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Foods, Volume 11, Issue 22 (November-2 2022) – 204 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Achieving food security (FS) is perhaps our most challenging aspiration. Despite our best efforts, millions of people around the globe are malnourished or live with hunger. The state of the geo-political scene, as well as the COVID-19 pandemic, have recently brought forth fears of a global food crisis (GFC). Here, we present the factors that threaten FS and could trigger a GFC, examine the potential of alternative crops (ACs) as a measure against an upcoming GFC, and highlight the key aspects of the ACs introduction process in new regions. ACs could enhance FS, yet their success is premised on the adoption of sustainable practices and the implementation of food strategies that aim to promote healthy consumer behaviors. View this paper
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12 pages, 1931 KiB  
Article
Physical, Mechanical and Biological Properties of Phenolic Acid-Grafted Soluble Soybean Polysaccharide Films
by Mengyang Zhang, Chen Huang, Jing Xie, Zehuai Shao, Xiaohui Li, Xiaojun Bian, Bin Xue, Jianhong Gan and Tao Sun
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3747; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223747 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1636
Abstract
Three kinds of phenolic acid-grafted soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS) with similar grafting ratios were prepared, and their structure was characterized by FT-IR, UV-vis and 1 H NMR. The impact of phenolic acid on the antioxidant activity of SSPS was evaluated. Then, films were [...] Read more.
Three kinds of phenolic acid-grafted soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS) with similar grafting ratios were prepared, and their structure was characterized by FT-IR, UV-vis and 1 H NMR. The impact of phenolic acid on the antioxidant activity of SSPS was evaluated. Then, films were prepared by using phenolic acid-grafted SSPS. The physical, mechanical and biological performances of phenolic acid-grafted SSPS films were further investigated. The results indicated that an ester linkage was formed between the SSPS and phenolic acid. The grafting ratio of para-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid and gallic acid-grafted SSPS was 29.45, 31.76 and 30.74 mg/g, respectively. Phenolic acid endowed SSPS with improved antioxidant properties. Gallic acid (GA)-grafted SSPS possessed the best DPPH radical scavenging ability and reducing power, which may be related to the three phenolic hydroxyl groups in GA. Phenolic acid-grafted SSPS films showed increased moisture content and decreased water solubility compared to SSPS film. The phenolic acid-g-SSPS decreased the mechanical properties but enhanced the water vapor barrier property, and antioxidant and antibacterial properties of SSPS film. Meanwhile, the para-hydroxybenzoic acid-grafted SSPS film showed the lowest water vapor permeability (3.70 × 10−7 g mm/h cm2 Pa), and the GA-grafted SSPS film exhibited the best antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Full article
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13 pages, 2786 KiB  
Article
Pea-Tea Intercropping Improves Tea Quality through Regulating Amino Acid Metabolism and Flavonoid Biosynthesis
by Qingping Ma, Laichao Song, Zhanhai Niu, Ziyuan Qiu, Haiwei Sun, Zhihong Ren, Huanhuan Wu, Yu Wang, Huiling Mei, Xinghui Li and Zhaotang Ding
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3746; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223746 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1926
Abstract
Pea-tea intercropping is an excellent cultivation method that can improve tea quality. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. The present study was aimed at elucidating the mechanism of the effect of pea-tea intercropping on tea quality through a high-throughput method. Transcriptome and [...] Read more.
Pea-tea intercropping is an excellent cultivation method that can improve tea quality. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. The present study was aimed at elucidating the mechanism of the effect of pea-tea intercropping on tea quality through a high-throughput method. Transcriptome and metabolome analyses were conducted to identify the changes in gene expression and metabolites changes intercropping, respectively. In addition, the amino acids and catechins were detected using the LC-MS method and quantified absolutely. The results showed that total polyphenols and catechins decreased but amino acids increased in pea intercropped tea shoots. Correspondingly, genes related to amino acid metabolism and flavonoid biosynthesis were differentially expressed. For amino acid metabolism, 11 differentially expressed genes were identified, including 5 upregulated and 6 downregulated genes. Meanwhile, three genes involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism were upregulated in pea intercropped tea plants. These genes were also involved in amino acid metabolism. For flavonoid biosynthesis, two downregulated genes were identified, which were the flavonol synthase and anthocyanidin synthase genes and followed a similar pattern to changes in catechins and polyphenols. These advances have opened new horizons for understanding the biochemical mechanisms of amino acids and flavonoids in improving tea quality in the pea-tea intercropping cultivation model. Full article
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13 pages, 4781 KiB  
Article
The Discrimination and Characterization of Volatile Organic Compounds in Different Areas of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Pericarps and Leaves by HS-GC-IMS and HS-SPME-GC-MS
by Xinlong Wu, Jiaxin Yin, Hui Ding, Wei Li, Lifeng Han, Wenzhi Yang, Fangyi Li, Xinbo Song, Songtao Bie, Xingchu Gong, Heshui Yu and Zheng Li
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3745; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223745 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1875
Abstract
The pericarps of Zanthoxylum bungeanum (ZBP) and leaves of Zanthoxylum bungeanum (ZBL) are popular spices in China, and they have pharmacological activities as well. In this experiment, the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of the pericarps of Zanthoxylum bungeanum in Sichuan (SJ) and its [...] Read more.
The pericarps of Zanthoxylum bungeanum (ZBP) and leaves of Zanthoxylum bungeanum (ZBL) are popular spices in China, and they have pharmacological activities as well. In this experiment, the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of the pericarps of Zanthoxylum bungeanum in Sichuan (SJ) and its leaves (SJY) and the pericarps of Zanthoxylum bungeanum in Shaanxi (SHJ) and its leaves (SHJY) were analyzed by headspace-gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (HS-GC-IMS) and headspace solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). The fingerprint of HS-GC-IMS and the heat maps of HS-SPME-GC-MS were established. Principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were performed. The results showed that a total of 95 components were identified, 62 components identified by HS-SPME-GC-MS and 40 components identified by HS-GC-IMS, of which 7 were the same. The analysis found that SJ and SHJ were obviously distinguished, while SJY and SHJY were not. There were considerably fewer VOCs in the leaves than in the pericarps. In the characterization of the VOCs of ZBL and ZBP, the flavor of ZBP was more acrid and stronger, while the flavor of ZBL was lighter and slightly acrid. Thirteen and eleven differential markers were identified by HS-GC-IMS and HS-SPME-GC-MS, respectively. This is helpful in distinguishing between SHJ and SJ, which contributes to their quality evaluation. Full article
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17 pages, 2974 KiB  
Article
Effects on Cell Membrane Integrity of Pichia anomala by the Accumulating Excessive Reactive Oxygen Species under Ethanol Stress
by Yanru Chen, Yin Wan, Wenqin Cai, Na Liu, Jiali Zeng, Chengmei Liu, Hong Peng and Guiming Fu
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3744; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223744 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1479
Abstract
Ethanol stress to yeast is well recognized and exists widely during the brewing process of alcohol products. Pichia anomala is an important ester-producing yeast in the brewing process of Chinese Baijiu and other alcohol products. Therefore, it is of great significance for the [...] Read more.
