Next Issue
Volume 10, December
Previous Issue
Volume 10, October
 
 

Processes, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2022) – 310 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Ceftobiprole is a broad-spectrum fifth-generation cephalosporin with activity against Gram-positives such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, and against Gram-negatives such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Today, searching for new antibiotics is particularly important, especially due to the problem of increasing bacterial resistance. Similar, carrying out tests allows us to develop procedures enabling the determination of active substances both in pure form and a complex matrix, allowing quick and continuous monitoring of drug concentrations during therapy. The developed procedure for the determination of ceftobiprole in biological material using TLC chromatography with densitometric detection can be successfully used for laboratory practice. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
9 pages, 4707 KiB  
Article
Study on Debinding and Sintering Processes for Ceramics Fabricated Using Digital Light Processing (DLP) 3D Printing
by Jae-Ho Sim, Bon-Keup Koo, Minhun Jung and Dong-Soo Kim
Processes 2022, 10(11), 2467; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10112467 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3117
Abstract
Ceramics have excellent properties such as hardness and thermal and chemical stability. Therefore, researchers have studied the use of 3D printing to produce complex shapes in tools and structural applications. The debinding and sintering processes for ceramic composite materials manufactured using digital light [...] Read more.
Ceramics have excellent properties such as hardness and thermal and chemical stability. Therefore, researchers have studied the use of 3D printing to produce complex shapes in tools and structural applications. The debinding and sintering processes for ceramic composite materials manufactured using digital light processing (DLP) 3D printing technology were studied. The slurry used for DLP 3D printing requires debinding and sintering, as it contains ceramics and binders. Therefore, the debinding and sintering processes were measured by TG-DSC curves, and the changes in material characteristics were evaluated by setting the debinding holding time (4, 5, and 6 h) and sintering temperature (1100, 1200, and 1300 °C) as parameters. After debinding for 6 h, the density of the ceramic sintered at 1300 °C was 1.36 g/cm2; the linear shrinkage was 22.1%/21.6%/28.5% along the x, y, and z axes, respectively; and the bending strength was 8.58 MPa. As a result of this study, we developed an optimized process for the debinding and sintering of ceramics manufactured through the DLP 3D printing process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials Processes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 6099 KiB  
Article
Pollution Dispersion and Predicting Infection Risks in Mobile Public Toilets Based on Measurement and Simulation Data of Indoor Environment
by Ruixin Li, Gaoyi Liu, Yuanli Xia, Olga L. Bantserova, Weilin Li and Jiayin Zhu
Processes 2022, 10(11), 2466; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10112466 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1851
Abstract
Since the 21st century, in several public health emergencies that have occurred across the world, the humid enclosed environment of the toilet has become one of the places where bacteria, viruses, and microorganisms breed and spread. Mobile public toilets, as a supplement of [...] Read more.
Since the 21st century, in several public health emergencies that have occurred across the world, the humid enclosed environment of the toilet has become one of the places where bacteria, viruses, and microorganisms breed and spread. Mobile public toilets, as a supplement of urban fixed public toilets, are also widely used in densely populated areas. According to statistics, since the outbreak of COVID-19 in 2019, multiple incidents of people being infected by the COVID-19 virus due to aerosol proliferation in public toilets have been confirmed. It is an urgent issue to resolve the internal environmental pollution of mobile public health and reduce the risk of virus transmission in public spaces under the global epidemic prevention. This paper utilized a typical combined mobile public toilet as the research object and measured and evaluated the indoor thermal environment in real time over a short period of time. The diffusion mode and concentration change law of pollutants in mobile public toilets were predicted and analyzed based on CFD. Regression analysis was also used to clarify the relationship between indoor thermal environment variables and aerosol diffusion paths, and a ventilation optimization scheme was proposed to reduce the risk of virus transmission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Data-Driven Method for HVAC System)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 1288 KiB  
Article
Are Plants Capable of Pheomelanin Synthesis? Gas Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry Characterization of Thermally Degraded Melanin Isolated from Echinacea purpurea
by Slawomir Kurkiewicz, Łukasz Marek, Małgorzata Kurkiewicz, Adam Kurkiewicz and Anna Dzierżęga-Lęcznar
Processes 2022, 10(11), 2465; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10112465 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1585
Abstract
Echinacea is a widely used plant medicine, valued especially for its well-documented ability to stimulate the immune system. It has been suggested that melanin could be one of the bioactive factors responsible for the immunostimulatory properties of the plant. The biological functions of [...] Read more.
Echinacea is a widely used plant medicine, valued especially for its well-documented ability to stimulate the immune system. It has been suggested that melanin could be one of the bioactive factors responsible for the immunostimulatory properties of the plant. The biological functions of melanin pigments are closely related to their chemical composition and structural features. The aim of this study was to characterize the melanin from Echinacea purpurea based on the analysis of thermal degradation products of the well-purified pigment extracted from the dried herb. The melanin was pyrolyzed, and the resulting products were separated by gas chromatography and identified using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in full scan and multiple reaction monitoring modes. Three groups of marker products were detected in the melanin pyrolysate: polyphenol derivatives, nitrogen-containing heterocycles devoid of sulfur, and benzothiazines/benzothiazoles. This suggests that E. purpurea produces three structurally different melanin pigments: allomelanin, eumelanin, and pheomelanin, which in turn may affect the biological activity of the herb. Our results provide the first-ever evidence that plants are capable of synthesizing pheomelanin, which until now, has only been described for representatives of the animal and fungal kingdoms. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

24 pages, 3803 KiB  
Article
Mathematical Modeling of Thin Layer Drying Kinetics and Moisture Diffusivity Study of Pretreated Moringa oleifera Leaves Using Fluidized Bed Dryer
by Shobhit Ambawat, Alka Sharma and Ramesh Kumar Saini
Processes 2022, 10(11), 2464; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10112464 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2065
Abstract
Investigations were undertaken to study the drying kinetics of pretreated and unblanched leaves of Moringa oleifera dried in a fluidized bed dryer (FBD) using nine established thin layer drying mathematical models. The statistical software tool Statistica was utilized to carry out regression analysis, [...] Read more.
