer that can be easily accessible using serum hs-CRP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Human Toxicology and Epidemiology)
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14 pages, 3447 KiB  
Article
Biodegradation of Dibutyl Phthalate by the New Strain Acinetobacter baumannii DP-2
Toxics 2022, 10(9), 532; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10090532 - 09 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1591
Abstract
Optimizing the culture conditions of DBP degradation by bacteria and investigating its biodegradation pathways have a great importance to develop effective PAEs pollution control strategies. In this study, we investigated the cultivation condition optimization, degradation kinetics, and degradation pathways of a newly isolated [...] Read more.
Optimizing the culture conditions of DBP degradation by bacteria and investigating its biodegradation pathways have a great importance to develop effective PAEs pollution control strategies. In this study, we investigated the cultivation condition optimization, degradation kinetics, and degradation pathways of a newly isolated dibutyl phthalate (DBP) degradation strain, which was isolated from activated sludge and identified as Acinetobacter baumannii DP-2 via morphological observation, biochemical identification, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The degradation conditions were optimized based on the results of single-factor experiments and response surface optimization experiments. The DBP degradation rate of Acinetobacter baumannii DP-2 reached up to 85.86% when the inoculation amount was 17.14%, the DBP concentration was 9.81 mg·L−1 and the NaCl concentration was 5 g·L−1. The GC-MS analysis results indicated that the intermediate metabolites of Acinetobacter baumannii DP-2 mainly consisted of DMP, MBP, PA, and benzoic acid derivatives, which confirmed the degradation pathway from DBP to PA under aerobic pathway and then to BA under anaerobic pathway. In summary, Acinetobacter baumannii DP-2 shows great potential for the degradation of DBP in contaminated soils. Full article
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17 pages, 3582 KiB  
Article
Deciphering the Global Proteomic Profile Involved in Methylmercury-Induced Cerebellar Neurodegeneration and Motor Dysfunction in Adult Rats
Toxics 2022, 10(9), 531; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10090531 - 09 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1550
Abstract
Mercury is a ubiquitous pollutant in the environment with potential neurotoxic effects. Several populations are susceptible to mercurial exposure, especially methylmercury (MeHg) at low doses for long periods through food consumption. Given this, the present work aimed to assess the effects of long-term [...] Read more.
Mercury is a ubiquitous pollutant in the environment with potential neurotoxic effects. Several populations are susceptible to mercurial exposure, especially methylmercury (MeHg) at low doses for long periods through food consumption. Given this, the present work aimed to assess the effects of long-term MeHg exposure on the cerebellum of rats from a translational perspective using a representative dose, assessing molecular, biochemical, morphological, and behavioral parameters. The model was produced by administering 40 µg/kg of MeHg for 60 days to adult male Wistar rats by oral gavage. As a result of this exposure, the animals presented motor deficits in open field and rotarod tests which were associated with an increase in total mercury content in cerebellar parenchyma, a reduction in antioxidant competence against peroxyl radicals, and increased nitrite and lipid peroxidation levels. The proteomic approach showed 317 modulated proteins. Such findings were associated with reductions in mature neuron and Purkinje cell densities and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunostained areas and increased microglial density. In addition, decreases in myelin basic protein and synaptophysin immunostaining were also observed. The results thus provided new evidence of the mechanisms underlying complex MeHg-induced neurodegeneration, especially the proteins underlying the biochemical and morphological features associated with motor dysfunction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicology)
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14 pages, 8324 KiB  
Article
Harmful Effects of Pyraclostrobin on the Fat Body and Pericardial Cells of Foragers of Africanized Honey Bee
Toxics 2022, 10(9), 530; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10090530 - 09 Sep 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2399
Abstract
Managed honey bees are daily exposed in agricultural settings or wild environments to multiple stressors. Currently, fungicide residues are increasingly present in bees’ pollen and nectar and can harm colonies’ production and survival. Therefore, our study aimed to evaluate the effects of the [...] Read more.
