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Risks, Volume 12, Issue 2 (February 2024) – 26 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Existing methods for assessing distributional estimability require the subjective specification of thresholds. An objective measure of distributional estimability is introduced in the context of general statistical models. More specifically, this objectivity is achieved via a carefully designed cumulative distribution function sensitivity measure, under which the threshold is tailored to the empirical cumulative distribution function (ECDF), thus becoming an experiment-based quantity. The proposed definition, which was validated to be innately sound, is then employed to determine and enhance the estimability of various statistical models. View this paper
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20 pages, 2991 KiB  
Article
When to Hedge Downside Risk?
by Christos I. Giannikos, Hany Guirguis, Andreas Kakolyris and Tin Shan (Michael) Suen
Risks 2024, 12(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/risks12020042 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1184
Abstract
Hedging downside risk before substantial price corrections is vital for risk management and long-only active equity manager performance. This study proposes a novel methodology for crafting timing signals to hedge sectors’ downside risk. These signals can be integrated into existing strategies simply by [...] Read more.
Hedging downside risk before substantial price corrections is vital for risk management and long-only active equity manager performance. This study proposes a novel methodology for crafting timing signals to hedge sectors’ downside risk. These signals can be integrated into existing strategies simply by purchasing sector index put options. Our methodology generates successful signals for price corrections in 2000 (dot-com bubble) and 2008 (global financial crisis). A key innovation involves utilizing sector correlations. Major price swings within six months are signaled when a sector exhibits high valuation alongside abnormal correlations with others. Utilizing the price-to-earnings ratio for identifying sectors’ high valuations is more beneficial than the bond–stock earnings yield differential. Our signals are also more efficient than those of standard technical analyses. Full article
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26 pages, 2048 KiB  
Article
Do US Active Mutual Funds Make Good of Their ESG Promises? Evidence from Portfolio Holdings
by Massimo Guidolin and Monia Magnani
Risks 2024, 12(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/risks12020041 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1207
Abstract
We investigate the occurrence of greenwashing in the US mutual fund industry. Using panel regression methods, we test whether there exist differences in the portfolio investment behaviors of active equity funds that are self-declared to be driven by ESG motives when compared to [...] Read more.
We investigate the occurrence of greenwashing in the US mutual fund industry. Using panel regression methods, we test whether there exist differences in the portfolio investment behaviors of active equity funds that are self-declared to be driven by ESG motives when compared to all other funds. In particular, we focus on two aspects of funds’ portfolio allocation decisions, i.e., the actual implied average ESG ratings of the stocks a mutual fund invests in and the portfolio share invested in sin stocks. We do not find strong evidence that ESG and non-ESG funds make identical investment choices and hence reject the hypothesis of widespread greenwashing. ESG funds, on average, invest more in companies with higher ESG ratings and avoid sin stocks more than non-ESG funds. Nonetheless, we obtain evidence that some degree of greenwashing may still be occurring. However, over time, the differences between ESG and non-ESG funds in these behaviors seem have declined, suggesting a potential reduction in greenwashing practices. Full article
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19 pages, 433 KiB  
Article
Analyzing Size of Loss Frequency Distribution Patterns: Uncovering the Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Shengkun Xie and Yuanshun Li
Risks 2024, 12(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/risks12020040 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 906
Abstract
This study delves into a critical examination of the Size of Loss distribution patterns in the context of auto insurance during pre- and post-pandemics, emphasizing their profound influence on insurance pricing and regulatory frameworks. Through a comprehensive analysis of the historical Size of [...] Read more.
This study delves into a critical examination of the Size of Loss distribution patterns in the context of auto insurance during pre- and post-pandemics, emphasizing their profound influence on insurance pricing and regulatory frameworks. Through a comprehensive analysis of the historical Size of Loss data, insurers and regulators gain essential insights into the probabilities and magnitudes of insurance claims, informing the determination of precise insurance premiums and the management of case reserving. This approach aids in fostering fair competition, ensuring equitable premium rates, and preventing discriminatory pricing practices, thereby promoting a balanced insurance landscape. The research further investigates the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on these Size of Loss patterns, given the substantial shifts in driving behaviours and risk landscapes. Also, the research contributes to the literature by addressing the need for more studies focusing on the implications of the COVID-19 pandemic on pre- and post-pandemic auto insurance loss patterns, thus offering a holistic perspective encompassing both insurance pricing and regulatory dimensions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risks: Feature Papers 2023)
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6 pages, 283 KiB  
Obituary
In Memory of Peter Carr (1958–2022)
by Giuseppe Campolieti, Arash Fahim, Dan Pirjol, Harvey Stein, Tai-Ho Wang and Lingjiong Zhu
Risks 2024, 12(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/risks12020039 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1202
Abstract
The editors of this special issue and several of the contributing authors have known Peter for a long time. We thought that the special issue will be enriched by adding a few personal notes and recollections about our interactions with Peter. Full article
14 pages, 1665 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Liability-Driven Investment under Sponsor’s Loss Aversion
by Dong-Hwa Lee and Joo-Ho Sung
Risks 2024, 12(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/risks12020038 - 13 Feb 2024
Viewed by 941
Abstract
This paper investigates a dynamic liability-driven investment policy for defined-benefit (DB) plans by incorporating the loss aversion of a sponsor, who is assumed to be more sensitive to underfunding than overfunding. Through the lens of prospect theory, we first set up a loss-aversion [...] Read more.
