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Foods, Volume 11, Issue 17 (September-1 2022) – 176 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Durum wheat oil can be considered the “second life” of durum wheat milling by-products. The study aimed to use it in the preparation of a traditional Italian flat bread, focaccia, to compare its performance with the commonly used ingredients of olive oil and sunflower oil. Durum wheat oil boasted the highest content of tocotrienols (1020 mg/kg) and n-3 PUFA (5.06%). Focaccia made using durum wheat oil was less resistant to oxidation than focaccia containing olive oil (with the latter being richer in monounsaturated fatty acids and phenolic compounds) but showed higher resistance to oxidation than focaccia made using sunflower oil. The levels of hexanal, nonanal, and all polar compounds derived from lipid oxidation followed the same trend. Durum wheat oil is therefore a promising alternative to other refined oils. View this paper
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14 pages, 2115 KiB  
Article
Effect of Polishing on Lead and Cadmium Bioavailability in Rice and Its Health Implications
Foods 2022, 11(17), 2718; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11172718 - 05 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1634
Abstract
Rice polishing is an important approach to reducing the concentrations of heavy metals in rice, but knowledge of its effect on the Pb and Cd bioavailability in produced rice and the related health risk remains limited. In this study, the effects of rice [...] Read more.
Rice polishing is an important approach to reducing the concentrations of heavy metals in rice, but knowledge of its effect on the Pb and Cd bioavailability in produced rice and the related health risk remains limited. In this study, the effects of rice polishing on the bioaccessibility (BAC) and bioavailability (RBA) of Pb and Cd in rice are assessed using an in vitro method and an in vivo mouse bioassay. The Pb removal rate in brown rice (40%), lightly processed brown rice (62%), germinated rice (74%), and polished rice (79%) gradually enhanced with an increase in the polishing degree, while Cd was difficult to remove by polishing. The Pb and Cd BAC in germinated rice was the highest, while that in brown rice was the lowest. The polished rice Pb and Cd RBA in the liver and kidneys were significantly higher than those in the brown rice group. The Pb RBA in the livers and kidneys in the polished rice group was 26.6% ± 1.68% and 65.3% ± 0.83%, respectively, which was 1.6- and 2.6-times higher than that in the brown rice group, respectively. The Cd RBA values in both the livers and kidneys of the polished rice group were 1.3-times higher than those in the brown rice group. Although polishing reduced the total Pb in the polished rice, it was not enough to offset the increase in bioavailability, and its consumption risk was not weakened. This study highlighted the value of the oral-bioavailability-corrected health risk assessment for assessing the influence of rice polishing on Pb and Cd exposure via rice consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Grain)
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14 pages, 2326 KiB  
Article
Impacts of Thermal Processing, High Pressure, and CO2-Assisted High Pressure on Quality Characteristics and Shelf Life of Durian Fruit Puree
Foods 2022, 11(17), 2717; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11172717 - 05 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1485
Abstract
Durian fruit puree (DFP) is a nutrient-dense food, but it has a short shelf life. Presently, little research has been undertaken on extending the shelf life of DFP. Hence, it is necessary to develop treatment methods that can prolong the shelf life of [...] Read more.
Durian fruit puree (DFP) is a nutrient-dense food, but it has a short shelf life. Presently, little research has been undertaken on extending the shelf life of DFP. Hence, it is necessary to develop treatment methods that can prolong the shelf life of DFP. In the present study, thermal processing (TP), high-pressure processing (HPP), and CO2-assisted HPP (CO2 + HPP) treatments are used for DFP, and their influences on quality properties of DFP during storage (35 days, 4 °C) are investigated. Compared to other treatments, the CO2 + HPP treatment had a lower pressure and a shorter time to achieve the same effect of inactivating the microorganisms of DFP. During storage, CO2 + HPP treated DFP showed higher retention rates of sugars, total soluble solids, color, bioactive components, and antioxidant capacity in comparison with other treated DFPs. Moreover, after 35 days of storage, the microbial count of (CO2 + HPP)-treated DFP (3.80 × 103 CFU/g) was much lower than those of TP (4.77 × 105 CFU/g) and HPP (8.53 × 103 CFU/g)-treated DFPs. The results of this study reveal that CO2 + HPP treatment could not only better preserve the quality of DFP, but also effectively extend the shelf life of DFP, providing an effective method for the processing of DFP. Full article
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29 pages, 2749 KiB  
Article
Blockchain-Enabled Supply Chain platform for Indian Dairy Industry: Safety and Traceability
Foods 2022, 11(17), 2716; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11172716 - 05 Sep 2022
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 6983
Abstract
Conventional food supply chains are centralized in nature and possess challenges pertaining to a single point of failure, product irregularities, quality compromises, and loss of data. Numerous cases of food fraud, contamination, and adulteration are daily reported from multiple parts of India, suggesting [...] Read more.
Conventional food supply chains are centralized in nature and possess challenges pertaining to a single point of failure, product irregularities, quality compromises, and loss of data. Numerous cases of food fraud, contamination, and adulteration are daily reported from multiple parts of India, suggesting the absolute need for an upgraded decentralized supply chain model. A country such as India, where its biggest strength is its demographic dividend, cannot afford to malnutrition a large population of its children by allowing them to consume contaminated and adulterated dairy products. In view of the gravity of the situation, we propose a blockchain-enabled supply chain platform for the dairy industry. With respect to the supply chain platform, the dairy products of choice include milk, cheese, and butter. Blockchain is one of the fastest growing technologies having widespread acceptance across multiple industry verticals. Blockchain possesses the power to transform traditional supply chains into decentralized, robust, transparent, tamper proof, and sustainable supply chains. The proposed supply chain platform goes beyond the aspect of food traceability and focuses on maintaining the nutritional values of dairy products, identification of adulteration and contamination in dairy products, the increasing economic viability of running a dairy farm, preventing counterfeit dairy products, and enhancing the revenue of the dairy company. The paper collates the mentioned functionalities into four distinct impact dimensions: social, economic, operations, and sustainability. The proposed blockchain-enabled dairy supply chain platform combines the use of smart contracts, quick response code (QR code) technology, and IoT and has the potential to redefine the dairy supply chains on socio-economic, operational, and sustainability parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Fraud and Food Authenticity across the Food Supply Chain)
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15 pages, 2277 KiB  
Article
Comparative Transcriptomic Analyses Reveal the Regulatory Mechanism of Nutrient Limitation-Induced Sporulation of Antrodia cinnamomea in Submerged Fermentation
Foods 2022, 11(17), 2715; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11172715 - 05 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1462
Abstract
Antrodia cinnamomea is a precious edible and medicinal mushroom with various biological activities, such as hepatoprotection, antitumor, antivirus, immunoregulation, and intestinal flora regulation. However, the wild fruiting bodies of A. cinnamomea are scarce and expensive. Submerged fermentation based on spore inoculation has become [...] Read more.
