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Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ., Volume 13, Issue 2 (February 2023) – 21 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The prevalence of anxiety since the emergence of coronavirus disease has increased dramatically; thus, effective relaxation interventions are welcome. The main objective of our study was to compare the acute relaxation effects of Tibetan singing bowl (TSB) sounds against the progressive muscle relaxation technique and a control waiting list group in an adult nonclinical anxious population. In our cross-sectional randomized control trial study, we observed that TSB treatment was able to induce higher parasympathetic activity evidenced by an increase in time/frequency heart rate variability and reductions in neuro-electrical alpha power, both associated with lower self-reported anxiety scores. Complex sounds composed of a base tone merged with several overtones such as TSB might be an innovative and effective intervention in anxiety-related conditions. View this paper
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11 pages, 340 KiB  
Article
Associations between Sleep, Depression, and Cognitive Performance in Adolescence
by Raúl Quevedo-Blasco, Amparo Díaz-Román and Víctor J. Quevedo-Blasco
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(2), 501-511; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13020038 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2359
Abstract
The relevance of cognitive performance during adolescence requires further studies that analyze potential associated factors. This study aimed to analyze inductive reasoning, reading comprehension, and mathematical thinking (problem-solving and number and calculation) in relation to sleep and depression in 244 students aged 12–17 [...] Read more.
The relevance of cognitive performance during adolescence requires further studies that analyze potential associated factors. This study aimed to analyze inductive reasoning, reading comprehension, and mathematical thinking (problem-solving and number and calculation) in relation to sleep and depression in 244 students aged 12–17 years (47.6% boys and 52.4% girls). Daytime sleepiness, sleep quality, dysthymia, and euthymia (state and trait) were assessed by self-reported questionnaires. Moreover, correlations between these variables and cognitive performance, and differences depending on sociodemographic variables (sex, age, or academic year) were analyzed using non-parametric tests. Robust regression models were also conducted to evaluate the predictive role of significant variables on cognitive performance. The results showed significant bidirectional relationships between sleep- and depression-related variables, and between the latter ones and cognitive performance. Depression-trait was more related to cognitive performance than depression-state, and euthymia more than dysthymia, but neither daytime sleepiness nor sleep quality significantly correlated with it. As for sociodemographic variables, girls reported worse sleep and more depressive symptoms than boys did, and younger students reported better sleep but performed worse than the older ones. Although these findings should be further explored in forthcoming studies adding other promising variables, they highlight the importance of promoting euthymia to improve cognitive performance in adolescents. Full article
11 pages, 1227 KiB  
Article
Prolonged Grief Disorder and Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression among Bereaved Family Caregivers in the Context of Palliative Home Care
by Alberto Sardella, Alessandro Musetti, Pasquale Caponnetto, Maria C. Quattropani and Vittorio Lenzo
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(2), 490-500; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13020037 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2200
Abstract
Background: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and the psychological comorbidity of PGD among bereaved family caregivers of palliative care cancer patients. We also examined the discriminant validity of two simple and reliable tools in correctly categorized individuals with PGD. Methods [...] Read more.
Background: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and the psychological comorbidity of PGD among bereaved family caregivers of palliative care cancer patients. We also examined the discriminant validity of two simple and reliable tools in correctly categorized individuals with PGD. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 157 bereaved participants (77.1% females, mean age = 43.50 ± 14.04 years, mean time since the loss = 3.59 years) recruited from three palliative home care services. These participants completed the Prolonged Grief Scale (PG-13) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results: The prevalence of PGD within the sample was 4.46% (i.e., = 7/157). Participants scored higher than the cut-off on the PG-13 and the HADS-D. Symptoms of PGD were positively correlated with depression levels. The ROC curve analysis showed that the HADS-D was outstanding in categorizing individuals with prolonged grief disorder from those without PGD. A HADS-D score of ≥7.5 was able to categorize participants with a sensitivity of 0.90 and a specificity of 0.73. Conclusions: Overall, these results highlight the relationship between grief and depression symptoms and their exceptional discriminant validity among correctly identified individuals with PGD. Full article
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18 pages, 3611 KiB  
Review
Trends in Autism Spectrum-Related Motherhood Research: A Bibliometric Study
by Osvaldo Hernández-González, Daniela González-Fernández, Rosario Spencer-Contreras, Raúl Tárraga-Mínguez and Viviana Ponce-Carrasco
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(2), 472-489; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13020036 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2843
Abstract
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by difficulties in socialization. The amount of scientific research results on motherhood related to ASD has grown exponentially; however, there are no bibliometric studies in this field. Objective: This article aimed to analyze scientific [...] Read more.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by difficulties in socialization. The amount of scientific research results on motherhood related to ASD has grown exponentially; however, there are no bibliometric studies in this field. Objective: This article aimed to analyze scientific research on motherhood related to the autism spectrum published in WoS. Articles on motherhood related to ASD were retrieved from the Web of Science (WoS). The advanced search interface used was “Title of the article, Abstract, Keywords”. The analysis and visualization of the selected documents and their data were performed using a wide range of tools and software such as MS Excel (v16.0), VOS viewer (version 1.6.15), and R packages (Biblioshiny, version 2.0). A total of 1660 articles were included in this study. Most of the publications were original articles. The United States published the most significant number of articles among the countries identified. P.R. Hastings, M.M. Seltzer, and J. Van de Water were the main authors. The Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders was the most productive and impactful journal. The main research topics were related to mental health and social support in the role of motherhood. This desk study provides researchers with a comprehensive understanding of ASD-related maternity research trends by evaluating relevant publications in recent decades. The results of this bibliometric analysis can serve as a basis and orientation for new studies. Full article
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12 pages, 741 KiB  
Article
Relationship and Sexual Quality in the Wake of COVID-19: Effects of Individual Regulatory Focus and Shared Concerns over the Pandemic
by David L. Rodrigues and Rhonda N. Balzarini
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(2), 460-471; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13020035 - 15 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1465
Abstract
Research has shown mixed findings regarding the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on relationship and sexual quality and activity. We argue that some of these findings might be understood considering people’s predisposition to maintain safety (i.e., prevention focus) or take risks (i.e., promotion [...] Read more.
Research has shown mixed findings regarding the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on relationship and sexual quality and activity. We argue that some of these findings might be understood considering people’s predisposition to maintain safety (i.e., prevention focus) or take risks (i.e., promotion focus), and sharing concerns with one’s partner about the pandemic. A longitudinal study (N = 153) tested if regulatory focus before the pandemic (November 2019) was associated with relationship quality, sexual quality, and joint sexual activity later on (June 2020) and whether these effects were moderated by shared concerns over the pandemic. Results showed that participants more focused on prevention experienced higher relationship quality later on, but also less sexual quality and less frequent joint sexual activity, when they shared fewer (vs. more) concerns with their partner. In contrast, participants more focused on promotion experienced higher relationship quality later on when they shared more (vs. less) concerns with their partner. These results indicate how individuals’ regulatory focus and shared concerns in times of crisis, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, can have downstream consequences on people’s relational and sexual dynamics. We offer insights for mental health professionals to improve psychosocial health and well-being when people are faced with critical events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health during COVID-19 Pandemic: What Do We Know So Far?)
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10 pages, 628 KiB  
Article
Subjective Assessments and Serum Cortisol Levels as Risk Factors of Pain Persistence in the Late Postoperative Period in Old and Oldest-Old Patients
by Vladyslav O. Telegan, Christos Tsagkaris, Sandeep Kumar Singh and Kostiantyn V. Tarasenko
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(2), 450-459; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13020034 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1377
Abstract
Postoperative pain is one of the most common postoperative complications, resulting in significant burdens and adverse outcomes among patients, notably the frailest ones. Predicting the likelihood of intense postoperative pain can help optimize a patient’s recovery. The aims of this study were to [...] Read more.
Postoperative pain is one of the most common postoperative complications, resulting in significant burdens and adverse outcomes among patients, notably the frailest ones. Predicting the likelihood of intense postoperative pain can help optimize a patient’s recovery. The aims of this study were to build a prognostic model of pain persistence in elderly and senile patients in the late postoperative period, based on clinical and laboratory parameters of the early postoperative period, and to evaluate the potential for the model’s application. The study included 201 male and female patients who had undergone surgery of any type from September 2019 to August 2020. The patients were divided into three groups: senile patients, elderly patients, and young patients (control group). All of the examined patients were measured for fasting cortisol on the mornings of the first and seventh days following surgery. A statistically significant increase in the probability of pain persistence in the late postoperative period with the increasing age of the patient was found. Age, pain severity scores on the seventh day after surgery, and cortisol concentration in the blood on the first day after surgery, are of prognostic value for the risk of persistence of postoperative-pain syndrome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Research in Clinical and Health Contexts)
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10 pages, 1389 KiB  
Article
Randomized Controlled Trial of Home Telemonitoring of Blood Pressure with an Adapted Tensiometer with SMS Capability
by Renzo Calderón-Anyosa, Jean Pierre Tincopa, Mabel Raza and Cesar P. Cárcamo
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(2), 440-449; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13020033 - 12 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1833
Abstract
Despite being a public health problem, less than a third of hypertensive patients manage to control blood pressure (BP). In this paper, we conducted a two-arm randomized controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of an SMS-based home BP telemonitoring system compared to usual [...] Read more.
Despite being a public health problem, less than a third of hypertensive patients manage to control blood pressure (BP). In this paper, we conducted a two-arm randomized controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of an SMS-based home BP telemonitoring system compared to usual care in patients with uncontrolled hypertension from a primary care center. This study was conducted between April and August 2018. Participants in the intervention arm used a custom-designed telemonitoring device for two weeks and were followed up for two additional weeks; controls were followed for 4 weeks. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the impact on blood pressure of a telemonitoring system using a blood pressure monitor adapted to send data via SMS to health providers in primary care centers for 4 weeks. In this trial, 38 patients were included in the analysis (18 in each arm), 68% were women, and the mean age was 68.1 [SD: 10.8 years], with no differences between arms. Among the results we found was that There was no significant difference in the change in systolic BP values between the control and intervention arm (−7.2 [14.9] mmHg vs. −16.3 [16.7] mmHg; p = 0.09). However, we found a significant difference in the change of diastolic BP (−1.2 [6.4] mmHg vs. −7.2 [9.8] mmHg; for the control and intervention arms, respectively p = 0.03). With all this, we conclude that an SMS-based home BP telemonitoring system is effective in reducing diastolic BP by working in conjunction with primary care centers. Our findings represent one of the first interventions of this type in our environment, being an important alternative for the control of high blood pressure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Research in Clinical and Health Contexts)
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11 pages, 318 KiB  
Article
Mental Health Status and Coping among Portuguese Higher Education Students in the Early Phase of the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Carlos Laranjeira, Maria Anjos Dixe and Ana Querido
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(2), 429-439; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13020032 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1941
Abstract
Globally, the COVID-19 outbreak had an adverse effect on higher education students’ mental health and psychological well-being. This study aims to assess the prevalence of stress, anxiety, depression and associated factors in a sample of students in the early phase of the COVID-19 [...] Read more.
Globally, the COVID-19 outbreak had an adverse effect on higher education students’ mental health and psychological well-being. This study aims to assess the prevalence of stress, anxiety, depression and associated factors in a sample of students in the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic and determine the predictive effect of mental health status on coping. The sample was collected between March and July 2020 and included 392 higher education students in Portugal. An online cross-sectional study was conducted using a survey that included an information form, the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale, and the Brief Resilient Coping Scale. The prevalence of mild-to-extremely severe depression, anxiety and stress was 24.2%, 32.7% and 33.4%, respectively. About 60% of the sample had poor coping abilities. Masters students, participants older than 30 years and female participants had significantly greater resilient coping compared to undergraduate students and younger and male participants (p < 0.05). Resilient coping correlated negatively with depression, anxiety and stress. The regression analysis showed that age together with overall levels of depression, anxiety and stress explained 16.9% of the variance in coping. The results should inform the implementation of interventions to mitigate the impact of psychological distress and promote mental health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health during COVID-19 Pandemic: What Do We Know So Far?)
10 pages, 277 KiB  
Article
Disclosure of Spousal Death to Patients with Dementia: Attitude and Actual Behavior of Care Managers
by Hisashi Kato, Eisuke Nakazawa, Katsumi Mori and Akira Akabayashi
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(2), 419-428; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13020031 - 08 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1294
Abstract
As the number of dementia patients increases, there is a need to protect patients’ right to know. However, in reality, there are cases in Japan where spouses’ deaths are concealed from patients. We conducted a questionnaire survey of care managers (CMs) to obtain [...] Read more.
As the number of dementia patients increases, there is a need to protect patients’ right to know. However, in reality, there are cases in Japan where spouses’ deaths are concealed from patients. We conducted a questionnaire survey of care managers (CMs) to obtain their attitude and actual behavior regarding the disclosure of a spouse’s death to patients with dementia. A self-administered, anonymous questionnaire survey was implemented at academic meetings attended by CMs from March to December 2019, inquiring about experiences with spousal deaths of patients with dementia, disclosure rates, behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, and depression. Over 80% had experienced the spousal death of a patient with dementia; the percentage of CMs who had implemented the disclosures varied widely. About 18% had experienced worsening behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), and 26% had worsening depression as a result of the disclosure. About 83% of respondents were positive about disclosure, but about 44% did so less than 50% of the time. This study is the first to reveal the current state of CMs’ policies and behaviors regarding the disclosure of spousal death to patients with dementia in Japan. Family members’ wishes and the possibility of BPSD put a relatively large number of caregivers in a dilemma regarding disclosure. Full article
16 pages, 764 KiB  
Article
Teachers’ Innovative Work Behavior as a Function of Self-Efficacy, Burnout, and Irrational Beliefs: A Structural Equation Model
by Angelos Gkontelos, Julie Vaiopoulou and Dimitrios Stamovlasis
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(2), 403-418; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13020030 - 07 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2378
Abstract
Teachers’ innovative work behavior (TIWB) is crucial in the contemporary demanding educational environments for overcoming any commonplace issues and to ensure sustainability and development. It refers to a process in which the employee tries to create new ideas, adopt them, apply them in [...] Read more.
Teachers’ innovative work behavior (TIWB) is crucial in the contemporary demanding educational environments for overcoming any commonplace issues and to ensure sustainability and development. It refers to a process in which the employee tries to create new ideas, adopt them, apply them in the school context, and then communicate them to other members of the organization in order to achieve a communal benefit. Among a plethora of factors that could influence such behavior, self-efficacy, burnout, and irrational beliefs have been proposed as potential covariates. In the present study, the associations of the above constructs with TIWB are concomitantly investigated by employing structural equation modeling (SEM). Data were taken from the participation of in-service teachers (N = 964) in primary education via self-reported questionnaires. The proposed SEM model exhibited a satisfactory goodness-of-fit to the empirical data, highlighting the direct effects of the independent variables on TIWB, while mediation analysis showed that irrational beliefs and burnout act also as mediators between self-efficacy and innovative work behavior. The findings are in line with previous reports and are interpretable in the context of modern theories, while a discussion on theoretical and practical implications along with emerging ideas and perspectives for further research is provided. Full article
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12 pages, 1063 KiB  
Article
Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview: Psychometric Properties in Family Caregivers of People with Intellectual Disabilities
by Julio Domínguez-Vergara, Henry Santa-Cruz-Espinoza and Gina Chávez-Ventura
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(2), 391-402; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13020029 - 05 Feb 2023
Viewed by 3399
Abstract
Caregivers of people with intellectual disabilities may feel overburdened in their work and experience negative psychological consequences. The purpose of this instrumental study was to determine the evidence of internal structure and reliability of the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview scale. A total of [...] Read more.
Caregivers of people with intellectual disabilities may feel overburdened in their work and experience negative psychological consequences. The purpose of this instrumental study was to determine the evidence of internal structure and reliability of the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview scale. A total of 398 family caregivers, including women and men, participated (M = 47.33, SD = 10.44). The structure of the scale was evaluated by factor analysis and the McDonald Omega coefficient was used to estimate reliability. Sixteen models of the scale were tested, differing in number of items and factor structures. A model of 15 items and 4 dimensions (overload, competence, social relationship, and interpersonal relationship) obtained acceptable fit (χ2 = 184.72; p < 0.001; CFI = 0.95; TLI = 0.94; RMSEA = 0.055; SRMR = 0.05) and reliability coefficients above 0.70 in their dimensions. It is concluded that the Zarit scale is valid and reliable for use in caregivers of people with intellectual disabilities. Full article
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14 pages, 319 KiB  
Article
Factors Associated with COVID-19-Related Stress among Female Primary Caregivers in Vulnerable Families in South Africa
by Michelle Engelbrecht
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(2), 377-390; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13020028 - 02 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1576
Abstract
Inequality in South Africa is deeply rooted, and COVID-19 glaringly brought inequalities between families to the forefront. This study aimed to investigate factors associated with the above average stress levels of female primary caregivers in vulnerable families during the COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional [...] Read more.
Inequality in South Africa is deeply rooted, and COVID-19 glaringly brought inequalities between families to the forefront. This study aimed to investigate factors associated with the above average stress levels of female primary caregivers in vulnerable families during the COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken among vulnerable families from October 2021 to February 2022. Above average scores were reported by approximately half of the respondents regarding stress from children/partners and stress related to financial issues. Fear of COVID-19, feeling depressed, COVID-19′s impact on daily life, lower education levels, being in a relationship and living together, and perceiving an increase in domestic violence were statistically significantly associated with above average stress from children/partners. Age, impact of COVID-19 on daily life, being in a relationship and living with a husband/partner, and running out of food during the past 30 days were statistically significantly associated with above average stress concerning finances. These results provide new insights that can assist policy makers and practitioners in supporting low-income families during times of crisis. Support should not just focus on practical aspects, such as the provision of food, but equally importantly, on emotional support and protection for female primary caregivers and their families. Future research should delve more deeply into causes of COVID-19-related stress in vulnerable families. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health during COVID-19 Pandemic: What Do We Know So Far?)
13 pages, 1574 KiB  
Systematic Review
Envy, Social Comparison, and Depression on Social Networking Sites: A Systematic Review
by Fabio Carraturo, Tiziana Di Perna, Viviana Giannicola, Marco Alfonso Nacchia, Marco Pepe, Benedetta Muzii, Mario Bottone, Raffaele Sperandeo, Vincenzo Bochicchio, Nelson Mauro Maldonato and Cristiano Scandurra
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(2), 364-376; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13020027 - 01 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4557
Abstract
This study aims to review the evidence for the reciprocal relationship between envy and social comparison (SC) on social networking sites (SNSs) and depression. We searched PsychINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science from January 2012 to November 2022, adhering to the Preferred Reporting [...] Read more.
This study aims to review the evidence for the reciprocal relationship between envy and social comparison (SC) on social networking sites (SNSs) and depression. We searched PsychINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science from January 2012 to November 2022, adhering to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. A total of 9 articles met our inclusion criteria. In all articles reviewed, a simple correlation was found between SC on SNSs, envy, and depression. Three cross-sectional studies successfully tested a model with envy as a mediator between SNSs and depression. The moderating role of additional variables such as self-efficacy, neuroticism, SC orientation, marital quality, and friendship type was also evident. The only two studies that were suitable to determine direction found that depression acted as a predictor rather than an outcome of SC and envy, and therefore depression might be a relevant risk factor for the negative emotional consequences of SNSs use. Full article
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19 pages, 2428 KiB  
Review
Influence of Prefabricated Construction on the Mental Health of Workers: Systematic Review
by Rasaki Kolawole Fagbenro, Riza Yosia Sunindijo, Chethana Illankoon and Samuel Frimpong
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(2), 345-363; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13020026 - 01 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2683
Abstract
Despite the significant contribution of the construction industry to national and global economies, the risk it poses to the health and safety of its workers is concerning. With substantial improvement in physical health and safety performance, especially in industrialised and developed economies, attention [...] Read more.
Despite the significant contribution of the construction industry to national and global economies, the risk it poses to the health and safety of its workers is concerning. With substantial improvement in physical health and safety performance, especially in industrialised and developed economies, attention has shifted to the mental health of construction workers. The construction industry has implemented several worker-focused and management-oriented intervention programs, but problems related to poor mental health persist, and the industry ranks high in suicide figures. Entering the Construction 4.0 era, the use of technologies and new construction methods have been touted to have the potential to improve mental wellbeing. Therefore, this research addresses this lingering problem by: (1) identifying and classifying stressors of mental health and (2) assessing the relevance of adopting prefabricated construction to improving mental health. A two-phased PRISMA-guided systematic review was conducted due to the nonavailability of past studies that combine the concepts of prefabrication and mental health. Mental health stressors were grouped into three categories, with industry-related identified as having an influence on management/organisational and personal stressors. Prefabricated construction, on the other hand, by virtue of its benefits over traditional construction, is found to be capable of eliminating, or at least reducing, the impact of industry-related stressors and, by extension, promoting good mental health. Full article
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14 pages, 330 KiB  
Article
Distinguishing the Need to Belong and Sense of Belongingness: The Relation between Need to Belong and Personal Appraisals under Two Different Belongingness–Conditions
by Saga Pardede and Velibor Bobo Kovač
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(2), 331-344; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13020025 - 01 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4435
Abstract
People are frequently caught in the hold between the need to belong and the fear of exclusion. However, these needs might be expressed differently under different belongingness conditions, where other powerful social processes are accentuated. Thus, the need to belong and social exclusion [...] Read more.
People are frequently caught in the hold between the need to belong and the fear of exclusion. However, these needs might be expressed differently under different belongingness conditions, where other powerful social processes are accentuated. Thus, the need to belong and social exclusion are concepts that are subjectively appraised based on one’s social relations. The present study aims to examine the relationship between the need to belong and five personal appraisals under two different belongingness conditions: (1) social-emotion support and (2) social-value representation. A total of 201 participants from two different groups were presented with 69 different items measuring five personal appraisals (exclusion, shame, social-worthiness, emotional self-expression, and prosocial-relating behaviour). Condition 2, social-value representation with social worthiness being appraised, offered the strongest connection as a significant predictor amongst all appraisals in both conditions, despite both exclusion and shame being indicated as significant predictors, to begin with. Thus, highlighting the appraisal of social worthiness in support of one’s need to socially represent oneself by not being compared to others while being valued as an alternative motive for realising a sense of belongingness. The empirical and theoretical limitations and implications are also discussed. Full article
14 pages, 1879 KiB  
Article
Acute Relaxation Response Induced by Tibetan Singing Bowl Sounds: A Randomized Controlled Trial
by Cristobal Rio-Alamos, Rodrigo Montefusco-Siegmund, Toni Cañete, Joaquín Sotomayor and Alberto Fernandez-Teruel
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(2), 317-330; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13020024 - 29 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3176
Abstract
The prevalence of anxiety has increased dramatically due to COVID-19, so effective preventive interventions are welcome. The main objective of our study was to compare the acute relaxation response (RR) induced by Tibetan singing bowl (TSB) sound-based treatment against progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) [...] Read more.
The prevalence of anxiety has increased dramatically due to COVID-19, so effective preventive interventions are welcome. The main objective of our study was to compare the acute relaxation response (RR) induced by Tibetan singing bowl (TSB) sound-based treatment against progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and a control waiting list group (CWL) in a single treatment session in an adult nonclinical anxious population. In this cross-sectional randomized control trial, 50 participants selected based on high state anxiety were randomly assigned to one of the experimental groups. Pre/post self-reported anxiety, electroencephalographic activity (EEG), and heart rate variability (HRV) were recorded at baseline (T1), minute 15 (T2), minute 30 (T3), and minute 45 (T4). The TSB group showed significant reductions in alpha power (from T2 to T4) and increased HRV (from T3 to T4) compared with the PMR and CWL groups. Moreover, TSB and PMR both showed significant reductions in self-reported anxiety compared with CWL, with this effect being more evident in the TSB group. We concluded that a single session of TSB treatment was able to induce a more evident psychological/physiological relaxation response compared with PMR and CWL. TSB could be a relevant acute intervention in stressful situations or crisis intervention and while waiting for conventional interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Music and Music Therapy on Health and Wellbeing)
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11 pages, 335 KiB  
Article
Relationships between Self-Efficacy, Job Instability, Decent Work, and Life Satisfaction in A Sample of Italian, Swiss, and Spanish Students
by Andrea Zammitti, Celia Moreno-Morilla, Soledad Romero-Rodríguez, Paola Magnano and Jenny Marcionetti
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(2), 306-316; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13020023 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2833
Abstract
Recent research has shown that self-efficacy has a positive relationship with life satisfaction and with the perception of access to decent work. On the other hand, a perception of instability regarding the profession is negatively correlated with these dimensions. Few authors have studied [...] Read more.
Recent research has shown that self-efficacy has a positive relationship with life satisfaction and with the perception of access to decent work. On the other hand, a perception of instability regarding the profession is negatively correlated with these dimensions. Few authors have studied these constructs within the same research. Therefore, the aim of the study was to fill this gap in the literature by testing a structural equation model in which the perception of access to decent work could mediate between perceived self-efficacy in one’s training and life satisfaction, and between perceived instability of the profession and life satisfaction. Data was collected through an online research survey. Five hundred and seventeen university students (104 males and 413 females) aged between 18 and 30 years (M = 22.50; ds = 2.61) from three different countries participated: 181 were Italian, 173 were Swiss, and 163 were Spanish. The results only partially confirmed our model. The idea of finding a decent work mediates the relationship between perceived job instability and life satisfaction, but not between self-efficacy and life satisfaction. Perceived self-efficacy together with the idea of finding a decent work have a direct effect on life satisfaction. In career development, counselors must take into account what the perception of job instability entails for students, which may be demotivating and not allow future workers to imagine a decent job. Full article
22 pages, 1026 KiB  
Article
Educational Psychology Aspects of Learning with Chatbots without Artificial Intelligence: Suggestions for Designers
by Michal Černý
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(2), 284-305; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13020022 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2936
Abstract
Chatbots without artificial intelligence can play the role of practical and easy-to-implement learning objects in e-learning environments, allowing a reduction in social or psychological isolation. This research, with a sample of 79 students, explores the principles that need to be followed in designing [...] Read more.
Chatbots without artificial intelligence can play the role of practical and easy-to-implement learning objects in e-learning environments, allowing a reduction in social or psychological isolation. This research, with a sample of 79 students, explores the principles that need to be followed in designing this kind of chatbot in education in order to ensure an acceptable outcome for students. Research has shown that students interacting with a chatbot without artificial intelligence expect similar psychological and communicative responses to those of a live human, project the characteristics of the chatbot from the dialogue, and are taken aback when the chatbot does not understand or cannot help them sufficiently. The study is based on a design through research approach, in which students in information studies and library science interacted with a specific chatbot focused on information retrieval, and recorded their experiences and feelings in an online questionnaire. The study intends to find principles for the design of chatbots without artificial intelligence so that students feel comfortable interacting with them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends and Perspectives for the Positive Use of ICT in Education)
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13 pages, 347 KiB  
Article
Emotional Exhaustion Variables in Trainee Teachers during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Jonathan Martínez-Líbano and María-Mercedes Yeomans
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(2), 271-283; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13020021 - 24 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2065
Abstract
Introduction: emotional exhaustion among trainee teachers is a relevant topic since it could have repercussions regarding the lives of their future pupils. Our objective was to determine the degree of trainee teachers’ emotional exhaustion and associated variables during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: the [...] Read more.
Introduction: emotional exhaustion among trainee teachers is a relevant topic since it could have repercussions regarding the lives of their future pupils. Our objective was to determine the degree of trainee teachers’ emotional exhaustion and associated variables during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: the design was cross-sectional and descriptive. Questionnaires with sociodemographic variables, perceptions of mental health, and the Emotional Exhaustion Scale (ECE) (α = 0.890; ω = 0.893) validated for the Chilean context were answered by 204 trainee teachers. The results were analyzed using SPSS software version 25 and the Emotional Exhaustion Interpretation Table (EES-Int). Results: the results show that 92.2% of the trainee teachers presented a worsening in their mental health, stress (66.2%), irritability (38.2%), anxiety (37.7%), and depressive symptoms (32.8%). Online classes (73.04%) and the pandemic (67.6%) were the main influencing factors. Education students who perceived their mental health had worsened became 6.63 times more likely to develop emotional exhaustion [AOR = 6.63; 95% CI: 1.78, 24.69]. In addition, education students with a high perception of academic stress were 7.45 more likely to develop emotional exhaustion [AOR = 7.45; 95% CI: 1.98, 28.09]. Conclusion: we can conclude that trainee teachers have high levels of emotional exhaustion and their perception of their mental health and the academic stress they are being subjected to during the COVID-19 pandemic may lead them to present symptoms of frequent or permanent problems with concentration, attention, recall of information, dissatisfaction with their performance, and frequent learning difficulties. From the affective dimension, they present frequent or permanent anxiety, restlessness, irritability, indifference, low mood, and psychomatization. From the socio-interactional dimension, they present frequent or permanent social withdrawal, interpersonal problems, problems at work or school, and family and relationship problems. Increasing the sample to delve into emotional exhaustion by subject area is necessary. For future studies, research should be conducted on the causes of emotional exhaustion by subject area and the coping strategies of trainee teachers to understand differences and provide input on emotional support in practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emotional Problems and Mindful/Acceptance Frameworks)
12 pages, 456 KiB  
Article
Italian University Students’ Resilience during the COVID-19 Lockdown—A Structural Equation Model about the Relationship between Resilience, Emotion Regulation and Well-Being
by Roberta Renati, Natale Salvatore Bonfiglio and Dolores Rollo
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(2), 259-270; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13020020 - 21 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2388
Abstract
Over the past two years, the consequences of the severe restrictions imposed by the rapid spread of COVID-19 among the global population have been a central focus of scientific research. The pandemic has been a singular and unexpected event that found people unprepared [...] Read more.
Over the past two years, the consequences of the severe restrictions imposed by the rapid spread of COVID-19 among the global population have been a central focus of scientific research. The pandemic has been a singular and unexpected event that found people unprepared and vulnerable in responding to its emergence, resulting in substantial psychological distress. Scientific evidence has highlighted that adolescents and emerging adults have been among those populations at greatest risk of adverse psychological outcomes, even in the long term. In particular, more than one-third of young adults reported high levels of loneliness, and nearly half of 18- to 24-year-olds felt lonely during the pandemic, experiencing both psychological and emotional distress. The lockdown, the consequent suspension of face-to-face academic activities and the severe restriction of social life have disrupted the daily routines of students already involved in coping with developmental tasks related to identity formation and the relational experience. Under such conditions, emotions and emotional regulation skills are crucial in adapting behavior to reach academic goals and face mounting levels of distress. Therefore, several studies have investigated resilience mechanisms and coping strategies of emerging adults during the pandemic. The present study focuses on university students and explores the impact of resilience and emotional regulation on adverse psychological outcomes related to persistent distress conditions associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. Students were administered a self-report assessment battery through an online platform at the beginning (T0) and the end of the lockdown (T1). A structural equation model (SEM) was used to explore the relationship between resilience, emotional regulation difficulties and psychological distress (depression, anxiety and stress). The findings indicate that psychological resilience and emotion regulation are protective factors that buffer the extent of possible distress resulting from an adverse condition such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
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21 pages, 1099 KiB  
Article
Cultural Differences in How People Deal with Ridicule and Laughter: Differential Item Functioning between the Taiwanese Chinese and Canadian English Versions of the PhoPhiKat-45
by Chloe Lau, Taylor Swindall, Francesca Chiesi, Lena C. Quilty, Hsueh-Chih Chen, Yu-Chen Chan, Willibald Ruch, René Proyer, Francesco Bruno, Donald H. Saklofske and Jorge Torres-Marín
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(2), 238-258; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13020019 - 20 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1849
Abstract
The PhoPhiKat-45 measures three dispositions toward ridicule and laughter, including gelotophobia (i.e., the fear of being laughed at), gelotophilia (i.e., the joy of being laughed at), and katagelasticism (i.e., the joy of laughing at others). Despite numerous cultural adaptations, there is a paucity [...] Read more.
The PhoPhiKat-45 measures three dispositions toward ridicule and laughter, including gelotophobia (i.e., the fear of being laughed at), gelotophilia (i.e., the joy of being laughed at), and katagelasticism (i.e., the joy of laughing at others). Despite numerous cultural adaptations, there is a paucity of cross-cultural studies investigating measurement invariance of this measure. Undergraduate students from a Canadian university (N = 1467; 71.4% females) and 14 universities in Taiwan (N = 1274; 64.6% females) completed the English and Chinese PhoPhiKat-45 measures, respectively. Item response theory and differential item functioning analyses demonstrated that most items were well-distributed across the latent continuum. Five of 45 items were flagged for DIF, but all values had negligible effect sizes (McFadden’s pseudo R2 < 0.13). The Canadian sample was further subdivided into subsamples who identified as European White born in Canada (n = 567) and Chinese born in China, Hong Kong, or Taiwan (n = 180). In the subgroup analyses, no evidence of DIF was found. Findings support the utility of this measure across these languages and samples. Full article
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10 pages, 4253 KiB  
Article
Female Dynamics in Authorship of Scientific Publications in the Public Library of Science: A 10-year Bibliometric Analysis of Biomedical Research
by Panagiotis Giannos, Konstantinos Katsikas Triantafyllidis, Maria Paraskevaidi, Maria Kyrgiou and Konstantinos S. Kechagias
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(2), 228-237; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13020018 - 20 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2159
Abstract
Women are generally underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). As scientific production reflects scholarly impact and participation in the scientific process, the number of journal publications forms a pertinent measure of academic productivity. This study examined the prevalence and evolution of [...] Read more.
Women are generally underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). As scientific production reflects scholarly impact and participation in the scientific process, the number of journal publications forms a pertinent measure of academic productivity. This study examined the prevalence and evolution of female representation in prominent author positions across multidisciplinary biomedical research. Publications from seven exemplar cross-specialty journals of the Public Library of Science (PLoS Medicine, PLoS Biology, PLoS One, PLoS Computational Biology, PLoS Genetics, PLoS Pathogens, and PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases) between January 2010 and December 2020 were extracted from Web of Science. Using Genderize.io, the gender of authors from their first names was estimated using a 75% threshold. The association between female prevalence in first and last authorship and journal was evaluated using a binary logistic regression, and odds ratios were estimated against a 50:50 reference on gender. In 266,739 publications, 43.3% of first authors and 26.7% of last authors were females. Across the ten-year period, female first authorship increased by 19.6% and last authorship by 3.2%. Among all journals, PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases had the greatest total proportion of female first authors (45.7%) and PLoS Medicine of female last authors (32%), while PLoS Computational Biology had the lowest proportion in these categories (23.7% and 17.2%). First authors were less likely to be females in all PLoS journals (p < 0.05) except for PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases (odds ratio: 0.84, 95% confidence interval: 0.71–1.00), where the odds of female authorship were not significantly different (p = 0.054). Last authors were not more likely to be females in all PLoS journals (p < 0.001). Overall, women still appear underrepresented as first authors in biomedical publications and their representation as last authors has severely lagged. Efforts towards gender equality in scholarly authorship will contribute to the representation of women in biomedical research and ensure that their potential is not lost. Full article
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