Managed honey bees are daily exposed in agricultural settings or wild environments to multiple stressors. Currently, fungicide residues are increasingly present in bees’ pollen and nectar and can harm colonies’ production and survival. Therefore, our study aimed to evaluate the effects of the fungicide pyraclostrobin on the fat body and pericardial cells of Africanized honey bees. The foragers were divided into three experimental treatment groups and two controls: pyraclostrobin 0.125 ng/µL (FG1), 0.025 ng/µL (FG2), 0.005 ng/µL (FG3), untreated control (CTL), and acetone control (CAC). After five days of oral exposure (ad libitum), the bees were dissected and prepared for histopathological and morphometric analysis. The FG1-treated bees showed extensive cytoarchitecture changes in the fat body and pericardial cells, inducing cell death. Bees from the FG2 group showed disarranged oenocytes, peripheral vacuolization, and pyknotic nuclei of pericardial cells, but the cytoarchitecture was not compromised as observed in FG1. Additionally, immune system cells were observed through the fat body in the FG1 group. Bees exposed to FG3 demonstrated only oenocytes vacuolization. A significant decrease in the oenocyte’s surface area for bees exposed to all pyraclostrobin concentrations was observed compared to the CTL and CAC groups. The bees from the FG1 and FG2 treatment groups presented a reduced surface area of pericardial cells compared to the controls and the FG3 group. This study highlighted the harmful effects of fungicide pyraclostrobin concentrations at the individual bee cellular level, potentially harming the colony level on continuous exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicology)
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15 pages, 2346 KiB  
Article
Vascular Response of Tetrabromobisphenol a in Rat Aorta: Calcium Channels Inhibition and Potassium Channels Activation
Toxics 2022, 10(9), 529; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10090529 - 09 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1753
Abstract
Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is a flame retardant widely used to reduce flammability. It is an endocrine disruptor, and due to constant human exposure, some concerns have been raised regarding its impact on human health. Studies showed that TBBPA affects oxidative stress, cell proliferation [...] Read more.
Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is a flame retardant widely used to reduce flammability. It is an endocrine disruptor, and due to constant human exposure, some concerns have been raised regarding its impact on human health. Studies showed that TBBPA affects oxidative stress, cell proliferation and intracellular calcium levels. However, the vascular consequences of TBBPA exposure are still relatively unexplored. Hence, this work aimed to analyse TBBPA effects on rat aortic smooth muscle and its action mechanisms. Through an ex vivo approach, Wistar rat aortas were used in an organ bath to evaluate the vascular effect of TBBPA (0.01–100 μM). Additionally, TBBPA’s mode of action was studied through calcium and potassium channel inhibitors. Resorting to in vitro studies, A7r5 cells were used to analyse L-Type voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) activity through the whole-cell configuration of the patch clamp technique, and the mRNA expression of proteins and ion channels involved in vascular contractility. The results showed vasorelaxation of rat aorta induced by TBBPA exposure, involving the inactivation of L-Type VGCC and activation of potassium channels, and the modulation of mRNA expression of L-type calcium and large-conductance calcium 1.1 and the BKCa 1.1 α- and β1 -subunit channels, soluble guanylyl cyclase and protein Kinase G. Full article
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18 pages, 4690 KiB  
Article
Adverse Effects of Toxic Metal Pollution in Rivers on the Physiological Health of Fish
Toxics 2022, 10(9), 528; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10090528 - 08 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1662
Abstract
Toxic metal pollution influences the lives of diverse aquatic organisms and humans who consume contaminated aquatic products. However, its potential impacts on aquatic organism health and, thus, ecological health, have been neglected in many regions. This research was carried out to contribute to [...] Read more.