Investigations were undertaken to study the drying kinetics of pretreated and unblanched leaves of Moringa oleifera dried in a fluidized bed dryer (FBD) using nine established thin layer drying mathematical models. The statistical software tool Statistica was utilized to carry out regression analysis, and the model constants were evaluated using nonlinear regression. In nonlinear regression, the R2 and reduced χ2 were employed to evaluate the goodness of fit of several mathematical models to the data generated experimentally. The model with the highest R2 and the lowest reduced χ2 and root mean square error (RMSE) values was adjudged as best fit to the drying curves. The drying kinetics of drumstick leaves was best explained by the Midilli–Kucuk model, followed by the Logarithmic model. The R2, reduced χ2, and RMSE values of the Midilli–Kucuk model under fluidized bed drying varied from 0.9982–0.9997, 0.00003–0.00029, and 0.0059–0.0166 in pretreated and 0.9945–0.9961, 0.00019–0.00054 and 0.0136–0.227 in unblanched Moringa leaves dried at 50–70 °C, respectively. The diffusivity (Deff) values ranged between 2.96 × 10−9–3.59 × 10−9 m2 s−1 and 2.92 × 10−9–3.04 × 10−9 m2 s−1, and activation energy varied from 13.67–14.07 (KJ/mol) and 13.85–14.11 (KJ/mol) for pretreated and unblanched dried leaves at 50–70 °C drying temperatures, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drying Kinetics and Quality Control in Food Processing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 682 KiB  
Article
Fermentation Wastes from Chrypthecodinium cohnii Lipid Production for Energy Recovery by Anaerobic Digestion
by Ana Eusébio, Patrícia Moniz, Teresa Lopes da Silva and Isabel Paula Marques
Processes 2022, 10(11), 2463; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10112463 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1153
Abstract
Wastes generated during the cultivation of marine microalga Crypthecodinium cohnii and after the lipid extraction process, were energetically valorized into biogas production through anaerobic digestion (AD). The tested wastes were extracted microalgae (Ae) with hexane (AeH) using supercritical extraction methods (AeS) and the [...] Read more.
Wastes generated during the cultivation of marine microalga Crypthecodinium cohnii and after the lipid extraction process, were energetically valorized into biogas production through anaerobic digestion (AD). The tested wastes were extracted microalgae (Ae) with hexane (AeH) using supercritical extraction methods (AeS) and the supernatant obtained after culture medium centrifugation (M). The digestion of the algae biomass in the admixture with the supernatant medium (AeH+M+I and AeS+M+I) provided a higher methane content and a higher methane yield (582 and 440 L CH4/kg VS) than the substrates Ae and M, individually digested (155 and 96 L CH4/kg VS, respectively). Flow cytometry monitoring processes during AD indicated that the yield of the accumulated biogas was influenced by the operating conditions. The mixture of AeH+M+I was the only assay with a proportion of cells with less damaged membranes after AD, providing the highest methane yield and productivity (582 L CH4/kg VS and 31 L CH4/kg VS.d, respectively) and the highest energetic potential of 5.8 KWh/kg VS of all the substrates. From the results, AD integration to lipid production by C. cohnii to recover energy from the generated wastes enhanced the sustainability of the entire process and promoted the practice of zero waste. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 2027 KiB  
Article
IoT-Based Smart Water Management Systems for Residential Buildings in Saudi Arabia
by Rayed AlGhamdi and Sunil Kumar Sharma
Processes 2022, 10(11), 2462; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10112462 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 14108
Abstract
Water is a precious resource that can be intelligently managed. Effective water usage demands computerized home water supply management in a culture where water tanks, motors, and pumps are ubiquitous. Water management is crucial for the government and the citizens in countries like [...] Read more.
Water is a precious resource that can be intelligently managed. Effective water usage demands computerized home water supply management in a culture where water tanks, motors, and pumps are ubiquitous. Water management is crucial for the government and the citizens in countries like Saudi Arabia. The issue is providing a constant, high-quality, low-cost water supply. This study introduces a smart water management (IoT-SWM) system that may be used in structures that do not have access to a constant water supply but instead have water stored in enormous tanks underneath. The GSM module collects water use data from each home in a community and transmits it to the cloud, where it is analyzed. A smart water grid is a hybrid application that uses an inspection mode to identify leaks and measure the resulting height differences to keep track of the tank’s water level. The system automatically deactivates the affected section after detecting any water shortage or malfunction in the system mechanism, such as broken valves, pumps, or pipes. It sends an emergency signal to building managers. It monitors essential water quality elements regularly, and if they fall below acceptable levels, it sends warning signals to the building management, who can take action. Over an extended period, the system monitored and recorded all water quality metrics. The system restarts when the water pump has been reconnected and sends an emergency alert. As a result, the suggested system has been an excellent replacement for Saudi Arabia’s mechanically operated system. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

3 pages, 170 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue on “Modeling, Optimization and Design Method of Metal Manufacturing Processes”
by Guoqing Zhang, Zejia Zhao and Wai Sze YIP
Processes 2022, 10(11), 2461; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10112461 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 979
Abstract
Metal manufacturing processes are essential techniques to convert raw materials into desired metal products, which contributes significantly to the growth of industry and our society [...] Full article
13 pages, 1266 KiB  
Article
Exploiting the Complementary Potential of Rice Bran Oil as a Low-Cost Raw Material for Bioenergy Production
by Emanuel Costa, Manuel Fonseca Almeida, Maria Conceição Alvim-Ferraz and Joana Maia Dias
Processes 2022, 10(11), 2460; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10112460 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1630
Abstract
Rice is one of the most consumed cereals in the world. From rice processing, rice bran is obtained, and only a part of this by-product is effectively used. Rice bran oil can be obtained and used as an alternative feedstock for biodiesel production, [...] Read more.