Antrodia cinnamomea is a precious edible and medicinal mushroom with various biological activities, such as hepatoprotection, antitumor, antivirus, immunoregulation, and intestinal flora regulation. However, the wild fruiting bodies of A. cinnamomea are scarce and expensive. Submerged fermentation based on spore inoculation has become the most efficient and popular artificial culture method for A. cinnamomea. In order to complement the mechanism of asexual sporulation of A. cinnamomea in submerged fermentation, and provide a theoretical basis to further improve the sporulation, comparative transcriptomics analysis using RNA-seq and RT-qPCR were conducted on A. cinnamomea mycelia cultured under different nutritional conditions to reveal the regulatory mechanism underlying the asexual sporulation induced by nutrient limitation. The obtained mechanism is as follows: under nitrogen starvation, the corresponding sensors transmit signals to genes, such as areA and tmpA, and promote their expression. Among these genes, AreA has a direct or indirect effect on flbD and promotes its expression, further enhancing the expression of brlA. Meanwhile, TmpA has a direct or indirect effect on brlA and promotes its expression; under carbon starvation, transport protein Rco-3, as a glucose sensor, directly or indirectly transmits signals to brlA and promotes its expression. BrlA promotes the expression of abaA gene, which further enhances the expression of wetA gene, and wetA then directly leads to asexual sporulation and promotes spore maturation; meanwhile, gulC can also promote cell autolysis, which provides energy and raw materials for sporulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Brewing Technology and Brewing Microorganisms)
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19 pages, 729 KiB  
Review
Underreported Human Exposure to Mycotoxins: The Case of South Africa
Foods 2022, 11(17), 2714; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11172714 - 05 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2078
Abstract
South Africa (SA) is a leading exporter of maize in Africa. The commercial maize farming sector contributes to about 85% of the overall maize produced. More than 33% of South Africa’s population live in rural settlements, and their livelihoods depend entirely on subsistence [...] Read more.
South Africa (SA) is a leading exporter of maize in Africa. The commercial maize farming sector contributes to about 85% of the overall maize produced. More than 33% of South Africa’s population live in rural settlements, and their livelihoods depend entirely on subsistence farming. The subsistence farming system promotes fungal growth and mycotoxin production. This review aims to investigate the exposure levels of the rural population of South Africa to dietary mycotoxins contrary to several reports issued concerning the safety of South African maize. A systematic search was conducted using Google Scholar. Maize is a staple food in South Africa and consumption rates in rural and urban communities are different, for instance, intake may be 1–2 kg/person/day and 400 g/person/day, respectively. Commercial and subsistence maize farming techniques are different. There exist differences influencing the composition of mycotoxins in food commodities from both sectors. Depending on the levels of contamination, dietary exposure of South Africans to mycotoxins is evident in the high levels of fumonisins (FBs) that have been detected in SA home-grown maize. Other potential sources of exposure to mycotoxins, such as carryover effects from animal products and processed foods, were reviewed. The combined effects between FBs and aflatoxins (AFs) have been reported in humans/animals and should not be ignored, as sporadic breakouts of aflatoxicosis have been reported in South Africa. These reports are not a true representation of the entire country as reports from the subsistence-farming rural communities show high incidence of maize contaminated with both AFs and FBs. While commercial farmers and exporters have all the resources needed to perform laboratory analyses of maize products, the greater challenge in combatting mycotoxin exposure is encountered in rural communities with predominantly subsistence farming systems, where conventional food surveillance is lacking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Toxicology)
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24 pages, 6829 KiB  
Article
Effect of Different Cooking Methods on Nutrients, Antioxidant Activities and Flavors of Three Varieties of Lentinus edodes
Foods 2022, 11(17), 2713; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11172713 - 05 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2678
Abstract
This work evaluated the effect of different cooking methods (boiling, steaming, microwaving, frying and pressure cooking) on the nutrients, antioxidant activities, volatile and nonvolatile taste-active components of three varieties of Lentinus edodes (808, 0912 and LM) from Guizhou Province. The results showed that [...] Read more.
This work evaluated the effect of different cooking methods (boiling, steaming, microwaving, frying and pressure cooking) on the nutrients, antioxidant activities, volatile and nonvolatile taste-active components of three varieties of Lentinus edodes (808, 0912 and LM) from Guizhou Province. The results showed that LM had the most polysaccharides, 0912 had the most minerals, but LM, 808 and 0912 had low amounts of polyphenols, dietary fiber and proteins, respectively. The dietary fiber and protein were decreased by 4.1~38.7% and 4.1~44.0% during cooking, while microwaving improved the nutritional value of the Lentinus edodes by increasing the polysaccharide (88~103 mg/g to 93~105 mg/g) and polyphenol content (6.4~8.1 mg/g to 7.5~11.2 mg/g), thereby strengthening the antioxidant activity. The nucleotides were all destroyed after cooking, especially frying or boiling. The glutamate content was the highest in LM and 808, and the methionine content appeared to be the highest in 0912. Pressure cooking and frying increased the proportions of sweet and umami amino acids and decreased the proportion of bitter amino acids, creating more aroma-active compounds. In summary, microwaving increased the content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities, and it preserved nonvolatile taste-active components, while pressure cooking and frying were the best methods for increasing the flavor compounds. Full article
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12 pages, 852 KiB  
Article
Post-Harvest LED Light Irradiation Affects Firmness, Bioactive Substances, and Amino Acid Compositions in Chili Pepper (Capsicum annum L.)
Foods 2022, 11(17), 2712; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11172712 - 05 Sep 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2150
Abstract
Chili pepper is an important vegetable and spice crop with high post-harvest deteriorations in terms of commercial and nutritional quality. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are eco-friendly light sources with various light spectra that have been demonstrated to improve the shelf-life of various vegetables by [...] Read more.