Ethanol stress to yeast is well recognized and exists widely during the brewing process of alcohol products. Pichia anomala is an important ester-producing yeast in the brewing process of Chinese Baijiu and other alcohol products. Therefore, it is of great significance for the alcohol products brewing industry to explore the effects of ethanol stress on the growth metabolism of P. anomala. In this study, the effects of ethanol stress on the growth, esters production ability, cell membrane integrity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism of P. anomala NCU003 were studied. Our results showed that ethanol stress could inhibit the growth, reduce the ability of non-ethyl ester compounds production and destroy the cell morphology of P. anomala NCU003. The results also showed that 9% ethanol stress produced excessive ROS and then increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, aseorbateperoxidase and glutathione reductase) compared to the control group. However, these increased antioxidant enzyme activities could not prevent the damage caused by ROS to P. anomala NCU003. Of note, correlation results indicated that high content of ROS could promote the accumulation of malondialdehyde content, resulting in destruction of the integrity of the cell membrane and leading to the leakage of intracellular nutrients (soluble sugar and protein) and electrolytes. These results indicated that the growth and the non-ethyl ester compounds production ability of P. anomala could be inhibited under ethanol stress by accumulating excessive ROS and the destruction of cell membrane integrity in P. anomala. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Brewing Technology and Brewing Microorganisms)
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29 pages, 414 KiB  
Review
Reintegration of Food Industry By-Products: Potential Applications
by Christos Eliopoulos, Giorgos Markou, Ioanna Langousi and Dimitrios Arapoglou
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3743; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223743 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2040
Abstract
Numerous studies have indicated that fruits and vegetables are considered as significant sources of bioactive compounds. The generated by-products, which are derived from the food industry, reveal similar or higher antioxidant activity. On the other hand, intense industrialization results in the production of [...] Read more.
Numerous studies have indicated that fruits and vegetables are considered as significant sources of bioactive compounds. The generated by-products, which are derived from the food industry, reveal similar or higher antioxidant activity. On the other hand, intense industrialization results in the production of large volumes of by-products, raising serious environmental issues. Therefore, this situation creates the necessity to develop new strategies in order to exploit the generated wastes, securing the ability to develop new high-added-value products. This review aims to summarize the exploitation of fruit wastes, namely, apple and citrus, as well as vegetable by-products which are derived from tomato, potato and carrot cultivation. All the aforementioned by-products have found wide applications in the development of new high-added-value products in the food and feed industry owing to their improved nutritional profiles. Furthermore, these wastes are characterized by a strong antioxidant activity, justifying their valorization in other fields such as cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. Full article
16 pages, 2351 KiB  
Article
IUP-BERT: Identification of Umami Peptides Based on BERT Features
by Liangzhen Jiang, Jici Jiang, Xiao Wang, Yin Zhang, Bowen Zheng, Shuqi Liu, Yiting Zhang, Changying Liu, Yan Wan, Dabing Xiang and Zhibin Lv
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3742; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223742 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2297
Abstract
Umami is an important widely-used taste component of food seasoning. Umami peptides are specific structural peptides endowing foods with a favorable umami taste. Laboratory approaches used to identify umami peptides are time-consuming and labor-intensive, which are not feasible for rapid screening. Here, we [...] Read more.
Umami is an important widely-used taste component of food seasoning. Umami peptides are specific structural peptides endowing foods with a favorable umami taste. Laboratory approaches used to identify umami peptides are time-consuming and labor-intensive, which are not feasible for rapid screening. Here, we developed a novel peptide sequence-based umami peptide predictor, namely iUP-BERT, which was based on the deep learning pretrained neural network feature extraction method. After optimization, a single deep representation learning feature encoding method (BERT: bidirectional encoder representations from transformer) in conjugation with the synthetic minority over-sampling technique (SMOTE) and support vector machine (SVM) methods was adopted for model creation to generate predicted probabilistic scores of potential umami peptides. Further extensive empirical experiments on cross-validation and an independent test showed that iUP-BERT outperformed the existing methods with improvements, highlighting its effectiveness and robustness. Finally, an open-access iUP-BERT web server was built. To our knowledge, this is the first efficient sequence-based umami predictor created based on a single deep-learning pretrained neural network feature extraction method. By predicting umami peptides, iUP-BERT can help in further research to improve the palatability of dietary supplements in the future. Full article
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17 pages, 3373 KiB  
Article
Physicochemical, Structural, and Digestive Properties of Banana Starch Modified by Ultrasound and Resveratrol Treatments
by Ying Sun, Yang Yang, Lili Zheng, Xiaoyan Zheng, Dao Xiao, Shenwan Wang, Zhengke Zhang, Binling Ai and Zhanwu Sheng
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3741; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223741 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2534
Abstract
Ultrasonic treatment combined with resveratrol modification was used to improve banana starch’s solubility, thermal stability, and digestion resistance. The solubility and freeze-thaw stability of the modified starch complex significantly increased. The oil-absorption capacity increased by 20.52%, and the gelatinization temperatures increased from 64.10–73.92 [...] Read more.
Ultrasonic treatment combined with resveratrol modification was used to improve banana starch’s solubility, thermal stability, and digestion resistance. The solubility and freeze-thaw stability of the modified starch complex significantly increased. The oil-absorption capacity increased by 20.52%, and the gelatinization temperatures increased from 64.10–73.92 °C to 70.77–75.83 °C. The storage modulus (G′) and loss modulus (G″) increased after ultrasound and resveratrol treatment, and the proportion of viscosity was increased after composition with resveratrol. Additionally, the in vitro digestibility decreased from 44.12% to 40.25%. The modified complexes had release-control ability for resveratrol. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy demonstrated that complex structures became more compact and organized, whereas crystalline patterns were unchanged. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the resveratrol modification caused physical change on the granular surface by creating pores and fissures. The findings can help develop antioxidant functional foods using banana starch. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Starch Modification: New Strategies, Techniques and Applications)
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6 pages, 468 KiB  
Brief Report
Revisiting Protein Quality Assessment to Include Alternative Proteins
by Efrat Monsonego Ornan and Ram Reifen
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3740; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223740 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1887
Abstract
The high demand for novel and existing sustainable protein sources (e.g., legumes, insects, algae, and cultured meat) to replace the animal-based sources is becoming crucial. This change in protein consumption calls for the re-evaluation of the current methods to assess their quality and [...] Read more.