Rice is one of the most consumed cereals in the world. From rice processing, rice bran is obtained, and only a part of this by-product is effectively used. Rice bran oil can be obtained and used as an alternative feedstock for biodiesel production, although few studies exist to support its exploitation. In addition, pretreatment is required to reduce its acidity and allow for its integration in the conventional industrial process. This work evaluated two pretreatment processes aiming to reduce the free fatty acids (FFAs) content of rice bran oil by employing an acid-catalyzed process and a biocatalyzed process. The results allowed us to assess the efficiency and effectiveness of both pretreatments. For that purpose, acid (45, 55 and 65 °C, using H2SO4 concentrations of 2 wt.% or 4 wt.% and a methanol:oil molar ratio of 9:1) and enzymatic FFAs conversion (35 °C using a 6:1 methanol:oil molar ratio and 5 wt.% of Thermomyces lanuginosus) were evaluated using rice bran oil with an acid value around 47 mg KOH.g−1, and the reaction kinetics were assessed. Acid esterification enabled a 92% acidity reduction (65 °C, 4 wt.% of catalyst) after 8 h, with the final product presenting an acid value of 3.7 mg KOH.g−1 and a biodiesel purity of 42 wt.%. The enzymatic process allowed an acidity reduction of 82%, resulting in a product with an acid value of 7.0 mg KOH.g−1; however, after 24 h, the biodiesel purity was 87 wt.% (almost a two-fold increase compared to that obtained in the homogeneous process), revealing the conversion of both free fatty acids and glycerides. The study of the reaction kinetics of the homogeneous (acid) esterification showed that, for temperatures > 45 °C, the constant rate increased with temperature. A higher constant rate was obtained for the temperature of 55 °C using 4 wt.% of catalyst (k′ = 0.13 min−1). For the heterogeneous (enzymatic) esterification, the constant rate obtained was lower (k′ = 0.028 min−1), as expected. The study revealed the technical viability of the esterification pretreatment of rice bran oil and the important parameters concerning the performance of the pretreatment solutions. Finally, the enzymatic process should be further explored, aiming to develop more ecofriendly processes (water and energy savings) to produce biodiesel from oils with a high acidity (low-cost raw materials). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 4649 KiB  
Article
Numerical Study on Pile Group Effect and Carrying Capacity of Four-Barreled Suction Pile Foundation under V-H-M Combined Loading Conditions
by Zhen Qi, Tongzhong Wei, Changtao Wang, Fengyun Wang, Yin Wang, Jianghong Wang and Juan Li
Processes 2022, 10(11), 2459; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10112459 - 20 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1547
Abstract
Multi-barreled composite foundations are generally used in offshore oil platform structure. However, there is still a lack of theoretical analyses and experimental research. This paper presents the results of a three-dimensional finite element analysis of a four-barreled suction pile foundation in heterogeneous clay [...] Read more.
Multi-barreled composite foundations are generally used in offshore oil platform structure. However, there is still a lack of theoretical analyses and experimental research. This paper presents the results of a three-dimensional finite element analysis of a four-barreled suction pile foundation in heterogeneous clay foundation. The pile group effect and carrying capacity are numerically simulated. The effects of different pile embedment depths, pile spacings and non-uniformity coefficients of clay on the pile group effect are studied. Considering the changes in the foundation carrying capacity under vertical, horizontal and bending moment coupling loads, the foundation carrying capacity envelopes under horizontal and moment (H-M) and vertical, horizontal and moment (V-H-M) loading modes are drawn. The results show that pile spacing and embedment depth have great influence on the pile group effect. The bearing capacity envelope of foundations under V-H-M loading mode is greatly affected by vertical load V. This can provide a reference for the selection of pile spacing and embedded depth in practical engineering design. Furthermore, the stability of foundations can be evaluated according to the relative relationship between design load and failure envelope. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Numerical Modeling for Deep Water Geo-Environment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 985 KiB  
Article
Deep Reinforcement Learning for Traffic Light Timing Optimization
by Bin Wang, Zhengkun He, Jinfang Sheng and Yu Chen
Processes 2022, 10(11), 2458; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10112458 - 20 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3166
Abstract
Existing inflexible and ineffective traffic light control at a key intersection can often lead to traffic congestion due to the complexity of traffic dynamics, how to find the optimal traffic light timing strategy is a significant challenge. This paper proposes a traffic light [...] Read more.
Existing inflexible and ineffective traffic light control at a key intersection can often lead to traffic congestion due to the complexity of traffic dynamics, how to find the optimal traffic light timing strategy is a significant challenge. This paper proposes a traffic light timing optimization method based on double dueling deep Q-network, MaxPressure, and Self-organizing traffic lights (SOTL), namely EP-D3QN, which controls traffic flows by dynamically adjusting the duration of traffic lights in a cycle, whether the phase is switched based on the rules we set in advance and the pressure of the lane. In EP-D3QN, each intersection corresponds to an agent, and the road entering the intersection is divided into grids, each grid stores the speed and position of a car, thus forming the vehicle information matrix, and as the state of the agent. The action of the agent is a set of traffic light phase in a signal cycle, which has four values. The effective duration of the traffic lights is 0–60 s, and the traffic light phases switching depends on its press and the rules we set. The reward of the agent is the difference between the sum of the accumulated waiting time of all vehicles in two consecutive signal cycles. The SUMO is used to simulate two traffic scenarios. We selected two types of evaluation indicators and compared four methods to verify the effectiveness of EP-D3QN. The experimental results show that EP-D3QN has superior performance in light and heavy traffic flow scenarios, which can reduce the waiting time and travel time of vehicles, and improve the traffic efficiency of an intersection. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 7584 KiB  
Article
Enhancing the Surface Quality of FDM Processed Flapping Wing Micro Mechanism Assembly through RSM–TOPSIS Hybrid Approach
by Devaraj Rajamani, Esakki Balasubramanian and Lung-Jieh Yang
Processes 2022, 10(11), 2457; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10112457 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1304
Abstract
Improving surface quality attributes is a critical task in the production of micro-sized near-net-shaped components for end-use applications using additive manufacturing techniques. In the present study, we investigated the effect of fused deposition modeling (FDM) process parameters such as layer thickness, part orientation, [...] Read more.
Improving surface quality attributes is a critical task in the production of micro-sized near-net-shaped components for end-use applications using additive manufacturing techniques. In the present study, we investigated the effect of fused deposition modeling (FDM) process parameters such as layer thickness, part orientation, raster width and raster angle on the surface quality characteristics of as-fabricated test specimens in order to develop the assembly of a flapping wing micro mechanism. Through a Box–Behnken design, a suitable experimental strategy was developed, and test specimens were manufactured. The performance of the experiments was statistically assessed using multi-response analysis of variance (ANOVA). The microstructures of the test specimens produced with various processing parameters were examined using a scanning electron microscope to identify micro surface flaws under various processing conditions. Furthermore, the optimal FDM parameters for improved surface quality attributes such as Ra, Rz and Rq were obtained using a statistical optimization technique known as Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 297 KiB  
Review
Cartilage Tissue in Forensic Science—State of the Art and Future Research Directions
by Marcin Tomsia, Julia Cieśla, Joanna Pilch-Kowalczyk, Przemysław Banaszek and Elżbieta Chełmecka
Processes 2022, 10(11), 2456; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10112456 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2361
Abstract
Cartilage tissue performs many functions in the human body. The diseases and injuries affecting it are prevalent due to its slow regeneration rate. However, cartilage tissue is exceptionally important for its auspicious use in forensic medicine due to its slow postmortem degradation rate. [...] Read more.