Chili pepper is an important vegetable and spice crop with high post-harvest deteriorations in terms of commercial and nutritional quality. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are eco-friendly light sources with various light spectra that have been demonstrated to improve the shelf-life of various vegetables by manipulating light quality; however, little is known about their effects on the post-harvest nutritional quality of chili peppers. This study investigated the effects of different LED lightings on the post-harvest firmness and nutritional quality of chili peppers. We found that red and blue light could increase the content of capsaicinoids, whereas white and red light could increase the essential and aromatic amino acid (AA) content in pepper. Nonetheless, the influence of light treatments on AA contents and compositions depends strongly on the pepper genotype, which was reflected by total AA content, single AA content, essential AA ratio, delicious AA ratio, etc., that change under different light treatments. Additionally, light affected fruit firmness and the content of nutrients such as chlorophyll, vitamin C, and total carotenoids, to varying degrees, depending on pepper genotypes. Thus, our findings indicate that LED-light irradiation is an efficient and promising strategy for preserving or improving the post-harvest commercial and nutritional quality of pepper fruit. Full article
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21 pages, 5462 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Phosphorylation and Microwave Treatment on the Functional Characteristics of Freeze-Dried Egg White Powder
Foods 2022, 11(17), 2711; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11172711 - 05 Sep 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1686
Abstract
The effects of phosphorylation pre-treatments at 1.5, 2.5, and 3.5% levels, as well as microwave application at 200, 400, and 700 watts levels for 2 min, on the functional parameters of egg white powder obtained by the freeze dryer procedure were investigated. P1.5-M200 [...] Read more.
The effects of phosphorylation pre-treatments at 1.5, 2.5, and 3.5% levels, as well as microwave application at 200, 400, and 700 watts levels for 2 min, on the functional parameters of egg white powder obtained by the freeze dryer procedure were investigated. P1.5-M200 had the highest oil-holding capacity, emulsion stability, and emulsion activity, while P2.5-M200 had the highest foam capacity. The P2.5-M400 had the largest particle size, and P3.5-M200 had the highest degree of phosphorylation and protein solubility. On the other hand, P3.5-M200 had the highest solution viscosity by 1% (w/v), water-holding capacity, and foam stability, in the treatments that used phosphorylation and microwave treatment simultaneously. FTIR spectroscopy of the unfolding structure of egg white protein revealed changes in the protein’s secondary structure, such as the development of β-sheets and β-turns, as well as the binding of negatively charged phosphate groups on the serine, threonine, and tyrosine side chains. The phosphorylation and microwave treatments reduced the particle size of the egg white protein powder while increasing the surface area of the protein molecules, according to SEM analyses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Egg Protein: Structure and Function)
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14 pages, 2075 KiB  
Article
Comparative Studies on the Physicochemical and Volatile Flavour Properties of Traditional Deep Fried and Circulating-Air Fried Hairtail (Trichiurus lepturus)
Foods 2022, 11(17), 2710; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11172710 - 05 Sep 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1760
Abstract
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of deep frying (DF) and air frying (AF) on the quality and flavour profile of hairtail (Trichiurus lepturus) fillets. The changes of some physicochemical indices such as moisture content, oil content, [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of deep frying (DF) and air frying (AF) on the quality and flavour profile of hairtail (Trichiurus lepturus) fillets. The changes of some physicochemical indices such as moisture content, oil content, colour, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and peroxide values (POV) in hairtail fillets were detected with increasing frying time. According to these physicochemical indices and sensory evaluation, deep frying for 7 min under 190 °C (DF7) and air frying for 24 min under 190 °C (AF24) were selected as samples for their great quality. The flavour fingerprint of hairtail (Raw, DF7, AF24) was developed and volatile compounds were investigated by HS-GC-IMS. A total of 28 volatile substances including aldehydes, alcohols, ketones and others were identified both in the DF7 and AF24 samples. There are differences in the aroma fingerprint between the DF7 and AF24 samples. DF was characterised by 2-Heptanone, (E)-2-Heptenal, 2-Pentyfuran and 1-Pentanol, AF was characterised by 2-methylbutanol, Ethyl methyl ketone-M and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone. These findings suggest that the aroma of hairtail fillets after DF7 and AF24 was significantly different and supply flavour information and practical applications of the fried hairtail fillets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry)
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15 pages, 2350 KiB  
Article
Optimized Cellulase-Hydrolyzed Deoiled Coconut Cake Powder as Wheat Flour Substitute in Cookies
Foods 2022, 11(17), 2709; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11172709 - 05 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1749
Abstract
Deoiled coconut cake powder (DCCP) was hydrolyzed to reduce the ratio of insoluble/soluble dietary fiber (RIS) by partially converting insoluble dietary fiber to soluble using Celluclast 1.5 L, a commercial cellulase preparation in citrate buffer medium. Firstly, the influence of citrate buffer amount, [...] Read more.
Deoiled coconut cake powder (DCCP) was hydrolyzed to reduce the ratio of insoluble/soluble dietary fiber (RIS) by partially converting insoluble dietary fiber to soluble using Celluclast 1.5 L, a commercial cellulase preparation in citrate buffer medium. Firstly, the influence of citrate buffer amount, enzyme concentration, pH, and retention time on the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency was investigated. Then, response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the process in which the insoluble and soluble dietary fiber contents were the responses. The results revealed that 10.3 g buffer/g of materials, 3.7 U/g of the materials, and 60 min of retention time were the optimal conditions for the enzymatic hydrolysis to obtain the insoluble and soluble contents of 68.21%db and 8.18%db, respectively. Finally, DCCP or hydrolyzed DCCP (HDCCP) was partially substituted for wheat flour at different replacement ratios in a cookie recipe at 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40%. The cookies with a 10% replacement ratio of hydrolyzed deoiled coconut cake powders had a lower RIS by more than two folds those of DCCP and had the same sensorial score as the control sample. This study proposed that Celluclast 1.5 L effectively reduced RIS by partially converting insoluble to soluble dietary fiber, improving the soluble dietary fiber content in fiber-enriched cookies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Biotechnology)
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21 pages, 5081 KiB  
Article
Correlation and Difference between Core Micro-Organisms and Volatile Compounds of Suan Rou from Six Regions of China
Foods 2022, 11(17), 2708; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11172708 - 05 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1510
Abstract
Suan Rou (SR), a traditional fermented meat, is widely favored by consumers due to its unique flavor and characteristics. To study the relationship between the core differential micro-organisms and differential volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of SR from six regions of China, high-throughput sequencing [...] Read more.
