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Foods, Volume 12, Issue 6 (March-2 2023) – 234 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Due to the negative impacts of an excessive consumption of sugar, healthcare experts recommend a reduced intake of sugar in our diets. Due to this fact, the production of reduced-sugar/energy fruit juices has responded to the market demand and WHO recommendations. Among the methods used to produce reduced-sugar fruit juices, membrane and enzymatic processes can be useful. Membrane processes enable the physical retention of sugar molecules, whereas enzymatic reactions may lead to sugar conversion to higher molecular compounds, such as dietary fiber (fructo-oligosaccharides and gluco-oligosaccharides). View this paper
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29 pages, 8692 KiB  
Article
Automatic Detection of Small Sample Apple Surface Defects Using ASDINet
by Xiangyun Hu, Yaowen Hu, Weiwei Cai, Zhuonong Xu, Peirui Zhao, Xuyao Liu, Qiutong She, Yahui Hu and Johnny Li
Foods 2023, 12(6), 1352; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12061352 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1853
Abstract
The appearance quality of apples directly affects their price. To realize apple grading automatically, it is necessary to find an effective method for detecting apple surface defects. Aiming at the problem of a low recognition rate in apple surface defect detection under small [...] Read more.
The appearance quality of apples directly affects their price. To realize apple grading automatically, it is necessary to find an effective method for detecting apple surface defects. Aiming at the problem of a low recognition rate in apple surface defect detection under small sample conditions, we designed an apple surface defect detection network (ASDINet) suitable for small sample learning. The self-developed apple sorting system collected RGB images of 50 apple samples for model verification, including non-defective and defective apples (rot, disease, lacerations, and mechanical damage). First, a segmentation network (AU-Net) with a stronger ability to capture small details was designed, and a Dep-conv module that could expand the feature capacity of the receptive field was inserted in its down-sampling path. Among them, the number of convolutional layers in the single-layer convolutional module was positively correlated with the network depth. Next, to achieve real-time segmentation, we replaced the flooding of feature maps with mask output in the 13th layer of the network. Finally, we designed a global decision module (GDM) with global properties, which inserted the global spatial domain attention mechanism (GSAM) and performed fast prediction on abnormal images through the input of masks. In the comparison experiment with state-of-the-art models, our network achieved an AP of 98.8%, and a 97.75% F1-score, which were higher than those of most of the state-of-the-art networks; the detection speed reached 39ms per frame, achieving accuracy-easy deployment and substantial trade-offs that are in line with actual production needs. In the data sensitivity experiment, the ASDINet achieved results that met the production needs under the training of 42 defective pictures. In addition, we also discussed the effect of the ASDINet in actual production, and the test results showed that our proposed network demonstrated excellent performance consistent with the theory in actual production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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14 pages, 1911 KiB  
Article
Valorization of an Old Variety of Triticum aestivum: A Study of Its Suitability for Breadmaking Focusing on Sensory and Nutritional Quality
by Alessandro Bianchi, Francesca Venturi, Angela Zinnai, Isabella Taglieri, Basma Najar, Monica Macaluso, Giorgio Merlani, Luciana Gabriella Angelini, Silvia Tavarini, Clarissa Clemente and Chiara Sanmartin
Foods 2023, 12(6), 1351; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12061351 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1372
Abstract
“Avanzi 3-Grano 23” (G23) is an old variety of Triticum aestivum from the mountain areas of Lunigiana (north Tuscany, Italy), where traditional farming communities have contributed to its success and on-farm conservation. G23 flour, traditionally used for typical food products, is characterized by [...] Read more.
“Avanzi 3-Grano 23” (G23) is an old variety of Triticum aestivum from the mountain areas of Lunigiana (north Tuscany, Italy), where traditional farming communities have contributed to its success and on-farm conservation. G23 flour, traditionally used for typical food products, is characterized by particular nutritional and sensory traits but has technological properties which limit its suitability for breadmaking. The aim of this work was to evaluate how to promote the use of G23 through the optimization of bread formulation by leveraging both flour blending and the leavening system. During the preliminary test, three different mixes of G23 flour and a strong flour (C) were tested in terms of their leavening power as a function of leavening agent (baker’s yeast or sourdough). The selected M2 flour, composed of G23:C (1:1 w/w), was used for further breadmaking trials and 100% C flour was utilized as a control. The sourdough bread obtained with the M2 flour (SB-M2) showed an improved sensory profile compared with the related control (SB-C). Furthermore, SB-M2 exhibited the best aromatic (high content in aldehydes, pyrazines and carboxylic acids) and phytochemical profile (total polyphenols and flavonoids content and antioxidant activity). In contrast, the use of baker’s yeast, although optimal from the point of view of breadmaking, did not result in the same levels of aromatic complexity because it tends to standardize the product without valorizing the sensory and nutritional qualities of the flour. In conclusion, in the experimental conditions adopted, this old wheat variety appears to be suitable for the production of sourdough bakery products. Full article
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20 pages, 3330 KiB  
Article
Effect of Dry Heating on Some Physicochemical Properties of Protein-Coated High Amylose and Waxy Corn Starch
by Lili Mao, Pranita Mhaske, Asgar Farahnaky and Mahsa Majzoobi
Foods 2023, 12(6), 1350; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12061350 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1592
Abstract
The dry heat treatment (DHT) of starch and hydrocolloid mixtures is gaining acknowledgement since hydrocolloids can enhance the efficiency of DHT. However, the DHT of a starch–protein mixture has been less investigated. In this study, the effects of different proteins including sodium caseinate [...] Read more.
The dry heat treatment (DHT) of starch and hydrocolloid mixtures is gaining acknowledgement since hydrocolloids can enhance the efficiency of DHT. However, the DHT of a starch–protein mixture has been less investigated. In this study, the effects of different proteins including sodium caseinate (SC), gelatin, and whey protein isolate (WPI) added to high amylose and waxy corn starches (HACS and WCS, respectively) prepared by the dry mixing and wet method before and after DHT were studied. The DHT of both starches with WPI and SC prepared by the wet method increased the peak viscosity, but no change was observed when gelatin was added. Dry mixing of HACS with the proteins did not affect the peak viscosity before and after DHT. The gelatinization temperatures and enthalpy of both starches showed a slight decrease with the addition of all proteins and reduced further after DHT. The firmness, gumminess, and cohesiveness of the samples decreased upon DHT. The SEM results revealed that the granules were coated by proteins and formed clusters. Particle size analysis showed an increase in the particle size with the addition of proteins, which reduced after DHT. Under the conditions used, the wet method was more successful than dry mixing and the effects of WPI > SC > gelatin in enhancing the physicochemical properties of the tested starches after DHT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Starch Modifications, Properties, and Functions)
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16 pages, 1551 KiB  
Article
Variability in ‘Capri’ Everbearing Strawberry Quality during a Harvest Season
by Kristyna Simkova, Robert Veberic, Metka Hudina, Mariana Cecilia Grohar, Tea Ivancic, Tina Smrke, Massimiliano Pelacci and Jerneja Jakopic
Foods 2023, 12(6), 1349; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12061349 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1602
Abstract
Strawberries are appreciated by consumers for their characteristic taste and health benefits, which enhance their demand throughout the year. Everbearing strawberries can produce fruits for a longer period and could thus meet this demand, but the fruit quality depends on environmental factors and [...] Read more.