The high demand for novel and existing sustainable protein sources (e.g., legumes, insects, algae, and cultured meat) to replace the animal-based sources is becoming crucial. This change in protein consumption calls for the re-evaluation of the current methods to assess their quality and bioavailability. The two conventional scores for PDCAAS (protein digestibility-corrected AA score) and DIAAS (Digestible Indispensable AA Score) have their limitations and have not been re-evaluated and updated to address plant and novel proteins’ quality. We suggest a sensitive physiological preclinical model that can rapidly and confidently address proteins from different sources. Our model is based on the postnatal growth, a major parameter for development and health in children, that influenced by environmental nutritional and lifestyle factors. Our results demonstrate that, with an appropriate amount of protein in the diet, almost all tested proteins performed as well as casein, the animal source. However, upon restriction (10% of calories), all alternative sources did not accomplish normal growth performance. Surprisingly, when compared to PDCAAS and DIAAS parameters obtained from the literature, no correlations were found between growth performance and these parameters, demonstrating their limitations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Foods)
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13 pages, 592 KiB  
Article
Understanding Italian Consumers’ Perception of Safety in Animal Food Products
by Maria Piochi, Michele Filippo Fontefrancesco and Luisa Torri
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3739; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223739 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1603
Abstract
The concept of food safety is still underexplored among consumers, especially in relationship with the perception of food technology. Through an online survey (n = 489), this study explored: I, how perceived safety is related to products obtained with different technological treatments [...] Read more.
The concept of food safety is still underexplored among consumers, especially in relationship with the perception of food technology. Through an online survey (n = 489), this study explored: I, how perceived safety is related to products obtained with different technological treatments and described with different commercial information; II, the role of food technology neophobia (FTN) in consumers’ safety perception of animal food products. The technological transformation and commercial information significantly affected the perceived safety in all product categories. Milk and eggs were associated with a high number of perceived hazards (with similar patterns), while honey to the lowest. The certification ‘organic’ positively affected the safety perception of eggs and honey. With the increase of the distance in product origin (local/regional vs. Extra-European) the perceived safety consistently decreased. FTN affected the perceived safety of milk and eggs, depending on the degree of familiarity with the technologies of production. Highly FT neophobic people are perceived as less safe than low FT neophobic people with few familiar products with a higher technological degree of transformation. Results expand the knowledge in people’s attitude towards animal products, particularly considering the technology perception. The outputs may interest policy-makers and food companies, in rethinking the communication strategy concerning food safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Food Processing and Preservation)
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14 pages, 2413 KiB  
Article
Mutual Relations between Texture and Aroma of Cooked Rice—A Pilot Study
by Zihan Wang, Jun Wang, Xu Chen, Enpeng Li, Songnan Li and Cheng Li
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3738; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223738 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1902
Abstract
Texture and aroma are two important attributes for the eating quality of cooked rice, but their mutual relations are not clear. Cooked rice with a desirable texture might suffer from a deteriorated aroma property. To better understand the relations between texture and aroma, [...] Read more.
Texture and aroma are two important attributes for the eating quality of cooked rice, but their mutual relations are not clear. Cooked rice with a desirable texture might suffer from a deteriorated aroma property. To better understand the relations between texture and aroma, six different rice varieties with desirable eating qualities have been selected, with their texture and aroma profile characterized by a texture analyzer and gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry, respectively. A large variance of textural attributes and a total number of 39 major volatile organic components were observed for these cooked rice varieties. Pearson correlation showed that the hardness of cooked rice was positively correlated with the content of E-2-hexenal, 2-hexanol-monomer, 1-propanol, and E-2-pentenal, while stickiness was positively correlated with 5-methyl-2-furanmethanol and dimethyl trisulfide. Possible underneath mechanisms were discussed for these relations. These results could help the rice industry to develop rice products with both desirable texture and aroma property. Full article
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14 pages, 2953 KiB  
Article
Dietary Supplement of Amomum villosum Lour. Polysaccharide Attenuates Ulcerative Colitis in BALB/c Mice
by Donghui Luo, Jiao Zeng, Jingjing Guan, Yuanyuan Xu, Rui-Bo Jia, Jin Chen, Guili Jiang and Chunxia Zhou
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3737; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223737 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1512
Abstract
Amomum villosum Lour. (A. villosum), a comestible medicinal plant, has been traditionally used in China to treat diarrhea, stomach fullness, and abdominal distension. Polysaccharide, the main chemical component of A. villosum, has been shown to possess potential antioxidant and glycosidase inhibitory [...] Read more.
Amomum villosum Lour. (A. villosum), a comestible medicinal plant, has been traditionally used in China to treat diarrhea, stomach fullness, and abdominal distension. Polysaccharide, the main chemical component of A. villosum, has been shown to possess potential antioxidant and glycosidase inhibitory activities; however, whether it has anticolitis activity is unknown. The aim of this research was to evaluate the anticolitis effects of A. villosum polysaccharide (AVLP) in BALB/c mice. The results showed that AVLP administration significantly reversed body weight loss, colon shortening and colon weight gain and decreased the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in colitis mice (p < 0.05). AVLP administration also maintained intestinal barrier function by the upregulation of ZO-1 protein expression (p < 0.05). In addition, high-throughput sequencing analysis showed that AVLP possessed a great regulatory effect on the growth of Adlercreutzia, Clostridium, Streptococcus, Parabacteroides, Helicobacter, Odoribacter, and Alistipes (p < 0.05, LDA score > 2). The correlation analysis revealed that the protective effects against colitis of AVLP were highly correlated with intestinal bacterium regulation. These results suggest that AVLP intake could serve as a prospective nutritional strategy for inflammatory bowel diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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15 pages, 577 KiB  
Article
Effects of Dietary Omega-3 Enrichment on the Chemical Composition and the Pathogenic Microbiota of Ovine Milk
by Athina Tzora, Chrysoula (Chrysa) Voidarou, Ilias Giannenas, Eleftherios Bonos, Konstantina Fotou, Aikaterini Nelli, Katerina Grigoriadou, Achilleas Karamoutsios, Zoitsa Basdagianni, Stella Dokou, Anastasios Tsinas and Ioannis Skoufos
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3736; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223736 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1843
Abstract
The demand for ovine milk and ovine dairy products is constantly increasing due to their exceptional sensorial characteristics and their health benefits for consumers. However, dairy fat content and composition are of particular concern for consumers as well as the medical community, as [...] Read more.