Cartilage tissue performs many functions in the human body. The diseases and injuries affecting it are prevalent due to its slow regeneration rate. However, cartilage tissue is exceptionally important for its auspicious use in forensic medicine due to its slow postmortem degradation rate. The presented review summarizes the latest research on cartilage tissues and their current and potential applications in forensic science. It also describes the most important studies on using cartilage and its microscopic and macroscopic analyses to estimate the deceased age and determine postmortem interval (PMI) values and the crime weapon. Additionally, the review describes attempts to isolate DNA from cartilage tissue for individual identification. The review also mentions recent, less abundant studies on the cartilage in forensic toxicology and genetics. It points out further directions and prospects for research development on cartilage tissue and its promising use in forensic medicine Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Processes: Women's Special Issue Series)
11 pages, 3744 KiB  
Article
Preparation and Application of Coal-Liquefaction-Residue-Based Carbon Material
by Liang Xu, Yizhe Lu, Nuerbiya Yalikun, Congchao Shi, Haoyang Wang, Yueyuan Xu and Jie Liu
Processes 2022, 10(11), 2455; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10112455 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1257
Abstract
P-Nitrophenol (4-NP) is a high toxicity material and has harmful effects on the environment. Thus, the analysis of 4-NP is an important topic at present. In this work, the fabrication of a novel electrochemical sensor based on coal-liquefaction-residue (CLR)-derived porous carbon (PC) materials. [...] Read more.
P-Nitrophenol (4-NP) is a high toxicity material and has harmful effects on the environment. Thus, the analysis of 4-NP is an important topic at present. In this work, the fabrication of a novel electrochemical sensor based on coal-liquefaction-residue (CLR)-derived porous carbon (PC) materials. CLR-based porous carbon material was prepared by the high-temperature carbonization method and the morphology and structure of the materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and other characterization methods. Subsequently, the electrochemical properties of the modified electrodes were studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) measurements. The results showed that under optimal conditions, the sensor had a good electrochemical performance for environmental pollutant 4-NP. In particular, the linear range of the sensor was 10–200 μmol·L-1 and the detection limit was 1.169 μmol·L−1 on the basis of the signal-to-noise ratio S/N = 3. The electrode showed excellent stability, reproducibility and repetitiveness and the sensor also had good selectivity. In addition, the newly constructed sensor exhibited adsorption-controlled kinetics and the recovery rate of 4-NP in actual water samples could reach 90.06~95.17%, indicating that the sensor had good practical application prospects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Various Adsorbents for Water Purification Processes, Volume II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 4902 KiB  
Article
Model Forecasting Development for Dengue Fever Incidence in Surabaya City Using Time Series Analysis
by Mahmod Othman, Rachmah Indawati, Ahmad Abubakar Suleiman, Mochammad Bagus Qomaruddin and Rajalingam Sokkalingam
Processes 2022, 10(11), 2454; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10112454 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3397
Abstract
Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is one of the most widespread and deadly diseases in several parts of Indonesia. An accurate forecast-based model is required to reduce the incidence rate of this disease. Time-series methods such as autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models are [...] Read more.
Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is one of the most widespread and deadly diseases in several parts of Indonesia. An accurate forecast-based model is required to reduce the incidence rate of this disease. Time-series methods such as autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models are used in epidemiology as statistical tools to study and forecast DHF and other infectious diseases. The present study attempted to forecast the monthly confirmed DHF cases via a time-series approach. The ARIMA, seasonal ARIMA (SARIMA), and long short-term memory (LSTM) models were compared to select the most accurate forecasting method for the deadly disease. The data were obtained from the Surabaya Health Office covering January 2014 to December 2016. The data were partitioned into the training and testing sets. The best forecasting model was selected based on the lowest values of accuracy metrics such as the root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). The findings demonstrated that the SARIMA (2,1,1) (1,0,0) model was able to forecast the DHF outbreaks in Surabaya City compared to the ARIMA (2,1,1) and LSTM models. We further forecasted the DHF cases for 12 month horizons starting from January 2017 to December 2017 using the SARIMA (2,1,1) (1,0,0), ARIMA (2,1,1), and LSTM models. The results revealed that the SARIMA (2,1,1) (1,0,0) model outperformed the ARIMA (2,1,1) and LSTM models based on the goodness-of-fit measure. The results showed significant seasonal outbreaks of DHF, particularly from March to September. The highest cases observed in May suggested a significant seasonal correlation between DHF and air temperature. This research is the first attempt to analyze the time-series model for DHF cases in Surabaya City and forecast future outbreaks. The findings could help policymakers and public health specialists develop efficient public health strategies to detect and control the disease, especially in the early phases of outbreaks. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 14490 KiB  
Article
Physical Environment Study of Traditional Village Patterns in Jinxi County, Jiangxi Province Based on CFD Simulation
by Zhiyi Zhou, Jun Deng, Pengfei Wang, Chunlei Zhou, Yuxuan Xu, Wanping Jiang and Kai Ma
Processes 2022, 10(11), 2453; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10112453 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1752
Abstract
As a theory in ancient China, Feng Shui is used in terrain exploring to find ideal living environments. In this study, 62 traditional villages documented on China’s and Jiangxi’s protection lists in Jinxi County, Jiangxi Province were divided into four categories according to [...] Read more.
As a theory in ancient China, Feng Shui is used in terrain exploring to find ideal living environments. In this study, 62 traditional villages documented on China’s and Jiangxi’s protection lists in Jinxi County, Jiangxi Province were divided into four categories according to their landscape patterns and were simulated by CFD (computational fluid dynamics) with PHOENICS and quantitatively analyzed based on their wind and thermal environments. The results showed that hills greatly improve the wind environment of villages when they are in the windward direction. Concerning thermal environments, water and vegetation effectively reduced the summer temperatures in villages, while hills kept villages warm in winter. This paper verified the positive effect of elements such as mountains, water and forests on the improvement of wind and thermal environments of villages and the rationality of the site election principle of Bei Shan Mian Shui, also known as back mountain facing water, which is upheld by Feng Shui. This paper explored the philosophy of traditional village location selection, demonstrating the ecological wisdom of ancient Chinese people in creating a good living environment, and provides a new direction for current sustainable development planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Technology for Low Carbon Development)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 4840 KiB  
Article
Modification of Flux Oxygen Behaviour via Co-Cr-Al Unconstrained Metal Powder Additions in Submerged Arc Welding: Gas Phase Thermodynamics and 3D Slag SEM Evidence
by Theresa Coetsee and Frederik De Bruin
Processes 2022, 10(11), 2452; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10112452 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1799
Abstract
Aluminium metal is avoided as main reactant in submerged arc welding (SAW) because it is easily oxidised in this process. Aluminium is an effective de-oxidiser and can be used to prevent Cr and Co loss to the slag by preventing oxidation of these [...] Read more.