Strawberries are appreciated by consumers for their characteristic taste and health benefits, which enhance their demand throughout the year. Everbearing strawberries can produce fruits for a longer period and could thus meet this demand, but the fruit quality depends on environmental factors and the cultivar. This study focused on the effect of environmental conditions on the physical attributes and the composition of everbearing Capri cultivar fruit harvested from the end of June to the end of October. A positive correlation was observed between temperature and organic acid content (r = 0.87), and a positive correlation was observed between sunshine duration, anthocyanin (r = 0.87) and phenolic compound contents (r = 0.89). Additionally, the composition of sugars was affected by the environmental conditions. While strawberries harvested towards the end of October, when lower temperatures predominated, were larger in size and had a higher sugar/acid ratio, fruit harvested in the middle of August, when there were longer periods of sunshine, had higher anthocyanin and phenolic compound contents. In conclusion, strawberries with higher sugar/acid ratios are obtained when temperatures are lower, while strawberries exposed to longer periods of sunshine are richer in health-promoting compounds. Full article
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14 pages, 1150 KiB  
Article
Effect of Nano- and Microzinc Supplementation on the Mineral Composition of Bones of Rats with Induced Mammary Gland Cancer
by Dorota Skrajnowska, Jakub Idkowiak, Arkadiusz Szterk, Karol Ofiara, Kinga Augustyniak and Barbara Bobrowska-Korczak
Foods 2023, 12(6), 1348; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12061348 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1456
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to determine changes in the mineral composition of the bones of rats with chemically induced mammary gland cancer and to attempt to establish whether a specific diet modification involving the inclusion of zinc ions in two [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was to determine changes in the mineral composition of the bones of rats with chemically induced mammary gland cancer and to attempt to establish whether a specific diet modification involving the inclusion of zinc ions in two forms—nano and micro—will affect the mineral composition of the bones. Methods: Female Sprague–Dawley rats were used for the research. The animals were randomly assigned to three experimental groups. All animals were fed a standard diet (Labofeed H), and selected groups additionally received zinc nanoparticles or microparticles in the amount of 4.6 mg/mL. To induce mammary cancer, the animals were given 7,12-dimethyl-1,2-benz[a]anthracene. The content of Ag, As, B, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr, Tl, U, and V was determined using ICP-MS, while that of Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, and Zn was determined using FAAS. Results: The use of a diet enriched with zinc nano- or microparticles significantly influenced the content of the elements tested. In the bones of rats fed a diet with zinc nanoparticles, changes were found in the content of Ca, Mg, Zn, Cd, U, V, and Tl, while in the case of the diet supplemented with zinc microparticles, there were differences in six elements—Ca, Mg, B, Cd, Ag, and Pb—compared to animals receiving an unsupplemented diet. Conclusions: The content of elements in the bone tissue of rats in the experimental model indicates disturbances of mineral metabolism in the tissue at an early stage of mammary cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements’ Quality and Their Role in Health and Disease)
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16 pages, 436 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Shelf Life Prediction of Fresh Pizza with Regression Models and Low Cost Sensors
by Paul Wunderlich, Daniel Pauli, Michael Neumaier, Stephanie Wisser, Hans-Jürgen Danneel, Volker Lohweg and Helene Dörksen
Foods 2023, 12(6), 1347; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12061347 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1784
Abstract
The waste of food presents a challenge for achieving a sustainable world. In Germany alone, over 10 million tonnes of food are discarded annually, with a worldwide total exceeding 1.3 billion tonnes. A significant contributor to this issue are consumers throwing away still [...] Read more.
The waste of food presents a challenge for achieving a sustainable world. In Germany alone, over 10 million tonnes of food are discarded annually, with a worldwide total exceeding 1.3 billion tonnes. A significant contributor to this issue are consumers throwing away still edible food due to the expiration of its best-before date. Best-before dates currently include large safety margins, but more precise and cost effective prediction techniques are required. To address this challenge, research was conducted on low-cost sensors and machine learning techniques were developed to predict the spoilage of fresh pizza. The findings indicate that combining a gas sensor, such as volatile organic compounds or carbon dioxide, with a random forest or extreme gradient boosting regressor can accurately predict the day of spoilage. This provides a more accurate and cost-efficient alternative to current best-before date determination methods, reducing food waste, saving resources, and improving food safety by reducing the risk of consumers consuming spoiled food. Full article
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17 pages, 881 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial-Resistant Listeria monocytogenes in Ready-to-Eat Foods: Implications for Food Safety and Risk Assessment
by Adeoye John Kayode and Anthony Ifeanyi Okoh
Foods 2023, 12(6), 1346; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12061346 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2344
Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance is an existential threat to the health sector, with far-reaching consequences in managing microbial infections. In this study, one hundred and ninety-four Listeria monocytogenes isolates were profiled for susceptibility using disc diffusion techniques. Possible foodborne listeriosis risk associated with ready-to-eat (RTE) [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial resistance is an existential threat to the health sector, with far-reaching consequences in managing microbial infections. In this study, one hundred and ninety-four Listeria monocytogenes isolates were profiled for susceptibility using disc diffusion techniques. Possible foodborne listeriosis risk associated with ready-to-eat (RTE) foods (RTEF) and the risk of empirical treatment (EMPT) of L. monocytogenes infections, using multiple antimicrobial resistance indices (MARI) and antimicrobial resistance indices (ARI), respectively, were investigated. Twelve European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) prescribed/recommended antimicrobials (EPAS) for the treatment of listeriosis and ten non-prescribed antimicrobials (non-PAS)] were evaluated. Antimicrobial resistance > 50% against PAs including sulfamethoxazole (61.86%), trimethoprim (56.19%), amoxicillin (42.27%), penicillin (41.24%), and erythromycin (40.21%) was observed. Resistance > 50% against non-PAS, including oxytetracycline (60.89%), cefotetan (59.28%), ceftriaxone (53.09%), and streptomycin (40.21%) was also observed. About 55.67% and 65.46% of the isolates had MARI scores ranging from 0.25–0.92 and 0.30–0.70 for EPAs and non-PAs, respectively. There was a significant difference (p < 0.01) between the MARI scores of the isolates for EPAs and non-PAs (means of 0.27 ± 0.21 and 0.31 ± 0.14, respectively). MARI/ARI scores above the Krumperman permissible threshold (>0.2) suggested a high risk/level of antimicrobial-resistant L. monocytogenes. The MARI risks of the non-success of empirical treatment (EMPT) attributed to EPAs and non-PAs were generally high (55.67% and 65.463%, respectively) due to the antimicrobial resistance of the isolates. MARI-based estimated success and non-success of EMPT if EUCAST-prescribed antimicrobials were administered for the treatment of listeriosis were 44.329% and 55.67%, respectively. The EMPT if non-prescribed antimicrobials were administered for the treatment of listeriosis was 34.53% and 65.46%, respectively. This indicates a potentially high risk with PAs and non-PAs for the treatment of L. monocytogenes infection. Furthermore, ARI scores ≤ 0.2 for EPAs were observed in polony, potato chips, muffins, and assorted sandwiches, whereas ARI scores for non-PAs were >0.2 across all the RTE food types. The ARI-based estimate identified potential risks associated with some RTE foods, including fried fish, red Vienna sausage, Russian sausage, fruit salad, bread, meat pies, fried chicken, cupcakes, and vetkoek. This investigation identified a high risk of EMPT due to the presence of antimicrobial-resistant L. monocytogenes in RTE foods, which could result in severe health consequences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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20 pages, 2281 KiB  
Article
Changes on Techno-Functional, Thermal, Rheological, and Microstructural Properties of Tef Flours Induced by Microwave Radiation—Development of New Improved Gluten-Free Ingredients
by Caleb S. Calix-Rivera, Marina Villanueva, Grazielle Náthia-Neves and Felicidad Ronda
Foods 2023, 12(6), 1345; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12061345 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1748
Abstract
Tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] flour is a gluten-free cereal rich in fiber, minerals, vitamins, and antioxidants, which offers a promising alternative for new food development. This study investigated the effect of microwave radiation (MW) on the techno-functional, thermal, rheological and microstructural [...] Read more.
Tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] flour is a gluten-free cereal rich in fiber, minerals, vitamins, and antioxidants, which offers a promising alternative for new food development. This study investigated the effect of microwave radiation (MW) on the techno-functional, thermal, rheological and microstructural properties of tef flours. White and brown tef grains were milled and microwaved at different moisture contents (MC) (15%, 20% and 25%) for a total irradiation time of 480 s. The morphological structure of tef flours was affected by MW treatment, and its particle size and hydration properties increased after the treatment. Lower peak, breakdown, and setback viscosities, up to 45%, 96%, and 67% below those of the control (untreated) samples, and higher pasting temperature, up to 8 °C in the 25% MC samples, were observed. From FTIR analysis a disruption of short-range molecular order was concluded, while DSC confirmed an increased stability of starch crystallites. Rheological analysis of the gels made from the treated samples revealed that MW had a structuring and stabilizing effect on all samples, leading to higher viscoelastic moduli, G′ and G″, and the maximum stress the gels withstood before breaking their structure, τmax. The MC of the flours during the MWT drove the modification of the techno-functional properties of the tef flours and the gel rheological and thermal characteristics. These results suggest that MW-treated tef flours are potential ingredients for improving the technological, nutritional and sensory quality of food products. Full article
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18 pages, 2390 KiB  
Article
Effect of Composite Edible Coatings Combined with Modified Atmosphere Packaging on the Storage Quality and Microbiological Properties of Fresh-Cut Pineapple
by Xingmei Liao, Yage Xing, Xiangfeng Fan, Ye Qiu, Qinglian Xu and Xiaocui Liu
Foods 2023, 12(6), 1344; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12061344 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2693
Abstract
This study investigated the effect of edible coating (EC), modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), and edible coating + modified atmosphere packaging (EC + MAP) treatments on the quality of fresh-cut pineapples during storage at 4 °C. The quality differences were analyzed by measuring the [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effect of edible coating (EC), modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), and edible coating + modified atmosphere packaging (EC + MAP) treatments on the quality of fresh-cut pineapples during storage at 4 °C. The quality differences were analyzed by measuring the quality, physiological indicators, and total microbial counts. After 8 d of storage, the brightness (L*) values of the EC + MAP and control samples were 72.76 and 60.83, respectively. The water loss and respiratory rate of the EC + MAP were significantly inhibited from 0% and 29.33 mg CO2 kg−1 h−1 to 4.13% and 43.84 mg CO2 kg−1 h−1, respectively. Furthermore, the fresh-cut pineapples treated with EC + MAP presented a good appearance, with lower total soluble solids (TSS) and relative conductivity and higher titratable acid (TA), ascorbic acid (AA), total phenol content, and firmness compared to the other treatment groups. At the end of storage, the EC + MAP samples exhibited the lowest polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, peroxidase (POD) activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content at 28.53 U, 60.37 U, and 1.47 nmol·g−1, respectively. Furthermore, the efficiency of EC + MAP treatment exceeded that of EC or MAP alone, preventing key problems involving the surface browning and microbiological safety of the fresh-cut pineapples. The results showed that EC + MAP treatment was more successful in maintaining the storage quality and extending the shelf life of fresh-cut pineapples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Encapsulation Technology in Edible Films)
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22 pages, 1116 KiB  
Review
The Application of Phenolic Acids in The Obtainment of Packaging Materials Based on Polymers—A Review
by Beata Kaczmarek-Szczepańska, Sylwia Grabska-Zielińska and Marta Michalska-Sionkowska
Foods 2023, 12(6), 1343; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12061343 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2211
Abstract
This article provides a summarization of present knowledge on the fabrication and characterization of polymeric food packaging materials that can be an alternative to synthetic ones. The review aimed to explore different studies related to the use of phenolic acids as cross-linkers, as [...] Read more.
This article provides a summarization of present knowledge on the fabrication and characterization of polymeric food packaging materials that can be an alternative to synthetic ones. The review aimed to explore different studies related to the use of phenolic acids as cross-linkers, as well as bioactive additives, to the polymer-based materials upon their application as packaging. This article further discusses additives such as benzoic acid derivatives (sinapic acid, gallic acid, and ellagic acid) and cinnamic acid derivatives (p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid). These phenolic acids are mainly used as antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant agents. However, their presence also improves the physicochemical properties of materials based on polymers. Future perspectives in polymer food packaging are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Packaging and Preservation)
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24 pages, 5008 KiB  
Article
Regulation of the Colour Change of 3D-Printed Mackerel Mince (Scomber scombrus) Based on Purple Potato Powder and Citric Acid
by Zheng Jin, Yisha Xie, Zheming Wang, Yue Wang, Qinxiu Sun and Xiuping Dong
Foods 2023, 12(6), 1342; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12061342 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1213
Abstract
The present study evaluates the effect of purple potato (PP) powder and citric acid (CA) on the regulation of the colour change of 3D (three-dimensional) printed mackerel mince (Scomber scombrus). In addition, the effects of PP and CA content on the [...] Read more.