Toxic metal pollution influences the lives of diverse aquatic organisms and humans who consume contaminated aquatic products. However, its potential impacts on aquatic organism health and, thus, ecological health, have been neglected in many regions. This research was carried out to contribute to filling that knowledge gap. Three freshwater fish species in the Nhue–Day River basin, Vietnam, have been chosen to study the bioaccumulation of metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd) in the tissues (livers, kidneys, gills) and their effects on fish physiological health (changes in the oxidative-GST activity, and physiological biomarkers-energy reserves, respectively) from 2013 to 2017. The extensive results revealed significant spatial and temporal variations in metal concentrations in tissues of common carp (Cyprinus carpio), silver carp (Hypothalmic molitrix), and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), and well correlated to their concentration in the water (p < 0.05). Fish bioaccumulated metals in the following order: Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd, with more in the kidneys and livers (spring and summer) than in other tissues. Metal accumulation in O. niloticus and C. carpio was higher than in H. molitrix. Biomarker responses (except for glycogen variation) were also higher during warm seasons. Changes in metal levels in water and fish tissues caused variations in biomarkers in the respective fish tissues, particularly in the livers, as demonstrated by significant correlations of metal concentrations in water and fish tissues to biochemical and physiological responses (p < 0.05). The findings suggest that metal pollution in the river basin adversely impacts the physiological health of both wild and cultured fish. Seasonal shifts in the levels of metal accumulation and biomarkers could be connected to species-specific differences in physiology and the levels of metals in environments. This biomarker set is simple but effective in assessing the impact of metal pollution on fish health and, hence, the aquatic ecosystem. This is one of the first biomonitoring studies to assist in designing better water management strategies for the Nhue–Day River basin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Environmental Toxicology and Wildlife Health)
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14 pages, 1175 KiB  
Review
Copper Effect on Microalgae: Toxicity and Bioremediation Strategies
Toxics 2022, 10(9), 527; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10090527 - 06 Sep 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3774
Abstract
Microalgae are increasingly recognised as suitable microorganisms for heavy metal (HM) removal, since they are able to adsorb them onto their cell wall and, in some cases, compartmentalise them inside organelles. However, at relatively high HM concentrations, they could also show signs of [...] Read more.
Microalgae are increasingly recognised as suitable microorganisms for heavy metal (HM) removal, since they are able to adsorb them onto their cell wall and, in some cases, compartmentalise them inside organelles. However, at relatively high HM concentrations, they could also show signs of stress, such as organelle impairments and increased activities of antioxidant enzymes. The main aim of this review is to report on the mechanisms adopted by microalgae to counteract detrimental effects of high copper (Cu) concentrations, and on the microalgal potential for Cu bioremediation of aquatic environments. Studying the delicate balance between beneficial and detrimental effects of Cu on microalgae is of particular relevance as this metal is widely present in aquatic environments facing industrial discharges. This metal often induces chloroplast functioning impairment, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and growth rate reduction in a dose-dependent manner. However, microalgae also possess proteins and small molecules with protective role against Cu and, in general, metal stress, which increase their resistance towards these pollutants. Our critical literature analysis reveals that microalgae can be suitable indicators of Cu pollution in aquatic environments, and could also be considered as components of eco-sustainable devices for HM bioremediation in association with other organisms. Full article
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34 pages, 16221 KiB  
Article
Bone-Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Their Conditioned Media, and Olive Leaf Extract Protect against Cisplatin-Induced Toxicity by Alleviating Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Apoptosis in Rats
Toxics 2022, 10(9), 526; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10090526 - 06 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2465
Abstract
Background: Hepatic and renal damage is a cisplatin (Cis)-induced deleterious effect that is a major limiting factor in clinical chemotherapy. Objectives: The current study was designed to investigate the influence of pretreatment with olive leaf extract (OLE), bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC), and [...] Read more.
Background: Hepatic and renal damage is a cisplatin (Cis)-induced deleterious effect that is a major limiting factor in clinical chemotherapy. Objectives: The current study was designed to investigate the influence of pretreatment with olive leaf extract (OLE), bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC), and their conditioned media (CM-MSC) against genotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and immunotoxicity induced by cisplatin in rats. Methods: The rats were randomly divided into six groups (six rats each) as follows: Control; OLE group, treated with OLE; Cis group, treated with a single intraperitoneal dose of Cis (7 mg/kg bw); Cis + OLE group, treated with OLE and cisplatin; Cis + CM-MSC group, treated with BM-MSC conditioned media and Cis; and Cis + MSC group, treated with BM-MSC in addition to Cis. Results: Cis resulted in a significant deterioration in hepatic and renal functions and histological structures. Furthermore, it increased inflammatory markers (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and decreased glutathione (GSH) content, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in hepatic and renal tissues. Furthermore, apoptosis was evident in rat tissues. A significant increase in serum 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG), nitric oxide (NO) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and a decrease in lysozyme activity were detected in Cis-treated rats. OLE, CM-MSC, and BM-MSC have significantly ameliorated Cis-induced deterioration in hepatic and renal structure and function and improved oxidative stress and inflammatory markers, with preference to BM-MSC. Moreover, apoptosis was significantly inhibited, evident from the decreased expression of Bax and caspase-3 genes and upregulation of Bcl-2 proteins in protective groups as compared to Cis group. Conclusions: These findings indicate that BM-MSC, CM-MSC, and OLE have beneficial effects in ameliorating cisplatin-induced oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in the hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and genotoxicity in a rat model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicology)
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16 pages, 1972 KiB  
Review
Microalgal Phycoremediation: A Glimpse into a Sustainable Environment
Toxics 2022, 10(9), 525; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10090525 - 06 Sep 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2451
Abstract
Microalgae are continually exposed to heavy metals and metalloids (HMMs), which stifles their development and reproduction due to the resulting physiological and metabolic abnormalities, leading to lower crop productivity. They must thus change their way of adapting to survive in such a hostile [...] Read more.