Aluminium metal is avoided as main reactant in submerged arc welding (SAW) because it is easily oxidised in this process. Aluminium is an effective de-oxidiser and can be used to prevent Cr and Co loss to the slag by preventing oxidation of these metals. In our novel application of aluminium metal powder in SAW we demonstrate the modification of flux oxygen behaviour. The Co-Cr-Al-alloyed weld metal total oxygen content is decreased to 180 ppm O, compared to 499 ppm O in the weld metal from the original flux, welded without metal powder additions. The flux oxygen behaviour is modified by the added aluminium powder through the lowering of the original flux-induced partial oxygen pressure in the arc cavity and at the molten flux-weld pool interface. Carbon steel was alloyed to 5.9% Co, 6.3 % Cr and 5.1% Al at 81% Co yield, 87% Cr yield and 70% Al yield. Gas-slag-alloy thermochemical equilibrium calculations confirm the partial oxygen-pressure-lowering effect of aluminium. BSE (backscattered electron) images of the three-dimensional (3D) post-weld slag sample show dome structures which contain features of vapour formation and re-condensation. These features consist of small spheres (sized less than 10 μm) and smaller needle-shaped particles coalescing into a porous sphere. EDX analyses show that the spheres consist of Si-Na-K-Fe-Mn-Co-Cr oxy-fluoride and the needles consist of low oxygen Si-Al-Ca-Mg-Na-K-Fe-Mn-Co-Cr oxy-fluoride. The element distribution and speciation data from the EDX analyses confirm modification of the flux oxygen behaviour via aluminium powder addition in lowering the partial oxygen pressure, which in turn prevents oxidation of Cr and Co and minimise losses to the slag. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling and Simulation of Welding Processes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 687 KiB  
Article
Sunflower Oil Flavored by Spearmint through Conventional and Ultrasound-Assisted Maceration: Differences in Oxidative Stability, Microbial Contamination and Sensory Properties
by Xinjian Lu, Haoduo Yang, Yudong Meng and Dongying Wang
Processes 2022, 10(11), 2451; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10112451 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1429
Abstract
The preparation of flavored vegetable oils using spice and herb plants is considered to be an indispensable opportunity for the application of these plants. In the present exploration, sunflower oil (SFO) samples flavored by Mentha spicata L. (spearmint) were prepared using the maceration [...] Read more.
The preparation of flavored vegetable oils using spice and herb plants is considered to be an indispensable opportunity for the application of these plants. In the present exploration, sunflower oil (SFO) samples flavored by Mentha spicata L. (spearmint) were prepared using the maceration method (MM) and ultrasound-assisted maceration (UM). The antioxidant effects, sensory evaluation and the oxidative stability during accelerated storage; the physicochemical properties including the levels for acid value (AV), peroxide value (PV) and p-anisidine value (AnV); and the specific extinction values at 232 nm (K232) and 268 nm (K268) of the SFO samples were measured. The contents of beneficial ingredients including chlorophylls, carotenoids, polyphenols and tocopherols, and the micro-organism colonies for yeasts, molds, Listeria monocytogenes and Enterobacteriaceae bacteria were determined. The results show that the physicochemical properties, beneficial ingredients, antioxidant effects, sensory attributes and the oxidative stability in accelerated storage were greater in the flavored SFO sample than the control. Therefore, the SFO flavored by spearmint can be developed as flavored vegetable oils, and the ultrasound-assisted maceration can be widely employed in the preparation of flavored vegetable oils in the future. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

3 pages, 166 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue: Properties and Processing Process of Flour Products
by Tonna Ashim Anyasi and Afam Israel Obiefuna Jideani
Processes 2022, 10(11), 2450; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10112450 - 18 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1877
Abstract
The development of flour from established native sources to alternative and sustainable sources is increasing as demands for flour products rise due to recent global conflicts [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Properties and Processing Process of Flour Products)
12 pages, 1915 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the Vertical Propagation Pattern of the 3D Hydraulic Fracture under the Influence of Interlayer Heterogeneity
by Bingqian Wan, Yancheng Liu, Bo Zhang, Shuai Luo, Leipeng Wei, Litao Li and Jiang He
Processes 2022, 10(11), 2449; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10112449 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1100
Abstract
The low permeability and thinly interbedded reservoirs have poor physical properties and strong interbedded heterogeneity, and it is difficult to control the hydraulic fracture (HF) height and width during hydraulic fracturing, which affects the effect of HF penetration and sand addition. In this [...] Read more.
The low permeability and thinly interbedded reservoirs have poor physical properties and strong interbedded heterogeneity, and it is difficult to control the hydraulic fracture (HF) height and width during hydraulic fracturing, which affects the effect of HF penetration and sand addition. In this work, a three-dimensional fluid–solid fully coupled HF propagation model is established to simulate the influence of interlayer heterogeneity on vertical HF height and HF width, and the relationship between HF length and HF width under different treatment parameters is further studied. The results show that, in thin interbedded strata, the high interlayer stress contrast, high tensile strength, and low Young’s modulus will inhibit the vertical propagation of HFs. The interlayer heterogeneity results in the vertical wavy distribution of HF width. Under the high interlayer stress contrast, Young’s modulus, and tensile strength, the HF width profile becomes narrow and the variation amplitude decreases. The HF length decreases and the HF width increases as the injection rate and fracturing fluid viscosity increase. This study is of great significance for clarifying the vertical propagation pattern in thinly interbedded reservoirs, optimizing the treatment parameters, and improving the effect of cross fracturing and proppant distribution. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 35594 KiB  
Article
The Mechanism Research of Low-Frequency Pressure Oscillation in the Feeding Pipe of Cryogenic Rocket Propulsion System
by Chengfeng Zhu, Yanzhong Li, Fushou Xie, Lei Wang and Yuan Ma
Processes 2022, 10(11), 2448; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10112448 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1101
Abstract
In the propulsion system of cryogenic liquid rockets, low-frequency pressure oscillation is a long-standing issue occurring in its feeding pipe, and is not conducive to the normal operation of the rocket. Its mechanism and excitation process are not very clear due to the [...] Read more.