The present study evaluates the effect of purple potato (PP) powder and citric acid (CA) on the regulation of the colour change of 3D (three-dimensional) printed mackerel mince (Scomber scombrus). In addition, the effects of PP and CA content on the 3D-printability and quality of mackerel mince were also investigated. The results showed that an increase in PP and CA concentrations gradually brightened the product colour and turned it pink. Furthermore, an increase in PP concentration and added CA reduced the fluidity and loss of water in mackerel mince. Proper PP and CA concentrations moderately increased the storage modulus (G′), loss modulus (G″), and yield stress of mackerel mince, making it suitable for 3D printing. At the same time, an increase in PP and CA concentrations enhanced the umami and sweet taste of mackerel mince but reduced the fishy and sour taste, and the degree of preference was within the acceptable range, except for PP1%-CA0%. It was found that, when the 3D-printing accuracy of mackerel-mince samples reached more than 97% and was acceptable, the optimal PP and CA concentrations for realizing the regulation of L*, a*, and b* were 1.00~3.00% and 0.09~0.32%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Foods of Marine Origin)
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21 pages, 1072 KiB  
Review
The Influence of Sensory Characteristics of Game Meat on Consumer Neuroperception: A Narrative Review
by Marius-Mihai Ciobanu, Diana-Remina Manoliu, Mihai-Cătălin Ciobotaru, Bianca-Georgiana Anchidin, Mădălina Matei, Mugurel Munteanu, Gabriela Frunză, Otilia Cristina Murariu, Elena-Iuliana Flocea and Paul-Corneliu Boișteanu
Foods 2023, 12(6), 1341; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12061341 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2438
Abstract
Game meat contains bioactive compounds that directly influence the formation of a rich reservoir of flavor precursors that produce specific sensory properties. Quality is considered one of the most influential determinants of consumer behavior, but the interpretation of this concept differs between consumers. [...] Read more.
Game meat contains bioactive compounds that directly influence the formation of a rich reservoir of flavor precursors that produce specific sensory properties. Quality is considered one of the most influential determinants of consumer behavior, but the interpretation of this concept differs between consumers. Although recognized for its quality, its unique sensory characteristics (smell, taste, aroma) may have a major impact on consumer perception. The aim of this review is to describe the consumer behavior regarding game meat through elements of neuroperception, using methods of analysis, observation, and interpretation of scientific information from the literature. Following the analysis of published papers on this topic, it was shown that external factors influencing the biological basis of behavior could provide explanations for the acceptance or rejection of this type of meat and solutions. Neuroperception can explain the mechanism behind consumer decision-making. The influence of extrinsic factors (environment, mood, emotions, stress) shapes the perception of the quality attributes of game meat, the unique sensory characteristics of game meat passing through a primary filter of sensory receptors (eyes, nose, tongue, etc). Game meat is darker and tougher (compared to meat from domestic animals), and the taste and smell have the power to trigger memories and change the mood, influencing consumer behavior. Understanding consumer attitudes towards game meat in relation to quality attributes and the physiology of sensory perception can provide important insights for food industry professionals, processors, sensory evaluators, and researchers. Full article
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12 pages, 3189 KiB  
Article
Non-Destructive Eggshell Strength Assessment Using Hertz Contact Theory—Part II: Implementation and Validation
by Bart De Ketelaere, Matthias Corion, Ines Adriaens, Paul Van Liedekerke and Wouter Saeys
Foods 2023, 12(6), 1340; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12061340 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1401
Abstract
Eggshell strength is a critical quality factor for consumption eggs as it affects the probability of breakage in practice. In this study, a fast and low-cost methodology for the non-destructive determination of eggshell strength is presented. The method utilized a small steel ball [...] Read more.
Eggshell strength is a critical quality factor for consumption eggs as it affects the probability of breakage in practice. In this study, a fast and low-cost methodology for the non-destructive determination of eggshell strength is presented. The method utilized a small steel ball to impact the egg and a microphone to analyse the impact characteristics. Hertz contact theory was applied to relate the measured impact characteristics to the local stiffness of the eggshell. Therefore, a total of 150 eggs were studied on which eight consecutive measurements per egg were taken around the equator at equidistant places. The results showed a strong correlation of 0.93 between the traditional static stiffness measured during quasi-static compression tests and the average stiffness obtained from the new methodology. This paves the way towards fast, low-cost and non-destructive in-line shell strength measurements to reduce the number of cracked eggs reaching the consumer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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1 pages, 173 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Ye et al. Evaluation of the Brewing Characteristics, Digestion Profiles, and Neuroprotective Effects of Two Typical Se-Enriched Green Teas. Foods 2022, 11, 2159
by Yuanyuan Ye, Jiangling He, Zhijun He, Na Zhang, Xiaoqing Liu, Jiaojiao Zhou, Shuiyuan Cheng and Jie Cai
Foods 2023, 12(6), 1339; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12061339 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 722
Abstract
The authors wish to make the following corrections to their published paper [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Foods)
16 pages, 1155 KiB  
Article
Activity of Binary Combinations of Natural Phenolics and Synthetic Food Preservatives against Food Spoilage Yeasts
by Bernard Gitura Kimani, Miklós Takó, Csilla Veres, Judit Krisch, Tamás Papp, Erika Beáta Kerekes and Csaba Vágvölgyi
Foods 2023, 12(6), 1338; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12061338 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1625
Abstract
Natural compounds are a suitable alternative to synthetic food preservatives due to their natural origin and health-promoting properties. In the current study, phenolic–phenolic and phenolic–synthetic combinations were tested for their antibiofilm formation, anti-planktonic growth, and anti-adhesion properties against Debaryomyces hansenii, Wickerhamomyces anomalus [...] Read more.
Natural compounds are a suitable alternative to synthetic food preservatives due to their natural origin and health-promoting properties. In the current study, phenolic–phenolic and phenolic–synthetic combinations were tested for their antibiofilm formation, anti-planktonic growth, and anti-adhesion properties against Debaryomyces hansenii, Wickerhamomyces anomalus (formerly Pichia anomala), Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The phenolics were vanillin and cinnamic acid, while the synthetic preservatives were sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, and sodium diacetate. The vanillin–cinnamic acid combination had synergistic effect in all the tested yeasts for the biofilm inhibition with a fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) of ≤0.19 for W. anomalus, 0.25 for S. pombe, 0.31 for S. cerevisiae, and 0.5 for D. hansenii. Most of the phenolic–synthetic combinations had indifferent interaction regarding biofilm formation. The vanillin–cinnamic acid combination also had higher activity against spoilage yeasts adhesion on the abiotic surface and planktonic growth compared to the phenolic–synthetic combinations. For the phenolic–synthetic anti-planktonic activity, synergistic interaction was present in all the vanillin–synthetic combinations in S. pombe, vanillin–sodium benzoate and vanillin–potassium sorbate in S. cerevisiae, vanillin–sodium benzoate in W. anomalus, and cinnamic acid–sodium diacetate in S. pombe. These results suggest a novel antimicrobial strategy that may broaden the antimicrobial spectrum and reduce compound toxicity against food spoilage yeasts. Full article
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24 pages, 4213 KiB  
Article
Establishment of Residual Methods for Matrine in Quinoa Plants and Soil and the Effect on Soil Bacterial Community and Composition
by Xiangjuan Hui, Hongyu Chen, Shuo Shen, Hui Zhi and Wei Li
Foods 2023, 12(6), 1337; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12061337 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1407
Abstract
A method was developed for the determination of matrine residues in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) plants and soil by liquid chromatography triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with QuEChERS clean-up. Matrine from soil, quinoa roots, stems, leaves and seeds was extracted with [...] Read more.