Suan Rou (SR), a traditional fermented meat, is widely favored by consumers due to its unique flavor and characteristics. To study the relationship between the core differential micro-organisms and differential volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of SR from six regions of China, high-throughput sequencing (HTS) and gas-chromatography–ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS) technologies were used to analyze the correlation between micro-organisms and VOCs in SR from Xiangxi of Hunan, Rongshui of Guangxi, Zunyi of Guizhou, Jinping of Guizhou, Congjiang of Guizhou, and Libo of Guizhou. A total of 13 core micro-organisms were identified at the genus level. Moreover, 95 VOCs were identified in the SR samples by GC-IMS analysis, with alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and esters comprising the major VOCs among all the samples. The results showed a strong correlation (|r| > 0.8, p < 0.05) between the core differential micro-organisms and differential VOCs, including four bacteria, five fungi, and 12 VOCs. Pediococcus, Debaryomyces, Zygosaccharomyces, and Candida significantly contributed to the unique VOCs of SR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Factors Affecting Flavour, Taste and Colour of Meat)
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13 pages, 1084 KiB  
Perspective
NMR-Based Metabolomics to Decipher the Molecular Mechanisms in the Action of Gut-Modulating Foods
Foods 2022, 11(17), 2707; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11172707 - 05 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2040
Abstract
Metabolomics deals with uncovering and characterizing metabolites present in a biological system, and is a leading omics discipline as it provides the nearest link to the biological phenotype. Within food and nutrition, metabolomics applied to fecal samples and bio-fluids has become an important [...] Read more.
Metabolomics deals with uncovering and characterizing metabolites present in a biological system, and is a leading omics discipline as it provides the nearest link to the biological phenotype. Within food and nutrition, metabolomics applied to fecal samples and bio-fluids has become an important tool to obtain insight into how food and food components may exert gut-modulating effects. This review aims to highlight how nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics in food and nutrition science may help us get beyond where we are today in understanding foods’ inherent, or added, biofunctionalities in relation to gut health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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13 pages, 2309 KiB  
Article
Effects of High Voltage Atmospheric Cold Plasma Treatment on the Number of Microorganisms and the Quality of Trachinotus ovatus during Refrigerator Storage
Foods 2022, 11(17), 2706; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11172706 - 05 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1619
Abstract
In order to investigate the effects of high voltage atmospheric cold plasma (HVACP) treatment on the number of microorganisms in and the quality of Trachinotus ovatus during refrigerator storage, fresh fish was packaged with gases CO2:O2:N2 (80%:10%:10%) and [...] Read more.
In order to investigate the effects of high voltage atmospheric cold plasma (HVACP) treatment on the number of microorganisms in and the quality of Trachinotus ovatus during refrigerator storage, fresh fish was packaged with gases CO2:O2:N2 (80%:10%:10%) and treated by HVACP at 75 kV for 3 min; then, the samples were stored at 4 ± 1 °C for nine days. The microbial numbers, water content, color value, texture, pH value, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), and total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) values of the fish were analyzed during storage. The results showed the growth of the total viable bacteria (TVB), psychrophilic bacteria, Pseudomonas spp., H2S-producing bacteria, yeast, and lactic acid bacteria in the treated samples was limited, and they were 1.11, 1.01, 1.04, 1.13, 0.77, and 0.80 log CFU/g−1 lower than those in the control group after nine days of storage, respectively. The hardness, springiness, and chewiness of the treated fish decreased slowly as the storage time extended, and no significant changes in either pH or water content were found. The lightness (L*) value increased and the yellowness (b*) value decreased after treatment, while no changes in the redness (a*) value were found. The TBARS and TVB-N of the treated samples increased to 0.79 mg/kg and 21.99 mg/100 g, respectively, after nine days of refrigerator storage. In conclusion, HVACP can limit the growth of the main microorganisms in fish samples effectively during nine days of refrigerator storage with no significant negative impact on their quality. Therefore, HVACP is a useful nonthermal technology to extend the refrigerator shelf-life of Trachinotus ovatus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies—2nd Volume)
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14 pages, 2861 KiB  
Article
Changes in Caprine Milk Fat Globule Membrane Proteins after Heat Treatment Using a Label-Free Proteomics Technique
Foods 2022, 11(17), 2705; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11172705 - 05 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1647
Abstract
Milk proteins are prone to changes during the heat treatment process. Here, we aimed to study the changes in caprine milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins with three heat treatment processes—ultra-pasteurization (85 °C, 30 min), ultra-high-temperature instant sterilization (135 °C, 5 s), and [...] Read more.
Milk proteins are prone to changes during the heat treatment process. Here, we aimed to study the changes in caprine milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins with three heat treatment processes—ultra-pasteurization (85 °C, 30 min), ultra-high-temperature instant sterilization (135 °C, 5 s), and spray-drying (inlet, 160 °C and outlet, 80 °C)—using the label-free proteomics technique. A total of 1015, 637, 508, and 738 proteins were identified in the raw milk, ultra-pasteurized milk, ultra-high-temperature instant sterilized milk, and spray-dried reconstituted milk by using label-free proteomics techniques, respectively. Heat treatment resulted in a significant decrease in the relative intensity of MFGM proteins, such as xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase, butyrophilin subfamily 1 member A, stomatin, and SEA domain-containing protein, which mainly come from the membrane, while the proteins in skimmed milk, such as β-lactoglobulin, casein, and osteopontin, increased in MFGM after heat treatment. Among these different heat treatment groups, the procedure of spray-drying resulted in the least abundance reduction of caprine milk MFGM proteins. Additionally, it showed heating is the key process affecting the stability of caprine MFGM protein rather than the spray-drying process. These findings provide new insights into the effects of heat treatment on caprine MFGM protein composition and potential biological functions. Full article
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21 pages, 1325 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Nutrition and Flavor Characteristics of Five Breeds of Pork in China
Foods 2022, 11(17), 2704; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11172704 - 05 Sep 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1820
Abstract
To characterize the quality of widely consumed pork in China, the chemical compositions and other indexes of five breeds of pork were compared. The results indicated that the moisture content, sensory flavor, and overall acceptability of Pipa pork (PPP) were superior to other [...] Read more.