The demand for ovine milk and ovine dairy products is constantly increasing due to their exceptional sensorial characteristics and their health benefits for consumers. However, dairy fat content and composition are of particular concern for consumers as well as the medical community, as there are risk factors for coronary disease, diabetes mellitus, cancer, and other serious diseases. For this reason, attempts have been made to control/regulate the fat composition of ovine milk by modifying sheep dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In this experimental trial, a group of sheep were fed for 30 days a diet enriched in flaxseeds and lupines, feed ingredients rich in omega-3 fatty acids, aiming to investigate the effects on fat composition and the microbiota of ovine milk. Chemical analysis of the collected milk showed that the omega-3 and omega-6 content was increased. On the opposite, the atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes decreased. Of importance was the semi-protective effect on the udder by the increased omega-3 dietary intake, as depicted by its impact on the biodiversity of the pathogenic microbiota. These findings suggest that ovine milk could be modified under specific conditions to be more appropriate for the consumption by people belonging to high-risk groups for various diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy)
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14 pages, 2698 KiB  
Article
Physicochemical Characteristics of Soluble Dietary Fiber Obtained from Grapefruit Peel Insoluble Dietary Fiber and Its Effects on Blueberry Jam
by Jiayan Xie, Guanyi Peng, Xiaobo Hu, Jianhua Xie, Yi Chen, Ruihong Dong, Jingyu Si, Chaoran Yang and Qiang Yu
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3735; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223735 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2567
Abstract
Appropriate modification methods can increase the proportion of soluble dietary fiber (SDF). In this study, grapefruit peel insoluble dietary fiber (GP-IDF) was modified with the combined microwave and enzymatic method to obtain SDF. With regard to structural characterization, SDF from grapefruit peel IDF [...] Read more.
Appropriate modification methods can increase the proportion of soluble dietary fiber (SDF). In this study, grapefruit peel insoluble dietary fiber (GP-IDF) was modified with the combined microwave and enzymatic method to obtain SDF. With regard to structural characterization, SDF from grapefruit peel IDF (GP-IDF-SDF) presented as a flat sheet with cracks, composed of a typical cellulose type I crystal, and had good stability below 200 °C. Galacturonic acid, arabinose and glucuronic acid were the main monosaccharide compositions, indicating that pectin might have been the principal component. Moreover, GP-IDF-SDF was excellent in water retention capacity (13.43 ± 1.19 g/g), oil retention capacity (22.10 ± 0.85 g/g) and glucose adsorption capacity (14.49 ± 0.068 mg/g). Thereafter, the effects of GP-IDF-SDF and commercial pectin addition on the color, rheology, texture and sensory properties of blueberry jam were compared. The results showed that the color of jam with GP-IDF-SDF was lighter. The addition of GP-IDF-SDF had less effects on the viscosity and gel strength of jam, but it enhanced the stability of jam. According to sensory data, the color, texture and spreadability of jam with GP-IDF-SDF or pectin were improved and more acceptable. Overall, GP-IDF-SDF had functional characteristics and played a positive role in jam, and it is expected to be a candidate for the development of functional food ingredients. Full article
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12 pages, 2313 KiB  
Article
Synergetic Effect of Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Lachancea thermotolerans in Acidification and Aroma Compounds in Airén Wines
by Carlos Escott, Cristian Vaquero, Iris Loira, Carmen López, Carmen González and Antonio Morata
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3734; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223734 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3338
Abstract
On the one hand, the species Lachancea thermotolerans is known for its high genetic diversity, allowing for the existence of strains that produce high concentrations of lactic acid. In contrast, the species Metschnikowia pulcherrima is renowned for its high enzymatic activity capable of [...] Read more.
On the one hand, the species Lachancea thermotolerans is known for its high genetic diversity, allowing for the existence of strains that produce high concentrations of lactic acid. In contrast, the species Metschnikowia pulcherrima is renowned for its high enzymatic activity capable of producing aromatic esters during fermentation. By enhancing acidity and boosting the concentration of aromatic compounds, both species are currently used to enhance the organoleptic profile of wines. In this regard, ternary fermentations with M. pulcherrima and L. thermotolerans were carried out and the wines produced were further analysed with GC-FID, FTIR, and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The outcomes showed that the species M. pulcherrima favored an increase in ethyl lactate (between 37 and 41 mg/L) along with an increased concentration of 2-phenylethyl alcohol (between 30 and 35 mg/L), whereas the species L. thermotolerans was able to produce 1 g/L of lactic acid in ternary fermentations. Additionally, pH levels were slightly lower in these fermentations and the color of the white wines produced showed less chemical oxidation as hue values were lower than the control. Finally, the ternary fermentations of L. thermotolerans and M. pulcherrima had higher overall rating in the tasting. In conclusion, ternary fermentations involving these two non-Saccharomyces species are suggested as a substitute for spontaneous fermentations in the production of wines from neutral varieties to express freshness more vividly. This biotechnology may be further favored by the possibility of applying emerging technologies for the removal of microorganisms in grapes and musts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Flavor Chemistry and Sensory Evaluation)
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16 pages, 4222 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Changes of Bacterial Communities and Microbial Association Networks in Ready-to-Eat Chicken Meat during Storage
by Mengjia Qiu, Xingning Xiao, Yingping Xiao, Jiele Ma, Hua Yang, Han Jiang, Qingli Dong and Wen Wang
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3733; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223733 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2062
Abstract
Ready-to-eat (RTE) chicken is a popular food in China, but its lack of food safety due to bacterial contamination remains a concern, and the dynamic changes of microbial association networks during storage are not fully understood. This study investigated the impact of storage [...] Read more.