A method was developed for the determination of matrine residues in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) plants and soil by liquid chromatography triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with QuEChERS clean-up. Matrine from soil, quinoa roots, stems, leaves and seeds was extracted with 25% ammonia, 20 mL acetonitrile/methanol, salted with sodium chloride (NaCl) and purified with anhydrous magnesium sulfate (MgSO4), N-propyl ethylenediamine (PSA) and graphitized carbon black (GCB). Then a chromatographic separation was performed on a Shim-pack XR-ODS II (75 mm × 2.0 mm, i. d., 2.2 µm) column with a gradient elution of 5 mmol/L ammonium formate-methanol as the mobile phase and monitored in multiple reaction monitoring modes (MRM) in electrospray positive ionization mode. The results showed that in the range of 0.005~1 mg/L, the linear correlation coefficients of matrine in the five matrices were all above 0.999. The LOQs for soil, quinoa roots, stems, leaves and seeds were 0.005, 0.005, 0.01, 0.01 and 0.005 mg/kg, respectively. The mean recoveries ranged from 74.42% to 98.37%, with RSDs of 1.25–6.84% at the three concentration addition levels. The average intra-day and inter-day recoveries were 73.92–92.36% and 78.56–90.18%, respectively, with RSDs below 8.72% and 9.43%. The recoveries and reproducibility of the method were superior. The method was used to determine the actual samples, which indicated that the half-lives of matrine in quinoa seeds, leaves, stems and soil were 1.28–1.32, 1.03–1.21, 0.81–0.92 and 0.93–0.97 d. It has a half-life below 30 d, which is an easily dissipated pesticide. The method is simple, sensitive, accurate, reliable and applicable to a wide range of applications, and it can achieve the rapid multi-residue determination of matrine to a certain extent. Next Generation Sequencing was used to explore the effects of exposure to high and low doses of matrine on soil bacterial communities and the composition of the three soils in the Qinghai Province (Haixi, Haidong and Haibei). The results showed that the number of ASVs increased significantly after treatment with matrine at an effective dose of 0.1 mg/kg than after treatment with matrine at an effective dose of 5.0 mg/kg. Similarly, bacterial abundance was higher after 0.1 mg/kg of matrine treatment than after 5.0 mg/kg of matrine treatment. The inhibitory effect on some bacterial flora was enhanced with an increase in matrine application, while the inhibitory effect on bacterial flora was weakened with time. Applying a certain dose of matrine e changed the relative abundance of the dominant bacterial genera of the soil bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Analytical Technologies for Food Contaminants Detection)
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0 pages, 1696 KiB  
Review
Application of Plant Proteases in Meat Tenderization: Recent Trends and Future Prospects
by Syahira Izyana Mohd Azmi, Pavan Kumar, Neelesh Sharma, Awis Qurni Sazili, Sung-Jin Lee and Mohammad Rashedi Ismail-Fitry
Foods 2023, 12(6), 1336; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12061336 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 7850 | Correction
Abstract
Papain, bromelain, and ficin are commonly used plant proteases used for meat tenderization. Other plant proteases explored for meat tenderization are actinidin, zingibain, and cucumin. The application of plant crude extracts or powders containing higher levels of compounds exerting tenderizing effects is also [...] Read more.
Papain, bromelain, and ficin are commonly used plant proteases used for meat tenderization. Other plant proteases explored for meat tenderization are actinidin, zingibain, and cucumin. The application of plant crude extracts or powders containing higher levels of compounds exerting tenderizing effects is also gaining popularity due to lower cost, improved sensory attributes of meat, and the presence of bioactive compounds exerting additional benefits in addition to tenderization, such as antioxidants and antimicrobial effects. The uncontrolled plant protease action could cause excessive tenderization (mushy texture) and poor quality due to an indiscriminate breakdown of proteins. The higher cost of separation and the purification of enzymes, unstable structure, and poor stability of these enzymes due to autolysis are some major challenges faced by the food industry. The meat industry is targeting the recycling of enzymes and improving their stability and shelf-life by immobilization, encapsulation, protein engineering, medium engineering, and stabilization during tenderization. The present review critically analyzed recent trends and the prospects of the application of plant proteases in meat tenderization. Full article
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26 pages, 14041 KiB  
Article
Integration of Metabolome and Transcriptome Profiling Reveals the Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) on the Browning of Fresh-Cut Lanzhou Lily (Lilium davidii var. unicolor) Bulbs during Storage
by Xu Li, Chaoyang Zhang, Xueqi Wang, Xiaoxiao Liu, Xinliang Zhu and Ji Zhang
Foods 2023, 12(6), 1335; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12061335 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1607
Abstract
The fresh-cut bulbs of the Lanzhou lily (Lilium davidii var. unicolor) experience browning problems during storage. To solve the problem of browning in the preservation of Lanzhou lily bulbs, we first investigated the optimal storage temperature and gas ratio of modified [...] Read more.
The fresh-cut bulbs of the Lanzhou lily (Lilium davidii var. unicolor) experience browning problems during storage. To solve the problem of browning in the preservation of Lanzhou lily bulbs, we first investigated the optimal storage temperature and gas ratio of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) of Lanzhou lily bulbs. Then, we tested the browning index (BD), activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD), the content of malonaldehyde (MDA) and other physiological activity indicators related to browning. The results showed that the storage conditions of 10% O2 + 5% CO2 + 85% N2 and 4 °C were the best. To further explore the anti-browning mechanism of MAP in fresh-cut Lanzhou lily bulbs, the integration of metabolome and transcriptome analyses showed that MAP mainly retarded the unsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid ratio in the cell membrane, inhibited the lipid peroxidation of the membrane and thus maintained the integrity of the cell membrane of Lanzhou lily bulbs. In addition, MAP inhibited the oxidation of phenolic substances and provided an anti-tanning effect. This study provided a preservation scheme to solve the problem of the browning of freshly cut Lanzhou lily bulbs, and discussed the mechanism of MAP in preventing browning during the storage of the bulbs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Foodomics)
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29 pages, 1542 KiB  
Review
Effects of Plant-Based Antioxidants in Animal Diets and Meat Products: A Review
by Carmen Daniela Petcu, Oana Diana Mihai, Dana Tăpăloagă, Raluca-Aniela Gheorghe-Irimia, Elena Narcisa Pogurschi, Manuella Militaru, Cristin Borda and Oana-Mărgărita Ghimpețeanu
Foods 2023, 12(6), 1334; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12061334 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3461
Abstract
The perceived level of risk associated with a food product can influence purchase and consumption decisions. Thus, current trends in food safety address an issue of general interest—the identification of healthy and economical alternatives to synthetic antioxidants that may have harmful effects on [...] Read more.