To characterize the quality of widely consumed pork in China, the chemical compositions and other indexes of five breeds of pork were compared. The results indicated that the moisture content, sensory flavor, and overall acceptability of Pipa pork (PPP) were superior to other breeds. The fat content and essential amino acids (EAA) of Yihao native pork (YNP) were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than in other breeds. The protein content, the total amount of amino acids, and perceptible flavor of Tibetan black pork (TBP) were higher than in other breeds. The protein nutrition profiles of manor black pork (MBP) and TBP were better than in others. The equivalent umami concentration (EUC) value of white pork (WP) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than in others; however, the health risk of its fatty acid content was higher. There were unique protein and flavor chemicals in YNP, TBP, and PPP, which may be useful for distinguishing their authenticity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Meat)
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15 pages, 962 KiB  
Review
Food and Gut Microbiota-Derived Metabolites in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Foods 2022, 11(17), 2703; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11172703 - 05 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2878
Abstract
Diet and lifestyle are crucial factors that influence the susceptibility of humans to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Personalized diet patterns chronically affect the composition and activity of microbiota in the human gut; consequently, nutrition-related dysbiosis exacerbates NAFLD via the gut–liver axis. Recent [...] Read more.
Diet and lifestyle are crucial factors that influence the susceptibility of humans to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Personalized diet patterns chronically affect the composition and activity of microbiota in the human gut; consequently, nutrition-related dysbiosis exacerbates NAFLD via the gut–liver axis. Recent advances in diagnostic technology for gut microbes and microbiota-derived metabolites have led to advances in the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of NAFLD. Microbiota-derived metabolites, including tryptophan, short-chain fatty acid, fat, fructose, or bile acid, regulate the pathophysiology of NAFLD. The microbiota metabolize nutrients, and metabolites are closely related to the development of NAFLD. In this review, we discuss the influence of nutrients, gut microbes, their corresponding metabolites, and metabolism in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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23 pages, 882 KiB  
Article
The Bioaccessibility and Antioxidant Activities of Fermented Mango Cultivar Juices after Simulated In Vitro Digestion
Foods 2022, 11(17), 2702; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11172702 - 05 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2495
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the bioaccessibilities of total phenolic compounds, carotenoid profile, antioxidant activity, and Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) survival in fermented mango juice (MJs) obtained from three mango cultivars after exposure to an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model. [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the bioaccessibilities of total phenolic compounds, carotenoid profile, antioxidant activity, and Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) survival in fermented mango juice (MJs) obtained from three mango cultivars after exposure to an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model. The MJs from three cultivars (‘Sabre’, ‘Peach’, and ‘Tommy Atkins’) were fermented using Lactiplantibacillus plantarum 75 (L75), Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides 56 (L56), and their combination (L56 + 75). Fermented MJs were digested and fractions: gastric (GF), intestinal (IF), and dialysis (DF) were analyzed for total polyphenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity (FRAP), 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and 2.2-azinobis-3-ethyl-benzothiazoline–6-sulfonic acid (ABTS). In addition, the carotenoid content and the LAB population were determined from the GF and IF. After digestion, TPC decreased while fermentation improved its bioaccessibility. L75-fermented ‘Sabre’ MJs had the highest bioaccessible TPC in the GF (75.65%), IF (50.10%), and DF (32.52%) while L56 ‘Peach’ MJs increased the β-carotene bioaccessibility by 1.32-fold at GF and IF (1.21-fold). When compared to the other two juices, ‘Sabre’ and ‘Peach’ MJs fermented with L75 showed the highest IC50 values for DPPH and ABTS. Generally, L75-fermented ‘Sabre’ MJs had the highest LAB survival at both GF (7.57 Log CFU/mL) and IF (7.45 Log CFU/mL) and hold potential as probiotic juices. L56-fermented ‘Sabre’ MJs would ensure the delivery of four times the carotenoid recommended dietary allowance (RDA) to a target site in the body while L75-fermented ‘Peach’ MJs could be used to effectively counteract oxidants in the body system. Full article
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14 pages, 4661 KiB  
Article
Effect of Stable Chlorine Dioxide and Vacuum-Packing Treatments on the Physicochemical and Volatile Flavor Properties of Pike Eel (Muraenesox cinereus) during Chilled Storage
Foods 2022, 11(17), 2701; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11172701 - 05 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1355
Abstract
The effects of vacuum-packaging and stable chlorine dioxide treatments on the quality of pike-eel fillets were investigated during chilled storage for a period of up to 10 days. The results reveal that the sensory scores, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) content, total viable [...] Read more.
The effects of vacuum-packaging and stable chlorine dioxide treatments on the quality of pike-eel fillets were investigated during chilled storage for a period of up to 10 days. The results reveal that the sensory scores, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) content, total viable count (TVC), malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and the myofibrillar protein (MP) content of pike-eel fillets with different packing treatments all decreased significantly over 10 days of storage. However, the vacuum-packaging and stable chlorine dioxide pretreatment showed positive effects on the protein stability of pike-eel samples. Compared with the simple packaging (SP) and vacuum packing (VP) treatments, the combination treatments (CP) significantly inhibited the rapid increases in the TVB-N content, TVC values, and MDA content. Moreover, the comparative stability in the MP and its carbonyl content were maintained. Furthermore, our volatile organic compounds (VOCs) analysis confirmed that the combined packaging treatments significantly hindered protein and lipid oxidation, inhibited the growth of spoilage bacteria, and maintained the volatile flavors of pike-eel samples during chilled storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Foods of Marine Origin)
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17 pages, 2748 KiB  
Article
Effects of Auricularia auricula Polysaccharides on Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Phenotype in Mice
Foods 2022, 11(17), 2700; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11172700 - 04 Sep 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2237
Abstract
Personalized diets change the internal metabolism of organisms, which, in turn, affects the health of the body; this study was performed to explore the regulatory effects of polysaccharides extracted from Auricularia auricula on the overall metabolism and gut microbiota in normal C57BL/6J mice. [...] Read more.