This paper investigates a dynamic liability-driven investment policy for defined-benefit (DB) plans by incorporating the loss aversion of a sponsor, who is assumed to be more sensitive to underfunding than overfunding. Through the lens of prospect theory, we first set up a loss-aversion utility function for a sponsor whose utility depends on the funding ratio in each period, obtained from stochastic processes of pension assets and liabilities. We then construct a multi-horizon dynamic control optimization problem to find the optimal investment strategy that maximizes the expected utility of the plan sponsor. A genetic algorithm is employed to provide a numerical solution for our nonlinear dynamic optimization problem. Our results suggest that the overall paths of the optimal equity allocation decline as the age of a plan participant reaches retirement. We also find that the equity portion of the portfolio increases when a sponsor is less loss-averse or the contribution rate is lower. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Life Insurance and Pensions: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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26 pages, 710 KiB  
Article
An Objective Measure of Distributional Estimability as Applied to the Phase-Type Aging Model
by Cong Nie, Xiaoming Liu and Serge B. Provost
Risks 2024, 12(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/risks12020037 - 13 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1093
Abstract
The phase-type aging model (PTAM) is a class of Coxian-type Markovian models that can provide a quantitative description of the effects of various aging characteristics. Owing to the unique structure of the PTAM, parametric inference on the model is affected by a significant [...] Read more.
The phase-type aging model (PTAM) is a class of Coxian-type Markovian models that can provide a quantitative description of the effects of various aging characteristics. Owing to the unique structure of the PTAM, parametric inference on the model is affected by a significant estimability issue, its profile likelihood functions being flat. While existing methods for assessing distributional non-estimability require the subjective specification of thresholds, this paper objectively quantifies estimability in the context of general statistical models. More specifically, this is achieved via a carefully designed cumulative distribution function sensitivity measure, under which the threshold is tailored to the empirical cumulative distribution function, thus becoming an experiment-based quantity. The proposed definition, which is validated to be innately sound, is then employed to determine and enhance the estimability of the PTAM. Full article
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42 pages, 5213 KiB  
Article
Quantitative Modeling of Financial Contagion: Unraveling Market Dynamics and Bubble Detection Mechanisms
by Ionuț Nica, Ștefan Ionescu, Camelia Delcea and Nora Chiriță
Risks 2024, 12(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/risks12020036 - 08 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1237
Abstract
This study explored the complex interplay and potential risk of financial contagion across major financial indices, focusing on the Bucharest Exchange Trading Investment Funds Index (BET-FI), along with global indices like the S&P 500, Nasdaq Composite (IXIC), and Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA). [...] Read more.
This study explored the complex interplay and potential risk of financial contagion across major financial indices, focusing on the Bucharest Exchange Trading Investment Funds Index (BET-FI), along with global indices like the S&P 500, Nasdaq Composite (IXIC), and Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA). Our analysis covered an extensive period from 2012 to 2023, with a particular emphasis on Romania’s financial market. We employed Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) modeling to examine the interrelations among these indices, treating the BET-FI index as our primary variable. Our research also integrated Exponential Curve Fitting (EXCF) and Generalized Supremum Augmented Dickey–Fuller (GSADF) models to identify and scrutinize potential price bubbles in these indices. We analyzed moments of high volatility and deviations from typical market trends, influenced by diverse factors like government policies, presidential elections, tech sector performance, the COVID-19 pandemic, and geopolitical tensions, specifically the Russia–Ukraine conflict. The ARDL model revealed a stable long-term relationship among the variables, indicating their interconnectedness. Our study also highlights the significance of short-term market shifts leading to long-term equilibrium, as shown in the Error Correction Model (ECM). This suggests the existence of contagion effects, where small, short-term incidents can trigger long-term, domino-like impacts on the financial markets. Furthermore, our variance decomposition examined the evolving contributions of different factors over time, shedding light on their changing interactions and impact. The Cholesky factors demonstrated the interdependence between indices, essential for understanding financial contagion effects. Our research thus uncovered the nuanced dynamics of financial contagion, offering insights into market variations, the effectiveness of our models, and strategies for detecting financial bubbles. This study contributes valuable knowledge to the academic field and offers practical insights for investors in turbulent financial environments. Full article
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17 pages, 402 KiB  
Article
Determinants of Life Insurance Consumption in OECD Countries Using FMOLS and DOLS Techniques
by Maheswaran Srinivasan and Subrata Mitra
Risks 2024, 12(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/risks12020035 - 05 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1295
Abstract
This paper aims to examine the determinants of life insurance consumption in 30 OECD countries using panel data from 1996 to 2020. This study uses GDP per capita, Life expectancy, Urbanization, School education, and Health expenditure as the determinants to measure the OECD [...] Read more.
