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# Math. Comput. Appl., Volume 21, Issue 4 (December 2016) – 12 articles

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50 pages, 1685 KiB
Article
Reliable Network Interdiction Models with Multiple Unit Costs
Math. Comput. Appl. 2016, 21(4), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca21040050 - 14 Dec 2016
Viewed by 2798
Abstract
This paper proposes a reliable network interdiction model with multiple unit costs, which maximizes the minimum arrival cost of the invader to the sink by setting obstacles on some arcs with limited resources in the given network. In other words, given a graph [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a reliable network interdiction model with multiple unit costs, which maximizes the minimum arrival cost of the invader to the sink by setting obstacles on some arcs with limited resources in the given network. In other words, given a graph with a source and a sink, several arcs will be selected with limited resources such that each path contains as many weights as possible. This model needs to be transferred into a bilevel program because its constraints can hardly be listed explicitly even for a graph with a moderate size, because the number of paths between any two given points increases exponentially according to the size of the graph. This bilevel model is equivalent to an integer model with a low degree number of constraints by converting the inner programming to a shortest path problem. We first prove that this problem is non-deterministic polynomial-time (NP)-hard. Secondly, we reduce the number of constraints to the first power from the exponential degree by using the dual technique. Lastly, the national railway network is used to show the feasibility of our method. Full article
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49 pages, 1247 KiB
Article
VRP-GMRES(m) Iteration Algorithm for Fast Multipole Boundary Element Method
Math. Comput. Appl. 2016, 21(4), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca21040049 - 13 Dec 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3599
Abstract
To solve large scale linear equations involved in the Fast Multipole Boundary Element Method (FM-BEM) efficiently, an iterative method named the generalized minimal residual method (GMRES(m)) algorithm with Variable Restart Parameter (VRP-GMRES(m)) algorithm is proposed. By properly changing a variable restart parameter for [...] Read more.
To solve large scale linear equations involved in the Fast Multipole Boundary Element Method (FM-BEM) efficiently, an iterative method named the generalized minimal residual method (GMRES(m)) algorithm with Variable Restart Parameter (VRP-GMRES(m)) algorithm is proposed. By properly changing a variable restart parameter for the GMRES(m) algorithm, the iteration stagnation problem resulting from improper selection of the parameter is resolved efficiently. Based on the framework of the VRP-GMRES(m) algorithm and the relevant properties of generalized inverse matrix, the projection of the error vector $r m + 1$ on $r m$ is deduced. The result proves that the proposed algorithm is not only rapidly convergent but also highly accurate. Numerical experiments further show that the new algorithm can significantly improve the computational efficiency and accuracy. Its superiorities will be much more remarkable when it is used to solve larger scale problems. Therefore, it has extensive prospects in the FM-BEM field and other scientific and engineering computing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information and Computational Science)
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48 pages, 1416 KiB
Article
Rational Spline Image Upscaling with Constraint Parameters
Math. Comput. Appl. 2016, 21(4), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca21040048 - 13 Dec 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3392
Abstract
Image interpolation is one of key contents in image processing. We present an interpolation algorithm based on a rational function model with constraint parameters. Firstly, based on the construction principle of the rational function, the detection threshold is selected through contour analysis. The [...] Read more.
Image interpolation is one of key contents in image processing. We present an interpolation algorithm based on a rational function model with constraint parameters. Firstly, based on the construction principle of the rational function, the detection threshold is selected through contour analysis. The smooth and non-smooth areas are interpolated by bicubic interpolation and general rational interpolation, respectively. In order to enhance the contrast in non-smooth areas and preserve the details, the parameter optimization technique is applied to get optimal shape parameters. Experimental results on benchmark test images demonstrate that the proposed method achieves competitive performance with the state-of-the-art interpolation algorithms, especially in image details and texture features. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information and Computational Science)
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47 pages, 1288 KiB
Article
Multi-Objective Optimization of a Spring Diaphragm Clutch on an Automobile Based on the Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II)
Math. Comput. Appl. 2016, 21(4), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca21040047 - 03 Dec 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 5751
Abstract
The weight coefficients of the diaphragm spring depend on experiences in the traditional optimization. However, this method not only cannot guarantee the optimal solution but it is also not universal. Therefore, a new optimization target function is proposed. The new function takes the [...] Read more.
The weight coefficients of the diaphragm spring depend on experiences in the traditional optimization. However, this method not only cannot guarantee the optimal solution but it is also not universal. Therefore, a new optimization target function is proposed. The new function takes the minimum of average compress force changing of the spring and the minimum force of the separation as total objectives. Based on the optimization function, the result of the clutch diaphragm spring in a car is analyzed by the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) and the solution set of Pareto is obtained. The results show that the pressing force of the diaphragm spring is improved by 4.09% by the new algorithm and the steering separation force is improved by 6.55%, which has better stability and steering portability. The problem of the weight coefficient in the traditional empirical design is solved. The pressing force of the optimized diaphragm spring varied slightly during the abrasion range of the friction film, and the manipulation became remarkably light. Full article
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46 pages, 807 KiB
Article
A 5(4) Embedded Pair of Explicit Trigonometrically-Fitted Runge–Kutta–Nyström Methods for the Numerical Solution of Oscillatory Initial Value Problems
Math. Comput. Appl. 2016, 21(4), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca21040046 - 17 Nov 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2030
Abstract
A 5(4) pair of embedded explicit trigonometrically-fitted Runge–Kutta–Nyström (EETFRKN) methods especially designed for the numerical integration of second order initial value problems with oscillatory solutions is presented in this paper. Algebraic order analysis and the interval of absolute stability for the new method [...] Read more.
A 5(4) pair of embedded explicit trigonometrically-fitted Runge–Kutta–Nyström (EETFRKN) methods especially designed for the numerical integration of second order initial value problems with oscillatory solutions is presented in this paper. Algebraic order analysis and the interval of absolute stability for the new method are also discussed. The new method is capable of integrating the test equation $y ″ = − w 2 y$ . The new method is much more efficient than the other existing Runge–Kutta and Runge–Kutta–Nyström methods. Full article
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45 pages, 2341 KiB
Article
Solving a Fabrication Lot-Size and Shipping Frequency Problem with an Outsourcing Policy and Random Scrap
Math. Comput. Appl. 2016, 21(4), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca21040045 - 17 Nov 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3236
Abstract
Operating in unstable and competitive globalized markets, management of today’s transnational enterprises continually searches for different alternatives to maintain product quality, streamline production activities, and reduce overall operating costs, particularly in their internal supply chain system. With the aim of revealing and offering [...] Read more.
Operating in unstable and competitive globalized markets, management of today’s transnational enterprises continually searches for different alternatives to maintain product quality, streamline production activities, and reduce overall operating costs, particularly in their internal supply chain system. With the aim of revealing and offering insight information to support managerial decision making, this study explores the optimal replenishment lot-size and shipping frequency problem for an intra-supply chain system with a partial outsourcing policy and random scrap. In this study, the demand of a product is partially outsourced and partially fabricated by the production units, to release the workload of machine and smooth production schedule. During the fabrication process, a portion of random scrap items is produced, and finished products are distributed to sales locations using a multiple-shipment policy. The objective is to simultaneously determine an optimal fabrication lot-size and shipping frequency decisions that minimize the overall expected costs for such an intra-supply chain system. Mathematical modeling and optimization methods are used to solve the problem. Moreover, through the use of a numerical example and sensitivity analyses, various important insights with regard to the joint effects of the partial outsourcing policy and random scrap on the optimal solutions are revealed to support managerial decision making. Full article
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44 pages, 1661 KiB
Article
Adjustable Bézier Curves with Simple Geometric Continuity Conditions
Math. Comput. Appl. 2016, 21(4), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca21040044 - 17 Nov 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2275
Abstract
This paper aims to simplify the continuity conditions of Bézier curves. For this purpose, a special family of Bézier curves with three parameters, to be called adjustable Bézier curves, is constructed. They have the same structure as the quartic Bézier curves. The newly [...] Read more.
This paper aims to simplify the continuity conditions of Bézier curves. For this purpose, a special family of Bézier curves with three parameters, to be called adjustable Bézier curves, is constructed. They have the same structure as the quartic Bézier curves. The newly constructed curves possess some of the basic properties of Bézier curves, such as the convex hull property, symmetry, geometric invariance, etc., and they have shape adjustability. Moreover, under the geometric continuity of order 1 ( $G 1$ ) conditions of the usual Bézier curves, the adjustable Bézier curves can reach geometric continuity of order k ( $G k$ ); here, k is one of the parameters of the newly constructed curves. The recursive evaluation algorithm of the new curves is provided. We also discuss how to construct the adjustable Bézier curves with a given tangent polygon. Numerical examples illustrate the correctness and validity of the proposed method. Full article
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43 pages, 4560 KiB
Article
Numerical Investigation of Copper-Water (Cu-Water) Nanofluid with Different Shapes of Nanoparticles in a Channel with Stretching Wall: Slip Effects
Math. Comput. Appl. 2016, 21(4), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca21040043 - 31 Oct 2016
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 3617
Abstract
The present study is focused on the presentation of a numerical solution for copper-water nanofluid through a stretching channel with spherical and cylindrical shape nanoparticles. The analysis of nanofluid in a channel with stretching walls under slip effects is made by introducing the [...] Read more.
The present study is focused on the presentation of a numerical solution for copper-water nanofluid through a stretching channel with spherical and cylindrical shape nanoparticles. The analysis of nanofluid in a channel with stretching walls under slip effects is made by introducing the conservation equation of nanoparticle volume fraction into Hamilton-Crosser’s nanofluid model. Governing partial differential equations are transformed into nonlinear ordinary differential equations by applying similarity transformation and then solved with the help of shooting method. The effects of different physical parameters on the rheology of nanofluids’ particles are presented in tabulation and pictorial representation. The study reveals that the thermal boundary layer thickness increases by increasing the solid volume fraction. Full article
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42 pages, 3214 KiB
Article
Parameters Optimization of a Hydraulic Buffer System for Belt Arrestor in Downward Belt Conveyors
Math. Comput. Appl. 2016, 21(4), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca21040042 - 19 Oct 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4658
Abstract
Hydraulic buffer systems play a significant role in energy absorption and improving belt arrest reliability in downward belt conveyors. In order give hydraulic buffer systems more preferable buffer properties, a parameters optimization method based on a reference model is proposed. Firstly, the working [...] Read more.
Hydraulic buffer systems play a significant role in energy absorption and improving belt arrest reliability in downward belt conveyors. In order give hydraulic buffer systems more preferable buffer properties, a parameters optimization method based on a reference model is proposed. Firstly, the working principle of a hydraulic buffer system for a belt arrestor is provided. Secondly, the mathematical model of the system is built and a reference model of buffer chamber pressure is constructed utilizing a second-order system. Furthermore, a genetic algorithm is introduced to optimize the system parameters. Finally, some simulation examples are carried out on the Simulink software. The simulation results show that the pressure peak in buffer process can drop down and that pressure fluctuation in buffer end processes decrease substantially after optimization. The parameters optimization method for hydraulic buffer systems is applicable to different structure parameters of the buffer cylinder. Full article
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41 pages, 2517 KiB
Article
A Normal and Standard Form Analysis of the JWKB Asymptotic Matching Rule via the First Order Bessel’s Equation
Math. Comput. Appl. 2016, 21(4), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca21040041 - 19 Oct 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3030
Abstract
Traditional first order JWKB method ( $= : ( J W K B ) 1$ ) is a conventional semiclassical approximation method mainly used in quantum mechanical systems for accurate solutions. $( J W K B ) 1$ general solution of the Time [...] Read more.
Traditional first order JWKB method ( $= : ( J W K B ) 1$ ) is a conventional semiclassical approximation method mainly used in quantum mechanical systems for accurate solutions. $( J W K B ) 1$ general solution of the Time Independent Schrodinger’s Equation (TISE) involves application of the conventional asymptotic matching rules to give the accurate wavefunction in the Classically Inaccessible Region (CIR) of the related quantum mechanical system. In this work, Bessel Differential Equation of the first order ( $= : ( B D E ) 1$ ) is chosen as a mathematical model and its $( J W K B ) 1$ solution is obtained by first transforming into the normal form via the change of independent variable. The $( J W K B ) 1$ general solution for appropriately chosen initial values in both normal and standard form representations is analyzed via the generalized $( J W K B ) 1$ asymptotic matching rules regarding the $S ˜ i j$ matrix elements given in the literature. Instead of applying the common $( J W K B ) 1$ asymptotic matching rules relying on the physical nature of the quantum mechanical system, i.e., a physically acceptable (normalizable) wavefunction, a pure semiclassical analysis is studied via the $( B D E ) 1$ model mathematically. Finally, an application to a specific case of the exponential potential decorated quantum mechanical bound state problem is presented. Full article
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39 pages, 1081 KiB
Article
A Model Proposal for a Multi-Objective and Multi-Criteria Vehicle Assignment Problem: An Application for a Security Organization
Math. Comput. Appl. 2016, 21(4), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca21040039 - 26 Sep 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4555
Abstract
Law enforcement agencies have great importance to provide peace and prosperity for the community. If the quality level of policing services is high, stability within the country will also increase. The law enforcement authorities transfer their policing services to people by means of [...] Read more.
Law enforcement agencies have great importance to provide peace and prosperity for the community. If the quality level of policing services is high, stability within the country will also increase. The law enforcement authorities transfer their policing services to people by means of using tools and equipment. In this study, this subject has been studied in order to improve the service quality of motor vehicles to increase efficiency in the assignments area. For the assignment of the vehicle, four main criteria and fifteen sub-criteria are defined. The criteria’s weights achieving the desired goal are calculated using the Analytic Network Process (ANP). The obtained weights have been subjected to the evaluation of performance in terms of each vehicle and each region where it can be assigned. The decision model with four basic objectives, containing service, cost, time and usage of technical capacity to ensure the use of vehicles at optimum efficiency, is designed. After weighting of the criteria, a mathematical model aiming at maximizing the service and the effectiveness of using the technical capacity of vehicle and minimizing the time and cost has been developed. The results are compared with the current situation. The study has been tested with three different scenarios having different objective priorities. Full article
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40 pages, 1614 KiB
Article
The Modeling and Calculation of the Heading Machine Based on Differential Geometry
Math. Comput. Appl. 2016, 21(4), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca21040040 - 23 Sep 2016
Viewed by 2975
Abstract
The kinematic sketch of the heading machine’s cutting part is plotted and the kinematic relation is analyzed. The pose-attitude model of the cutting part is derived from the geometry method, and the velocity and acceleration relations are derived by the differential geometry method. [...] Read more.
The kinematic sketch of the heading machine’s cutting part is plotted and the kinematic relation is analyzed. The pose-attitude model of the cutting part is derived from the geometry method, and the velocity and acceleration relations are derived by the differential geometry method. According to the recurrence relation among the pose-attitude, the velocities and the accelerations, the numerical solving strategy is designed. The nonlinear part of the kinematics model is solved by the Newton iterative method. The kinematics model is simulated by MATLAB. The trigonometric functions are avoided by using the differential geometry method, and the derivation process and the results are simplified simultaneously. The simulation results give the curves of each kinematic parameter which verifies the validity of the kinematic model. Full article
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