Personalized diets change the internal metabolism of organisms, which, in turn, affects the health of the body; this study was performed to explore the regulatory effects of polysaccharides extracted from Auricularia auricula on the overall metabolism and gut microbiota in normal C57BL/6J mice. The study was conducted using metabolomic and microbiomic methods to provide a scientific basis for further development and use of Auricularia auricula resources in the Qinba Mountains and in nutritional food with Auricularia auricula polysaccharides (AAP) as the main functional component. Based on LC-MS/MS metabolomic results, 51 AAP-regulated metabolites were found, mainly enriched in the arginine biosynthesis pathway, which had the highest correlation, followed by the following metabolisms: arginine and proline; glycine, serine and threonine; and glycerophospholipid, along with the sphingolipid metabolism pathway. Furthermore, supplementation of AAP significantly changed the composition of the mice intestinal flora. The relative abundance levels of Lactobacillus johnsonii, Weissella cibaria, Kosakonia cowanii, Enterococcus faecalis, Bifidobacterium animalis and Bacteroides uniformis were markedly up-regulated, while the relative abundance of Firmicutes bacterium M10-2 was down-regulated. The bioactivities of AAP may be related to the regulatory effects of endogenous metabolism and gut microbiota composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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13 pages, 2936 KiB  
Article
Harnessing the Full Power of Chemometric-Based Analysis of Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectral Data to Boost the Identification of Seafood Provenance and Fishing Areas
Foods 2022, 11(17), 2699; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11172699 - 04 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1919
Abstract
Provenance and traceability are crucial aspects of seafood safety, supporting managers and regulators, and allowing consumers to have clear information about the origin of the seafood products they consume. In the present study, we developed an innovative spectral approach based on total reflection [...] Read more.
Provenance and traceability are crucial aspects of seafood safety, supporting managers and regulators, and allowing consumers to have clear information about the origin of the seafood products they consume. In the present study, we developed an innovative spectral approach based on total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectroscopy to identify the provenance of seafood and present a case study for five economically relevant marine species harvested in different areas of the Atlantic Portuguese coast: three bony fish—Merluccius merluccius, Scomber colias, and Sparus aurata; one elasmobranch—Raja clavata; one cephalopod—Octopus vulgaris. Applying a first-order Savitzky–Golay transformation to the TXRF spectra reduced the potential matrix physical effects on the light scattering of the X-ray beam while maintaining the spectral differences inherent to the chemical composition of the samples. Furthermore, a variable importance in projection partial least-squares discriminant analysis (VIP-PLS-DA), with k − 1 components (where k is the number of geographical origins of each seafood species), produced robust high-quality models of classification of samples according to their geographical origin, with several clusters well-evidenced in the dispersion plots of all species. Four of the five species displayed models with an overall classification above 80.0%, whereas the lowest classification accuracy for S. aurata was 74.2%. Notably, about 10% of the spectral features that significantly contribute to class differentiation are shared among all species. The results obtained suggest that TXRF spectra can be used for traceability purposes in seafood species (from bony and cartilaginous fishes to cephalopods) and that the presented chemometric approach has an added value for coupling with classic TXRF spectral peak deconvolution and elemental quantification, allowing characterization of the geographical origin of samples, providing a highly accurate and informative dataset in terms of food safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
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14 pages, 1271 KiB  
Article
Development and Characterization of a Novel Sustainable Probiotic Goat Whey Cheese Containing Second Cheese Whey Powder and Stabilized with Thyme Essential Oil and Sodium Citrate
Foods 2022, 11(17), 2698; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11172698 - 04 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1583
Abstract
Probiotic goat whey cheeses with added second cheese whey powder (SCWP) were developed, resulting in creamy and spreadable products. The products contained Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium animalis, as well as thyme essential oil and sodium citrate. Matrices of probiotic whey cheeses, with [...] Read more.
Probiotic goat whey cheeses with added second cheese whey powder (SCWP) were developed, resulting in creamy and spreadable products. The products contained Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium animalis, as well as thyme essential oil and sodium citrate. Matrices of probiotic whey cheeses, with and without additives, were produced and stored at 5 °C for 21 days. Microbial and chemical profiles were evaluated weekly. The composition of the optimum matrix, formulated with whey cheese, probiotic culture, SCWP, thyme essential oil and sodium citrate (WCPSTC) was, expressed in % (w/w): protein (10.78 ± 0.08), fat (7.59 ± 0.03), dry matter (25.64 ± 0.13), ash (2.81 ± 0.02) and lactose (3.16 ± 0.04). Viable cell numbers of both probiotic cultures in matrix WCPSTC remained above 107 CFU g−1. This finding is of the utmost importance since it proves that both probiotic bacteria, citrate and thyme essential oil can be combined in order to increase the shelf-life and functional value of dairy products. All matrices’ pH values decreased during storage, yet only matrix WCPSTC remained above 5.0 pH units. The results indicated that the development of a probiotic whey cheese incorporating a dairy by-product, SCWP, is possible without compromising its chemical, microbiological or sensorial stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel and Green Processing Technology Applied in Dairy Products)
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20 pages, 1126 KiB  
Article
Optimization of a Calcium-Based Treatment Method for Jellyfish to Design Food for the Future
Foods 2022, 11(17), 2697; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11172697 - 04 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1530
Abstract
Edible jellyfish are a traditional Southeast Asian food, usually prepared as a rehydrated product using a salt and alum mixture, whereas they are uncommon in Western Countries and considered as a novel food in Europe. Here, a recently developed, new approach for jellyfish [...] Read more.
Edible jellyfish are a traditional Southeast Asian food, usually prepared as a rehydrated product using a salt and alum mixture, whereas they are uncommon in Western Countries and considered as a novel food in Europe. Here, a recently developed, new approach for jellyfish processing and stabilization with calcium salt brining was upgraded by modifying the pre-treatment step of freshly caught jellyfish and successfully applied to several edible species. Treated jellyfish obtained by the application of the optimized version of this method respected both quality and safety parameters set by EU law, including no pathogenic microorganisms, absence or negligible levels of histamine and of total volatile basic nitrogen, no heavy metals; and the total bacterial, yeast, and mold counts were either negligible or undetectable. Jellyfish treated by the presented method exhibited unique protein content, amino acid and fatty acid profiles, antioxidant activity, and texture. The optimized method, initially set up on Rhiszostoma pulmo, was also successfully applied to other edible jellyfish species (such as Cotylorhiza tuberculata, Phyllorhiza punctata, and Rhopilema nomadica) present in the Mediterranean Sea. This study discloses an innovative process for the preparation of jellyfish-based food products for potential future distribution in Europe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations in the Food System: Exploring the Future of Food)
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16 pages, 3663 KiB  
Article
Peanut Shell Extract and Luteolin Regulate Lipid Metabolism and Induce Browning in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes
Foods 2022, 11(17), 2696; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11172696 - 03 Sep 2022
Viewed by 2434
Abstract
Peanut shells are agricultural waste products that require utilization. The freeze-dried ethanolic peanut shell extract (PSE) contained 10.01 ± 0.55 mg/g of luteolin (LUT) with a total polyphenol content of 18.11 ± 0.88 mg GAE/g. Thus, LUT is one of the major polyphenolic [...] Read more.