The perceived level of risk associated with a food product can influence purchase and consumption decisions. Thus, current trends in food safety address an issue of general interest—the identification of healthy and economical alternatives to synthetic antioxidants that may have harmful effects on human health. Still, the processors’ target is to increase the shelf life of food products using preserving substances. Natural antioxidants can be extracted and used in the food industry from different plants, such as blueberry, broccoli, chokeberry, cinnamon, ginger, olives, oregano, etc. The identification of the main natural antioxidant types that have been used in the food industry is very important in order to provide a comprehensive analysis of the researched topic. In this regard, the aim of this paper was to illustrate the positive aspects of using natural antioxidants with preservative roles in meat products, while, at the same time, highlighting the potential risks induced by these compounds. All of those aspects are correlated with the impact of sensorial attributes and the improvement of the nutritional value of meat products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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14 pages, 982 KiB  
Article
Mānuka Oil vs. Rosemary Oil: Antimicrobial Efficacies in Wagyu and Commercial Beef against Selected Pathogenic Microbes
by Ramandeep Kaur, Lovedeep Kaur, Tanushree B. Gupta and John Bronlund
Foods 2023, 12(6), 1333; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12061333 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1897
Abstract
Essential oils possessing antimicrobial characteristics have acquired considerable interest as an alternative to chemical preservatives in food products. This research hypothesizes that mānuka (MO) and kānuka (KO) oils may possess antimicrobial characteristics and have the potential to be used as natural preservatives for [...] Read more.
Essential oils possessing antimicrobial characteristics have acquired considerable interest as an alternative to chemical preservatives in food products. This research hypothesizes that mānuka (MO) and kānuka (KO) oils may possess antimicrobial characteristics and have the potential to be used as natural preservatives for food applications. Initial experimentation was conducted to characterize MOs (with 5, 25, and 40% triketone contents), rosemary oil (RO) along with kanuka oil (KO) for their antibacterial efficacy against selected Gram-negative (Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli), and Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria through disc diffusion and broth dilution assays. All MOs showed a higher antimicrobial effect against L. monocytogenes and S. aureus with a minimum inhibitory concentration below 0.04%, compared with KO (0.63%) and RO (2.5%). In chemical composition, α-pinene in KO, 1, 8 cineole in RO, calamenene, and leptospermone in MO were the major compounds, confirmed through Gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Further, the antimicrobial effect of MO and RO in vacuum-packed beef pastes prepared from New Zealand commercial breed (3% fat) and wagyu (12% fat) beef tenderloins during 16 days of refrigerated storage was compared with sodium nitrate (SN) and control (without added oil). In both meat types, compared with the SN-treated and control samples, lower growth of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus in MO- and RO- treated samples was observed. However, for Salmonella and E. coli, RO treatment inhibited microbial growth most effectively. The results suggest the potential use of MO as a partial replacement for synthetic preservatives like sodium nitrate in meats, especially against L. monocytogenes and S. aureus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Latest Research on Meat Microbiology, Meat Quality and Meat Safety)
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14 pages, 2477 KiB  
Article
Changes in the Quality of High-Oleic Sunflower Oil during the Frying of Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)
by Jiechang Chen, Yuanyuan Zhao, Runlin Wu, Tao Yin, Juan You, Benlun Hu, Caihua Jia, Jianhua Rong, Ru Liu, Binjia Zhang and Siming Zhao
Foods 2023, 12(6), 1332; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12061332 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1595
Abstract
Shrimp fried in vegetable oil is a very popular food, so it is important to study the changes in the quality of the oil during frying. In order to more precisely study the nature of frying oil during the cooking process, this study [...] Read more.
Shrimp fried in vegetable oil is a very popular food, so it is important to study the changes in the quality of the oil during frying. In order to more precisely study the nature of frying oil during the cooking process, this study investigated the quality changes of high-oleic sunflower oil during the frying of South American white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). The oxidation and hydrolysis products of frying oils were investigated by integrating the proton nuclear magnetic resonance technique with traditional oil evaluation indexes in an integrated manner. The results showed that the color difference as measured using the ΔE* value increased gradually during the process. Moreover, the acid value, carbonyl value, and total oxidation significantly increased with prolonged frying time. The major oxidation products formed during frying were (E,E)-2-alkenals, (E,E)-2,4-alkadienals, and E,E-conjugated hydroperoxides. This indicated that longer treatment times corresponded with an increased accumulation of aldehydes and ketones, and an increased degree of oxidative deterioration of the oil. However, the proportion of oleic acid in the frying oil increased with the frying of shrimp, reaching 80.05% after 24 h. These results contribute to our understanding of the oxidative deterioration of high-oleic oils during frying, and provide an important reference for the application properties of high-oleic oils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Packaging and Preservation)
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8 pages, 2274 KiB  
Communication
Screening of Acrylamide Content in Commercial Plant-Based Protein Ingredients from Different Technologies
by Giacomo Squeo, Davide De Angelis, Antonio Francesco Caputi, Antonella Pasqualone, Carmine Summo and Francesco Caponio
Foods 2023, 12(6), 1331; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12061331 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2407
Abstract
The demand of plant-based protein ingredients (PBPIs) in the food sector has strongly increased over recent years. These ingredients are produced under a wide range of technological processes that impact their final characteristics. This work aimed to evaluate acrylamide contamination in a range [...] Read more.
The demand of plant-based protein ingredients (PBPIs) in the food sector has strongly increased over recent years. These ingredients are produced under a wide range of technological processes that impact their final characteristics. This work aimed to evaluate acrylamide contamination in a range of PBPIs produced with different technologies and classified into four categories i.e., flours, dry-fractionated proteins, wet-extracted proteins, and texturized vegetable proteins. The results highlighted a remarkable variability in the acrylamide contamination in all the classes under investigation, with the flours showing the lowest mean acrylamide content (280 µg kg−1) compared with the wet-extracted proteins that showed the highest (451 µg kg−1). These differences could likely be associated with the different processing technologies used to obtain the protein ingredients. These findings suggest the need to monitor acrylamide formation during the processing of PBPIs and, consequently, to study mitigation strategies when necessary. Full article
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15 pages, 1903 KiB  
Article
Fungal Biostarter Effect on the Quality of Dry-Aged Beef
by Wiesław Przybylski, Danuta Jaworska, Magdalena Płecha, Karina Dukaczewska, Grzegorz Ostrowski, Piotr Sałek, Krzysztof Sawicki and Julia Pawłowska
Foods 2023, 12(6), 1330; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12061330 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1980
Abstract
Meat aging is a process consisting of its storage in specific conditions which leads to an increase in its organoleptic qualities. The most common method of meat aging is the wet vacuum-bag based method, whereas the traditional method, called dry-aging, involves keeping meat [...] Read more.