In the propulsion system of cryogenic liquid rockets, low-frequency pressure oscillation is a long-standing issue occurring in its feeding pipe, and is not conducive to the normal operation of the rocket. Its mechanism and excitation process are not very clear due to the limitation of the existing numerical method and the difficulty of the real dynamic experiment. Inspired by the periodic suck-back flow phenomenon of steam condensation, the fluctuation of the two-phase interface might be the crucial factor to initiate the low-frequency pressure oscillation. To simulate this interfacial characteristic of cryogenic propellant, a novel numerical model is proposed to predict the mass transfer rate weighted by the interfacial curvature. Aiming at the oxygen jet condensation simulation, the low-frequency pressure oscillation phenomenon is obtained successfully with the excitation frequency of 10.6 Hz, consistent with the natural frequency of the engine test run. It is conducted so the low-frequency pressure oscillation is caused by the periodic condensation of the continuous oxygen vapour plume, along with an oxygen suck-back flow phenomenon. In addition, the results indicate that both the oxygen and liquid oxygen mass flux promote the rise in the frequency of pressure oscillation. These conclusions provide theoretical instructions for the design and operation of the propulsion system of a cryogenic liquid rocket. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CFD Applications in Heat Transfer Research and Simulation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 3154 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Anti-Plugging Working Parameters for Alternating Injection Wells of Carbon Dioxide and Water
by Kemin Li, Guangsheng Cao, Gaojun Shan, Ning Zhang, Xincheng Liu, Shengbo Zhai and Yujie Bai
Processes 2022, 10(11), 2447; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10112447 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1183
Abstract
In the process of oilfield development, the use of CO2 can improve the degree of reservoir production. Usually, CO2 is injected alternately with water to expand the spread range of CO2, and CO2 presents a supercritical state in [...] Read more.
In the process of oilfield development, the use of CO2 can improve the degree of reservoir production. Usually, CO2 is injected alternately with water to expand the spread range of CO2, and CO2 presents a supercritical state in the formation conditions. In the process of alternating CO2 and water injection, wellbore freezing and plugging frequently occur. In order to determine the cause of freezing and plugging of injection wells, the supercritical CO2 flooding test area of YSL Oilfield in China is taken as an example to analyze the situation of freezing and plugging wells in the test area. The reasons for hydrate freezing and plugging are obtained, the distribution characteristics and sources of hydrate near the well are clarified, and a coupling model is established to calculate the limit injection velocity and limit shut-in time of CO2 and water alternate injection wells. The results show that the main reasons for freezing and plugging of supercritical CO2 water alternate injection wells are long time shut down after alternate injection, improper operation when stopping injection and starting and stopping pumps, and slow injection speed during alternate injection. In the process of supercritical CO2 water alternative injection, in the case of post-injection, the CO2 in the formation will reverse diffuse to the injection well end. With the continuous increase of daily water injection, the initial diffusion position and the time of CO2 diffusion to the perforated hole after well shut-in gradually increase. The time of CO2 reverse diffusion to the bottom of the well is 1.6–32.3 d, and the diffusion time in the perforated hole is 1.0–4.5 d. Therefore, the limit shut-in time following injection is 2.6–36.8 d. Following gas injection, the limit shut-in time of a waterproof compound can be divided into three stages according to the change of wellbore pressure: the pressure stabilization stage, pressure-drop stage and formation fluid-return stage. The limit shut-in time of a waterproof compound following gas injection is mainly affected by permeability, cumulative gas injection rate and formation depth. The limit shut-in time of a waterproof compound is 20.0~30.0 days. The research results provide technical support for the wide application of CO2 flooding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Enhanced Oil Recovery Technologies, 2nd Volume)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2797 KiB  
Article
The Mixture of Probability Distribution Functions for Wind and Photovoltaic Power Systems Using a Metaheuristic Method
by Amr Khaled Khamees, Almoataz Y. Abdelaziz, Makram R. Eskaros, Mahmoud A. Attia and Ahmed O. Badr
Processes 2022, 10(11), 2446; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10112446 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1444
Abstract
The rising use of renewable energy sources, particularly those that are weather-dependent like wind and solar energy, has increased the uncertainty of supply in these power systems. In order to obtain considerably more accurate results in the analysis of power systems, such as [...] Read more.
The rising use of renewable energy sources, particularly those that are weather-dependent like wind and solar energy, has increased the uncertainty of supply in these power systems. In order to obtain considerably more accurate results in the analysis of power systems, such as in the planning and operation, it is necessary to tackle the stochastic nature of these sources. Operators require adequate techniques and procedures to mitigate the negative consequences of the stochastic behavior of renewable energy generators. Thus, this paper presents a modification of the original probability distribution functions (PDFs) where the original PDFs are insufficient for wind speed and solar irradiance modeling because they have a significant error between the real data frequency distribution and the estimated distribution curve. This modification is using a mixture of probability distributions, which can improve the fitting of data and reduce this error. The main aim of this paper is to model wind speed and solar irradiance behaviors using a two-component and a three-component mixture of PDFs generated from the integration of the original Weibull, Lognormal, Gamma, and Inverse-Gaussian PDFs. Three statistical errors are used to test the efficiency of the proposed original and mixture PDFs, which are the root mean square error (RMSE), the coefficient of correlation (R2), and the Chi-square error (X2). The results show that the mixture of PDFs gives better fitting criteria for wind speed and solar irradiance frequency distributions than the original PDFs. The parameters of the original and the mixture of PDFs are calculated using the innovative metaheuristic Mayfly algorithm (MA). The three-component mixture of PDFs lowered the RMSE by about 73% and was 17% more than the best original and the two-component mixture distributions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Microgrid Systems: Technologies, Applications and Trends)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 5865 KiB  
Article
Prediction of Reservoir Fracture Parameters Based on the Multi-Layer Perceptron Machine-Learning Method: A Case Study of Ordovician and Cambrian Carbonate Rocks in Nanpu Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, China
by Jianya Pei and Yunfeng Zhang
Processes 2022, 10(11), 2445; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10112445 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1367
Abstract
Developing a model that can accurately predict internal fractured reservoirs in the context of the ultra-low physical properties of carbonate rocks by only employing conventional mathematical methods can be very challenging. This process is challenging because the relationship between basic fracture parameters and [...] Read more.