Ready-to-eat (RTE) chicken is a popular food in China, but its lack of food safety due to bacterial contamination remains a concern, and the dynamic changes of microbial association networks during storage are not fully understood. This study investigated the impact of storage time and temperature on bacterial compositions and microbial association networks in RTE chicken using 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing. The results show that the predominant phyla present in all samples were Proteobacteria and Firmicutes, and the most abundant genera were Weissella, Pseudomonas and Proteus. Increased storage time and temperature decreased the richness and diversity of the microorganisms of the bacterial communities. Higher storage temperatures impacted the bacterial community composition more significantly. Microbial interaction analyses showed 22 positive and 6 negative interactions at 4 °C, 30 positive and 12 negative interactions at 8 °C and 44 positive and 45 negative interactions at 22 °C, indicating an increase in the complexity of interaction networks with an increase in the storage temperature. Enterobacter dominated the interactions during storage at 4 and 22 °C, and Pseudomonas did so at 22 °C. Moreover, interactions between pathogenic and/or spoilage bacteria, such as those between Pseudomonas fragi and Weissella viridescens, Enterobacter unclassified and Proteus unclassified, or those between Enterobacteriaceae unclassified and W.viridescens, were observed. This study provides insight into the process involved in RTE meat spoilage and can aid in improving the quality and safety of RTE meat products to reduce outbreaks of foodborne illness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Microbial Analysis)
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16 pages, 3288 KiB  
Article
Research on the Authenticity of Mutton Based on Machine Vision Technology
by Chunjuan Zhang, Dequan Zhang, Yuanyuan Su, Xiaochun Zheng, Shaobo Li and Li Chen
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3732; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223732 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1745
Abstract
To realize the real-time automatic identification of adulterated minced mutton, a convolutional neural network (CNN) image recognition model of adulterated minced mutton was constructed. Images of mutton, duck, pork and chicken meat pieces, as well as prepared mutton adulterated with different proportions of [...] Read more.
To realize the real-time automatic identification of adulterated minced mutton, a convolutional neural network (CNN) image recognition model of adulterated minced mutton was constructed. Images of mutton, duck, pork and chicken meat pieces, as well as prepared mutton adulterated with different proportions of duck, pork and chicken meat samples, were acquired by the laboratory’s self-built image acquisition system. Among all images were 960 images of different animal species and 1200 images of minced mutton adulterated with duck, pork and chicken. Additionally, 300 images of pure mutton and mutton adulterated with duck, pork and chicken were reacquired again for external validation. This study compared and analyzed the modeling effectiveness of six CNN models, AlexNet, GoogLeNet, ResNet-18, DarkNet-19, SqueezeNet and VGG-16, for different livestock and poultry meat pieces and adulterated mutton shape feature recognition. The results show that ResNet-18, GoogLeNet and DarkNet-19 models have the best learning effect and can identify different livestock and poultry meat pieces and adulterated minced mutton images more accurately, and the training accuracy of all three models reached more than 94%, among which the external validation accuracy of the optimal three models for adulterated minced mutton images reached more than 70%. Image learning based on a deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) model can identify different livestock meat pieces and adulterated mutton, providing technical support for the rapid and nondestructive identification of mutton authenticity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Methods in Detecting Food Fraud and Food Authenticity)
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14 pages, 2159 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Bioaccessibility of Carotenoids in Goji Berry (Lycium barbarum L.) in Three Forms: In Vitro Digestion Model and Metabolomics Approach
by Ziying Hu, Yanan Ma, Jun Liu, Yijun Fan, Anran Zheng, Pengyan Gao, Liang Wang and Dunhua Liu
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3731; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223731 - 20 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1806
Abstract
Goji berry (Lycium barbarum L., LBL) is a good source of carotenoids, while the bioaccessibility of various types of LBL carotenoids has not been explored. In the study, eight carotenoids, three carotenoid esters and two carotenoid glycosylated derivatives were identified by a [...] Read more.
Goji berry (Lycium barbarum L., LBL) is a good source of carotenoids, while the bioaccessibility of various types of LBL carotenoids has not been explored. In the study, eight carotenoids, three carotenoid esters and two carotenoid glycosylated derivatives were identified by a non−targeted metabolomics approach. The dried LBL (DRI), LBL in water (WAT), and LBL in “Baijiu” (WIN) were used to recreate the three regularly chosen types of utilization, and the in vitro digestion model showed that the bioaccessibility of the carotenoids increased significantly from the oral to the gastric and intestinal phase (p < 0.05). The bioaccessibility of LBL carotenoids was the most elevated for DRI (at 28.2%), followed by WIN and WAT (at 24.9% and 20.3%, respectively). Among the three carotenoids, zeaxanthin dipalmitate showed the highest bioaccessibility (51.8–57.1%), followed by β−carotene (51.1–55.6%) and zeaxanthin (45.2–56.3%). However, the zeaxanthin from DRI exhibited significantly higher bioaccessibility (up to 58.3%) than WAT and WIN in both the gastric and intestinal phases (p < 0.05). Results of antioxidant activity tests based on DPPH, FRAP, and ABTS showed that the addition of lipids improved the bioaccessibility of the carotenoids. (p < 0.05). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds in Plant-Based Food and Food Supplements)
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18 pages, 3555 KiB  
Article
Effect of Inter-Row Peanut Growing in the Vineyard on the Quality of ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ Grape Fruits and Wines in Northwest China
by Jing Peng, Wei Wei, Haocheng Lu, Wu Chen, Shude Li, Chifang Cheng, Jun Wang, Changqing Duan and Fei He
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3730; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223730 - 20 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1495
Abstract
In order to solve the problem of premature grape ripening due to global warming, inter-row peanut growing in viticulture was applied. In this two-year (2018–2019) study, the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) was used to cover the ground between rows in the vineyards [...] Read more.
In order to solve the problem of premature grape ripening due to global warming, inter-row peanut growing in viticulture was applied. In this two-year (2018–2019) study, the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) was used to cover the ground between rows in the vineyards located in the semi-arid Northwest China, Xinjiang. The results showed that reflected solar radiation and temperature around the fruit zone with the peanuts growing were decreased. Compared with clean tillage, the grapes with covering peanuts had lower total soluble solids (TSS) and higher titratable acidity (TA) in the berries. Lower alcohol content and higher total acid (TA) was also found in their corresponding wines. Inter-row peanut growing treatment significantly decreased the contents of flavonols in the grapes and their wines in the two consecutive years, but no significant effect on flavanols was observed in the resulting wines. Norisoprenoids and esters in the grapes and the wines were increased with the peanut growing treatment, respectively. Additionally, compared to clean tillage, the peanut covering significantly improved the sensory value of the wines, especially the aroma complexity of the wines. This study helps us to better understand the feasibility of applying inter-row peanut growing in the viticulture of ground management in the semi-arid climate of Northwest China. Full article
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16 pages, 3066 KiB  
Article
Hypoglycemic Activity of Self-Assembled Gellan Gum-Soybean Isolate Composite Hydrogel-Embedded Active Substance-Saponin
by Tao Wu, Jinghuan Cheng, Jinxuan Zhang, Hongxi Zhao, Wenjie Sui, Qiaomei Zhu, Yan Jin and Min Zhang
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3729; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223729 - 20 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1980
Abstract
In order to avoid hemolysis caused by direct dietary of kidney tea saponin, complex gels based on gellan gum (GG) and soybean isolate protein (SPI) loaded with saponin were created in the present study by using a self-assembly technique. Studies were conducted on [...] Read more.