Meat aging is a process consisting of its storage in specific conditions which leads to an increase in its organoleptic qualities. The most common method of meat aging is the wet vacuum-bag based method, whereas the traditional method, called dry-aging, involves keeping meat at a low temperature for an extended time. However, this process is characterized by low repeatability of the results. Therefore, different approaches to stabilize the process are tested. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of the Mucor flavus biostarter on the physicochemical characteristics and sensory quality of dry-aged beef (DAB). We hypothesized that a fungal biostarter positively influences the quality of DAB and stabilizes the dry-aging process. Meat control samples (N = 7) and samples inoculated with the Mucor flavus biostarter (N = 7), originating from 14 individuals crossbred from Holstein-Friesian cows with bulls of meat breeds, were put into the dry-aging fridge (DryAger, Bad Saulgau, Germany) for 28 days. The physicochemical parameters (pH, color parameters, WHC, GP (glycolytic potential), chemical composition of muscle, the content of malondialdehyde, shear force), muscular protein proteolysis (SDS-PAGE), sensory quality, and microbial composition of DAB were assessed after aging. The results showed a significant effect of the fungal biostarter on pH increase (0.25 units), and light myosin chain proteolysis (approximately 16%) as well as improvement of sensory quality (e.g., acceptability was improved by one unit in an applied scale 1–9). All together, the M. flavus-based biostarter was shown to increase the quality of DAB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategies to Improve the Functional Value of Meat and Meat Products)
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27 pages, 966 KiB  
Review
Postharvest Biology and Technology of Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.)
by Hafiz Muhammad Shoaib Shah, Ahmad Sattar Khan, Zora Singh and Saqib Ayyub
Foods 2023, 12(6), 1329; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12061329 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2783
Abstract
Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) fruit is a rich source of carotenoids, flavonoids, phenolics, sugars, and organic acids. Although it is classified as a non-climacteric fruit, susceptibility to mechanical and physical bruising causes its rapid deterioration by moisture loss and postharvest decay caused [...] Read more.
Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) fruit is a rich source of carotenoids, flavonoids, phenolics, sugars, and organic acids. Although it is classified as a non-climacteric fruit, susceptibility to mechanical and physical bruising causes its rapid deterioration by moisture loss and postharvest decay caused by pathogens. Anthracnose, canker, and purple spot are the most prevalent postharvest diseases of loquat fruit. Cold storage has been used for quality management of loquat fruit, but the susceptibility of some cultivars to chilling injury (CI) consequently leads to browning and other disorders. Various techniques, including cold storage, controlled atmosphere storage, hypobaric storage, modified atmosphere packaging, low-temperature conditioning, heat treatment, edible coatings, and postharvest chemical application, have been tested to extend shelf life, mitigate chilling injury, and quality preservation. This review comprehensively focuses on the recent advances in the postharvest physiology and technology of loquat fruit, such as harvest maturity, fruit ripening physiology, postharvest storage techniques, and physiological disorders and diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postharvest Management of Fruits and Vegetables Series II)
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14 pages, 495 KiB  
Article
The Value of Craft Beer Styles: Evidence from the Italian Market
by Francesco Bimbo, Emilio De Meo, Antonietta Baiano and Domenico Carlucci
Foods 2023, 12(6), 1328; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12061328 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2171
Abstract
This study aims to estimate the market value, or implicit prices, associated with the main craft beer attributes (e.g., beer style, organic, gluten-free, and package-related features) and support producers in detecting the more profitable marketing strategies. For this purpose, we conducted an empirical [...] Read more.
This study aims to estimate the market value, or implicit prices, associated with the main craft beer attributes (e.g., beer style, organic, gluten-free, and package-related features) and support producers in detecting the more profitable marketing strategies. For this purpose, we conducted an empirical analysis employing sales data of craft beers from the Italian online market, and we estimated a hedonic price model via ordinary least squares. Results show that the type of package and cup only has moderate effects on price. Furthermore, a moderate premium price is found for gluten-free craft beers, while craft beers with organic labels and Italian origin do not benefit from the higher price. Instead, the beer style adopted strongly affected the product price: the highest premium prices were detected for Barleywine (+49.9%) and Italian Grape Ale (+39.6%) beer styles. Furthermore, relevant premium prices, higher than +25%, were estimated for other beer styles such as Sour, Fruit Beer, and Stout. Results suggest that artisanal breweries can effectively differentiate their product according to the beer style. To the best of our knowledge, the current study offers the first empirical evidence on how beer styles as well as other product characteristics affect the market price of craft beer by using secondary data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Drinks and Liquid Nutrition)
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26 pages, 2561 KiB  
Article
Novel Plant-Protein (Quinoa) Derived Bioactive Peptides with Potential Anti-Hypercholesterolemic Activities: Identification, Characterization and Molecular Docking of Bioactive Peptides
by Feyisola Fisayo Ajayi, Priti Mudgil, Amie Jobe, Priya Antony, Ranjit Vijayan, Chee-Yuen Gan and Sajid Maqsood
Foods 2023, 12(6), 1327; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12061327 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2022
Abstract
Hypercholesterolemia remains a serious global public health concern. Previously, synthetic anti-hypercholesterolemic drugs were used for ameliorating this condition; however, long-term usage presented several side-effects. In this regard, natural products as an adjunct therapy has emerged in recent times. This study aimed to produce [...] Read more.
Hypercholesterolemia remains a serious global public health concern. Previously, synthetic anti-hypercholesterolemic drugs were used for ameliorating this condition; however, long-term usage presented several side-effects. In this regard, natural products as an adjunct therapy has emerged in recent times. This study aimed to produce novel bioactive peptides with anti-hypercholesterolemic activity (cholesterol esterase (CEase) and pancreatic lipase (PL)) from quinoa protein hydrolysates (QPHs) using three enzymatic hydrolysis methods (chymotrypsin, protease and bromelain) at 2-h hydrolysis intervals (2, 4, and 6 h). Chymotrypsin-generated hydrolysates showed higher CEase (IC50: 0.51 mg/mL at 2 h) and PL (IC50: 0.78 mg/mL at 6 h) inhibitory potential in comparison to other derived hydrolysates and intact quinoa proteins. Peptide profiling by LC-MS QTOF and in silico interaction with target enzymes showed that only four derived bioactive peptides from QPHs could bind in the active site of CEase, whereas twelve peptides could bind in the active site of PL. Peptides QHPHGLGALCAAPPST, HVQGHPALPGVPAHW, and ASNLDNPSPEGTVM were identified to be potential CEase inhibitors, and FSAGGLP, QHPHGLGALCAAPPST, KIVLDSDDPLFGGF, MFVPVPH, and HVQGHPALPGVPAHW were identified as potential PL inhibitors on the basis of the maximum number of reactive residues in these bioactive peptides. In conclusion, QPHs can be considered as an alternative therapy for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Full article
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14 pages, 1487 KiB  
Article
Application of Rapeseed Meal Protein Isolate as a Supplement to Texture-Modified Food for the Elderly
by Gabriella Di Lena, Ann-Kristin Schwarze, Massimo Lucarini, Paolo Gabrielli, Altero Aguzzi, Roberto Caproni, Irene Casini, Stefano Ferrari Nicoli, Darleen Genuttis, Petra Ondrejíčková, Mahmoud Hamzaoui, Camille Malterre, Valentína Kafková and Alexandru Rusu
Foods 2023, 12(6), 1326; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12061326 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2707
Abstract
Rapeseed meal (RSM), a by-product of rapeseed oil extraction, is currently used for low-value purposes. With a biorefinery approach, rapeseed proteins may be extracted and recovered for high-end uses to fully exploit their nutritional and functional properties. This study reports the application of [...] Read more.