This paper aims to examine the determinants of life insurance consumption in 30 OECD countries using panel data from 1996 to 2020. This study uses GDP per capita, Life expectancy, Urbanization, School education, and Health expenditure as the determinants to measure the OECD countries’ life insurance consumption. Insurance density is used as a proxy for life insurance consumption. Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (FMOLS), Dynamic Ordinary Least Squares (DOLS), and causality tests are applied in this study. Our empirical results revealed that the variables urbanization, school education, and GDP per capita significantly impact life insurance consumption, whereas life expectancy and health expenditure were found to have an insignificant relationship in estimating life insurance consumption. These findings will help all insurance industry stakeholders in OECD countries in policy formulation and decision making. Full article
29 pages, 780 KiB  
Article
Robust Portfolio Optimization with Environmental, Social, and Corporate Governance Preference
by Marcos Escobar-Anel and Yiyao Jiao
Risks 2024, 12(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/risks12020033 - 05 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1254
Abstract
This study addresses the crucial but under-explored topic of ambiguity aversion, i.e., model misspecification, in the area of environmental, social, and corporate governance (ESG) within portfolio decisions. It considers a risk- and ambiguity-averse investor allocating resources to a risk-free asset, a market index, [...] Read more.
This study addresses the crucial but under-explored topic of ambiguity aversion, i.e., model misspecification, in the area of environmental, social, and corporate governance (ESG) within portfolio decisions. It considers a risk- and ambiguity-averse investor allocating resources to a risk-free asset, a market index, a green stock, and a brown stock. The study employs a robust control approach rooted in relative entropy to account for model misspecification and derive closed-form optimal investment strategies. The key contribution of this study includes demonstrating, using two sets of empirical data on asset returns and ESG ratings, the substantial influence of ambiguity on optimal trading strategies, particularly highlighting the differential effects of market, green, and brown ambiguities. As a by-product of our analytical solutions, the study contrasts ambiguity-averse investors with their non-ambiguity counterparts, revealing more cautious risk exposures with a reduction in short-selling positions for the former. Furthermore, three types of investors who employ popular suboptimal strategies are identified, together with two loss measures used to quantify their performance. The findings reveal that popular strategies, not accounting for ESG and misspecification in the model, could lead to significant financial costs, with the extent of loss varying depending on those two factors: investors’ ambiguity aversion profiles and ESG preferences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Financial Analysis, Corporate Finance and Risk Management)
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28 pages, 10433 KiB  
Article
L1 Regularization for High-Dimensional Multivariate GARCH Models
by Sijie Yao, Hui Zou and Haipeng Xing
Risks 2024, 12(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/risks12020034 - 04 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1195
Abstract
The complexity of estimating multivariate GARCH models increases significantly with the increase in the number of asset series. To address this issue, we propose a general regularization framework for high-dimensional GARCH models with BEKK representations, and obtain a penalized quasi-maximum likelihood (PQML) estimator. [...] Read more.
The complexity of estimating multivariate GARCH models increases significantly with the increase in the number of asset series. To address this issue, we propose a general regularization framework for high-dimensional GARCH models with BEKK representations, and obtain a penalized quasi-maximum likelihood (PQML) estimator. Under some regularity conditions, we establish some theoretical properties, such as the sparsity and the consistency, of the PQML estimator for the BEKK representations. We then carry out simulation studies to show the performance of the proposed inference framework and the procedure for selecting tuning parameters. In addition, we apply the proposed framework to analyze volatility spillover and portfolio optimization problems, using daily prices of 18 U.S. stocks from January 2016 to January 2018, and show that the proposed framework outperforms some benchmark models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risks Journal: A Decade of Advancing Knowledge and Shaping the Future)
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13 pages, 407 KiB  
Article
Features of the Association between Debt and Earnings Quality for Small and Medium-Sized Entities
by José Sequeira, Cláudia Pereira, Luís Gomes and Armindo Lima
Risks 2024, 12(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/risks12020032 - 03 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1159
Abstract
The main source of financing is bank loans for Portuguese small and medium-sized entities (SMEs), which implies several constraints to obtaining additional funds. Relying on the argument of Positive Accounting Theory (PAT) that accounting choices are not neutral and on Agency Theory that [...] Read more.
The main source of financing is bank loans for Portuguese small and medium-sized entities (SMEs), which implies several constraints to obtaining additional funds. Relying on the argument of Positive Accounting Theory (PAT) that accounting choices are not neutral and on Agency Theory that information asymmetry prevails between insiders and outsiders, we analyzed the impacts of debt on earnings quality, focusing on its level, its increases, and its term of payment. We estimated econometric regressions using panel data with fixed effects over 2013–2019, using discretionary accruals as an inverse proxy of earnings quality. We found empirical evidence that the relationship between debt and earnings quality tends to vary in sign, as the quality of financial information deteriorates with debt, but as debt becomes high, firms tend to increase the quality of earnings. Furthermore, we found that short-term debt tends to decrease earnings quality more than long-term debt. This article aimed to contribute to the prior literature by collecting evidence that debt levels tend to be an incentive to increase earnings management and fill the gap by analyzing the influence of different debt features. This evidence is useful because earnings management may compromise both stakeholders’ confidence and the efficient allocation of capital. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Financial Analysis, Corporate Finance and Risk Management)
26 pages, 6219 KiB  
Article
Discrete-Time Survival Models with Neural Networks for Age–Period–Cohort Analysis of Credit Risk
by Hao Wang, Anthony Bellotti, Rong Qu and Ruibin Bai
Risks 2024, 12(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/risks12020031 - 03 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1192
Abstract
Survival models have become popular for credit risk estimation. Most current credit risk survival models use an underlying linear model. This is beneficial in terms of interpretability but is restrictive for real-life applications since it cannot discover hidden nonlinearities and interactions within the [...] Read more.
Survival models have become popular for credit risk estimation. Most current credit risk survival models use an underlying linear model. This is beneficial in terms of interpretability but is restrictive for real-life applications since it cannot discover hidden nonlinearities and interactions within the data. This study uses discrete-time survival models with embedded neural networks as estimators of time to default. This provides flexibility to express nonlinearities and interactions between variables and hence allows for models with better overall model fit. Additionally, the neural networks are used to estimate age–period–cohort (APC) models so that default risk can be decomposed into time components for loan age (maturity), origination (vintage), and environment (e.g., economic, operational, and social effects). These can be built as general models or as local APC models for specific customer segments. The local APC models reveal special conditions for different customer groups. The corresponding APC identification problem is solved by a combination of regularization and fitting the decomposed environment time risk component to macroeconomic data since the environmental risk is expected to have a strong relationship with macroeconomic conditions. Our approach is shown to be effective when tested on a large publicly available US mortgage dataset. This novel framework can be adapted by practitioners in the financial industry to improve modeling, estimation, and assessment of credit risk. Full article
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36 pages, 4946 KiB  
Article
The Impacts of CAP Subsidies on the Financial Risk and Resilience of Hungarian Farms, 2014–2021
by Péter Szálteleki, Gabriella Bánhegyi and Zsuzsanna Bacsi
Risks 2024, 12(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/risks12020030 - 03 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1164
Abstract
The present paper empirically analyzes the efficiency of European Union (EU) subsidies for farms in the Southern Great Plain region of Hungary between 2014 and 2021. The aim of this analysis was to explore whether the subsidies increased the resilience of farms, enhancing [...] Read more.
The present paper empirically analyzes the efficiency of European Union (EU) subsidies for farms in the Southern Great Plain region of Hungary between 2014 and 2021. The aim of this analysis was to explore whether the subsidies increased the resilience of farms, enhancing their profitability, liquidity and solvency, and economic efficiency, measured by the usual financial indicators of farm performance. The analysis also evaluated the ability of farm businesses to create and retain jobs, i.e., to increase employment in the rural environment, focusing on differences between the subsidized and non-subsidized farms. The research analyzed all agricultural companies of the selected region. The methodology was a non-parametric statistical analysis (Kruskal–Wallis test, Dunnett’s T3 test) for identifying significant differences between subsidized and non-subsidized farms in the 8-year period. Results show that subsidies significantly improved the financial stability, resilience and efficiency of subsidized farms only in the micro size category, and the employment indicators deteriorated more in subsidized farms than in non-subsidized ones. Thus, the intended purpose of the subsidies was not entirely realized, and positive impacts were noticeable only in the micro enterprises. This might imply that subsidies contributed to the survival of non-viable enterprises instead of enhancing their competitiveness. Full article
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33 pages, 1869 KiB  
Article
Pricing Life Contingencies Linked to Impaired Life Expectancies Using Intuitionistic Fuzzy Parameters
by Jorge de Andrés-Sánchez
Risks 2024, 12(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/risks12020029 - 02 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1045
Abstract
Several life contingency agreements are based on the assumption that policyholders have impaired life expectancy attributable to factors, such as lifestyle, social class, or preexisting health issues. Quantifying two crucial variables, augmented death probabilities and the discount rate of projected cash flows, is [...] Read more.
Several life contingency agreements are based on the assumption that policyholders have impaired life expectancy attributable to factors, such as lifestyle, social class, or preexisting health issues. Quantifying two crucial variables, augmented death probabilities and the discount rate of projected cash flows, is essential for pricing such agreements. Information regarding the correct values of these parameters is subject to vagueness and imprecision, which further intensifies if impairments must be considered. This study proposes modelling mortality and interest rates using a generalization of fuzzy numbers (FNs), known as intuitionistic fuzzy numbers (IFNs). Consequently, this paper extends the literature on life contingency pricing with fuzzy parameters, where uncertainty in variables, such as interest rates and death probabilities, is modelled using FNs. While FNs introduce epistemic uncertainty, the use of IFNs adds bipolarity to the analysis by incorporating both positive and negative information regarding actuarial variables. Our analysis focuses on two agreements involving policyholders with impaired life expectancies: determining the annuity payment in a substandard annuity and pricing a life settlement over a whole life insurance policy. In particular, we emphasize modelling interest rates and survival probabilities using triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers (TIFNs) owing to their ease of interpretation and implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Life Insurance and Pensions: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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15 pages, 492 KiB  
Article
Bounds for the Ruin Probability in the Sparre–Andersen Model
by Sotirios Losidis and Vaios Dermitzakis
Risks 2024, 12(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/risks12020028 - 02 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1081
Abstract
We obtain the upper and lower bounds for the ruin probability in the Sparre–Andersen model. These bounds are established under various conditions: when the adjustment coefficient exists, when it does not exist, and when the interarrival distribution belongs to certain aging classes. Additionally, [...] Read more.
We obtain the upper and lower bounds for the ruin probability in the Sparre–Andersen model. These bounds are established under various conditions: when the adjustment coefficient exists, when it does not exist, and when the interarrival distribution belongs to certain aging classes. Additionally, we improve the Lundberg upper bound for the ruin probability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interplay between Financial and Actuarial Mathematics II)
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24 pages, 1988 KiB  
Article
LSTM-Based Coherent Mortality Forecasting for Developing Countries
by Jose Garrido, Yuxiang Shang and Ran Xu
Risks 2024, 12(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/risks12020027 - 01 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1162
Abstract
This paper studies a long short-term memory (LSTM)-based coherent mortality forecasting method for developing countries or regions. Many of such developing countries have experienced a rapid mortality decline over the past few decades. However, their recent mortality development trend is not necessarily driven [...] Read more.
This paper studies a long short-term memory (LSTM)-based coherent mortality forecasting method for developing countries or regions. Many of such developing countries have experienced a rapid mortality decline over the past few decades. However, their recent mortality development trend is not necessarily driven by the same factors as their long-term behavior. Hence, we propose a time-varying mortality forecasting model based on the life expectancy and lifespan disparity gap between these developing countries and a selected benchmark group. Here, the mortality improvement trend for developing countries is expected to converge gradually to that of the benchmark group during the projection phase. More specifically, we use a unified deep neural network model with LSTM architecture to project the life expectancy and lifespan disparity difference, which further controls the rotation of the time-varying weight parameters in the model. This approach is applied to three developing countries and three developing regions. The empirical results show that this LSTM-based coherent forecasting method outperforms classical methods, especially for the long-term projections of mortality rates in developing countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extreme Events: Mortality Modelling and Insurance)
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20 pages, 3610 KiB  
Article
Model for Technology Risk Assessment in Commercial Banks
by Wenhao Kang and Chi Fai Cheung
Risks 2024, 12(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/risks12020026 - 01 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1176
Abstract
As the complexity of banking technology systems increases, the prevention of technological risk becomes an endless battle. Currently, most banks rely on the experience and subjective judgement of experts and employees to allocate resources for technological risk management, which does not effectively reduce [...] Read more.
As the complexity of banking technology systems increases, the prevention of technological risk becomes an endless battle. Currently, most banks rely on the experience and subjective judgement of experts and employees to allocate resources for technological risk management, which does not effectively reduce the frequency of technology-related incidents. Through an analysis of mainstream risk management models, this study proposes a technology-based risk assessment system based on machine learning. It first identifies risk factors in bank IT, preprocesses the sample data, and uses different regression prediction models to train the processed data to build an intelligent assessment model. The experimental results indicated that the Genetic Algorithm–Backpropagation Neural Network model achieved the best performance. Based on assessment indicators, indicator weight values, and risk levels, commercial banks can develop targeted prevention and control measures by applying limited resources to the most critical corrective actions, thereby effectively reducing the frequency of technology-related incidents. Full article
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33 pages, 2978 KiB  
Article
A Generalized Linear Model and Machine Learning Approach for Predicting the Frequency and Severity of Cargo Insurance in Thailand’s Border Trade Context
by Praiya Panjee and Sataporn Amornsawadwatana
Risks 2024, 12(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/risks12020025 - 30 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1299
Abstract
The study compares model approaches in predictive modeling for claim frequency and severity within the cross-border cargo insurance domain. The aim is to identify the optimal model approach between generalized linear models (GLMs) and advanced machine learning techniques. Evaluations focus on mean absolute [...] Read more.
The study compares model approaches in predictive modeling for claim frequency and severity within the cross-border cargo insurance domain. The aim is to identify the optimal model approach between generalized linear models (GLMs) and advanced machine learning techniques. Evaluations focus on mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean squared error (RMSE) metrics to comprehensively assess predictive performance. For frequency prediction, extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) demonstrates the lowest MAE, indicating higher accuracy compared to gradient boosting machines (GBMs) and a generalized linear model (Poisson). Despite XGBoost’s lower MAE, it shows higher RMSE values, suggesting a broader error spread and larger magnitudes compared to gradient boosting machines (GBMs) and a generalized linear model (Poisson). Conversely, the generalized linear model (Poisson) showcases the best RMSE values, indicating tighter clustering and smaller error magnitudes, despite a slightly higher MAE. For severity prediction, extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) displays the lowest MAE, implying better accuracy. However, it exhibits a higher RMSE, indicating wider error dispersion compared to a generalized linear model (Gamma). In contrast, a generalized linear model (Gamma) demonstrates the lowest RMSE, portraying tighter clustering and smaller error magnitudes despite a higher MAE. In conclusion, extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) stands out in mean absolute error (MAE) for both frequency and severity prediction, showcasing superior accuracy. However, a generalized linear model (Gamma) offers a balance between accuracy and error magnitude, and its performance outperforms extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) and gradient boosting machines (GBMs) in terms of RMSE metrics, with a slightly higher MAE. These findings empower insurance companies to enhance risk assessment processes, set suitable premiums, manage reserves, and accurately forecast claim occurrences, contributing to competitive pricing for clients while ensuring profitability. For cross-border trade entities, such as trucking companies and cargo owners, these insights aid in improved risk management and potential cost savings by enabling more reasonable insurance premiums based on accurate predictive claims from insurance companies. Full article
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29 pages, 610 KiB  
Article
Stochastic Claims Reserve in the Healthcare System: A Methodology Applied to Italian Data
by Claudio Mazzi, Angelo Damone, Andrea Vandelli, Gastone Ciuti and Milena Vainieri
Risks 2024, 12(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/risks12020024 - 29 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1170
Abstract
One of the challenges in the healthcare sector is making accurate forecasts across insurance years for claims reserve. Healthcare claims present huge variability and heterogeneity influenced by random decisions of the courts and intrinsic characteristics of the damaged parties, which makes traditional methods [...] Read more.
One of the challenges in the healthcare sector is making accurate forecasts across insurance years for claims reserve. Healthcare claims present huge variability and heterogeneity influenced by random decisions of the courts and intrinsic characteristics of the damaged parties, which makes traditional methods for estimating reserves inadequate. We propose a new methodology to estimate claim reserves in the healthcare insurance system based on generalized linear models using the Overdispersed Poisson distribution function. In this context, we developed a method to estimate the parameters of the quasi-likelihood function using a Gauss–Newton algorithm optimized through a genetic algorithm. The genetic algorithm plays a crucial role in glimpsing the position of the global minimum to ensure a correct convergence of the Gauss–Newton method, where the choice of the initial guess is fundamental. This methodology is applied as a case study to the healthcare system of the Tuscany region. The results were validated by comparing them with state-of-the-art measurement of the confidence intervals of the Overdispersed Poisson distribution parameters with better outcomes. Hence, local healthcare authorities could use the proposed and improved methodology to allocate resources dedicated to healthcare and global management. Full article
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17 pages, 482 KiB  
Article
Quadratic Unconstrained Binary Optimization Approach for Incorporating Solvency Capital into Portfolio Optimization
by Ivica Turkalj, Mohammad Assadsolimani, Markus Braun, Pascal Halffmann, Niklas Hegemann, Sven Kerstan, Janik Maciejewski, Shivam Sharma and Yuanheng Zhou
Risks 2024, 12(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/risks12020023 - 29 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1401
Abstract
In this paper, we consider the inclusion of the solvency capital requirement (SCR) into portfolio optimization by the use of a quadratic proxy model. The Solvency II directive requires insurance companies to calculate their SCR based on the complete loss distribution for the [...] Read more.