In order to avoid hemolysis caused by direct dietary of kidney tea saponin, complex gels based on gellan gum (GG) and soybean isolate protein (SPI) loaded with saponin were created in the present study by using a self-assembly technique. Studies were conducted on the rheological characteristics, encapsulation effectiveness, molecular structure, microstructure, and hypoglycemic activity of GG/SPI-saponin gels. Increasing the concentration of SPI helped to enhance the strength and energy storage modulus (G′) of the gels, and the incorporation of high acylated saponin allowed the whole gel to undergo sol–gel interconversion. The encapsulation efficiency showed that GG/SPI-saponin was 84.52 ± 0.78% for saponin. Microstructural analysis results suggested that GG and SPI were bound by hydrogen bonds. The in vitro digestion results also indicated that saponin could be well retained in the stomach and subsequently released slowly in the intestine. In addition, the in vitro hypoglycemic activity results showed that the IC50 of encapsulated saponin against α-glucosidase and α-amylase were at 2.4790 mg/mL and 1.4317 mg/mL, respectively, and may be used to replace acarbose for hypoglycemia. Full article
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15 pages, 3741 KiB  
Article
Aloe Vera-Fermented Beverage Ameliorates Obesity and Gut Dysbiosis in High-Fat-Diet Mice
by Shijie Fu, Yanting Dang, Huilin Xu, Aimin Li, Xiaoman Zhou, Xiaodong Gao and Zijie Li
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3728; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223728 - 20 Nov 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2569
Abstract
Aloe vera has been proven to have various medicinal properties, including anti-inflammatory and anti-obesity functions. However, the effects of Aloe vera-fermented beverages (AFB) on obesity and its complications are still not clear. In this study, HepG2 cells in high-fat environment and high-fat [...] Read more.
Aloe vera has been proven to have various medicinal properties, including anti-inflammatory and anti-obesity functions. However, the effects of Aloe vera-fermented beverages (AFB) on obesity and its complications are still not clear. In this study, HepG2 cells in high-fat environment and high-fat diet (HFD) mice were used to investigate the potential obesity-preventing function of AFB. We found that AFB intervention decreased the amount of lipid droplets of HepG2 cells, suppressed the body weight gain and adipose accumulation, and reduced the serum contents of total cholesterol (TC), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and interleukin 10 (IL-10) of HFD-mice. In addition, it also changed the composition of the gut microbiota. The ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes was decreased, while the relative abundance of Muribaculaceae, Alistipes and Rikenellaceae_RC9_gut_group was increased after the administration of AFB compared with HFD-mice. These results demonstrated that AFB can prevent diet-induced obesity (DIO) and provides a new option to modulate obesity-related gut dysbiosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiological Safety and Quality of Fermented Products)
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20 pages, 1775 KiB  
Review
Recent Trends of Microfluidics in Food Science and Technology: Fabrications and Applications
by Ruojun Mu, Nitong Bu, Jie Pang, Lin Wang and Yue Zhang
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3727; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223727 - 20 Nov 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4928
Abstract
The development of novel materials with microstructures is now a trend in food science and technology. These microscale materials may be applied across all steps in food manufacturing, from raw materials to the final food products, as well as in the packaging, transport, [...] Read more.
The development of novel materials with microstructures is now a trend in food science and technology. These microscale materials may be applied across all steps in food manufacturing, from raw materials to the final food products, as well as in the packaging, transport, and storage processes. Microfluidics is an advanced technology for controlling fluids in a microscale channel (1~100 μm), which integrates engineering, physics, chemistry, nanotechnology, etc. This technology allows unit operations to occur in devices that are closer in size to the expected structural elements. Therefore, microfluidics is considered a promising technology to develop micro/nanostructures for delivery purposes to improve the quality and safety of foods. This review concentrates on the recent developments of microfluidic systems and their novel applications in food science and technology, including microfibers/films via microfluidic spinning technology for food packaging, droplet microfluidics for food micro-/nanoemulsifications and encapsulations, etc. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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21 pages, 3081 KiB  
Article
Cause and Effect Analysis between Influencing Factors Related to Environmental Conditions, Hunting and Handling Practices and the Initial Microbial Load of Game Carcasses
by Birsen Korkmaz, Denny Maaz, Felix Reich, Carl Gremse, Annina Haase, Rafael H. Mateus-Vargas, Anneluise Mader, Ingo Rottenberger, Helmut A. Schafft, Niels Bandick, Karsten Nöckler, Thomas Alter, Monika Lahrssen-Wiederholt and Julia Steinhoff-Wagner
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3726; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223726 - 20 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1960
Abstract
Environmental, hunting and handling factors affect the microbial load of hunted game and the resulting meat products. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the influence of several factors on the initial microbial load (IML) of game carcasses during the early [...] Read more.
Environmental, hunting and handling factors affect the microbial load of hunted game and the resulting meat products. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the influence of several factors on the initial microbial load (IML) of game carcasses during the early hunting chain. Eviscerated roe deer body cavities (n = 24) were investigated in terms of total viable count and the levels of Pseudomonas spp., Lactobacillus spp., Enterobacteriaceae and Escherichia coli (E. coli). Furthermore, a risk analysis based on the obtained original IML data, literature search and a Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) was performed. The IML could be explained in a regression model by factors including the higher body weight (BW), damaged gastrointestinal tract by the shot, ambient temperature or rain. The levels of Lactobacillus spp. (p = 0.0472), Enterobacteriaceae (p = 0.0070) and E. coli (p = 0.0015) were lower on the belly flap surface when gloves were used during evisceration. The literature search revealed that studies examining influencing factors (IF) on the IML of game carcasses found contradictory effects of the comparable IF on IML. Potential handling failures may lead to a higher IML of game carcasses during the early hunting chain ranked by FMEA. Several handling practices for game carcasses are recommended, such as ensuring efficient cooling of heavier BW carcasses to limit bacterial growth or eviscerating heavier carcasses before lighter ones. Full article
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11 pages, 869 KiB  
Article
Influence of Drought Stress on Physiological Responses and Bioactive Compounds in Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.): Opportunity for a Sustainable Agriculture
by Sebastiano Delfine, Alessandra Fratianni, Annacristina D'Agostino and Gianfranco Panfili
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3725; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223725 - 20 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1380
Abstract
Food production from agriculture depends on irrigation, mainly in poor rainfall zones, such as the Mediterranean region. Chicory is an important food crop component of the Mediterranean diet. Considering the increasing incidence of drought due to climate change, this study was carried out [...] Read more.
Food production from agriculture depends on irrigation, mainly in poor rainfall zones, such as the Mediterranean region. Chicory is an important food crop component of the Mediterranean diet. Considering the increasing incidence of drought due to climate change, this study was carried out in order to investigate the effect of moderate drought stress on photosynthesis, leaf gaseous exchange, growth, and tocol and carotenoid composition of chicory under field conditions. Chicory was subjected to rainfed condition stress in a randomized block design. At 50 days of treatment, drought stress caused about 48% reduction in dry matter, 30% in leaf relative water content, and about 25% in photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance, whereas mesophyll conductance was not affected. A strong relationship between photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance was observed. In the rainfed chicory, at the end of treatment, an increase (about 20%) in carotenoid and tocopherol content was found, thus, giving further insight into the positive effect of moderate drought stress on these compounds. This finding suggests that under proper rainfed conditions, it is possible to increase and save the quality of dry chicory, although yield loss occurs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Security and Sustainability)
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12 pages, 2280 KiB  
Article
Encapsulation of Benzyl Isothiocyanate with β-Cyclodextrin Using Ultrasonication: Preparation, Characterization, and Antibacterial Assay
by Hongbo Li, Xujia Ming, Zhen Wang, Jiaqi Li, Yunxia Liang, Dan Xu, Zhenbin Liu, Liangbin Hu and Haizhen Mo
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3724; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223724 - 20 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2136
Abstract
Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) is widely utilized in multiple biomedical fields, due to its significant antibacterial properties and low toxicity. However, poor water solubility and pungent odor has limited its application in the food industry. In this study, we first prepared inclusion complexes of [...] Read more.
Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) is widely utilized in multiple biomedical fields, due to its significant antibacterial properties and low toxicity. However, poor water solubility and pungent odor has limited its application in the food industry. In this study, we first prepared inclusion complexes of BITC in GLU-β-CD and HP-β-CD using ultrasound, which is able to overcome the hindrance of poor water solubility and high volatility. Then, the BITC-β-CD inclusion complexes were characterized by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), nuclear magnetic resonance hydrogen spectra (1H-NMR), infrared absorption spectra (IR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to confirm their stability. Further, the evaluation of antibacterial and antitumor effects of the BITC-β-CD inclusion complexes showed that they had great bactericidal activity against both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus cells, and also inhibited the growth of HepG2 cells in vitro. In addition, our results indicated that BITC-β-CD complexes were able to inhibit the growth of S. aureus in broccoli juice and extend the shelf life of broccoli juice, demonstrating the potential of β-cyclodextrin to improve the stability and controlled release of BITC. Taken together, our results show that BITC-β-CD complexes have good potential for application in the food industry. Full article
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13 pages, 579 KiB  
Article
Forecasting Food Innovations with a Delphi Study
by Alexis Zickafoose, Peng Lu and Mathew Baker
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3723; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223723 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2561
Abstract
Food innovations can create novel nutritious food, improve agricultural sustainability, and increase the agri-food industry’s market profits. Our study proposes a consensus definition of food innovations and forecasts food innovations that will be available to consumers in the next five years by using [...] Read more.
Food innovations can create novel nutritious food, improve agricultural sustainability, and increase the agri-food industry’s market profits. Our study proposes a consensus definition of food innovations and forecasts food innovations that will be available to consumers in the next five years by using a Delphi study. Thirteen experts aged 35 to 85 from the US and the UK researching or working in agriculture and nutrition, public health, the agri-food industry, or food policy participated in three rounds of this Delphi study. The experts were chosen using the snowball sampling method. This study followed the implementation and data analysis guidelines popularized by the Rand Corporation. The consensus definition for food innovations (with 76.9% agreement) was that ‘food innovations aid in the development, production, or transportation of new food products, processes, or technology to promote human health, food security, or environmental sustainability’. The specific food innovations, which had over 69% agreement, are ranked as (1) plant-based meat alternatives, (2) personalized nutrition, (3) natural foods, (4) new genetically modified organisms, (5) regenerative agriculture, (6) urban agriculture, (7) packing innovations, (8) alternative flours, (9) improving shelf life, (10) supply chain technologies, (11) improved soil health, and (12) technology for traceability. The food innovation definition and identified specific food innovations could further connect the agricultural value chain to develop novel nutritious foods and improve agricultural sustainability. Agri-food industry specialists, practitioners, researchers, and policymakers can advance food innovation development and research pinpointing the specific food innovations along the agricultural value chain. Full article
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12 pages, 4486 KiB  
Article
Crosslinking Mechanism on a Novel Bacillus cereus Transglutaminase-Mediated Conjugation of Food Proteins
by Hongbin Wang, Yuanfu Zhang, Zhaoting Yuan, Xiaotong Zou, Yuan Ji, Jiayi Hou, Jinfang Zhang, Fuping Lu and Yihan Liu
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3722; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223722 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1561
Abstract
Until now, Streptoverticillium mobaraense transglutaminase (TG) is the only commercialized TG, but limited information is known about its selection tendency on crosslinking sites at the protein level, restricting its application in the food industry. Here, four recombinant Bacillus TGs were stable in a [...] Read more.
Until now, Streptoverticillium mobaraense transglutaminase (TG) is the only commercialized TG, but limited information is known about its selection tendency on crosslinking sites at the protein level, restricting its application in the food industry. Here, four recombinant Bacillus TGs were stable in a broad range of pH (5.0–9.0) and temperatures (<50 °C), exhibiting their maximum activity at 50–60 °C and pH 6.0–7.0. Among them, TG of B. cereus (BCETG) demonstrated the maximal specific activity of 177 U/mg. A structural analysis indicated that the Ala147-Ala156 region in the substrate tunnel of BCETG played a vital role in catalytic activity. Furthermore, bovine serum albumin, as well as nearly all protein ingredients in soy protein isolate and whey protein, could be cross-linked by BCETG, and the internal crosslinking paths of three protein substrates were elucidated. This study demonstrated Bacillus TGs are a candidate for protein crosslinking and provided their crosslinking mechanism at the protein level for applications in food processing. Full article
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13 pages, 592 KiB  
Article
Effects of Cyclocarya paliurus (Batal.) Extracts on Oxidative Stability and Sensory Quality in Meat Products (Frankfurters)
by Yingying Zhu, Xiaohan Li, Chunyan Da, Panyu Liang, Shuangshuang Jin and Changbo Tang
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3721; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223721 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1414
Abstract
Oxidation is one of the most common causes of the deterioration of meat and meat products. At the same time, synthetic antioxidants are becoming less accepted by consumers due to the potential health hazards they might cause. Therefore, a new trend to substitute [...] Read more.
Oxidation is one of the most common causes of the deterioration of meat and meat products. At the same time, synthetic antioxidants are becoming less accepted by consumers due to the potential health hazards they might cause. Therefore, a new trend to substitute these synthetic antioxidants with natural antioxidants has emerged. This study adds flavonoid extracts from Cyclocarya paliurus (C. paliurus) as a natural antioxidant for meat products (Frankfurters). The results showed that flavonoid extracts from C. paliurus had strong antioxidant and antibacterial activity. This is proportional to concentration, and the addition of extracts could significantly (p < 0.05) delay the lipid oxidation in the samples. In addition, we did not observe hazardous effects on the samples’ pH and texture as a result of adding flavonoid extracts. We observed that flavonoid extracts from C. paliurus at concentrations of 0.06% and 0.12% did not affect the color and sensory evaluation of the samples. At a concentration of 0.18% and 0.24%, the flavonoid extracts had a negative impact on the color and sensory evaluation of the samples, likely due to the yellow-brown color of the extract itself. The findings showed that a low concentration of 0.12% flavonoid extracts from C. paliurus in meat products could effectively prevent lipid oxidation without affecting the sensory quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Meat)
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15 pages, 1900 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Rice Degree of Milling Based on Bayesian Optimization and Multi-Scale Residual Model
by Weidong Chen, Wanyu Li and Ying Wang
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3720; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223720 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1575
Abstract
Traditional machine learning-based methods for the detection of rice degree of milling (DOM) that are not comprehensive in feature extraction and have low recognition rates fail to meet the demand for fast, non-destructive, and accurate detection. This paper presents a digital image processing [...] Read more.
Traditional machine learning-based methods for the detection of rice degree of milling (DOM) that are not comprehensive in feature extraction and have low recognition rates fail to meet the demand for fast, non-destructive, and accurate detection. This paper presents a digital image processing technology combined with deep learning to implement the classification of DOM of rice. An improved multi-scale information fusion model of the InceptionResNet–Bayesian optimization algorithm (IRBOA) was constructed based on the Inception-v3 structure and residual network (ResNet) model. It enables to automatically extract more comprehensive features of rice and determine the DOM of rice. Additionally, the important hyperparameters in the model were tuned by the BOA to optimize the recognition rate of rice DOM. The results show the hyperparameters optimized using the BOA are those that would not be chosen in manual tuning. The classification precision of the IRBOA model reached 99.22%, 94.92%, and 96.55% for well-milled, reasonably well-milled, and substandard rice, respectively, with an average accuracy of no less than 96.90%. This model improved 7.41% over the traditional machine learning model and at least 1.35% over the fashionable CNN model with strong generalization performance. This method effectively completes rapid, non-destructive, and accurate intelligent detection of rice DOM, which can supply a reliable and accurate technical mean for rice processing enterprises to guide the rice processing process. Full article
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10 pages, 2494 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Tocopherol Contents of Walnut Seed Oils Produced in Different European Countries Analyzed by HPLC-UV: A Comparative Study on the Basis of Geographical Origin
by Petros D. Mitsikaris, Lambros Kokokiris, Agathi Pritsa, Athanasios N. Papadopoulos and Natasa P. Kalogiouri
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3719; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223719 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2257
Abstract
A rapid HPLC-UV method was developed for the determination of tocopherols in walnut seed oils. The method was validated and the LODs ranged between 0.15 and 0.30 mg/kg, while the LOQs were calculated over the range of 0.50 to 1.00 mg/kg. The accuracy [...] Read more.
A rapid HPLC-UV method was developed for the determination of tocopherols in walnut seed oils. The method was validated and the LODs ranged between 0.15 and 0.30 mg/kg, while the LOQs were calculated over the range of 0.50 to 1.00 mg/kg. The accuracy values ranged between 90.8 and 97.1% for the within-day assay (n = 6) and between 90.4 and 95.8% for the between-day assay (n = 3 × 3), respectively. The precision of the method was evaluated and the RSD% values were lower than 6.1 and 8.2, respectively. Overall, 40 samples of walnuts available on the Greek market, originating from four different European countries (Greece, Ukraine, France, and Bulgaria), were processed into oils and analyzed. One-way ANOVA was implemented in order to investigate potential statistically significant disparities between the concentrations of tocopherols in the walnut oils on the basis of the geographical origin, and Tukey’s post hoc test was also performed to examine exactly which varieties differed. The statistical analysis of the results demonstrated that the Ukrainian walnut seed oils exhibited significantly higher total concentrations compared to the rest of the samples. Full article
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11 pages, 2150 KiB  
Article
Consumers Respond Positively to the Sensory, Health, and Sustainability Benefits of the Rare Sugar Allulose in Yogurt Formulations
by Margaux R. Mora, Zhixin Wang, Julie M. Goddard and Robin Dando
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3718; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223718 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2930
Abstract
Increased added sugar consumption is associated with type II diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. Low and no-calorie alternative sweeteners have long been used as an aid in the reduction of added sugar. Unfortunately, these alternative sweeteners often have notable sensory deficits when [...] Read more.
Increased added sugar consumption is associated with type II diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. Low and no-calorie alternative sweeteners have long been used as an aid in the reduction of added sugar. Unfortunately, these alternative sweeteners often have notable sensory deficits when compared to sucrose. Furthermore, many alternative sweeteners have synthetic origins, while consumers are increasingly turning to foods from natural origins, and from more sustainable sources. Such sweeteners include the rare sugar allulose, which can be manufactured from common agricultural waste and dairy co-product streams, and is reported to have a sensory profile similar to sucrose. This study aimed to determine the influence of the rare sugar allulose on consumer perception of sweetened vanilla yogurt. Participants were recruited to evaluate 4 vanilla yogurts sweetened with either sucrose, allulose, stevia or sucralose, and to rate their liking of the samples overall, and for flavor, texture, and their purchase intent. Statistical analysis of hedonic data from 100 consumers suggested that allulose performed similarly to sucrose in liking and purchase intent, and superior to other sweeteners tested in this study, with fewer off-flavors. Moreover, when consumers were queried on their purchase intent after learning details on the sweetener for each formulation, allulose scored significantly higher than all other formulations in purchase intent. This study highlights the potential of the rare sugar allulose as a low calorie, zero glycemic index, natural and better tasting sugar replacement in sweetened yogurt. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioactives and Ingredients from Agri-Food Wastes)
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