Rapeseed meal (RSM), a by-product of rapeseed oil extraction, is currently used for low-value purposes. With a biorefinery approach, rapeseed proteins may be extracted and recovered for high-end uses to fully exploit their nutritional and functional properties. This study reports the application of RSM protein isolate, the main output of a biorefining process aimed at recovering high-value molecules from rapeseed meal, as a supplement to texture-modified (TM) food designed for elderly people with mastication and dysphagia problems. The compositional (macronutrients by Official Methods of Analyses, and mineral and trace element profiles using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry ICP-OES), nutritional and sensory evaluations of TM chicken breast, carrots and bread formulated without and with RSM protein supplementation (5% w/w) are hereby reported. The results show that the texture modification of food combined with rapeseed protein isolate supplementation has a positive impact on the nutritional and sensory profile of food, meeting the special requirements of seniors. TM chicken breast and bread supplemented with RSM protein isolate showed unaltered or even improved sensory properties and a higher nutrient density, with particular regard to proteins (+20–40%) and minerals (+10–16%). Supplemented TM carrots, in spite of the high nutrient density, showed a limited acceptability, due to poor sensory properties that could be overcome with an adjustment to the formulation. This study highlights the potentialities of RSM as a sustainable novel protein source in the food sector. The application of RSM protein proposed here is in line with the major current challenges of food systems such as the responsible management of natural resources, the valorization of agri-food by-products, and healthy nutrition with focus on elderly people. Full article
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15 pages, 2615 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Histamine Removal by Electrodialysis from the Fermented Fish Sauce and Its Effects on the Flavor
by Yicheng Ding, Mengting Qiu, Xiaoling Tang, Renchao Zheng and Xuxia Zhou
Foods 2023, 12(6), 1325; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12061325 - 20 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1609
Abstract
Histamine is one of the most concerned safety indicators in fish sauce. Considering its charge property, electrodialysis (ED) was used to control the histamine in fish sauce, and studies were focused on three operating parameters: input current, pH, and flow velocity. A Box–Behnken [...] Read more.
Histamine is one of the most concerned safety indicators in fish sauce. Considering its charge property, electrodialysis (ED) was used to control the histamine in fish sauce, and studies were focused on three operating parameters: input current, pH, and flow velocity. A Box–Behnken design and response surface methodology was adopted to derive a statistical model, which indicated that 5.1 A input current, pH 3.8, and 40 L∙h−1 flow velocity were optimal operation conditions. Under this condition, the histamine removal rate reached 53.41% and the histamine content met the allowable histamine limit of below 400 mg·kg−1 in fish sauce, while the amino nitrogen (ANN) loss rate was only 15.46%. In addition, amino acids and volatile compounds changed differently during ED. As a result, with decreased histamine, the fish sauce after ED was also less salty and less fishy. The study first explored utilizing ED to remove histamine from fish sauce, which has positive implications for promoting the safety of aquatic products. Full article
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13 pages, 34229 KiB  
Article
Applicability of Flours from Pigmented and Glutinous Rice in Gluten-Free Bread Baking
by Iva Burešová, Libor Červenka, Romana Šebestíková, Monika Augustová and Alžbeta Jarošová
Foods 2023, 12(6), 1324; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12061324 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2622
Abstract
The flours from pigmented and glutinous rice have a great potential to increase the nutritional quality of gluten-free breads. The characteristics of whole-meal fine flours, slurries, doughs, and breads prepared from black, red, and white glutinous rice were, therefore, compared with commercially used [...] Read more.
The flours from pigmented and glutinous rice have a great potential to increase the nutritional quality of gluten-free breads. The characteristics of whole-meal fine flours, slurries, doughs, and breads prepared from black, red, and white glutinous rice were, therefore, compared with commercially used refined fine and semi-coarse white rice flours. The pasting properties of different flours were strongly influenced by the type of rice they were made from. Slurries with red and glutinous flours exhibited a shift to a lower pasting temperature T0, lower values of ηPeak and ηFinal, as well as higher values of the breakdown and setback region than the slurries with refined flours. The slurry with black flour exhibited high values of viscosity η0 and breakdown, together with low values of ηFinal, setback region and total setback. Bread characteristics were strongly correlated with the pasting properties. The presence of bran particles did not negatively impact loaf volume, crumb hardness, springiness, and chewiness. Some defects were observed in glutinous and red rice bread. Fine flour exhibited better baking performance than semi-coarse flour. Glutinous flour has the potential to become an ingredient in gluten-free baking. The applicability of various black and red rice flours may be limited by the flavor and the taste. Full article
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15 pages, 2795 KiB  
Article
Effects of Different Drying Methods on the Drying Characteristics and Quality of Codonopsis pilosulae Slices
by Yuanman Yue, Qian Zhang, Fangxin Wan, Guojun Ma, Zepeng Zang, Yanrui Xu, Chunhui Jiang and Xiaopeng Huang
Foods 2023, 12(6), 1323; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12061323 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1757
Abstract
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of rotary microwave vacuum drying (RMVD), radio frequency vacuum drying (RFVD), vacuum far infrared drying (VFID), vacuum drying (VD), hot air drying (HD) and natural drying (ND) on the drying characteristics, active ingredients and microstructure [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of rotary microwave vacuum drying (RMVD), radio frequency vacuum drying (RFVD), vacuum far infrared drying (VFID), vacuum drying (VD), hot air drying (HD) and natural drying (ND) on the drying characteristics, active ingredients and microstructure of Codonopsis pilosulae slices. Compared with the fitting results of the four models, the Weibull model is the most suitable drying model for Codonopsis. The RFVD and HD color difference values were smaller compared to ND. The effective moisture diffusivity (Deff) under different drying methods was between 0.06 × 10−8 m2/s and 3.95 × 10−8 m2/s. RMVD-dried products had the shortest drying time and retained more active ingredients. The microstructure analysis revealed that the porous structure of RMVD is more favorable for water migration. RMVD is a promising dehydration method for obtaining high-value-added dried Codonopsis products. Full article
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