In this paper, we consider the inclusion of the solvency capital requirement (SCR) into portfolio optimization by the use of a quadratic proxy model. The Solvency II directive requires insurance companies to calculate their SCR based on the complete loss distribution for the upcoming year. Since this task is, in general, computationally challenging for insurance companies (and therefore, not taken into account during portfolio optimization), employing more feasible proxy models provides a potential solution to this computational difficulty. Here, we present an approach that is also suitable for future applications in quantum computing. We analyze the approximability of the solvency capital ratio in a quadratic form using machine learning techniques. This allows for an easier consideration of the SCR in the classical mean-variance analysis. In addition, it allows the problem to be formulated as a quadratic unconstrained binary optimization (QUBO), which benefits from the potential speedup of quantum computing. We provide a detailed description of our model and the translation into a QUBO. Furthermore, we investigate the performance of our approach through experimental studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Finance and Risk Analysis in Insurance II)
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13 pages, 3658 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Sell-Type Home Reversion Products for Retirement Financing
by Koon Shing Kwong, Jing Rong Goh and Ting Lin Collin Chua
Risks 2024, 12(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/risks12020022 - 29 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1005
Abstract
Loan-type reverse mortgage plans and sell-type home reversion plans for retirement financing are two well-known equity release plans that entitle homeowners not only to release cash from their properties but also to allow them to age in place. Recently, a new hybrid equity [...] Read more.
Loan-type reverse mortgage plans and sell-type home reversion plans for retirement financing are two well-known equity release plans that entitle homeowners not only to release cash from their properties but also to allow them to age in place. Recently, a new hybrid equity release plan was proposed to incorporate the home reversion plan’s features with an option of staying in the property for a fixed period without being subject to survival. This additional option provides flexibility to homeowners to better meet their retirement financial and personal needs by reducing the financial uncertainty of home reversion products. In this article, we propose an enhanced home reversion plan with some new features to meet retirees’ other financial needs, such as life annuity incomes and guaranteed return of principal invested. An actuarial framework is provided to analyze the cost components of each benefit offered under the enhanced home reversion product. Numerical illustrations are presented to demonstrate and examine the actuarial values of the benefits and product risks with different parameter configurations under the recent Singapore mortality data set. Full article
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28 pages, 591 KiB  
Article
Responsible Innovations as Tools for the Management of Financial Risks to Projects of High-Tech Companies for Their Sustainable Development
by Elena G. Popkova, Muxabbat F. Xakimova, Marija A. Troyanskaya, Elena S. Petrenko and Olga V. Fokina
Risks 2024, 12(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/risks12020021 - 27 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1320
Abstract
This paper is devoted to the resolution of the problem of risk management in a high-risk market environment. The goal of this paper was to study the experience of and prospects for the use of responsible innovations as tools for managing the financial [...] Read more.
This paper is devoted to the resolution of the problem of risk management in a high-risk market environment. The goal of this paper was to study the experience of and prospects for the use of responsible innovations as tools for managing the financial risks of high-tech companies’ projects for their sustainable development (using the example of companies in Russia’s IT sphere in 2022–2023). We used the SEM method to study the daily statistics of the Moscow Exchange in 2022–2023. As a result, we quantitatively measured the financial risks of Russian companies in the IT sphere in 2022–2023. The studied case experience of the IT sphere in 2022 confirmed that Russian high-tech companies actively implement responsible innovations based on ESG projects. Our main conclusion is that the financial risks of high-tech companies are reduced in the case of the implementation of responsible innovations. Therefore, it is advisable to implement responsible innovations for the sustainable development of high-tech companies in a high-risk market environment. The theoretical significance of our conclusions lies in the substantiation of the synergetic effect of financial risk management with the help of responsible innovations. The scientific novelty and contribution of this paper to the literature consist in its clarifying the sectorial (in the IT sphere) and market (in a high-risk market environment) specifics of managing the financial risks to companies. We also disclosed a poorly studied and largely unknown unique and leading experience of managing the financial risks of Russian high-tech companies in 2022–2023. The practical significance of our recommendations is that the compiled scenario can be used as a strategic benchmark for the most complete development of the potential of the sustainable development of Russian high-tech companies in 2024. Full article
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23 pages, 1989 KiB  
Article
Impact Assessment of Climate Change on Hailstorm Risk in Spanish Wine Grape Crop Insurance: Insights from Linear and Quantile Regressions
by Nan Zhou and José L. Vilar-Zanón
Risks 2024, 12(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/risks12020020 - 26 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1155
Abstract
There is growing concern that climate change poses a serious threat to the sustainability of the insurance business. Understanding whether climate warming is a cause for an increase in claims and losses, and how this cause–effect relationship will develop in the future, are [...] Read more.
There is growing concern that climate change poses a serious threat to the sustainability of the insurance business. Understanding whether climate warming is a cause for an increase in claims and losses, and how this cause–effect relationship will develop in the future, are two significant open questions. In this article, we answer both questions by particularizing the geographical area of Spain, and a precise risk, hailstorm in crop insurance in the line of business of wine grapes. We quantify climate change using the Spanish Actuarial Climate Index (SACI). We utilize a database containing all the claims resulting from hail risk in Spain from 1990 to 2022. With homogenized data, we consider as dependent variables the monthly number of claims, the monthly number of loss costs equal to one, and the monthly total losses. The independent variable is the monthly Spanish Actuarial Climate Index (SACI). We attempt to explain the former through the latter using regression and quantile regression models. Our main finding is that climate change, as measured by the SACI, explains these three dependent variables. We also provide an estimate of the increase in the monthly total losses’ Value at Risk, corresponding to a future increase in climate change measured in units of the SACI. Spanish crop insurance managers should carefully consider these conclusions in their decision-making process to ensure the sustainability of this line of business in the future. Full article
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23 pages, 846 KiB  
Article
The Role of Artificial Intelligence Technology in Predictive Risk Assessment for Business Continuity: A Case Study of Greece
by Stavros Kalogiannidis, Dimitrios Kalfas, Olympia Papaevangelou, Grigoris Giannarakis and Fotios Chatzitheodoridis
Risks 2024, 12(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/risks12020019 - 23 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3209
Abstract
This study examined the efficacy of artificial intelligence (AI) technologies in predictive risk assessment and their contribution to ensuring business continuity. This research aimed to understand how different AI components, such as natural language processing (NLP), AI-powered data analytics, AI-driven predictive maintenance, and [...] Read more.
This study examined the efficacy of artificial intelligence (AI) technologies in predictive risk assessment and their contribution to ensuring business continuity. This research aimed to understand how different AI components, such as natural language processing (NLP), AI-powered data analytics, AI-driven predictive maintenance, and AI integration in incident response planning, enhance risk assessment and support business continuity in an environment where businesses face a myriad of risks, including natural disasters, cyberattacks, and economic fluctuations. A cross-sectional design and quantitative method were used to collect data for this study from a sample of 360 technology specialists. The results of this study show that AI technologies have a major impact on business continuity and predictive risk assessment. Notably, it was discovered that NLP improved the accuracy and speed of risk assessment procedures. The integration of AI into incident response plans was particularly effective, greatly decreasing company interruptions and improving recovery from unforeseen events. It is advised that businesses invest in AI skills, particularly in fields such as NLP for automated risk assessment, data analytics for prompt risk detection, predictive maintenance for operational effectiveness, and AI-enhanced incident response planning for crisis management. Full article
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26 pages, 1180 KiB  
Article
Stochastic Modeling of Wind Derivatives with Application to the Alberta Energy Market
by Sudeesha Warunasinghe and Anatoliy Swishchuk
Risks 2024, 12(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/risks12020018 - 23 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1218
Abstract
Wind-power generators around the world face two risks, one due to changes in wind intensity impacting energy production, and the second due to changes in electricity retail prices. To hedge these risks simultaneously, the quanto option is an ideal financial tool. The natural [...] Read more.
Wind-power generators around the world face two risks, one due to changes in wind intensity impacting energy production, and the second due to changes in electricity retail prices. To hedge these risks simultaneously, the quanto option is an ideal financial tool. The natural logarithm of electricity prices of the study will be modeled with a variance gamma (VG) and normal inverse Gaussian (NIG) processes, while wind speed and power series will be modeled with an Ornstein–Uhlenbeck (OU) process. Since the risk from changing wind-power production and spot prices is highly correlated, we must model this correlation as well. This is reproduced by replacing the small jumps of the Lévy process with a Brownian component and correlating it with wind power and speed OU processes. Then, we will study the income of the wind-energy company from a stochastic point of view, and finally, we will price the quanto option of European put style for the wind-energy producer. We will compare quanto option prices obtained from the VG process and NIG process. The novelty brought into this study is the use of a new dataset in a new geographic location and a new Lévy process, VG, apart from NIG. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risks: Feature Papers 2023)
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15 pages, 891 KiB  
Article
Risk Management in Islamic Banking: The Impact of Financial Technologies through Empirical Insights from the UAE
by Mohamed Al Hammadi, Juan Antonio Jimber-Del Río, María Salomé Ochoa-Rico, Orlando Arencibia Montero and Arnaldo Vergara-Romero
Risks 2024, 12(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/risks12020017 - 23 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1521
Abstract
Financial technology (fintech) innovations are transforming banking globally. Their adoption poses new opportunities and risks for Islamic banks with unique requirements. This study examines fintech’s implications for risk management effectiveness in United Arab Emirates Islamic banks. A conceptual model incorporates factors like fintech [...] Read more.
Financial technology (fintech) innovations are transforming banking globally. Their adoption poses new opportunities and risks for Islamic banks with unique requirements. This study examines fintech’s implications for risk management effectiveness in United Arab Emirates Islamic banks. A conceptual model incorporates factors like fintech adoption, emerging capabilities, digital maturity, and IT security influencing outcomes. Primary data were collected via survey from nine UAE Islamic banks and analyzed using PLS-SEM. Results show that fintech adoption and capabilities positively impacted effectiveness, while digital transformation alone did not. The findings also show that the regulatory environment did not moderate relationships as hypothesized. The findings provide empirical evidence on optimizing risk management through responsible fintech enablement and oversight alignment in the UAE context. Full article
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