Developing a model that can accurately predict internal fractured reservoirs in the context of the ultra-low physical properties of carbonate rocks by only employing conventional mathematical methods can be very challenging. This process is challenging because the relationship between basic fracture parameters and the logging response in carbonate reservoirs has not been studied, and the traditional method lacks adaptability due to the complex relationship between basic fracture parameters and the logging response. However, data-driven approaches supplemented by machine learning algorithms based on multi-layer perceptrons (MLP) provide a more reliable solution to this challenge. In this paper, a classical fracture parameter evaluation data set is established using fracture porosity, fracture density, fracture length, and fracture width data that can be identified by resistivity and acoustic imaging logging. Another data set can be composed of different types of logs, and it can be used to identify reservoirs. Two different data sets were validated by regression task evaluation indicators in machine learning, and the correlation coefficient R2 is greater than 0.82. This means that the model accuracy of the algorithm can reach 82%. Combined with the comparison results of eight conventional machine learning algorithms, the reliability and application validity of the MLP model are verified. This method’s accuracy is also verified by oil test data, which show that the MLP machine-learning algorithm can effectively simulate the relationship between lithology and fracture development. In addition, it can be used to predict key exploration horizons before drilling. The relationship between lithology and fracture development degree is well-simulated by the MLP machine learning algorithm, which shows that the degree of fracture development is mainly affected by fractures, indicating that the method can be used to predict key exploration horizons before drilling. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

34 pages, 3815 KiB  
Article
Implementation of Industrial Traceability Systems: A Case Study of a Luxury Metal Pieces Manufacturing Company
by Guilherme Fortuna and Pedro Dinis Gaspar
Processes 2022, 10(11), 2444; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10112444 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3827
Abstract
Technological advances have shown an accentuated growth trend, which is directly proportional to the quality of life in today’s society. As a result, the business market is becoming increasingly competitive and customers are becoming more demanding, forcing companies to look for new tools [...] Read more.
Technological advances have shown an accentuated growth trend, which is directly proportional to the quality of life in today’s society. As a result, the business market is becoming increasingly competitive and customers are becoming more demanding, forcing companies to look for new tools and adopt new work methodologies to improve their flexibility, effectiveness and efficiency, ensuring a better response to market needs. In this context, the tools for tracking objects, totally or partially automatic, are considered essential technologies to all kinds of analysis and the treatment of business data, providing several benefits to companies, including waste reduction, identification of bottlenecks, cost reduction, improvement of product quality and the entire flow of business information. A case study of an industrial company specializing in machining, polishing and galvanoplasty of metallic alloys, small size pieces to be incorporated in luxury fashion accessories, is presented. Derived from the difficulties underlying the implementation of a traceability system supported by identification technologies and obtaining data in an automatic way, the focus of the study is based on the identification of a base model, with sequential steps, which allows any industrial company to adapt these types of technological tools and systems. Based on the pillars of knowledge acquired through a bibliographic review on the subject, as well as on the recognition of the whole production flow, this work makes use of an implementation model already developed, studied and tested, supported by a project viability analysis measuring the benefits obtained with the results found after the respective implementation. Production performance increased with the implementation of a traceability system, as the time worked throughout the flow decreased. Production performance prior to implementation was around 98.6%. Applying a Kaizen (continuous improvement) strategy and based on the times collected in the pilot test, this indicator rose by 0.5%, obtaining a production performance of 99.1%, corresponding to an annual increase of 99 pieces. The integration of a robust and simple traceability system supported by automatic identification and data capture (AIDC) technologies in this industrial environment allowed for automated data collection and processing. In addition to the financial and productive benefits, this Industry 4.0 implementation encompasses a huge medium- to long-term impact in functional and monitoring terms, providing enormous aid to the management of production flows. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Manufacturing and Sustainable Supply Chain Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 398 KiB  
Article
Analogues of Oxamate, Pyruvate, and Lactate as Potential Inhibitors of Plasmodium knowlesi Lactate Dehydrogenase Identified Using Virtual Screening and Verified via Inhibition Assays
by Fazia Adyani Ahmad Fuad and Nurhainis Ogu Salim
Processes 2022, 10(11), 2443; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10112443 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2022
Abstract
Malaria management remains a challenge, due to the resistance of malaria parasites to current antimalarial agents. This resistance consequently delays the global elimination of malaria throughout the world. Hence, the demand is increasing for new and effective antimalarial drugs. The identification of potential [...] Read more.
Malaria management remains a challenge, due to the resistance of malaria parasites to current antimalarial agents. This resistance consequently delays the global elimination of malaria throughout the world. Hence, the demand is increasing for new and effective antimalarial drugs. The identification of potential drugs that target Pk-LDH can be obtained through virtual screening analyses, as this has been previously applied to discover Pf-LDH inhibitors. In this study, the selected candidates from our virtual screening analyses were subsequently tested against purified Pk-LDH, and verified through an inhibition of Pk-LDH via enzymatic activity assays. Virtual screening analysis from this study showed that 3,3-Difluoropyrrolidine hydrochloride and 3-hydroxytetrahydrofuran exhibited binding affinity values of −3.25 kcal/mol and −3.74, respectively. These compounds were selected for evaluation towards inhibitory activity against Pk-LDH assays, including two compounds from a previous study which are oxalic acid and glycolamide. The earlier compounds were structurally similar to lactate and pyruvate, and the latter two compounds were structurally similar to a known LDH inhibitor, oxamate. Among all of the compounds tested, oxalic acid showed the highest inhibition activity at 54.12%; interestingly, this correlated well with the virtual screening analyses, which showed that this compound was the best among the oxamate analogues, with a binding affinity value of −2.59 kcal/mol. Hence, further exploration and development of this compound may result in a promising antimalarial drug for malaria treatment, especially for infection involving P. knowlesi. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for Drug Discovery and Development)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1915 KiB  
Article
Effect of Inclusion of Date Press Cake on Texture, Color, Sensory, Microstructure, and Functional Properties of Date Jam
by Nashi K. Alqahtani, Tareq M. Alnemr, Abdelrahman R. Ahmed and Salim Ali
Processes 2022, 10(11), 2442; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10112442 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1827
Abstract
Date press cake (DPC) is a by-product of the date syrup industry with a high content of dietary fibers, minerals, and antioxidant compounds. Accordingly, the present study aimed to evaluate the inclusion of DPC on the color parameters, texture profile, sensory evaluation, microstructure [...] Read more.
Date press cake (DPC) is a by-product of the date syrup industry with a high content of dietary fibers, minerals, and antioxidant compounds. Accordingly, the present study aimed to evaluate the inclusion of DPC on the color parameters, texture profile, sensory evaluation, microstructure properties, total phenolics, and antioxidant capacity of date jam. The DPC was included in the preparation of date jam in an increasing level of 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12% (w/w). The results revealed that increasing DPC levels significantly increased the hardness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, and chewiness properties of date jam. The increase in DPC inclusion levels significantly decreased the L* values and increased the a*, b*, and ΔE values of the jam. The DPC addition significantly increased the phenolics content and antioxidant capacity in a dose-dependent manner and the highest value reported in the jam contained 12% DPC by 40.02 and 11.50% compared to the control, respectively. The scanning electron microscopy results revealed that the addition of DPC up to 9% resulted in a jam surface with a denser network, homogeneous structure, and without cracks and pores, indicating improvement in the morphological properties. The sensory evaluation results showed that date jam prepared with 9% DPC had the highest overall acceptability score. This study revealed the potential use of DPC in date jam formulation up to 9% as a natural, functional, and low-cost ingredient to improve the jam’s textural properties, antioxidant capacity, and overall acceptability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Food and Food Byproducts Processing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 3479 KiB  
Article
COD Reduction of Aeration Effluent by Utilizing Optimum Quantities of UV/H2O2/O3 in a Small-Scale Reactor
by Mehdi Rafiee, Morteza Sabeti, Farshid Torabi and Aria Rahimbakhsh
Processes 2022, 10(11), 2441; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10112441 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2115
Abstract
Extensive research has been carried out to figure out safe means of disposing various industrial effluents. Industrial wastewaters from the aeration industry such as heavy metals and oily substances contain a high degree of contamination. The advanced oxidation process is one of the [...] Read more.