Microalgae are continually exposed to heavy metals and metalloids (HMMs), which stifles their development and reproduction due to the resulting physiological and metabolic abnormalities, leading to lower crop productivity. They must thus change their way of adapting to survive in such a hostile environment without sacrificing their healthy growth, development, reproductive capacity, or survival. The mode of adaptation involves a complex relationship of signalling cascades that govern gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, which consequently produces altered but adapted biochemical and physiochemical parameters. Algae have been reported to have altered their physicochemical and molecular perspectives as a result of exposure to a variety of HMMs. Hence, in this review, we focused on how microalgae alter their physicochemical and molecular characteristics as a tolerance mechanism in response to HMM-induced stress. Furthermore, physiological and biotechnological methods can be used to enhance extracellular absorption and clean up. The introduction of foreign DNA into microalgae cells and the genetic alteration of genes can boost the bio-accumulation and remediation capabilities of microalgae. In this regard, microalgae represent an excellent model organism and could be used for HMM removal in the near future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Lights on Phytoremediation)
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12 pages, 1158 KiB  
Article
Biochemical and Hematological Markers in Workers with Chronical Exposure to Lead and Cadmium in Colombia
Toxics 2022, 10(9), 524; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10090524 - 01 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1625
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to find if workers chronically exposed to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) presented changes in their general health and in the clinical parameters of the population under study. We carried out a cross-sectional survey in a [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to find if workers chronically exposed to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) presented changes in their general health and in the clinical parameters of the population under study. We carried out a cross-sectional survey in a sample of informal workers in Cartagena, Colombia. The population under study was composed of male informal workers (≥18 years of age), with experience in their job, selected from occupational settings with potential exposure to Pb and Cd (i.e., mechanics, battery and garbage recyclers, and welders). The median age was 45 years (interquartile range (IQR), 33–53). The median blood Pb level (BLL) was 2 μg/dL (IQR, 0.76–6.22), and the median of blood Cd level (BCL) was 1.22 μg/L (IQR, 0.33–2.01). The study found that 33% of high exposure jobs with BLL > 5 μg/dL (n = 57), whereas in ‘control’ workers, this was 15.3% (n = 9). The highest BLLs were found in battery recyclers (82.1%; n = 23), followed by mechanics (37.3%, n = 22). In the logistic regression model adjusted by age, time on the job, smoking and elevated BCL and BLL increased 3.2 times (95% CI, 1.1–9.7) in mechanics and 29.6 times (95% CI, 7.2–145.6) in battery recyclers. This study found negative changes in the health of workers with higher chronic exposure to lead in Cartagena, Colombia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Heavy Metals Toxicology)
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13 pages, 4509 KiB  
Article
Bibliometric Analysis: The Effects of Triclosan on Human Health
Toxics 2022, 10(9), 523; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10090523 - 01 Sep 2022
Viewed by 2119
Abstract
Triclosan (TCS) is a widely used chemical whose effects on human health remains elusive. TCS may play a role in a variety of health issues, including endocrine dysfunction, irregular embryonic development, and immune suppression. It is possible that TCS’s penetrative abilities across all [...] Read more.
Triclosan (TCS) is a widely used chemical whose effects on human health remains elusive. TCS may play a role in a variety of health issues, including endocrine dysfunction, irregular embryonic development, and immune suppression. It is possible that TCS’s penetrative abilities across all body barriers, including the blood–brain barrier, may make bioaccumulation the primary driver of these issues. In addition, chronic overuse of this chemical in everyday life may further contribute to the already increasing problem of antibiotic resistance. TCS research has steadily increased since its transition from medical to commercial use over the last 50 years. However, there are some clear gaps in the depth of this research as the safety of this agent is not fully agreed upon. The Food and Drug Administration recently issued regulatory rules regarding TCS in some commercial products; however, it is still found in a variety of goods marketed as “antimicrobial” or “antibacterial”. The purpose of this bibliometric study is to analyze research trends in this field and determine the amount of global attention TCS has received as to its relevancy in human health. Documenting and determining research concentration trends related to this field may outline where additional research is most necessary, as well as demonstrate the most valuable research produced and its relation to the advancement of our understanding of TCS. We found there to be a shift in research from TCS and its role in medical environments, to research based on the indirect effects of TCS through environmental contaminations, such as the propagation of antibiotic resistance. This shift was coupled with an increase in global research related to this field and identified China as a significant contributor. Although TCS has received notice, the simple fact of its continued use in so many common products, as well as the unclear understanding of its direct health impacts, reinforces the need for additional and more conclusive research before it has possible irreversible effects on our environment and health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Human Toxicology and Epidemiology)
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15 pages, 2858 KiB  
Article
Cerium Oxide Enhances the Toxicity of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in Human Lung Epithelial Cell Cultures
Toxics 2022, 10(9), 522; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10090522 - 01 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1874
Abstract
Recently, many approaches have been developed to improve the performance of nanomaterials. Combining more than one nanomaterial is one such approach that achieves superior results. However, during the fabrication of nanomaterials or formulation of end products, materials can be released into the ambient [...] Read more.
Recently, many approaches have been developed to improve the performance of nanomaterials. Combining more than one nanomaterial is one such approach that achieves superior results. However, during the fabrication of nanomaterials or formulation of end products, materials can be released into the ambient air and be inhaled by workers. The adverse health outcomes of inhaling such compounds are unknown. In this study, we examined such effects in combining two of the most utilized nanomaterials in several industrial sectors: zinc oxide (ZnO) and cerium oxide (CeO2). These materials can be found together in sunscreens, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films, and construction products. The aim of this study was to assess the adverse biological outcomes of CeO2–ZnO nano-mixtures in human lung epithelial cells. A549 human lung epithelial cells were treated with increasing concentrations of ZnO or CeO2 NPs alone, or as a mixture of both, under submerged conditions for 24 h. After treatment, cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, cell membrane integrity, and cytokine production were examined. ZnO NPs showed a dose-dependent trend for all endpoints. CeO2 NPs did not exhibit any toxic effect in any individual concentrations. When higher doses of ZnO were combined with increasing doses of CeO2, loss of cell viability and an elevation in cell membrane leakage were observed. Interleukin 8 (IL-8) and ROS generation were higher when ZnO NPs were combined with CeO2 NPs, compared to cells that were treated with ZnO alone. The release of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) was reduced in the cells that were treated with higher doses of ZnO and CeO2. Thus, the presence of CeO2 enhanced the toxicity of ZnO in A549 cells at non-toxic levels of CeO2. This suggests an additive toxicity of these two nanomaterials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicity Assessment of Ambient Nanoparticles)
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8 pages, 429 KiB  
Brief Report
Caspofungin-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Patients Treating for Candidemia
Toxics 2022, 10(9), 521; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10090521 - 31 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1345
Abstract
Echinocandins selectively inhibit fungal cell wall synthesis and, therefore, have few side effects. However, there are reports of hemodynamic and cardiac complications. We conducted this study to investigate the effects of caspofungin both on the noninvasive echocardiographic indices of myocardial function and myocardial [...] Read more.
Echinocandins selectively inhibit fungal cell wall synthesis and, therefore, have few side effects. However, there are reports of hemodynamic and cardiac complications. We conducted this study to investigate the effects of caspofungin both on the noninvasive echocardiographic indices of myocardial function and myocardial injury based on serum high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) levels. This study was conducted on patients treated for candidemia. The hs-cTnI level and echocardiographic parameters were measured before and 1 h after the infusion of the induction dose of caspofungin. Data were compared between central and peripheral venous drug administration routes. Fifteen patients were enrolled in the study. There were no significant differences in the echocardiographic parameters between the baseline and post-treatment period. The mean hs-cTnI level exhibited a significant rise following drug administration (0.24 ± 0.2 ng/mL vs 0.32 ± 0.3 ng/mL; p = 0.006). There was also a significant difference concerning the hs-cTnI level between central and peripheral venous drug administration routes (p = 0.034). Due to differences in the hs-cTnI level, it appears that the administration of caspofungin may be associated with myocardial injury. Our findings also showed a higher possibility of cardiotoxicity via the central venous administration route. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicology)
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17 pages, 2851 KiB  
Article
Human Health Risks and Air Quality Changes Following Restrictions for the Control of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Thailand
Toxics 2022, 10(9), 520; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10090520 - 31 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2102
Abstract
The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic first impacted Thailand in early 2020. The government imposed lockdown measures from April to May 2020 to control the spread of infection. Daily lifestyles then morphed into a so-called new normal in which activities were conducted at home and [...] Read more.
The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic first impacted Thailand in early 2020. The government imposed lockdown measures from April to May 2020 to control the spread of infection. Daily lifestyles then morphed into a so-called new normal in which activities were conducted at home and people avoided congregation in order to prevent the spread of an infectious disease. This study evaluated the long-term air quality improvement which resulted from the restrictions enforced on normal human activities in Thailand. The air quality index (AQI) of six criteria pollutants and health risk assessments were evaluated in four areas, including metropolitan, suburban, industrial, and tourism areas in Thailand. The results showed that, after the restriction measures, the overall AQI improved by 30%. The subindex of each pollutant (sub-AQI) of most pollutants significantly improved (by 30%) in metropolitan areas after human activities changed due to the implementation of lockdown measures. With regard to industrial and tourism areas, only the sub-AQI of traffic-related pollutants decreased (34%) while the sub-AQIs of other pollutants before and after lockdown were similar. However, the changes in human activities were not clearly related to air quality improvement in the suburban area. The overall hazard index (HI) after lockdown decreased by 23% because of the reduction of traffic-related pollutants. However, the HI value remained above the recommended limits for the health of the adult residents in all areas. Therefore, strict regulations to control other pollutant sources, such as industry and open burning, will also be necessary for air quality improvement in Thailand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution and COVID-19)
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12 pages, 1589 KiB  
Article
Toxic Effects of Two Representative Rare Earth Elements (La and Gd) on Danio rerio Based on Transcriptome Analysis
Toxics 2022, 10(9), 519; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10090519 - 31 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1612
Abstract
The expanding applications of rare earth elements (REEs) in various fields have raised concerns about their biosafety. However, previous studies are insufficient to elucidate their toxic effects and mechanisms of action and whether there are uniform or predictable toxicity patterns among REEs. Herein, [...] Read more.
The expanding applications of rare earth elements (REEs) in various fields have raised concerns about their biosafety. However, previous studies are insufficient to elucidate their toxic effects and mechanisms of action and whether there are uniform or predictable toxicity patterns among REEs. Herein, we investigated the toxic effects of two representative REEs (lanthanum (La) and gadolinium (Gd)) on zebrafish (Danio rerio) through toxicity experiments and transcriptome analysis. The results of the toxicity experiments showed that the two REEs have similar lethality, with half-lethal concentrations (LC50) at micromolar levels and mixed toxicity showing additive effects. Differential expression gene screening and functional group enrichment analysis showed that La and Gd might affect the growth and development of Danio rerio by interfering with some biological molecules. The two REEs showed significant effects on the metabolic pathways of exogenous or endogenous substances, including glutathione sulfotransferase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. Moreover, some basic biological processes, such as DNA replication, the insulin signaling pathway, and the p53 signaling pathway, were significantly enriched. Overall, the toxicity patterns of La and Gd may affect some biological processes with different intensities; however, there are many similarities in their toxicity mechanisms and modes of action. The concentrations investigated in this study were comparable to those of REE residues at highly contaminated sites, thus mimicking the ecotoxicological effects at environmentally relevant concentrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicology)
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