Peanut shells are agricultural waste products that require utilization. The freeze-dried ethanolic peanut shell extract (PSE) contained 10.01 ± 0.55 mg/g of luteolin (LUT) with a total polyphenol content of 18.11 ± 0.88 mg GAE/g. Thus, LUT is one of the major polyphenolic components in PSE. Although PSE displays antibacterial and neurotrophic activities, minimal research is available addressing its potential role in lipid metabolism. This study investigated the role of PSE in terms of inhibiting adipogenesis, accelerating lipolysis, and promoting lipid browning using the 3T3-L1 cell line. Without affecting cell viability, high concentrations of PSE and LUT prevented adipogenesis by reducing the mRNA levels of C/EBPα, PPARγ, and SREBP1-c, and increasing the protein levels of pACC and pAMPK. Moreover, PSE and LUT induced lipolysis by activating lipolytic proteins, and enhanced the protein expressions of the brown adipocyte-specific markers, UCP1, PGC-1α, and SIRT1 in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Increased mitochondrial biosynthesis provided additional evidence in favor of these findings. Due to their anti-obesity properties, it is proposed that PSE and LUT could be used as potential dietary supplements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development and Utilization of Bioactive Compound Resources in Food)
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17 pages, 911 KiB  
Article
Cultured Meat on the Social Network Twitter: Clean, Future and Sustainable Meats
Foods 2022, 11(17), 2695; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11172695 - 03 Sep 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3770
Abstract
The rapid development of technologies for cultured meat production has led to new challenges for producers regarding appropriate communication with future customers in order to deliver products to a viable market. Communication analysis of social media enables the identification of the key characteristics [...] Read more.
The rapid development of technologies for cultured meat production has led to new challenges for producers regarding appropriate communication with future customers in order to deliver products to a viable market. Communication analysis of social media enables the identification of the key characteristics of the monitored topic, as well as the main areas of communication by individual users based on active digital footprints. This study aimed to identify the key characteristics of cultured meat based on communication analysis of the social network Twitter. Communication analysis was performed based on 36,356 Tweets posted by 4128 individual users. This analysis identified the following main communicated characteristics: clean meat, future meat, and sustainable meat. Latent Dittrich allocation identified five communication topics: (1) clean and sustainable products, (2) comparisons with plant-based protein and the impact on agribusiness, (3) positive environmental aspects, (4) cultured meat as an alternative protein, and (5) the regulation of cultured meat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensory and Consumer Sciences)
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16 pages, 3996 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Sonication Parameters to Produce a Cashew Apple Bagasse Puree Rich in Superoxide Dismutase
Foods 2022, 11(17), 2694; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11172694 - 03 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1372
Abstract
The effects of ultrasound processing parameters on the extraction of antioxidative enzymes and a toxicity assessment of cashew apple bagasse puree were investigated. Ultrasound directly affects the formation of reactive oxygen species such as H2O2, and consequently, superoxide dismutase, [...] Read more.
The effects of ultrasound processing parameters on the extraction of antioxidative enzymes and a toxicity assessment of cashew apple bagasse puree were investigated. Ultrasound directly affects the formation of reactive oxygen species such as H2O2, and consequently, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase activities. S.O.D. activity increased up to 280% after U.S. processing at 75 W/cm2, 1:3 bagasse: water ratio, and 10 min compared to non-processed bagasse. Therefore, the effect of ultrasound in delaying browning could be correlated to the enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity and decrease in peroxidase activity. At center point conditions (226 W/cm2, 1:3 bagasse: water ratio; 6 min), a decrease of 20% and 50% on POD and PPO activities was observed, respectively. No significant acute toxicity or protective effect was observed in unprocessed and sonicated cashew apple bagasse. Although cashew bagasse processed at 75 W/cm2 prevented nauplii death after 24 h of exposure, this data cannot assure the protective effect once the number of dead nauplii on 100 μg/mL was similar. However, these data indicate a possible protective effect, especially in higher cashew bagasse concentrations. The results suggest that sonicated cashew apple bagasse puree, a coproduct obtained from a traditional valued fruit in Brazil, may be used as a source of antioxidative enzymes, which further has great importance in therapeutics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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19 pages, 1239 KiB  
Review
Beer Safety: New Challenges and Future Trends within Craft and Large-Scale Production
Foods 2022, 11(17), 2693; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11172693 - 03 Sep 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 7594
Abstract
The presence of physical, chemical, or microbiological contaminants in beer represents a broad and worthy problem with potential implications for human health. The expansion of beer types makes it more and more appreciated for the sensorial properties and health benefits of fermentation and [...] Read more.
The presence of physical, chemical, or microbiological contaminants in beer represents a broad and worthy problem with potential implications for human health. The expansion of beer types makes it more and more appreciated for the sensorial properties and health benefits of fermentation and functional ingredients, leading to significant consumed quantities. Contaminant sources are the raw materials, risks that may occur in the production processes (poor sanitation, incorrect pasteurisation), the factory environment (air pollution), or inadequate (ethanol) consumption. We evaluated the presence of these contaminants in different beer types. This review covers publications that discuss the presence of bacteria (Lactobacillus, Pediococcus), yeasts (Saccharomyces, Candida), moulds (Fusarium, Aspergillus), mycotoxins, heavy metals, biogenic amines, and micro- and nano-plastic in beer products, ending with a discussion regarding the identified gaps in current risk reduction or elimination strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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19 pages, 3896 KiB  
Article
Rheological and Viscoelastic Properties of Chitosan Solutions Prepared with Different Chitosan or Acetic Acid Concentrations
Foods 2022, 11(17), 2692; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11172692 - 03 Sep 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2211
Abstract
Chitosan (Ch) is a partially crystalline biopolymer, insoluble in pure water but soluble in acid solutions. It has attracted interest from researchers to prepare solutions using different acid types and concentrations. This research aims to study both the effect of chitosan (Ch) or [...] Read more.
Chitosan (Ch) is a partially crystalline biopolymer, insoluble in pure water but soluble in acid solutions. It has attracted interest from researchers to prepare solutions using different acid types and concentrations. This research aims to study both the effect of chitosan (Ch) or acetic acid (Ac) concentrations, at different temperatures, on rheological and viscoelastic properties of Ch solutions. To study the effect of Ch, solutions were prepared with 0.5–2.5 g Ch/100 g of solution and Ac = 1%, whereas to study the effect of Ac, the solutions were prepared with 2.0 g of Ch/100 g of solution and Ac = 0.2–1.0%. Overall, all analyzed solutions behaved as pseudoplastic fluid. The Ch strongly affected rheological properties, the consistency index (K) increased and the index flow behavior (n) decreased as a function of Ch. The activation energy, defined as the energy required for the molecule of a fluid to move freely, was low for Ch = 0.5%. The effect of Ac was less evident. Both K and n varied according to a positive and negative, respectively, parabolic model as a function of Ac. Moreover, all solutions, irrespective of Ch and Ac, behaved as diluted solutions, with G” > G’. The relaxation exponent (n”) was always higher than 0.5, confirming that these systems behaved as a viscoelastic liquid. This n” increased with Ch, but it was insensitive to Ac, being slightly higher at 45 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods: 10th Anniversary)
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15 pages, 2209 KiB  
Review
Beneficial Effects of Yoghurts and Probiotic Fermented Milks and Their Functional Food Potential
Foods 2022, 11(17), 2691; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11172691 - 03 Sep 2022
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 12871
Abstract
Probiotic fermented milks and yoghurts are acidified and fermented by viable bacteria, usually L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, resulting in a thicker product with a longer shelf life. They are a nutrition-dense food, providing a good source of calcium, phosphorus, potassium, vitamin [...] Read more.
Probiotic fermented milks and yoghurts are acidified and fermented by viable bacteria, usually L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, resulting in a thicker product with a longer shelf life. They are a nutrition-dense food, providing a good source of calcium, phosphorus, potassium, vitamin A, vitamin B2, and vitamin B12. Additionally, they deliver high biological value proteins and essential fatty acids. There is accumulating evidence suggesting that yoghurt and fermented milk consumption is related to a number of health advantages, including the prevention of osteoporosis, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases, as well as the promotion of gut health and immune system modulation. This review aims at presenting and critically reviewing the beneficial effects from the consumption of probiotic fermented milks in human health, whilst revealing potential applications in the food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient-Rich Foods for a Healthy Diet)
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18 pages, 3376 KiB  
Article
Resveratrol Inhibits Proliferation and Differentiation of Porcine Preadipocytes by a Novel LincRNA-ROFM/miR-133b/AdipoQ Pathway
Foods 2022, 11(17), 2690; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11172690 - 03 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1571
Abstract
Resveratrol (RES) has a wide range of biological and pharmacological activities with various health benefits for humans as a food additive. In animal production, RES has been considered a potential functional feed additive for producing high-quality pork. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged [...] Read more.
Resveratrol (RES) has a wide range of biological and pharmacological activities with various health benefits for humans as a food additive. In animal production, RES has been considered a potential functional feed additive for producing high-quality pork. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as essential regulators of fat metabolism, and phytochemicals can regulate fat metabolism through lncRNA. However, it is unclear whether RES can improve back-fat thickness by regulating lncRNA. In this study, we identified a novel lncRNA, which was named a long intergenic non-protein coding RNA, a regulator of fat metabolism (LincRNA-ROFM), from our previous lncRNA sequencing data. LincRNA-ROFM can inhibit adipocyte proliferation and differentiation. In-depth analyses showed that LincRNA-ROFM acts as a molecular sponge for miR-133b, and adiponectin (AdipoQ) is a direct target of miR-133b in porcine preadipocytes. In addition, the expression of LincRNA-ROFM was positively correlated with AdipoQ. RES can promote the expression of LincRNA-ROFM by PPARα and C/EBPα. Altogether, our research showed that LincRNA-ROFM acts as a ceRNA to sequester miR-133b and is upregulated by RES, leading to heightened AdipoQ expression, and thus decreased adipocyte proliferation and differentiation, which reduces back-fat thickness of pigs. Taken together, the RES/LincRNA-ROFM/miR-133b/AdipoQ regulatory network preliminarily explains the mechanism of action of RES in inhibiting fat deposition, which provides new insight into the downstream mechanism of RES inhibition of fat deposits by regulating the lncRNA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Factors Affecting Flavour, Taste and Colour of Meat)
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15 pages, 1407 KiB  
Article
Evidence from a Choice Experiment in Consumer Preference towards Infant Milk Formula (IMF) in the Context of Dairy Revitalization and COVID-19 Pandemic
Foods 2022, 11(17), 2689; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11172689 - 03 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2037
Abstract
China is the largest global consumer of infant milk formula (IMF). Chinese consumer preferences towards IMF have evolved over time but have also been rocked in recent years by COVID-19 with major implications for the IMF industry, globally and within China. This study [...] Read more.
China is the largest global consumer of infant milk formula (IMF). Chinese consumer preferences towards IMF have evolved over time but have also been rocked in recent years by COVID-19 with major implications for the IMF industry, globally and within China. This study is the first to document parents’ preferences toward IMF since the outbreak. We used novel methods to do so, through an online choice experiment of 804 participants that included risk perceptions and socio-demographic variables. Our study finds that Chinese parents continue to prioritize quality and safety attributes of IMF represented by functional ingredients, organic labelling and traceability information. Notably, it also finds greatly increased confidence in Chinese domestically produced IMF and an underlying preference away from expensive products. This implies that the era of ‘go for foreign’ and ‘go for the most expensive’ in IMF purchasing may be coming to an end. The shift in sentiment is driven by the longer-term revitalization of the Chinese dairy industry, accelerated by COVID-19. Understanding these trends will be of major benefit to both Chinese producers and non-Chinese exporters of IMF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Consumption Behavior during the COVID-19 Pandemic)
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