Extensive research has been carried out to figure out safe means of disposing various industrial effluents. Industrial wastewaters from the aeration industry such as heavy metals and oily substances contain a high degree of contamination. The advanced oxidation process is one of the most effective and rapid methods of removing contaminations, which can lead to a high chemical oxygen demand (COD). The aim of the present study is to reduce the COD of an aeration effluent with the initial COD of 13,004 mg/L. About 20 sets of experimental tests were conducted to identify the contribution of H2O2, O3, and UV to the treatment process. The influence of the quantities of additives and the dose of the UV irradiance were, too, among the subjects of the study. These factors were altered throughout the experiments and their mutual effects were measured. To design the experiments, Minitab software 16 was utilized. The experimental conditions were set at the standard values of 25 °C and 1 bar to minimize any uncertainty. Based on the results, a correlation was derived, which was capable of expressing the effects of the input parameters (AOPs parameters) on the response (the COD level). Finally, the optimization process was conducted to find the quantities of H2O2, O3, and UV irradiance required to decrease the CODs of the effluent to their lowest possible. Based on the findings, when the doses of H2O2, O3, and UV to the treatment process were 40 mg/L, 8 mg/L and 86 mWs/cm2, respectively, the COD percent change was 51.5%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Oxidation Process: Applications and Prospects)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 3633 KiB  
Article
Facile Preparation and Characterization of Silica Nanoparticles from South Africa Fly Ash Using a Sol–Gel Hydrothermal Method
by Patrick Ehi Imoisili, Emeka Charles Nwanna and Tien-Chien Jen
Processes 2022, 10(11), 2440; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10112440 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2805
Abstract
Silica nanoparticles (SNPs) consist of several applications which include lightweight aggregates, energy storage, and drug delivery. Nevertheless, the silica reagents used in SNP synthesis are both costly and hazardous. As a result, it is critical to look for other sources of silica. For [...] Read more.
Silica nanoparticles (SNPs) consist of several applications which include lightweight aggregates, energy storage, and drug delivery. Nevertheless, the silica reagents used in SNP synthesis are both costly and hazardous. As a result, it is critical to look for other sources of silica. For this research, a simple sol–gel hydrothermal approach is used to make SNPs from South African fly ash (SAFA). SAFA is classified as fly ash class F according to X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. The wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern reveals the structural composition of SAFA and the amorphous phase of extracted SNPs, while Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) examination reveals the presence of silanol and siloxane groups. Basic SNPs were generally spherical with diameters of about 60 nm, according to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transition electron microscope (TEM) studies. The presence of SiO2 is confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) spectrum analysis. Particle size assessment indicates particle sizes ranging from 48 nm to 87 nm in diameter, with a mean diameter of 67 nm. The application of SNPs in wastewater treatment demonstrated that they can be used to remove Cd2+ from an aqueous solution. This research offers new ideas for using South African fly ash in SNP manufacturing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials Processes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 1679 KiB  
Review
A Review on the Hydrothermal Treatment of Food Waste: Processing and Applications
by Chuanbin Wang, Zhi Wang, Xutong Wang, Ning Li, Junyu Tao, Wandong Zheng, Beibei Yan, Xiaoqiang Cui, Zhanjun Cheng and Guanyi Chen
Processes 2022, 10(11), 2439; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10112439 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3445
Abstract
The amount of food waste is increasing with the development of society and the increase in population; the rough treatment of food waste could result in a serious environmental crisis and waste of resources. Hydrothermal treatment is a promising scheme to achieve the [...] Read more.
The amount of food waste is increasing with the development of society and the increase in population; the rough treatment of food waste could result in a serious environmental crisis and waste of resources. Hydrothermal treatment is a promising scheme to achieve the harmless treatment and utilization of food waste. Although there are many studies on the hydrothermal treatment of food waste, there is still a lack of systematic summary and comprehensive analysis of the relevant literature. In this review, we provide an in-depth analysis of the specific impact mechanisms of hydrothermal conditions on the gaseous, solid, and liquid products. Meanwhile, the hydrothermal conversion mechanisms of food waste components are systematically sorted out. The review also discusses the potential application areas for the derived products from the hydrothermal treatment of food waste. Finally, the main challenges and future research directions are proposed to improve the development of the hydrothermal treatment of food waste. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remediation Strategies for Soil and Water)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 13622 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Water, Nanoparticulate Silica and Dry Water on the Flow Properties of Cohesionless Sand
by Leigh Duncan Hamilton, Harald Zetzener and Arno Kwade
Processes 2022, 10(11), 2438; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10112438 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1497
Abstract
Cement hydration within particle bed concrete 3D printing processes can be benefited by storing water in the otherwise dry aggregate bulk material. Additional water also has the advantage of acting as a source of passive cooling. However, even small amounts of liquid lead [...] Read more.
Cement hydration within particle bed concrete 3D printing processes can be benefited by storing water in the otherwise dry aggregate bulk material. Additional water also has the advantage of acting as a source of passive cooling. However, even small amounts of liquid lead to detrimental effects on bulk properties, such as the flowability. For that reason, this study proposes implementing dry water (DW) in order to store large amounts of water in a bulk material of non-absorbent, coarse sand whilst maintaining its initial bulk properties. DW is essentially created by mixing water and hydrophobic fumed silica in a high shear process, leading to water droplets surrounded by a protective silica shell. Herein, several DW variants, distinguished by their deionised water to hydrophobic silica ratio, were mixed with non-absorbent, coarse sand particles. In addition, mixtures were produced to contain a specific overall water content of up to wH2O = 5% within the bulk material. It was shown that dry water can be used to incorporate large amounts of water into a granular bulk material and simultaneously preserve flow properties. The decisive factor is the proportion of hydrophobic silica for a given water content as the DW capsules may otherwise not endure mechanical stress during mixing. However, even minimal quantities of silica can prevent liquid capillary bridges from forming and, thus, inhibit bulk property degradation. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop