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Check Your Shopping Cart: DNA Barcoding and Mini-Barcoding for Food Authentication

FEM2-Ambiente, Piazza della Scienza 2, 20126 Milano, Italy
Department of Scienze Agrarie, Forestali e Alimentari, University of Turin, Via Verdi 8, 10124 Torino, Italy
Department of Biotechnology and Biosciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 2, 20126 Milano, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2023, 12(12), 2392;
Submission received: 16 May 2023 / Revised: 7 June 2023 / Accepted: 14 June 2023 / Published: 16 June 2023
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)


The molecular approach of DNA barcoding for the characterization and traceability of food products has come into common use in many European countries. However, it is important to address and solve technical and scientific issues such as the efficiency of the barcode sequences and DNA extraction methods to be able to analyze all the products that the food sector offers. The goal of this study is to collect the most defrauded and common food products and identify better workflows for species identification. A total of 212 specimens were collected in collaboration with 38 companies belonging to 5 different fields: seafood, botanicals, agrifood, spices, and probiotics. For all the typologies of specimens, the most suitable workflow was defined, and three species-specific primer pairs for fish were also designed. Results showed that 21.2% of the analyzed products were defrauded. A total of 88.2% of specimens were correctly identified by DNA barcoding analysis. Botanicals (28.8%) have the highest number of non-conformances, followed by spices (28.5%), agrifood (23.5%), seafood (11.4%), and probiotics (7.7%). DNA barcoding and mini-barcoding are confirmed as fast and reliable methods for ensuring quality and safety in the food field.

1. Introduction

The complexity of the food supply network, including disruption due to COVID-19 and climate change, can make food products more vulnerable to fraud and substitution. It is difficult to quantify the impact of fraud on the whole food field because not all fraud is detected. However, food safety experts interviewed by Spielman estimated the impact of fraud on the food industry to be in excess of USD 50 billion annually [1]. Food fraud can occur anywhere in the food supply chain, from the seed supply to food packaging. Mislabelling (20.7%), artificial enhancement (17.2%), and substitution (16.4%) were the most commonly reported types of fraud [2]. Mislabelling has been frequently reported in the literature: up to 57% in processed meat products [3,4], up to 80% in fish filets [5,6], and up to 80% in dairy products [7]. Concerning the herbal supplements field, a global survey showed that 27% of herbal products commercialized in the global marketplace are adulterated. The most defrauded regions are Australia (79% mislabelled products) followed by South America (67% mislabelled products) [8]. Undeclared species substitution in food products might also represent an important health threat to allergic consumers because of the introduction of food allergens, such as different kinds of nuts and mollusks [9] or poisonous plants [10]. Even though it is a current problem, agribusiness has not paid sufficient attention to this issue. Most fraud is harmless, and this leads to a lack of attention. Nevertheless, the consumers have a large interest in the quality of food. McCallum and colleagues investigate consumers’ willingness to pay for premium products to reduce risk and uncertainty related to food fraud, showing that consumers are willing to pay for premium products to avoid food fraud and purchase an authentic product [11]. In this regard, blockchain has emerged as a promising technology that allows users to trace food products and eliminate or reduce harmful food fraud.
Treiblmaier and Garaus investigate how the use of blockchain to trace food products impacts consumers’ perception of product quality, finding that blockchain labels help to strengthen consumers’ perceived quality of food products which, in turn, increases their purchase intention [12]. Introducing DNA analysis into supply chain control could increase consumers’ confidence and consequently the budget allocated for food shopping. DNA barcoding has been frequently used in the literature for food authentication and supply chain control [13,14,15].
The application of DNA barcoding in food authentication is rooted in the concept of using short and standardized DNA sequences to differentiate between species. The technique targets specific regions of the genome, such as the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or chloroplast DNA (cpDNA), which exhibit sufficient variability among species while maintaining conserved regions within the same species [16,17]. By comparing the barcode sequences obtained from unknown samples with well-curated reference databases, such as ncbi ( accessed on 1 May 2023) and BOLD ( accessed on 1 May 2023), DNA barcoding allows for the identification of species present in food products, thereby enabling the detection of fraudulent practices.
One of the key advantages of DNA barcoding is its ability to detect adulteration and substitution in complex food matrices [18]. The technique can differentiate between closely related species or detect the presence of non-declared ingredients, even in processed or highly fragmented products. For instance, in cases where premium and expensive seafood species are substituted with cheaper alternatives, DNA barcoding can expose such fraudulent activities by identifying the true species present in the sample [19]. Similarly, it can detect the presence of allergenics that may pose health risks to consumers. Furthermore, DNA barcoding can aid in the identification of geographical origins or specific cultivars, providing valuable information regarding product quality, cultural heritage, and compliance with geographical indication regulations [20].
The use of DNA barcoding in combating food fraud has gained significant attention worldwide. Governments, regulatory agencies, and industry stakeholders recognize its potential to ensure food authenticity, protect consumer rights, and maintain market integrity. In recent years, various countries and international organizations have established initiatives and regulations to promote the adoption of DNA barcoding as a standard practice in food authentication. These include The EU Agri-Food Fraud Network (FFN), the United States Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) GenomeTrakr program, and the International Organization for Standardization’s (ISO) guidelines on DNA-based methods for food authenticity testing.
Despite its numerous benefits, DNA barcoding is not without limitations. Challenges related to sample preparation, DNA extraction, database completeness, and the availability of suitable reference materials need to be addressed for wider adoption and successful implementation. Furthermore, ongoing advancements in DNA sequencing technologies, bioinformatics tools, and reference databases are vital to enhance the accuracy, efficiency, and reliability of DNA barcoding in food fraud detection.
This study aimed to identify several workflows of DNA barcoding for supply chain control in different food fields. A total of 38 companies, operating in 5 different fields (seafood, botanicals, agrifood, spices, and probiotics) supplied some of their high-selling products for a total of 212 specimens. Among these samples we can find fish filets, herbal teas, truffles, caviar, canned fish, processed products, powders, plant extracts, food supplements, flours, etc., a mix of products that can be considered representative of a supermarket shopping cart. The technical goals of the study are to (i) define the most suitable extraction methods for food matrices, (ii) identify the most suitable barcode region useful for different types of products (i.e., fresh, processed, etc.) and designed primer pairs when necessary, and (iii) estimate the ability of DNA barcoding tools to assess fraud in high-selling products.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Specimen Collection

The specimen collection was based on some defined criteria: (i) the most counterfeit species according to the literature were collected, (ii) sampling of the same species belonging to different companies was preferred, and (iii) when possible, raw/fresh, intermediate, and final products were collected. A total of 46 companies operating in the food field were contacted to join this study. The companies were chosen considering the food field operating (seafood, agrifood, spices, botanicals, and probiotic) with the aim to cover the most defrauded fields. A total of 38 companies agreed to participate in the project and a total of 212 specimens were collected (Table A1). In this study, we analyzed different typologies of products, from fresh (fish filets) to highly processed products (food supplements).

2.2. DNA Extraction

Considering the wide typology of specimens tested in this study, different commercial kits and extraction methods were chosen based on the literature [21,22,23,24]. For seafood specimens (fresh and intermediate specimens), Tissue Genomic DNA Extraction (Fisher Molecular Biology, Rome, Italy) (TGF) was selected and for more difficult products, such as canned fish and products preserved in oil and brine; the ReliaPrep™ gDNA Tissue MiniPrep System (Promega, Milan, Italy) (RPP) was tested/used with a modification to the protocol. The products preserved in brine were washed three times with a physiological solution (NaCl 0.7%), mixing overnight at room temperature. Canned specimens were pretreated in order to clean the tissue from the conservation liquid, such as oil (vegetable and olive); briefly, oil and lipids were removed by soaking in chloroform/methanol/water (1:2:0.8) and mixing overnight at room temperature [24].
For agrifood products, spices, and botanicals, a DNeasy Plant Kit (QIAGEN, Milan, Italy) (DPQ) was used following the instructions. For more complex samples belonging to these fields, such as phytoextract, the CTAB method was also applied [25]. The CTAB method allows us to start from a higher amount of material (1 g) and to harvest all the DNA in the solution.
Finally, for probiotic specimens, QIAamp DNA Microbiome Kit (QIAGEN) (QAQ) was used. In Table A1 are shown all the extraction methods used for all specimens. Purified gDNA was checked for concentration and purity by using a Qubit 2 Fluorometer and Qubit dsDNA HS Assay Kit (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA).

2.3. Barcode Region Selection

A universal set of DNA barcoding markers for each product was tested. Specifically, different primer pairs were selected for animals, plants, fungi, and bacteria.

2.3.1. Animal DNA Barcoding

The amplification efficiency of the barcode region is associated with the primer pairs. A primer pair specific for a universal barcode region should be versatile across a wide range of animal species and have high affinity to DNA templates. Nevertheless, sometimes the universal primers are not applicable for certain taxa or specimens and it is necessary to redesign primers, as for some specimens in this study [26]. The barcode regions chosen for animal identifications were the mitochondrial markers COI (Cytochrome c oxidase I), RNA 16S (16S ribosomal RNA), CytB (Cytochrome b), and Control Region (DLoop). For the species Dicentrarchus labrax, Katsuwonus pelamis, Thunnus sp., primer pairs for DNA barcoding and mini-barcoding, respectively, were designed in silico in this study. For Dicentrarchus labrax, the COI region was identified as the most suitable for species identification, while for Katsuwonus pelamis and Thunnus spp., the control region (CR) was chosen based on the literature [22]. All nucleotide sequences of the COI gene and control region (CR) were obtained from NCBI Nucleotide for Dicentrarchus spp., Katsuwonus pelamis, and Thunnus spp., respectively, and were aligned using ClustalW2 software ( accessed on 1 May 2023). The most conserved regions for Dicentrarchus sp., Katsuwonus pelamis, and Thunnus spp. were identified using Bioedit software and primer pairs specific for the genus Dicentrarchus spp. and Thunnus spp. and the species Katsuwonus pelamis were de novo designed. Primer pairs were tested with Primer–Blast tool available from NCBI ( accessed on 1 May 2023) to verify the specificity. Primer sequences are shown in Table 1.

2.3.2. Plant DNA Barcoding

Starting from 2005, mitochondrial, plastid, and nuclear genomes were studied to identify a barcode universal region for plants [39,40,41,42] and four gene regions (rbcL, matK, trnH-psbA, and ITS) have been chosen as the standard DNA barcodes in most applications for plants [43,44,45]. In this study, all of these barcode regions were tested. However, recently, some manuscripts described the efficacy of mini-barcode regions (i.e., the analysis of smaller genome portions—100–150 bp—usually associated with the largest DNA barcodes) for the identification of processed plant extracts [46,47]. Furthermore, in this study, a DNA mini-barcoding barcode (rbcL mini-barcoding) was tested for plant extracts. Primer sequences are shown in Table 1. The different plant regions chosen for each species were defined after an in silico analysis; the sequences for the DNA barcoding marker chosen in this study were downloaded from NCBI Nucleotide database ( accessed on 1 May 2023). Sequences were aligned using the online tool Muscle ( accessed on 1 May 2023) and manually edited using Bioedit. Haplotypes were collapsed by using the online tool Fabox ( accessed on 1 May 2023). Finally, each haplotype was compared to the online database using the BLAST algorithm ( accessed on 1 May 2023). The best performing plant markers in terms of identification were chosen and selected for the analysis.

2.3.3. Fungi DNA Barcoding

The most common barcode region for fungi identification is ITS [48,49,50]. El Karkouri and colleagues also tested this region for truffles, finding the efficiency for species identification for Tuber spp. Genera [51]. In this study, the ITS barcode region was also chosen for DNA barcoding analysis. Primer sequences are shown in Table 1.

2.3.4. Bacteria DNA Barcoding

For bacteria identification, the 16S rRNA gene is used. It is a common housekeeping gene in all prokaryotic organisms. This gene is the most used in bacterial study because (i) it is present in almost all bacteria, (ii) the function of the 16S rRNA gene over time has not changed, suggesting that random sequence changes are a more accurate measure of the evolution, and (iii) the 16S rRNA gene (1500 bp) is large enough for informatics purposes, even if, for DNA barcoding, a smaller region is analyzed [52]. Primer sequences are shown in Table 1.

2.4. DNA Amplification and Identification

A standard PCR amplification was performed using PCR Mix Plus (A&A Biotechnology, Danzica, Poland) following the manufacturer’s instructions in a 25 μL reaction containing 1 μL 10 mM of each primer and 3 μL of gDNA (about 20–50 ng). PCR cycles differ in relation to the primer pairs used. All the PCR programs are shown Appendix A Table A2. The amplicon was visualized by electrophoresis on agarose gel using 1.5% agarose Tris-acetate-EDTA (TAE) gel. Purified amplicons were bidirectionally sequenced by Sanger at Eurofins Genomics (Ebersberg, Germany). After manual editing, primer removal, and pairwise alignment, all the tested samples’ (Table A2) identities were assessed by adopting a standard comparison approach against the GenBank database with BLASTn [53]. Each barcode sequence was taxonomically assigned to the species with the nearest matches (maximum identity > 99% and query coverage of 100%).

3. Results and Discussion

DNA extraction was successful for 187 specimens out of 212, with high DNA quality and good yield (i.e., 3.2–27.4 ng/μL). The presences in the public databases of the sequences for all the species considered in our study were checked and confirmed. For 25 specimens (11,8% of total), 22 for botanicals and 3 for spices, the extracted DNA was not suitable for the analysis in terms of quantity and quality (Table A1). Concerning the identification, for most of the samples (88.2%), it was possible to identify the species, proving the suitability of the barcode region selected. A total of 45 samples out of 212 were defrauded for a total of 21.2% of detected fraud (Table A1).
Considering the results of this study, the most defrauded products were botanicals, with 28.8% of substitution or contamination (Table 2). To identify the contaminants, further analysis, such as Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), is necessary [54].
Almost all specimens were impossible to identify by morphological methodology, because they were treated, in the form of powder or capsule. This value is in line with the percentage presented by Ichim and colleagues, who showed that 27% of the herbal products commercialized in the global marketplace are adulterated [8]. In the same way, the higher percentage of specimens without detectable DNA (31.4%) were botanicals too (Figure 1, Table 2). This value can be explained considering that more than half of the specimens (51 of 70) undergo industrial pre-treatment, such as high temperatures, use of solvent (ethanol, glycerol), and other industrial treatments such as CO2 supercritical extraction. These industrial processing steps degrade, fragment, and precipitate DNA. In a previous study of ours [46], we evaluated the capability of DNA barcoding identification for botanicals (phytoextract and botanicals). We found that phytoextracts obtained through hydroalcoholic treatment, with the lower percentage of ethanol (<40%) and aqueous processing at low temperature, had a major rate of sequencing and identification success. In this study, we obtained similar results, with a success of identification for liquid aqueous phytoextracts with a low percentage of ethanol (<40%) (i.e., DIF_74, DIF_75, DIF_138, etc.) and an incapability to detect DNA in the other typology of specimens.
After botanicals, the spice sector revealed 28.5% of defrauded products. Our results are in line with the study of Cottenet and colleagues [55]. In most of the non-compliant samples (10 of 12), we did not find a substitution, but a contamination. In some cases (DIF_147 and DIF_173), we were able to identify the genera; in all the remaining samples we obtained multiple sequences and it was impossible to identify any species or genera. This means that the contamination in those samples is high and it is possible that multiple species coexist, as indicated in the literature [56].
Although in the agrifood samples the fraud percentage is lower than botanicals and spices, we face a substitution case of fraud for all the cases. Sample DIF_193 was declared Tuber brumale but was identified as Tuber melanosporum. These two species, although similar, can be distinguished by morphological analysis. Analyzing the gleba, the Tuber melanosporum, known as the black truffle or Périgord truffle, it is very dark, tending to purplish-black and with fine white veins, while the Tuber brumale, commonly known as winter truffle or musky truffle, is grey-brownish with large and sparse veins. The interesting fact is that Tuber melanosporum is more expensive than Tuber brumale. In this case we are facing an involuntary substitution that damages the company but not the consumers. For this reason, the control of the supply chain is important, not only to offer a high-quality product, but also to avoid mistakes that can damage the company itself. The frauds detected in seafood products are not in line with the literature, which declares a percentage of 25–30% of mislabelling [57], while we detected a lower percentage (11.4%). This data can be explained considering that the specimens analyzed were collected directly from the company, assuming that all the samples were compliant. In all cases we faced a case of mislabelling, which is a false claim or distortion of the information provided on the label/packaging. The specimens DIF_009, DIF_069, and DIF_070 were different species of the same genus. They were probably an unintentional fraud. Nevertheless, the specimens DIF_008, DIF_027, DIF_028, DIF_041, and DIF_048 were found to be a totally different genus. The most serious case is the sample DIF_041. This specimen was a processed product and the species was impossible to detect by morphological analysis. It was declared as Theragra chalcogramma but was found to be Lepidopsetta polyxystra. Theragra chalcogramma belongs to the order Gadiformes and is commonly called “Alaska pollock”, while Lepidopsetta polyxystra belongs to the order Pleuronectiformes and is a flat fish commonly called “Northern rock sole”. The criticality of the seafood sector is that companies buy filets or semi-processed fish, unlike other sectors where the starting material is already ground or processed (e.g., botanicals, spices, etc.). This highlights a problem in the control of the supply chain. Finally, the probiotics sector was found to have the lowest percentage of fraud (7.7%). Moreover, we found that the specimen DIF_210, declared Bifidobacterium bifidum, was contaminated with other bacteria. There was probably an unintentional contamination in the production site with another probiotic. Recent studies have demonstrated that probiotic contamination with other probiotics is a common occurrence. For example, a study by Lewis and colleagues found that the contents of many bifidobacterial probiotic products analyzed in their study differ from the ingredient list, sometimes at a subspecies level. Only 1 of the 16 probiotics perfectly matched its bifidobacterial label claims in all samples tested [58]. The implications of probiotic contamination can vary depending on the specific strains involved and the intended use of the probiotic product. In some cases, the presence of unintended probiotics may be harmless or even beneficial. However, there is also a risk of introducing harmful or pathogenic microorganisms that may compromise the safety and efficacy of the probiotic product.
Considering the data from Table 2, it is possible to notice how processed products (such as botanicals, agrifood, and spices) have a significantly higher percentage of fraud. This is because the product, being crushed, transformed, or otherwise not in its whole form, is more difficult to identify morphologically and therefore fraud is more easily carried out.
To conclude, the extraction methods retrieved from the literature and tested in this study seem to be suitable for the chosen products, due to the DNA extraction success of 187 specimens out of 212. Moreover, most of the samples were identified at the species level, so in this study the most suitable barcode regions useful for different types of products were identified. The DNA barcoding approach, given its maturity and its wide application in the last twenty years, could be used in strategic points of the food supply chain: customs, goods management office, but also directly in medium-large companies and in the GDO. Nowadays some companies use DNA analysis to check their suppliers and to ensure customers a quality product, but this technology, although widely used in the scientific environment, is not yet fully accepted by the final consumer. Raising awareness and citizen science will be needed to convey the importance and potential of this approach. In conclusion, this study contributes to the growing body of research on DNA barcoding for species identification in the food industry.

4. Conclusions

Given the results of this study, DNA analysis provides a powerful tool for detecting and identifying contaminants in commercial food products, enabling manufacturers and regulatory authorities to take appropriate action to ensure the quality and safety of these products. The results confirm the suitability and reliability of DNA barcoding and mini-barcoding as fast and effective methods for ensuring quality and safety in the food field. Moreover, techniques such as LAMP, RPA, BAR-RPA, Bar-HRM, and minION have made DNA-based methods more affordable, as they require cheaper instruments and protocols [22,59,60]. However, some challenges, in particular in relation to non-conformances observed in botanicals and spices, remain an issue to investigate. Nevertheless, by addressing these technical and scientific issues and implementing standardized workflows, DNA barcoding can play a crucial role in combating food fraud and enhancing traceability in the food supply chain, thus ensuring consumer confidence and facilitating regulatory compliance.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, J.F. and V.M.; methodology, T.G. and M.D.; validation, M.D., T.G. and J.F.; investigation, J.F. and V.M.; data curation, J.F., T.G. and V.M.; writing—original draft preparation, J.F.; writing—review and editing, J.F., V.M. and M.L.; supervision, J.F. and V.M.; funding acquisition, F.D.M., M.L. and L.C. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


This work was supported by “National Biodiversity Future Center—NBFC” project code CN_00000033, Decreto Direttoriale MUR n.1034 del 17 giugno 2022. The funder had no role in conducting the research and/or during the preparation of the article.

Data Availability Statement

The data presented in this study are available on request from the corresponding author.


We are grateful to the companies that kindly provided the specimens for this study. The authors are indebted to Federica Scrivo for advice and support during manuscript preparation.

Conflicts of Interest

Authors Tommaso Gorini, Valerio Mezzasalma, and Fabrizio De Mattia were employed by the company FEM2-Ambiente srl. The remaining authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Appendix A

Table A1. In the table are indicated specimen code, the company, the sample typology, the declared and detected species, the field, the extraction typology, and the barcode region chosen.
Table A1. In the table are indicated specimen code, the company, the sample typology, the declared and detected species, the field, the extraction typology, and the barcode region chosen.
Specimen CodeCompanySample TypologyDeclared SpeciesDetected SpeciesSectorExtractionBarcode
DIF_001Company 1Canned olive oilThunnus albacaresThunnus albacaresSeafoodRPPControl Region
DIF_002Company 1Canned olive oilKatsuwonis pelamisKatsuwonus pelamisSeafoodRPPControl Region
DIF_003Company 1Canned seed oilThunnus albacaresThunnus albacaresSeafoodRPPControl Region
DIF_004Company 1Canned olive oilThunnus albacaresThunnus albacaresSeafoodRPPControl Region
DIF_005Company 1Canned olive oilThunnus albacaresThunnus albacaresSeafoodRPPControl Region
DIF_006Company 1BrineThunnus albacaresThunnus albacaresSeafoodRPPControl Region
DIF_007Company 1Canned olive oilScomber coliasScomber coliasSeafoodRPPITS
DIF_008Company 1BrineKatsuwonis pelamisThunnus albacaresSeafoodRPPControl Region
DIF_009Company 1Canned olive oilThunnus obesusThunnus albacaresSeafoodRPPControl Region
DIF_010Company 1Canned olive oilEngraulis engrasicolusEngraulis engrasicolusSeafoodTGFCOI
DIF_011Company 2FilletParapenaeus longirostrisParapenaeus longirostrisSeafoodTGFCOI
DIF_012Company 2FilletLitopenaeus vannameiLitopenaeus vannameiSeafoodTGFCOI
DIF_013Company 2FilletLates niloticusLates niloticusSeafoodTGFCOI
DIF_014Company 2BurgerXiphias gladiusXiphias gladiusSeafoodTGFCOI
DIF_015Company 2BurgerXiphias gladiusXiphias gladiusSeafoodTGFCOI
DIF_016Company 2BurgerOncorhynchus mykissOncorhynchus mykissSeafoodTGFCOI
DIF_017Company 2BurgerSalmo salarSalmo salarSeafoodTGFCOI
DIF_018Company 2BurgerThunnus albacaresThunnus albacaresSeafoodTGFControl Region
DIF_019Company 2BurgerOncorhynchus mykissOncorhynchus mykissSeafoodTGFCOI
DIF_020Company 2BurgerOncorhynchus mykissOncorhynchus mykissSeafoodTGFCOI
DIF_021Company 2Processed productOncorhynchus mykissOncorhynchus mykissSeafoodTGFCOI
DIF_022Company 3FilletSepia officinalisSepia officinalisSeafoodTGFCOI
DIF_023Company 3FilletNephrops norvegicusNephrops norvegicusSeafoodTGFCOI
DIF_024Company 3FilletParapenaeus longirostrisParapaeneus longirostrisSeafoodTGFCOI
DIF_025Company 3FilletAristeomorpha foliaceaAristeomorpha foliaceaSeafoodTGFCOI
DIF_026Company 3FilletLoligo vulgarisLoligo vulgarisSeafoodTGFCOI
DIF_027Company 3FilletTodarodes sagitattusTodaropsis eblanaeSeafoodTGFCOI
DIF_028Company 3FilletTrigloporus lastovizaChelidonichthys cuculusSeafoodTGFCOI/16S rRNA
DIF_029Company 3FilletMerluccius merlucciusMerluccius merlucciusSeafoodTGFCOI
DIF_030Company 3FilletOctopus vulgarisOctopus vulgarisSeafoodTGFCOI
DIF_031Company 4Processed productDicentrarchus labraxDicentrarchus labraxSeafoodTGFCytB
DIF_032Company 4Processed productMerluccius gayiMerluccius gayiSeafoodTGFCOI
DIF_033Company 4Processed productSalmo salarSalmo salarSeafoodTGFCOI
DIF_034Company 4Processed productThunnus albacaresThunnus albacaresSeafoodTGFControl Region
DIF_035Company 4Intermediate productThunnus albacaresThunnus albacaresSeafoodTGFControl Region
DIF_036Company 4Processed productThunnus albacaresThunnus albacaresSeafoodTGFControl Region
DIF_037Company 4FilletThunnus albacaresThunnus albacaresSeafoodTGFControl Region
DIF_038Company 5FilletPleuronectes platessaPleuronectes platessaSeafoodTGFCOI
DIF_039Company 5BrineOctopus vulgarisOctoupus vulgarisSeafoodTGFCOI
DIF_040Company 5BrineDosidicus gigasDosidicus gigasSeafoodTGFCOI
DIF_041Company 5Processed productTheragra chalcogrammaLepidopsetta polyxystraSeafoodTGFCOI/16S rRNA
DIF_042Company 5BrineSepia officinalisSepia officinalisSeafoodTGFCOI
DIF_043Company 5BrineLitopenaeus vannameiLitopenaeus vannameiSeafoodTGFCOI
DIF_044Company 5BrineDosidicus gigasDosidicus gigasSeafoodTGFCOI
DIF_045Company 5BrineThunnus albacaresThunnus albacaresSeafoodTGFControl Region
DIF_046Company 5BrineSalmo salarSalmo salarSeafoodTGFCOI
DIF_047Company 5BrineGadus morhuaGadus morhuaSeafoodTGFCOI
DIF_048Company 5BrineMolva spp.Brosme brosmeSeafoodTGFCOI
DIF_049Company 5Processed productMerluccius paradoxusMerluccius paradoxusSeafoodTGFCOI
DIF_050Company 7Fresh productAcipenser transmontanusAcipenser transmontanusSeafoodTGFCytB
DIF_051Company 7Fresh productAcipenser gueldenstaedtiiAcipenser gueldenstaedtiiSeafoodTGFCytB
DIF_052Company 7Fresh productHuso husoHuso husoSeafoodTGFCytB
DIF_053Company 7Fresh productAcipenser naccariiAcipenser naccariiSeafoodTGFCytB
DIF_054Company 7Fresh productAcipenser baeriiAcipenser baerii/ Acipenser gueldenstaedtiiSeafoodTGFCytB
DIF_055Company 7Fresh productAcipenser stellatusAcipenser stellatusSeafoodTGFCytB
DIF_056Company 8Intermediate productThunnus spp.Thunnus albacaresSeafoodTGFControl Region
DIF_057Company 8Canned olive oilThunnus spp.Thunnus albacaresSeafoodRPPControl Region
DIF_058Company 8Intermediate productThunnus spp.Thunnus albacaresSeafoodTGFControl Region
DIF_059Company 8Canned olive oilThunnus spp.Thunnus albacaresSeafoodRPPControl Region
DIF_060Company 8Intermediate productThunnus spp.Thunnus albacaresSeafoodTGFControl Region
DIF_061Company 8Canned olive oilThunnus spp.Thunnus albacaresSeafoodRPPControl Region
DIF_062Company 8Canned olive oilEngraulis encrasicolusEngraulis encrasicolusSeafoodRPPCOI
DIF_063Company 9FilletDentex angolensis Poll & MaulDentex angolensis Poll & MaulSeafoodTGFCOI
DIF_064Company 9FilletSynaptura spp.Synaptura lusitanicaSeafoodTGFCOI
DIF_065Company 9FilletPsettodes spp.Psettodes bennettiiSeafoodTGFCOI
DIF_066Company 9FilletGadus morhua L.Gadus morhua L.SeafoodTGFCOI
DIF_067Company 9FilletEpinephelus costae SteindachnerEpinephelus costae SteindachnerSeafoodTGFCOI
DIF_068Company 9FilletDosidicus gigas d’OrbignyDosidicus gigas d’OrbignySeafoodTGFCOI
DIF_069Company 9Processed productMerluccius capensis CastelnauMerluccius paradoxusSeafoodTGFCOI
DIF_070Company 9Processed productMerluccius hubbsi MariniMerluccius gayiSeafoodTGFCOI
DIF_071Company 10Raw plantHumulus lupulus L.Humulus lupulus L.BotanicalsDPQITS
DIF_072Company 10Extraction waste 7% EtOHHumulus lupulus L.Humulus lupulus L.BotanicalsDPQ/CTABITS
DIF_073Company 10Extraction waste 50% EtOHHumulus lupulus L.Humulus lupulus L.BotanicalsDPQ/CTABITS
DIF_074Company 10Liquid phytoextract 7% EtOHHumulus lupulus L.Humulus lupulus L.BotanicalsDPQ/CTABITS
DIF_075Company 10Liquid phytoextract 50% EtOHHumulus lupulus L.Humulus lupulus L.BotanicalsDPQ/CTABITS
DIF_076Company 11PowderMalva sylvestris L.Malva sylvestris L.BotanicalsDPQITS
DIF_077Company 11PowderCarica papaya L.ContaminationBotanicalsDPQITS
DIF_078Company 11PowderValeriana officinalis L.Valeriana officinalis L.BotanicalsDPQpsbA-trnH
DIF_079Company 11Dry phytoextract Garcinia cambogia Desr.Jurinea leptolobaBotanicalsDPQ/CTABITS
DIF_080Company 11Liquid idroalcolic phytoextract Vaccinium macrocarpon AitonLeersia spp. BotanicalsDPQ/CTABrbcL
DIF_081Company 11Dry phytoextract CO2 supercriticalMagnolia officinalis Rehder & E.H. WilsonNo DNA detectedBotanicalsDPQ/CTABITS
DIF_082Company 12Essential oilCitrus limon L.No DNA detectedBotanicalsDPQ/CTABITS
DIF_083Company 12Essential oilMentha x piperita L.Abotilum indicumBotanicalsDPQ/CTABITS
DIF_084Company 12Essential oilCitrus sinensis L.ContaminationBotanicalsDPQ/CTABITS
DIF_085Company 12Liquid gliceric phytoextract Matricaria chamomilla L.Sida acutaBotanicalsDPQ/CTABmatK
DIF_086Company 12Liquid gliceric phytoextract Camellia sinensis KuntzeNo DNA detectedBotanicalsDPQ/CTABITS
DIF_087Company 12Liquid gliceric phytoextract Calendula officinalis L.No DNA detectedBotanicalsDPQ/CTABpsbA-trnH
DIF_088Company 12FlourOryza sativa L.Cicer arietinumBotanicalsDPQ/CTABITS
DIF_089Company 12FlourManihot esculenta CrantzCicer arietinumBotanicalsDPQ/CTABITS
DIF_090Company 12PowderAloe vera L.No DNA detectedBotanicalsDPQ/CTABpsbA-trnH
DIF_091Company 13Raw plantCynara cardunculus L.Cynara cardunculus L.BotanicalsDPQpsbA-trnH
DIF_092Company 13Dry acqueous phytoextract Cynara cardunculus L.ContaminationBotanicalsDPQ/CTABpsbA-trnH
DIF_093Company 14Food supplementPanax ginseng C.A. MeyerContaminationBotanicalsDPQ/CTABrbcL
DIF_094Company 14Food supplementMonascus purpureusContaminationBotanicalsDPQ/CTABITS
DIF_095Company 14Raw plantAloe vera L.ContaminationBotanicalsDPQ/CTABpsbA-trnH
DIF_096Company 15Raw plantSyzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr & L.M. PerryContaminationBotanicalsDPQ/CTABITS
DIF_097Company 15PowderRhus spp.No DNA detectedBotanicalsDPQ/CTABITS
DIF_098Company 15PowderCitrus hystrix DC.Moniliella suaveolensBotanicalsDPQ/CTABITS
DIF_099Company 16Food supplementPhyllanthus niruri L.No DNA detectedBotanicalsDPQ/CTABITS
DIF_100Company 16Food supplementHibiscus sabdariffa L.No DNA detectedBotanicalsDPQ/CTABITS
DIF_101Company 16OilSerenoa repens SmallNo DNA detectedBotanicalsDPQ/CTABITS
DIF_102Company 17Raw plantCymbopogon citratus StapfCymbopogon citratus StapfBotanicalsDPQpsbA-trnH
DIF_103Company 17Raw plantGlycyrrhiza glabra L.Glycyrrhiza glabra L.BotanicalsDPQmatK + ITS
DIF_104Company 17Raw plantFoeniculum vulgare Mill.Foeniculum vulgare Mill.BotanicalsDPQpsbA-trnH
DIF_105Company 17Raw plantMalva sylvestris L.Malva sylvestris L.BotanicalsDPQpsbA-trnH
DIF_106Company 17Raw plantMatricaria chamomilla L.Matricaria chamomilla L.BotanicalsDPQmatK
DIF_107Company 17Raw plantMatricaria chamomilla L.Matricaria chamomilla L.BotanicalsDPQmatK
DIF_108Company 17Raw plantFoeniculum vulgare Mill.Foeniculum vulgare Mill.BotanicalsDPQpsbA-trnH
DIF_109Company 17Raw plantZingiber officinale RoscoeZingiber officinale RoscoeBotanicalsDPQITS
DIF_110Company 17Raw plantCitrus limon L.ContaminationBotanicalsDPQITS
DIF_111Company 17Raw plantCitrus limon L.Citrus limon L.BotanicalsDPQITS
DIF_112Company 18Raw plantCamellia sinensis KuntzeCamellia sinensis var. sinensisBotanicalsDPQITS
DIF_113Company 19Liquid phyotoextract 23% EtOHAlthaea officinalis L.Althaea officinalis L.BotanicalsDPQ/CTABrbcL mini-barcoding
DIF_114Company 19Dry phytoextract CO2 supercriticalSerenoa repens SmallContaminationBotanicalsDPQ/CTABITS
DIF_115Company 19Liquid gliceric phytoextract Althaea officinalis L.No DNA detectedBotanicalsDPQ/CTABrbcL
DIF_116Company 19Liquid gliceric phytoextract Althaea officinalis L.No DNA detectedBotanicalsDPQ/CTABrbcL
DIF_117Company 19Liquid phyotoextract 23% EtOHAlthaea officinalis L.Althaea officinalis L.BotanicalsDPQ/CTABrbcL mini-barcoding
DIF_118Company 20Dry phyotoextract 23% EtOHVaccinium myrtillus L.No DNA detectedBotanicalsDPQ/CTABrbcL
DIF_119Company 20Dry phyotoextract 23% EtOHVaccinium myrtillus L.No DNA detectedBotanicalsDPQ/CTABrbcL
DIF_120Company 20Dry phyotoextractPanax ginseng C.A. MeyerContaminationBotanicalsDPQ/CTABrbcL
DIF_121Company 20Dry phytoextract Panax ginseng C.A. MeyerNo DNA detectedBotanicalsDPQ/CTABrbcL
DIF_122Company 20Dry phytoextract Curcuma longa L.No DNA detectedBotanicalsDPQ/CTABITS
DIF_123Company 20PowderMalva sylvestris L.ContaminationBotanicalsDPQpsbA-trnH
DIF_124Company 21Raw plantOriganum vulgare L.Origanum onitesBotanicalsDPQITS
DIF_125Company 21Processed productPrunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A.WebbPrunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A.WebbBotanicalsDPQITS
DIF_126Company 22Dry phytoextract Magnolia officinalis Rehder & E.H. WilsonNo DNA detectedBotanicalsDPQ/CTABITS
DIF_127Company 22PowderPlantago ovata Forssk.Plantago spp.BotanicalsDPQpsbA-trnH
DIF_128Company 22PowderPlantago ovata Forssk.Plantago ovataBotanicalsDPQpsbA-trnH
DIF_129Company 22Dry phytoextract Elaeis guineensis Jacq.No DNA detectedBotanicalsDPQ/CTABITS
DIF_130Company 22Dry phytoextract Carum carvi L.No DNA detectedBotanicalsDPQ/CTABmatK
DIF_131Company 23Raw plantSilybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.ContaminationBotanicalsDPQITS
DIF_132Company 23Dry phytoextract Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.No DNA detectedBotanicalsDPQ/CTABITS
DIF_133Company 24PowderPlantago ovata Forssk.Plantago ovata Forssk.BotanicalsDPQpsbA-trnH
DIF_134Company 25Raw plantCymbopogon citratus StapfCymbopogon citratus StapfBotanicalsDPQpsbA-trnH
DIF_135Company 25Raw plantCitrus limon L.Citrus limon L.BotanicalsDPQITS
DIF_136Company 26PowderCrocus sativus L.ContaminationBotanicalsDPQmatK + ITS
DIF_137Company 29Extraction wasteZingiber officinale RoscoeNo DNA detectedBotanicalsDPQ/CTABITS
DIF_138Company 29Liquid acqueous phytoexctractZingiber officinale RoscoeZingiber officinale RoscoeBotanicalsDPQ/CTABITS
DIF_139Company 29Essential oilZingiber officinale RoscoeNo DNA detectedBotanicalsDPQ/CTABITS
DIF_140Company 30Liquid phytoexctractPanax ginseng C.A. MeyerNo DNA detectedBotanicalsDPQ/CTABrbcL
DIF_141Company 15PowderCinnamomum verum J.PreslContaminationSpiceDPQmatK + psbA-trnH
DIF_142Company 15Raw plantCinnamomum verum J.PreslCinnamomum spp.SpiceDPQmatK + psbA-trnH
DIF_143Company 15Raw plantPiper borbonense C. DC.Piper guineenseSpiceDPQITS
DIF_144Company 15Raw plantVanilla planifolia Jacks. ex AndrewsContaminationSpiceDPQITS
DIF_145Company 15Raw plantVanilla planifolia Jacks. ex AndrewsNo DNA detectedSpiceDPQ/CTABITS
DIF_146Company 26PowderCurcuma longa L.ContaminationSpiceDPQITS
DIF_147Company 26PowderCurcuma longa L.Curcuma spp. SpiceDPQITS
DIF_148Company 26Raw plantCinnamomum cassia J.PreslCinnamomum cassia J.PreslSpiceDPQmatK + psbA-trnH
DIF_149Company 26Raw plantCinnamomum verum J.PreslCinnamomum verum J.PreslSpiceDPQmatK + psbA-trnH
DIF_150Company 26PowderCinnamomum cassia J.PreslCinnamomum cassia J.PreslSpiceDPQmatK + psbA-trnH
DIF_151Company 26Raw plantCinnamomum tamala T.Nees & Eberm.Cinnamomum tamala T.Nees & Eberm.SpiceDPQmatK + psbA-trnH
DIF_152Company 26PowderZingiber officinale RoscoeContaminationSpiceDPQITS
DIF_153Company 11PowderCurcuma longa L.Curcuma longa L.SpiceDPQITS
DIF_154Company 26PowderCrocus sativus L.Crocus sativus L.SpiceDPQmatK + ITS
DIF_155Company 26Raw plantCrocus sativus L.Crocus sativus L.SpiceDPQmatK + ITS
DIF_156Company 26PowderCapsicum spp.ContaminationSpiceDPQITS
DIF_157Company 26Raw plantPiper nigrum L.ContaminationSpiceDPQITS
DIF_158Company 26PowderCapsicum spp.Capiscum spp. SpiceDPQITS
DIF_159Company 26Raw plantVanilla planifolia Jacks. ex AndrewsContaminationSpiceDPQrbcL
DIF_160Company 26Raw plantCrocus sativus L.Crocus sativus L.SpiceDPQmatK + ITS
DIF_161Company 27Dry phytoextract 30% EtOHCrocus sativus L.ContaminationSpiceDPQ/CTABmatK + ITS
DIF_162Company 15PowderCapsicum spp.Capsicum spp.SpiceDPQITS
DIF_163Company 15PowderMyristica fragrans Houtt.Cuminum cyminumSpiceDPQITS
DIF_164Company 15PowderCurcuma longa L.Curcuma longa L.SpiceDPQITS
DIF_165Company 28Raw plantOriganum vulgare L.Origanum vulgare L.SpiceDPQITS
DIF_166Company 29Raw plantZingiber officinale RoscoeZingiber officinale RoscoeSpiceDPQITS
DIF_167Company 31Raw plantPiper nigrum L.Piper nigrum L.SpiceDPQITS
DIF_168Company 31Raw plantPiper nigrum L.Piper nigrum L.SpiceDPQITS
DIF_169Company 31Raw plantAllium cepa L.Allium cepa L.SpiceDPQITS
DIF_170Company 31PowderAllium cepa L.Allium cepa L.SpiceDPQITS
DIF_171Company 31PowderCapsicum spp.Capsicum spp.SpiceDPQITS
DIF_172Company 31PowderCapsicum spp.Capsicum spp.SpiceDPQITS
DIF_173Company 31PowderCurcuma longa L.Curcuma spp.SpiceDPQITS
DIF_174Company 31PowderCurcuma longa L.Curcuma longa L.SpiceDPQITS
DIF_175Company 31PowderElettaria cardamomum (L.) MatonElettaria cardamomum (L.) MatonSpiceDPQITS
DIF_176Company 31PowderElettaria cardamomum (L.) MatonElettaria cardamomum (L.) MatonSpiceDPQITS
DIF_177Company 31PowderCinnamomum cassia J.PreslNo DNA detectedSpiceDPQmatK + psbA-trnH
DIF_178Company 32PowderCinnamomum cassia J.PreslNo DNA detectedSpiceDPQmatK + psbA-trnH
DIF_179Company 32Raw plantOcimum basilicum L.Ocimum basilicum L.SpiceDPQITS
DIF_180Company 32PowderMyristica spp.Myristica fragransSpiceDPQITS
DIF_181Company 32PowderCapsicum annuum L.Capsicum spp.SpiceDPQITS
DIF_182Company 32Raw plantPiper nigrum L.Piper nigrum L.SpiceDPQITS
DIF_183Company 33PowderFragaria spp.Fragaria spp.AgrifoodDPQITS
DIF_184Company 34Fresh productTuber melanosporum vitt.Tuber melanosporum vitt.AgrifoodDPQITS
DIF_185Company 34Fresh productTuber aestivum vitt.Tuber aestivum vitt.AgrifoodDPQITS
DIF_186Company 34Fresh productTuber magnatum picoTuber magnatum picoAgrifoodDPQITS
DIF_187Company 34Fresh productTuber uncinatum chatinTuber uncinatum chatinAgrifoodDPQITS
DIF_188Company 34Fresh productTuber albidum picoTuber albidum picoAgrifoodDPQITS
DIF_189Company 34Fresh productTuber aestivum vitt.Tuber aestivum vitt.AgrifoodDPQITS
DIF_190Company 34Fresh productTuber albidum picoTuber albidum picoAgrifoodDPQITS
DIF_191Company 34Fresh productTuber uncinatum chatinTuber uncinatum/aestivumAgrifoodDPQITS
DIF_192Company 34Fresh productTuber magnatum Pico.Tuber magnatum Pico.AgrifoodDPQITS
DIF_193Company 34Fresh productTuber brumale Vitt.Tuber melanosporumAgrifoodDPQITS
DIF_194Company 34Fresh productTuber mesentericum Vitt.Tuber mesentericumAgrifoodDPQITS
DIF_195Company 34Fresh productTuber brumale Vitt.Tuber brumale Vitt.AgrifoodDPQITS
DIF_196Company 15Fresh productTheobroma cacao L.Theobroma cacao L. AgrifoodDPQITS
DIF_197Company 11PowderCarica papaya L.Prunus spp.AgrifoodDPQITS
DIF_198Company 35FlourOryza sativa L.Cicer arietinumAgrifoodDPQITS
DIF_199Company 35FlourOryza sativa L.Cicer arietinumAgrifoodDPQITS
DIF_200Company 24Food supplement liophilizedLactobacillus paracaseiLactobacillus paracaseiProbioticsQAQ16S rRNA
DIF_201Company 36Food supplement liophilizedLactobacillus gasseriLactobacillus gasseriProbioticsQAQ16S rRNA
DIF_202Company 36Food supplement liophilizedLactobacillus gasseriLactobacillus gasseriProbioticsQAQ16S rRNA
DIF_203Company 36Food supplement liophilizedLactobacillus reuteriLactobacillus reuteriProbioticsQAQ16S rRNA
DIF_204Company 36Food supplement liophilizedLactobacillus paracaseiLactobacillus paracaseiProbioticsQAQ16S rRNA
DIF_205Company 37Food supplement liophilizedLactobacillus paracaseiLactobacillus paracaseiProbioticsQAQ16S rRNA
DIF_206Company 37Food supplement liophilizedLactobacillus acidophilusLactobacillus acidophilusProbioticsQAQ16S rRNA
DIF_207Company 37Food supplement liophilizedLactobacillus acidophilusLactobacillus acidophilusProbioticsQAQ16S rRNA
DIF_208Company 37Food supplement liophilizedBifidobacterium lactisBifidobacterium lactisProbioticsQAQ16S rRNA
DIF_209Company 37Food supplement liophilizedBifidobacterium lactisBifidobacterium lactisProbioticsQAQ16S rRNA
DIF_210Company 38Food supplement liophilizedBifidobacterium bifidumContaminationProbioticsQAQ16S rRNA
DIF_211Company 38Food supplement liophilizedBifidobacterium bifidumBifidobacterium bifidumProbioticsQAQ16S rRNA
DIF_212Company 38Food supplement liophilizedBifidobacterium bifidumBifidobacterium bifidumProbioticsQAQ16S rRNA
Table A2. In the table are indicated the PCR program for all the couples of primers used in the study.
Table A2. In the table are indicated the PCR program for all the couples of primers used in the study.
LCO 1490
HCO 2198
rbcL 1
rbcL B
Initial step94 °C for 3′94 °C for 3′94 °C for 3′94 °C for 3′94 °C for 3′94 °C for 3′94 °C for 3′94 °C for 3′94 °C for 3′94 °C for 3′94 °C for 3′94 °C for 3′94 °C for 3′94 °C for 3′94 °C for 3′94 °C for 3′94 °C for 3′
N. of cycles3535354035353535353035353535353533
Denaturation94 °C for 25″94 °C for 25″94 °C for 1′94 °C for 25″94 °C for 1′94 °C for 30″94 °C for 30″94 °C for 45″94 °C for 30″94 °C for 30″94 °C for 45″94 °C for 45″94 °C for 45″94 °C for 45″94 °C for 45″94 °C for 45″94 °C for 20″
Annealing55 °C for 25″55 °C for 25″47 °C for 90″57 °C for 15″52 °C for 1′58 °C for 40″52 °C for 40″48 °C for 45″54 °C for 40″59 °C for 40″50 °C for 30″50 °C for 30″53 °C for 30″53 °C for 30″55 °C for 30″55 °C for 30″54 °C for 30″
Extention72 °C for 1′72 °C for 1′72 °C for 25″72 °C for 20″72 °C for 3′72 °C for 1′72 °C for 1′72 °C for 1′72 °C for 1′72 °C for 1′72 °C for 1′72 °C for 1′72 °C for 1′72 °C for 1′72 °C for 1′72 °C for 1′72 °C for 45″
Final elongation72 °C for 10′72 °C for 10′72 °C for 7′72 °C for 10′70 °C for 5′72 °C for 10′72 °C for 10′72 °C for 7′72 °C for 10′72 °C for 10′72 °C for 7′72 °C for 7′72 °C for 7′72 °C for 7′72 °C for 7′72 °C for 7′72 °C for 5′


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Figure 1. Infographics represent the percentage of compliant, non-compliant, and specimens with no DNA detected (C, NC and ND) for all the field analyzed.
Figure 1. Infographics represent the percentage of compliant, non-compliant, and specimens with no DNA detected (C, NC and ND) for all the field analyzed.
Foods 12 02392 g001
Table 1. List of primer name, gene target, primer sequence (5′->3′), bp of the fragment obtained, annealing temperature, taxonomic target, and reference.
Table 1. List of primer name, gene target, primer sequence (5′->3′), bp of the fragment obtained, annealing temperature, taxonomic target, and reference.
Primer NameGenePrimer Sequence (5′->3′)bpTa °CTargetReference
LCO 1490COIF: GGTCAACAAATCATAAAGATATTGG70047 °CCrustaceans and cephalopods[28]
16sar-L16S rRNAF: CGCCTGTTTAYCAAAAACAT57157 °CAnimal universal[29]
GLUDGCytbF: TGACTTGAARAACCAYCGTTG114052 °CAnimal universal[30]
Tuna_CR_FCRF: GCAYGTACATATATGTAAYTACACC8052 °CThunnus spp.[31]/This study
Sco5S_FITSF: CTCACTGTTACAGCCTG12048 °CScomber spp.[19]
Katw_FCRF: GCGAGATYTAAGACCTACCACG8054 °CKatswonus spp.This study
Dlab_FCOIF: TCTTATTCTCCCCGGGTTCG18659 °CDicentrarchus spp.This study
rbcL_1FrbcLF: ATGTCACCACAAACAGAAAC74350 °CPlants universal[31,32]
rbcL 1rbcLF: TTGGCAGCATTYCGAGTAACTCC22650 °CPlants universal[33]
matK_3F_KIMmatKF: CGTACAGTACTTTTGTGTTTACGAG63653 °CPlants universal[34]
psbApsbA-trnHF: GTTATGCATGAACGTAATGCTC300–60053 °CPlants universal[35]
ITS-p5ITSF: CCTTATCAYTTAGAGGAAGGAG300–75055 °CPlants universal[36]
Table 2. In the table are indicated the number of specimens analyzed divided into compliant, non-compliant, and samples where DNA was not detected, also expressed in percentage.
Table 2. In the table are indicated the number of specimens analyzed divided into compliant, non-compliant, and samples where DNA was not detected, also expressed in percentage.
Specimens’ TypologyCollected SpecimensSectorCompliant (Percentage)Non-Compliant (Percentage)No DNA Detected (Percentage)
Fresh/raw6Seafood6 (100%)//
Intermediate44 (100%)//
Processed6052 (86.6%)8 (13.3%)/
Total7062 (88.5%)8 (11.5%)/
Fresh/raw 19Botanicals14 (73.7%)5 (26.3%)/
Intermediate33 (100%)//
Processed5113 (25.5%)16 (31.3%)22 (43.2%)
Total7330 (41.1%)21 (28.8%)22 (30.1%)
Fresh/raw 13Agrifood12 (92.3%)1 (7.7%)0
Processed41 (25%)3 (75%)0
Total1714 (76.5%)3 (23.5%)/
Fresh/raw 18Spice13 (72.2%)4 (22.2%)1 (5.6%)
Processed2414 (58.3%)8 (33.3%)2 (8.3%)
Total4227 (64.5%)12 (28.5%)3 (7%)
Fresh/raw /Probiotics///
Processed1312 (92.5%)1 (7.5%)/
Total1312 (92.5%)1 (7.5%)/
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gorini, T.; Mezzasalma, V.; Deligia, M.; De Mattia, F.; Campone, L.; Labra, M.; Frigerio, J. Check Your Shopping Cart: DNA Barcoding and Mini-Barcoding for Food Authentication. Foods 2023, 12, 2392.

AMA Style

Gorini T, Mezzasalma V, Deligia M, De Mattia F, Campone L, Labra M, Frigerio J. Check Your Shopping Cart: DNA Barcoding and Mini-Barcoding for Food Authentication. Foods. 2023; 12(12):2392.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gorini, Tommaso, Valerio Mezzasalma, Marta Deligia, Fabrizio De Mattia, Luca Campone, Massimo Labra, and Jessica Frigerio. 2023. "Check Your Shopping Cart: DNA Barcoding and Mini-Barcoding for Food Authentication" Foods 12, no. 12: 2392.

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